Seleucid kingdom
c.300 OLD IRANIAN language period from 600, superceded by MIDDLE IRANIAN language period (aka Pahlavi) until 700CE. 400 wikIL
300 IDB 3-740, wikOP
c.298 SELEUCUS, king of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, at Rhosus Syria, makes alliance with DEMETRIUS-I, marries his dau, STRATONICE. 298 B76 16-503
no date: B76 8-378
c.292 SELEUCUS, king of Babylonia 305, ruler of Syria 301-281, makes son ANTIOCHUS-I co-king and gives him the eastern empire from the Euphrates to the Indian Ocean plus his own wife Stratonice-I, on whom Antiochus had developed a crush.  Seleucus takes everything west of the Euphrates. 294 CAH 7.1     294/3 lvA1 293 DGRBM 3-772, MCAW 293/2 CDCC 804, OCD 71 292 lvS1
c.261 ANTIOCHUS-I Soter, Seleucid king of Syria / Babylonia 281-61 killed fighting Celts in GalatiaANTIOCHUS-II Theos succeeds until 246. 262 Dur 2-555     261 B76 8-380, 11-989, IDB 1-149, OHG, KoP, wikP
c.250 The PARNI (1 of the 3 tribes of the Dahae confederacy) penetrate into the Astauene north of Hyrcania, probably in the Atrek river valley. 250 eiArs
c.250 ARSACES-I becomes chief of PARNI tribe in Asaak (location unknown) until 248.  ARSACID Dynasty of Parthia begins until 224CE. 255 TToH     pre-250 B76 I-543, CAH 9-613, ISBE 1-299, RAI2, RAI3, hifiE
250 GHH, caisAD, hifiP, wikPE, wkbEA
247 B76 I-543, TAWH 17, eiArs
c.250  Pahlavi script  1st attested during reign of Arsaces-I on Parthian coins. 250 wikPlv
c.248 ARSACES-I dies.  Chief of the Parni from 250, speared to death.  Bro TIRIDATES-I succeeds as Arsaces-II until 211, independent until 245. 248 B76 I-543, CAH 9-613, GHH, RAI2, RAI3 RPar 50     247 OCD 123, TAWH 70, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE, wkbEA
217-11 B76 9-841
It is unclear who immediately succeeded Arsaces-I, or when.  Possibly his bro Tiridates-I, who is succeeded by his son Arsaces-II in 211.  Possibly Arsaces-II, but not until 211.  2 distinct royal chronologies are accepted by historians. 248 wikPE
217 wikArs1
c.247 Parthia 247Seleucid governor of Persia murdered by the Parni, who set up the kingdom of PARTHIA, which is independent until 245, and lasts until 224CE.  Why the Arsacid court retroactively chose 247 as the first year of the Arsacid era is unknown. Map Ali Zifan

250 Dur 2-556, ISBE 3-671
248/7 CAH 8-394 247 B76 VII-774, Dur 2-578, frH, KoP, wikPE, wikPr
c.247 ADIABENE between Upper and Lower Zab rivers becomes a vassal kingdom of PARTHIA until 224CE. 247
B76 I-89
c.246 ANTIOCHUS-II Theos dies.  Seleucid king of Syria / Babylonia from 261.  Son by 1st wife Laodice, SELEUCUS-II Callinicus succeeds until 226. 247 Dur 2-556     246 B76 8-380, Jud 3-73, LEWH 93, OCD 72, RAI2, RAI3, caisAD, KoP, wikP
c.245 PARTHAVA, independent kingdom from 247, submits to Seleucus-II Callinicus.  ANDRAGORAS becomes satrap of Parthava until 238. 256 hifiP     245 RPar 52
c.245 ANDRAGORAS, Seleucid satrap of Parthava, rebels against Seleucus-II Callinicus. 256 hifiP     245 B76 9-840, caisAD, eiArs, lvS2, lvTSW, wikPE
c.243 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus king of Syria / Babylonia 246-26 withdraws troops from eastern provinces. 243 RPar 53
c.238 TIRIDATES-I, chief of the Parni 248-11, migrates west from Bactria into Hyrcania, overrun the Astavene district. 238 B76 8-380, 9-840, OHG 367, lvS2, wikArs1
c.238 ANDRAGORAS, independent satrap of Hyrcania from 245, killed by the Parni. 238 B76 I-359, hifiE, hifiP, wikArs1, wikPE
c.238 HYRCANIA comes under Parthia until 232/1. 243 ISBE 1-299 238 eiArs
