Persia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Asia Go to India Go to Arabia Go to Mesopotamia
Royal Road
c.500 ROYAL ROAD built from Sardis to Susa with posting stations.  Connects capitals of Persia, Elam, and Assyria, to Gordium and Sardis. 500
PW 16
Tribute Reliefs
photo by Kashk
c.500  Tribute Reliefs  created at palace of Persepolis.  Portray diverse people of the Achaeminid Empire and tribute they brought. 500 PW 16
c.500 Light vs. Darkness motif appears in Persia. 500 CMoG2 333
c.500 RICE, PEACHES, APRICOTS transported from Persia to western Asia. 500 TAWH 17
c.490 DARIUS-I HYSTASPES king of Medo-Persia 522-486, orders Artaphernes-II, satrap of Sardis to make a punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eritrea for their support of Ionian revolt. 490 BI+N 120, CDCC 258, hifiP
486 late DARIUS-I HYSTASPES dies.  King of Medo-Persia, Babylonia, and Egypt from 522 dies in Persepolis.  1st son XERXES-I succeeds to 465. 486 B76 9-835, 11-989, 17-447, 19-1057, CDCC 258, Dur 2-722, FLAP 195, GRG 299, Grim, HCC, IDB 1-769, 4-922, ISBE 1-867, 3-778, 4-1161, LEWH 51, 53, MNHK, OCD 4, 1144, OHG, RAH, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-136, Shaw, SHWC 39, SOTS 244, 246, anan, bivu, bk, frN, KoP, taP, wikP
485 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-942, Dur 2-237, GHH, MCAW 108, RAI2, hifiE, hifiP
Naqsh-e Rustam tombs
photo by Ggia
Naqsh-e Rustam Panorama.  Tombs from left to right are: Darius-II, Artaxerxes-I, Darius-I, Xerxes-I.
486 Tomb of DARIUS-I has  inscriptions  written in Persian language, but Aramaic V letters. 486
486 Hypostyle hall built by Xerxes-I at Persepolis.  Hypostyle means flat roof supported by columns. 486 TToH
Tachara palace ruins
Tachara palace ruins photo by ?????
Tachara palace drawing
Tachara palace drawing {{PD-US}}
c.486 TACHARA PALACE at Persepolis south of the Apadana palace finished by Xerxes-I.  It is the smallest of the palace buildings in Persepolis, 1,160 square meters.  Its main room is a mere 15.15m 15.42m with 3 rows of 4 columns. 486 wikTch
Apadana palace ruins
Apadana palace ruins    Darafsh
Apadana palace drawing
Drawings by Chipiez {{PD-US}}
Apadana palace drawing
c. 485 APADANA PALACE at Persepolis, begun by Darius-I 515, finished by Xerxes-I.  It has a square grand hall, each side 60m long with 72 columns, 13 still standing.  Each column is 19m high with a square Taurus and plinth.  Column tops are animal sculptures such as 2-headed bulls, lions, and eagles.  They are joined to each other with the help of oak and cedar beams from Lebanon.  The walls are covered with 5cm of mud and stucco for bonding, then covered with greenish stucco.  Walls are tiled and decorated with lions, bulls, and flowers.  2 stairways are on the nort and east sides to compensate for a difference in level.  Two other stairways are in the middle of the building.  The front of the palace has carvings of the Immortals.  The north stairway was completed during Darius-I's reign, the other stairway much later. 485 wikPrs
c.485 XERXES-I heads for Egypt, away until 484. 485 B76 I-56, 9-835, CAH 5, OHG 484 DGRBM 1-8, 3-1304
484 Revolt in Persia.  Records show 4 usurpers until 483:  Belshimanni, Shamasheriba, Akshimashku, Shikushti. 484
Sdl 5-136
c.484 XERXES-I leaves bro Achaemenes, governor of Egypt, returns to Persia. 484 DGRBM 3-1304
c.481 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 heads west from Susa with a large army.  It consists of Persians, Medes, Babylonians, Assyrians, Armenians, Bactrians, Sogdians, Sacae, Colchians, Scyths, and more.  He intends to invade Greece. 481 Dur 2-238
Departs during a half solar eclipse. GHH
c.480 IMPERIAL TREASURY, begun 510 by Darius-I, finished by Xerxes-I. 480 wikPrs
c.479 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 returns from Sardis to Persia. 479 SOTS 247
c.478 XERXES-I, king of Medo-Persia 486-65, throws 180 day party ending with 7 day drinking bash.  Calls for queen VASHTI, who refuses to show.  Boots her out and makes a proclamation of it. Xerxes yr 3: Est. 1:3
483 bivu     483/2 Sdl 5-137 478 MCAW 115
None of this Esther stuff shows up in Persian records.