c.238 ASTAVENE district occupied by Parthians until 232/1. 238 wikPE
c.237 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus king of Syria / Babylonia 246-26, goes from Syria to Persia.  Allied with Diodotus king of Bactria, he invades Parthia. 238 GHH     237 wkbEA
c.237 DIODOTUS king of Bactria, defects to Parthians. 238 eiArs     237 wkbEA
c.237 SELEUCUS-II defeated by Parthians, Bactrians, and Central Asian Aspasiacae. 237 wkbEA
c.237 SELEUCUS-II, in in Parthia 237, returns to Mesopotamia until 232/1. 237 RPar 56
c.235 Parni leader Tiridates settles in Parthia (southeast Hyrcania). 235 lvS2, wikPE
c. 232/1 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus king of Syria / Babylonia 246-26, in Mesopotamia from 237, goes to Hyrcania. 232/1 guess
c.232/1 TIRIDATES-I, chief of the Parni 248-11, in Hyrcania from 238, retreats north from Seleucus-II.  Hyrcania under Seleucus-II until 228. 232/1
B76 9-841 230 wikArs1
c.232/1 HYRCANIA, under Parthia from 238, comes under Seleucus-II until 228. 232/1
B76 9-841
c.232/1 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria / Babylonia 246-26, goes from Hyrcania to Bactria, in Asia until 230. 232/1
B76 9-841
c.230 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, Seleucid king of Syria / Babylonia 246-26, in Asia from 232/1, returns to Parthia tries to suppress rebellion until 227. 230 bk, lvS2, wikArs1
c.228 HYRCANIA, under Seleucids from 232/1 recovered by the Parni. 230-27 lvS2
c.227 SELEUCUS-II Callinicus, in Parthia from 230, learns of Hierax rebellion in Mesopotamia, returns to Mesopotamia. 227
DHA 91
c.226 1st son of Antiochus-II + Laodice-I , SELEUCUS-II Callinicus dies.  King of Syria / Babylonia from 246, in Syria, dies of a fall from his horseSon by Laodice-II, SELEUCUS-III Soter succeeds until 223. 226 Dur 2-556, IDB 4-267, LEWH 93, RAI2, RAI3, anan, bk, caisAD, hifiSl     226/5 CAH 7.1, CDCC 803
225 B76 8-380, KoP, lvS2, wikP
c.223 Son of S-II, SELEUCUS-III Soter dies.  king of Syria / Babylonia from 226 murdered.  Bro ANTIOCHUS-III Megas succeeds until 187. 223 B76 1-825, 993, 8-380, Dur 2-556, IDB 1-149, 4-267, Jud 3-73, OCD 72, OHG, KoP, wikP     222 RAI3
c.223 MOLON put in charge of Media, and his bro ALEXANDER put in charge of Persis by Antiochus-III Megas until 222. 224 DGRBM 1-122 223 CAH 7.1-434, wikAl
c.222 Brothers MOLON and ALEXANDER, Seleucid governors of Media and Persis, rebel against Antiochus-III, then on campaign against Ptolemaic Syria. 222 B76 1-993, CAH 7.1-434, GHH
221 BHS 1-301
222/1 MOLON winters at Ctesiphon. 221/0 BHS 1-303-4
c.221 MOLON dies.  Seleucid governor of Media from 223, rebelling from 222, deserted by troops, conquered by Antiochus-III king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 on east bank of Tigris.  Molon suicides out.  All leaders of the rebellion surrender.  One of them escapes to Persis, kills Molon's mother and children, persuades ALEXANDER ruler of Persis to suicide, and then kills himself on the bodies of his friends. 221 CAH 7.1, LEWH 93
220 B76 1-993, DGRBM 1-123, GHH, wikAl, wikMl
c.220 ATROPATENE (northwest Media), independent under Artabarzanes from ?, conquered by army of Antiochus-III, becomes a Seleucid province. 220 B76 1-993, DGRBM 1-196
c.220 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187, returns west, learns of insurrection of Achaeus in Anatolia. 220
CAH 7.1-434
c.220 HERMIAS, advisor of Antiochus-III from 223, executed by him.  ZEUXIS succeeds until ?. 220 B76 1-993, wikA3