c.478 XERXES-I, decides to hold a beauty contest to choose a new queen.  Jew MORDECAI enters cousin ESTHER, concealing her nationality. Est. 2:7
483 SOTS 262 478 MCAW 115
c.478 XERXES-I marries Esther. Xerxes yr 7: Est. 2:16       479/8 Sdl 5-139
478 HCC, MCAW 115, bihi, bivu, htc     458 GHH
c.474 XERXES-I, on advice of Haman, orders execution of all Jews. Xerxes yr 12: Est. 2:16
474 htc     474/3 Sdl 5-140
c.473 PURIM:  Esther thwarts Haman's plan to annihilate Persian Jews. Est 7       473 HCC, bihi, bivu, htc
c.465 Megabyzos, bro-in-law of Xerxes-I, and Artabanus, captain of bodyguard, conspire to kill Xerxes-I. no date: B76 VI-753
c.465 Physician APOLLONIDES of Cos goes to Persian court until 425. 465 DGRBM 1-237
c.465 XERXES-I dies.  King of Medo-Persia, Babylonia, and Egypt from 486, murdered in Persepolis by Artabanus, captain of bodyguard, and eunuch Mithridates.  1st son DARIUS succeeds.  Artabanus tells Xerxes' 2nd son Artaxerxes that Darius murdered Xerxes.  Artabanus kills Darius.  ARTABANUS usurps throne until 464. 465 B76 I-548, 9-835, 19-1058, CAH 5, 6-48, CDCC 957, DGRBM 1-367, 943, 2-1093, 3-1304, GHH, Grim, IDB 4-922, ISBE 3-778, 4-1161, MCAW 116, MNHK, OCD 4, 1144, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-187, Shaw, SOTS 246, TToH, WPOT 326, anan, bk, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
464 HCC, OCD 126, OHG, RAH, bihi, bivu
c.464 ARTABANUS dies.  Usurper of Medo-Persia from 465, killed in hand to hand combat by Xerxes 2nd son Artaxerxes, who recovers throne.  ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS succeeds until 424. 465 B76 I-549, DGRBM 1-371, IDB 1-241, MRDK, WPOT 327
465/4 B76 I-548, BI+N 104     464 B76 9-835, ISBE 1-306, OCD 126, RAI2, RAI3, SOTS 246, bihi, bk, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.463 BISHLAM, MITHRIDATES, and TABEEL, Persian satraps of Samaria, ?, and ?, send letter to Artaxerxes-I.  They say the Jews are rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, and if they succeed, they will rebelArtaxerxes agrees and tells them to stop the wall. Ezr 4:1-17,
1Esd 2:16-26
459/8 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, musters army of 300,000, increases fleet to 300 ships. 459/8
Sdl 5-188
c.458 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, authorizes EZRA to return from Babylon to Jerusalem, refurbish temple, and restore Jewish worship. 458 IDB 1-241, 2-214
c.449  Peace of Callais , negotiated (possibly on Cyprus, but signed at Susa) by Callias son of Hipponicus, ends hostilities between Athens and Persia, defining their spheres of influence and regulating relations between them.  Persian warships to stay out of AegeanAthenians to leave Anatolia.  Ionian cities are independent.  This reduces tribute to Delian LeagueCyprus is under Persia.  MEGABYZOS is recognized as independent king of Syria by Artaxerxes-I. 449 CAH 6-48, CDCC 455, IDB 1-241, OCD 126, 194, RAH 230, WPOT 327, bk 449/8 OCD 805 448 B76 8-309, 9-835, Sdl 5-188
no date: LEWH 70
c.446 HANANI is part of an embassy to Susa, tells bro Nehemiah, cup-bearer to Artaxerxes-I about terrible conditions at Judah. 446 Sdl 5-189
445 BI+N 105
c.445 NEHEMIAH, cup-bearer to Artaxerxes-I, tells him about conditions at Judah.  Appointed satrap of Judah, permitted to go there and rebuild the wall of Jerusalem. 446 hifiP
445 BI+N 105, GHH, Sdl 5-190, bk
c.441 Λ Zoroastrian Calendar  reforms Old Persian calendar with Zoroastrian names.
(See Cleostratos 520, Chinese 444, Metonic 432, Mayan 400, Babylonian 380, Eudoxos 370)
IDB 3-746
c.425 Physician APOLLONIDES of Cos at Persian court from 465, has affair with wife of Megabyzos, caught, tortured, buried alive by Amestris, mom of Artaxerxes-I. 425 DGRBM 1-237
c.424 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia, Babylonia and Egypt from 464 murdered in Susa.  Son XERXES-II succeeds 45 days. 425 B76 I-549, X-780, 9-835, DGRBM 1-371, 3-856, 1307, IDB 1-241, anan     424 late CAH 6-49, ISBE 1-306, OCD 4, OHG, IDB 4-922, MCAW 132, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-187, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP     423 BI+N 104, HCC, bihi, bivu
c.424 XERXES-II king of Medo-Persia 45 days killed in a drunken party by half-bro son of a concubine of Artaxerxes-I, Sogdianus.  SOGDIANUS succeeds 7 months. 424 B76 X-780, 9-835, Grim, IDB 4-922, LEWH 53, MNHK, MRDK, OCD 313, RAI2, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, WPOT 327, bk, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP
423 BI+N 105, HCC, OCD 4, hifiE, hifiP, wikP
c.423 SOGDIANUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia murdered by bro, either Ochus or Darius.  A son of Artaxerxes-I and a Babylonian concubineDARIUS-II NOTHUS succeeds to 404. 424 LEWH 53, OHG
423 BNTH 1, IDB 1-770, ISBE 1-868, OCD 4, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.423 PERSIA / ATHENS peace treaty of 446 renewed. 423 CAH 5
c.419 DARIS-II NOTHUS, king of Medo-Persia 423-04, replies in Λ Aramaic to Elephantine Jews his decision to let them celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread. 419
DBANE 88, IDB 2-84
c.410 Capital of Medo-Persia, Susa from ?, moved to Babylon. guess
c.408 DARIS-II NOTHUS, king of Medo-Persia 423-04, decides to continue war against Athens and support SpartaConvinced by wife Parysatis to give her favorite son Cyrus command of Anatolia. 407 B76 X-5
no date:
B76 III-330
c.408 Medes try to throw off Persian rule unsuccessfully. 408 TToH
408/7 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, given command of Anatolia. 408 OCD 308     408/7 CAH 5 407 MCAW 140
408/7 Spartan BOEOTIUS mission to Persian court to report Tissaphernes' failure to do as promised in treaty. 408/7 CAH 5
c.405 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, commander of Anatolia from 407, summoned back to court in Babylon because of father's illness. 405 LEWH 74
c.404 DARIS-II NOTHUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 423 dies of illness in BabylonSon ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON succeeds to 359. 405 BNTH 1, DGRBM 1-371, GHH, Grim, MNHK, OCD 313, RAI3, Shaw, TToH, anan, frN
405/4 DGRBM 1-943     404 B76 I-549, 9-835, CAH 6-49, CDCC 88, HCC, IDB 1-241, 770, ISBE 1-306, 868, Jud 3-647, LEWH 53, MCAW 143, OCD 4, 126, OHG, RAI2, Sdl 5-202, SOTS 247, WPOT 96, 329, bihi, bk, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.401 ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON king of Medo-Persia 404-359 defeats rebelious bro CYRUS, satrap of Anatolia, at CUNAXA near Babylon.  Cyrus is killed in battle. 401 B76 I-549, CAH 5, 6, CDCC 88, DGRBM 1-371, IDB 1-241, ISBE 1-306, LEWH 53, OCD 308
c.401 Physician/historian CTESIAS is at the court of Artaxerxes-II. 401 DGRBM
c.400  Khurda Avesta  (Khordeh Avesta) "Little Avesta" begins to be written.  Miscellaneous texts including a prayer book for lay people in a different dialect from the Gathas. 400
B76 9-453
c.400  Book of Esther  written. 425 MCAW 135     400 bk
460-350 gqBE     200-150 B76 III-971