c.220 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187, in Persia from ?, returns to Media. 220 B76 1-993, wikA3
c.211 (Arsaces-II) TIRIDATES-I dies.  1st Arsacid king of Parthia from 248, dies peacefully.  Son ARTABANUS-I succeeds as ARSACES-III until 191. 217-11 B76 9-841     212 RPar 58, wkbEA     212 LEWH 95, TAWH 70 211 B76 I-548, GHH, RAI2, RAI3, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, wikLPK, wikP, wikPE,     210 CAH 8-140, 9-613     210/9 OCD 123
c.211 ARTABANUS-I, 2nd Arsacid king of Parthia 211-191, declares war on Antiochus-III Megas.  Invades Media as far as Ecbatana, takes Ecbatana. 214 RPar 59, wkbEA
c.211 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 with 100,000 inf and 20,000 cav, marches from Mesopotamia into Media, recovers Ecbatana without battle, begins recovery of east provinces until 204. 213
RPar 59
209 wikPE,
c.210 Temple of Bel in Elam pillaged by ANTIOCHUS-III Megas. 209 CAH 7.1-197
c.209 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 at Ecbatana proclaims eldest son ANTIOCHUS-IV, age 11, co-king. 209 CAH 8-140, wikA3
c.209 ANTIOCHUS-III reaches Media, which is still governed by the Diogenes who had replaced Molon. 209 BHS 2-17
c.209 ARTABANUS-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 211-191, is attacked by Antiochus-III. 209 B76 I-548
c.209 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 chases Artabanus-I into Hyrcania. 210 DGRBM 1-1020
209/8 BHS 2-21
c.209 ANTIOCHUS-III marches east against Parthia.  In east until 205/4. 209 CAH 8-140, caisAD, eiArs, wikA3
c.209 ARTABANUS-I, Arsacid king of Parthia 211-191, defeated and subordinated by ANTIOCHUS-III king of Syria / Babylonia. 209 B76 1-993, CAH 8-141, LEWH 95
c.209 HECATOMPYLOS, southeast of Caspian Sea, capital of Parthia, taken without battle and occupied by ANTIOCHUS-III. 209 B76 I-548, wikA3
no date: B76 1-993, BHS 2-19, RPar 60
c.209 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 marches from Parthia into Hyrcania. 209 wikA3
209/8 BHS 2-21
c.209 ANTIOCHUS-III moves to Tagae, learns from the natives the difficulties of a march thru the mountains, but decides to anyway, having with him Cretans and Aetolians accustomed to mountain warfare. no date: BHS 2-19
c.209 TAMBRACA Hyrcania occupied by ANTIOCHUS-III. It was unfortified, and the inhabitants, after Antiochus' victory on the pass of Labus mostly flee to Sirynca. no date: BHS 2-20
c.209 SIRYNCA Hyrcania besieged and taken by ANTIOCHUS-III. no date: B76 I-548, BHS 2-20
c.208 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 marches east from Hyrcania into Bactria.  In Asia until 205. 209 wikA3     208 B76 8-380, 9-841, CAH 8-141, 397, HCIP 2-104
A chronology problem exists in the Seleucid withdrawal from Bactria and Parthia.  A "high" chronology, places at least the initial stage of the separation in the reign of Antiochus-II, and a "low" chronology, transfers these events to the period of the "War of the Brothers" between Seleucus-II and Hierax, 240/39-237.   CAH 7.1-213
c.206 East HYRCANIA is left under Parthia. no date: RPar 61
Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire c.206.       Map Talessman
c.206/5 ANTIOCHUS-III Megas king of Syria / Babylonia 223-187 winters in Carmania. 206/5
BHS 2-23
c.205 ANTIOCHUS-III marches west from Carmania into Persia, receives Magnesian envoys asking him to recognize the festival of Artemis Leucophryene. 205
B76 1-993, CAH 8-142
c.205 ANTIOCHUS-III in east from 209, sails from Persia, across Gulf of Arabia to Mesopotamia. 205 CAH 8-142 205/4 CAH 7.1-215

Persia 200-101