c. 400 yakhchal ICE is made in an evaporative cooler called a yakhchal "ice pit", that creates temperatures in the desert cold enough to make ice and store it.  A thick insulated dome with a hole at the top to let out warm air over a pit.  A wall in an east-west direction is near the yakhchal.  Incoming water flows along the north side of the wall so that radiative cooling in the shadow of the wall cools it before it enters the yakhchal. photo: Pastaitaken

400 mwe, wikYkcl  
398/7 Ctesias'  History of the Persians  stops here. 398 DGRBM, GHH     398/7 lvG
c.394 Embassy of Athenians Epicrates and Phormisius to Artaxerxes-II. 394 CAH 6-104
c.392 PHARNABAZOS, satrap of Dascylium from 413, recalled to Susa.  Given command of expedition to Egypt. 392 OCD 810
c.388 ANTALCIDAS, Spartan admiral, goes from Sardis to Susa to get Persians to do business with Sparta rather than Athens. 388 CAH 6
387 B76 8-362
c.388 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, allies with Spartans against Athens. 388
B76 VII-928
c.374 TIRIBAZUS conspiracy with 50 of Artaxerxes-I's sons (he has 118) is detected. 374 GHH
c.374 OCHUS kills 2 bros who are rivals for the throne. 374 GHH
c.372 ANTALCIDAS, Spartan statesman, diplomatic mission from Anatolia to Persia until 367. 372 OCD 66
c.367 Sparta sends envoys under Antalcidas to Artaxerxes-II at Susa to bid for favor.  When Thebans and Athenians learn of this, they too send envoys:  Athenians Timagoras and Leon, Theban PelopidasArtaxerxes demands the King's Peace to be renewed, with Thebes as supreme Greek power. 368 lvG     367 B76 8-365, CAH 6-196, DGRBM 2-734, 3-1132, MCAW 155, OCD 66
c.367 Elean envoys, including Argeius, sent to Persia to cooperate with Theban Pelopidas. 367 DGRBM 1-279-80
c.367 After Artaxerxe's decision, Athenian Timagoras separates from his colleagues, and sides with the Thebans. 367 DGRBM 2-734, 3-1132
c.359 OCHUS, son and heir of Artaxerxes-II, marches into Syria for a campaign in either Anatolia or Levant. 359
Grim 379
c.359 ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON dies.  King of Medo-Persia (including Syria and Babylonia from 404 dies.  Son Ochus returns from west.  ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS succeeds to 338.  He starts murdering relatives and causes revolts, delaying his actual reign until 354. 362 DGRBM 1-371     359 B76 9-835, BI+N 116, CAH 6-49, CDCC 88, Grim, IDB 1-241, ISBE 1-306, 3-778, Jud 3-647, MNHK, OCD 4, RAI3, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, bihi, bk, frN, hifiE, hifiP     359/8 B76 I-549, CAH 6     358 LEWH 53, MCAW 158, OCD 126, Sdl 5-202, WPOT 330, anan, KoP, taP, wikP
c.359 ARTAXERXES-III king of Medo-Persia 359-38, orders Anatolian coastal satraps to disband their mercenary armies.  (believed to be for economic more than political reasons)  Most obey. 359 CAH 6-89
356 B76 I-549
c.353 Jewish captives planted in Hyrcania by Artaxerxes-III. 353 BAA 84, BBA 56
c.351 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 sends army to recover Egypt 1st time.  It fails and returns 350. 352 Jud 3-647     351 B76 9-836, Grim 379, OCD 126
c.341 Athenian embassy to Susa to make alliance against Philip-II finds Artaxerxes-III receptive. 341
CAH 6-774
c.338 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Babylonia from 359, poisoned by physician on orders of eunuch vizier Bagoas.  Elder sons also killed.  Most of his family are also killed by winter.  Youngest son ARSES succeeds as a puppet of Bagoas until 336. 339 DGRBM 1-366, 372
338 B76 I-549, 9-836, BI+N 116, Aug CAH 6, CDCC 88, DGRBM 1-453, GHH, IDB 1-241, ISBE 3-778, LEWH 53, MCAW 166, MNHK, OCD 4, 126, OHG, RAI3, Sdl 5-202, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, WPOT 330, anan, bihi, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.338 BISTHANES, son of Artaxerxes-III, escapes. 339 DGRBM 1-366
c.336 ARSES king of Medo-Persia 338-6 tries to poison king maker Bagoas. no date: B76 9-836
c.336 ARSES dies.  King of Medo-Persia from 338 poisoned by eunuch Bagoas, who engineers succession of his 45 year old cousin Artashata, a former satrap of Armenia, who succeeds.  DARIUS-III CODOMANNUS succeeds to 330. 336 B76 I-543, III-380, 9-836, BNTH 1, Jun CAH 6-788, DGRBM 1-943, GHH, IDB 1-770, ISBE 1-868, Jud 5-1304, LEWH 53, MCAW 166, MNHK, OCD 4, RAH, Shaw, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
335 OHG, RAI3
c.336 BAGOAS, eunuch vizier, tries to poison Darius-III, but Darius is warned and forces Bagoas to drink the poison. 336 GHH, MCAW 166, wikBag
c.331 OXATHRES, son of Abulites, satrap of Susiana, rides out from Susa, and surrenders to Alex-III.  Well received. 331 DGRBM 3-74
c.331 ALEX-III from Babylon to SUSA.  Persian garrison commander Abulites opens to him, and is appointed satrap of the region. 331 B76 8-375, CAH 6-815, Dur 2-545, MCAW 168, Sdl 1-437, hmLx, lvLx, lxtl, wikLx 330 Jud 14-1483
c.331 Persian PHRAORTES, son of Rheomithres, appointed satrap of Persia proper by Alex-III until 326-5. 331 DGRBM 3-357
c.331 Alex-III at Susa recovers statues taken from Greece by Xerxes in 480, and sends them back to Greece.  Reorganizes Elam, dresses Persian, alienates troops, generous to family of Darius-III, teaches them Greek, leaves 1,000 veterans at Susa, goes to Persepolis. 331 B76 8-375, Dur 2-458, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, lxtl
330 TToH, wikHA
c.331 General MENES sent by Alex-III with 3,000 talents from Susa west to take over Cilicia, Syria, and Phoenicia. 331 DGRBM 2-1040
331 Dec. Persian general MADATES defends mountain fortress Uxii against Alex-III.  He is conquered and pardoned. Dec. 331
DGRBM 2-889
331/0 At Persian Gates near Persepolis, Alex splits army, leading one part on a flanking march around a strong Persian position, while Craterus commands a frontal attack against same position. 331/0 hwD
Dec. 331 wikPG
Jan 20, 330 wikBPG
331/0 PERSEPOLIS, under satrap Ariobarzanes, resists ALEX-III, taken, looted, burned, except for royal palaces. 331 GHH, IDB 3-743, LEWH 79,
330 B76 8-375, ISBE 3-775, TToH, lvG, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 ALEX-III at Persepolis holds banquet, provoked by Greek mistress Thais, burns the Palace of Xerxes-I, who had invaded Europe, but not the Apadana palace of Darius-I. 330 B76 1-470, 8-375, 9-839, CDCC 34, MCAW 173, OHG, bk
c.330 ALEX-III from Persepolis to Pasargadae.  Takes Pasargadae.  Adopts more native customs and assumes kingship of Persia, meditates before tomb of Cyrus-II to hear his "message", returns to Persepolis. 331 OHG
330 B76 8-375, DGRBM 1-120, lvLx
c.330 PHRAORTES arrives at Persepolis to pay tribute to Alex-III, and is appointed satrap of Persis. 330 lvLx
c.330  Avesta  (Zoroatrian scriptures): 1 of 2 copies written in gold on 12,000 ox hides is burnt by Alex-III at Persepolis.  Alex also orders execution of several judges, religious leaders, in an attempt to destroy Zoroastrian oral tradition. 330 hrtg, prdgm
c.330 Eumenes of Cardia becomes Alex's secretary and keeper of Royal Journal. 330 hwD
c.330 DARIUS-III gathers his treasure, leaves Ecbatana, goes east for Rhagae (Tehran). 330 lvLx, lxtl
c.330 ALEX-III leaves Persepolis for Ecbatana in Media.  Enroute at Gabae, he is informed that Darius has already fled. 330 MCAW 170, RAH 337, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 ECBATANA, under Persia from 550, surrendered by Bisthanes, son of former king Artaxerxes III, to ALEX-III.  Ecbatana under Macedonians until 301.  Alex sends Thessalian and Greek allies home, adopts Persian court ceremony, takes a harem, wears a tiara, proclaims himself a god, demands abasement from Macedonians and Persians. 330 B76 1-470, 8-375, CAH 6, CHJ 2-117, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 368, lvLx, lxtl
328 LEWH 79
c.330 PARMENIO left at Ecbatana to control communications when Alex-III moves east. 330 B76 1-470, OCD 782
330 OXATHRES, son of Abulites, appointed satrap of Paraetacene Media until 324. no date: DGRBM 3-74
c.330 ALEX-III from Ecbatana moves quickly east via Rhagae and Caspian Gates, learns that Darius-III has been deposed by Besus satrap of Bactria. 330
B76 1-470
c.330 ALEX-III crosses Elburz Mts. into Caspian area, subdues it, takes Zadracarta Hyrcania, receives submission of satraps and Persian nobles, accepts surrender of Greek mercenariesMacedonians Craterus and Coenus, defeat Tapurian and Mardian tribes of the Elburz Mountains south of Caspian SeaParthian Amminapes is appointed satrap. 330 Aug
B76 1-470, CAH 6-818, LEWH 79, lvG, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 In Hyrcania many Persians defect to Macedonians, including Darius' favorite BAGOAS and ARTABAZUS, his son Pharnabazus, and dau Barsine, who becomes mistress of Alex. 330
CAH 6-818, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 DARIUS-III CODOMANNUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia from 336, age 50, murdered near Hecatompylos in Parthia southeast of Caspian Sea by Bessus satrap of Bactria. 332 MNHK     331 BI+N 115, BNTH 1, Dur 2-722, RAI3     330 B76 I-56, III-380, 8-375, 9-836, CAH 6, CHJ 2, DGRBM 1-485, GHH, IDB 1-770, ISBE 1-868, Jud 5-1304, LEWH 53, 79, MCAW 170, OCD 4, OHG, RAH, RAI2, SHWC 87, TToH, WPOT 331, anan, bk, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, lvG, lvLx, lxtl, taP, wikP
ACHAEMENID DYNASTY of Persia ends.  Began 559.
BESSUS succeeds as king of Persia to 329.
PERSIA comes under Macedonia until 320.
c.330 ALEX-III near Hecatompylos weeps over body of Darius-III, sends it to Persepolis for burial. 330 B76 1-470, 8-375, GHH, MCAW 170, lvLx
c.330 COENUS is sent on a foraging mission in Parthia. mid 330 lvG
c.330 ARTACOANA (now Herat) capital of Aria, taken by Alex-III, refounded as Alexandria Ariorum.  Under Macedonians until ?Satibarzanes Persian satrap of Aria escapes.  ARSAMES, son of Artabazus, appointed satrap by Alex-III. 330 lvLx
c.330 Alex-III at Susia receives satrap and regicide, SATIBARZANES, and reconfirms him as satrap of Aria. 330
CAH 6-818
c.330 Macedonians at Susia know that Bessus is in Bactria, and the shortest route is the Silk Road thru Parthia to Margiana oasis and to Bactria.  This route is exposed to Bessus' mounted archers.  Therefore, Alex decides to recross the Elburz Mts. and go south thru Aria, Drangiana, and Arachosia. 330
CAH 6-818, lvLx
330 mid Phrataphernes, Achaemenid governor of Parthia surrenders to Alex-III, and is reappointed until 323. mid 330 wikPr
c.330 Several Macedonian soldiers conspire against Alex-III.  Philotas knows of it and doesn't report it. 330 lvG
c.330 ALEX-III subdues SATIBARZANES, Persian satrap of Aria.  Founds Alexandria of the Arians (modern Herat) 330 B76 1-470, TAWH 77
c.330 Cavalry commander PHILOTAS, son of Parmenio, at Phradra in Drangiana, accused of conspiracy by Alex-III, found guilty by army, tortured, executed by javelin volley.  HEPHAESTION and CLEITUS are appointed to succeed Philotas. 330 B76 1-470, CAH 6, CDCC 895, Dur 2-740, 742, GHH, LEWH 79, OCD 825, hmLx, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 Bros Atalus, Amyntas and Simmias are accused in conspiracy of Philotas, but acquitted. 330 wikAtl
c.330 ALEX-III at Phradra in Drangiana sends Polydamos with secret message to CLEANDER, 2nd in command to Parmenio at Ecbatana, orders execution of Parmenio. 330 B76 1-470, DGRBM 1-778, lvLx
c.330 PARMENIO murdered age 70, with his family at Ecbatana by Cleander, who remains in Media until 325. 330 B76 VII-766, 1-470, DGRBM 3-126, GHH, LEWH 79, OCD 782, hwD, lvG, lvLx
c.330 PTOLEMY, son of Lagus, appointed personal bodyguard to Alex-III. 330 B76 15-180
c.330 Alex-III goes from Persia to Asia.
c.328 SPITAMENES, leader of Persian remnant in Sogdiana, rebelling against Alex-III from 329, suppressed by Coenus after much difficulty at Gabae (Gabiene), and killed by his own wife, who sends his head to the Macedonians. 328 B76 1-471, LEWH 79, lvLx, lxtl, wikSpit
c.328 Λ CLEPSYDRA (water clock) V used by Persians according to Callisthenes. 328 wikwtrclk
326/5 Persian PHRAORTES, son of Rheomithres, satrap of Persia proper under Alex-III from 331, dies. during India campaign: DGRBM 3-357
c.325 Alex-III enters desert of Gedrosia. 325 CAH 6, Oct lvLx
c.325 ALEXANDRIA GEDROSIA founded. 325 B76 I-227
c.325 TLEPOLEMOS appointed by Alex-III as satrap of Carmania until 320. 325 BHS 1-278
c.325 Nearchus and fleet reach Harmozia, link up with Alex-III at Salmous. 325 lxtl
c.325 SITALCES dies.  Leader of a body of Thracian light-armed troops, in Media from ?, together with Cleander and Heracon, meet Alex and the rest of the Macedonians in Carmania.  Sitalces is followed by many from Media, who accuse him of extortion and cruelty.  On these charges Sitalces is executed. 326 DGRBM 3-843
c.325 Dec Craterus, from Drangiana, meets Alex and the rest of the Macedonians in Carmania.  Nearchus also arrives by sea.  Alex holds 7 day orgy, divides army into 2 divisions for remainder of march to Susa. 325 B76 8-375, LEWH 79, OHG     Dec 325 lvG, lvLx, lxtl
325/4 CAH 6-838
325/4 CLEANDER, with generals from Media and their troops, joins Alex-III in Carmania. 325 DGRBM 1-778
325/4 Alex-III from Carmania to Pasargadae, the old capital of Persis. 325/4 CAH 6-839
325/4 ATROPATES, Macedonian satrap of Media 327-20, delivers rebel BARYAXES to Alex-III at Pasargadae. 325 DGRBM 1-465 325/4 wikAt
325/4 BARYAXES executed at Pasargadae. 325 DGRBM 1-465
325/4 Alex-III from Pasargadae to Persepolis.  Alex is reunited with Hephaestion 325 MCAW 170
325/4 CAH 6-840     324 lvLx, lxtl
c.324 Alex-III leaves Persepolis for Susa. 325 DGRBM 1-121     324 Mar CAH 6-840, LEWH 79, OHG, RAH 346, lxtl, wikAlx
c.324 Admiral Nearchus arrives at Susa. 324 Feb. DGRBM 2-1147
c.324 Alex-III arrives in Susa.  Nearchus is waiting with the ocean fleet, which he had taken up the river system to Susa. 324 Mar CAH 6-840, OHG, lvLx     323 lvG
c.324 Alex-III at Susa punishes those who have abused their offices in his absence, mostly those who plundered tombs and temples. 324
MCAW 170
c.324 OXATHRES, son of Abulites, satrap of Paraetacene Media from 330, executed for abusing his office. no date: DGRBM 3-74
c.324 Alex-III at Susa marries STATIRA (aka Barsine), dau of Darius-III, and PARYSATIS, dau of Atraxerxes-III. 325 DGRBM 1-121
324 CAH 6-840, DGRBM 1-464, 3-901, Dur 2-547
c.324 Mass marriages at Susa.  Alexander and 91 of his court take wives from Persian aristocracy in a 5-day ceremony.  10,000 Macedonian and Greek soldiers marry Asiatic women.  This time the unions are solemnized according to Persian ritual. 325 DGRBM 1-121 324 B76 8-375, CAH 6-840, CHJ 2-121, GHH, Jud 14-1483, bk, lxtl
c.324 PTOLEMY, Macedonian general, marries ARTACAMA, dau of Artabazus and sis of Barsine, until Alex dies. 324 OCD 896, lvPt1
c.324 PERDICCAS, Macedonian general, marries dau of Atropates satrap of media, until Alex dies. 324 DGRBM 1-408, lvPrd, wikPrd
no date: DGRBM 3-184
c.324 CRATERUS, Macedonian general, marries princess Amastris, dau of Oxyathres, bro of Darius-III, until Alex dies. 324 hwD, wikCrt
c.324 SELEUCUS, Macedonian general, marries Apama, dau of Spitamenes of Sogdiana.  He alone keeps his Asian wife after Alex dies. 325 DGRBM 1-220 324 B76 16-503, BHS 1-31, wikAp
c.324 EUMENES, marries Artonis, dau of Pharnaces, sis of Pharnabazus. 324 DGRBM 3-241
c.324 HEPHAESTION, marries princess Drypetis, dau of Darius-III,. 324 DGRBM 2-383, GHH
c.324 PTOLEMY, Macedonian general, marries ARTACAMA, dau of Artabazus. 324 OCD 896
c.324 ALEX-III at Susa promotes a mixed army with no ethnic divisions.  Foreign troops mutiny.  Macedonian troops complain. 324 OCD 40
c.324 Alex-III moves from Susa to Opis on the Tigris. 324 mid CAH 6-841, hmLx, lvLx, lvLx
c.324  Decrees  of Alex-III:
1.  Craterus to replace Antipater in Macedonia.
2.  Antipater to raise new reinforcements in Asia and bring them to Alex.
3.   Exiles Decree All Greek cities must recall their exiles.
4.   Deification Decree :  Alex-III is a god - the new Dionysus, son of Zeus-Ammon and bro of Apollo.
Nicanor is sent with these decrees to Greece.
CDCC 121, Dur 2-548, GHH, hmLx, lvLx, lxtl
c.324 At Opis 30,000 Persian youth already trained in Macedonian manner are recruited into the army. Aug 324 hmLx
c.324 Macedonian army mutinies at Opis because of Alex's Persian customs, deification decree, and new Persian recruits.  Alex executes 13 and pardons the rest. Aug 324 GHH, hmLx, lvLx
c.324 At Opis Craterus, now in bad health, is appointed to succeed Antipater as regent of Macedonia.  He is sent homeward with Cleitus (the White), Polyperchon, and 11,500 returning veterans bound for Cilicia.  Macedonians suspect this as a move to transfer the capital to Persia. 324 B76 1-472, CAH 6-841, DGRBM 1-883, OCD 249, hwD, lvLx, lxtl, wikClt
c.324 These returning veterans are not allowed to take with them any children born to barbarian wives. no date:
CHJ 2-174
c.324 Alexander returns from Opis to Ecbatana, received by Atropates, satrap of Media. 325 DGRBM 1-121
324 CAH 6-842, GHH, ISBE 2-11, MCAW 170, lvG, lvLx, lxtl
c.324 HEPHAESTION dies.  Childhood friend of ALEX-III, vizir from ?, gets a fever and dies in 7 days at Ecbatana.  His body is taken with Alex to Babylon for burialPERDICCAS son of Orontes becomes 2nd in command. 325 DGRBM 2-383, DGRBM 1-121 324 B76 1-472, CAH 6-842, CDCC 34, Dur 2-729, GHH, MCAW 170, OCD 496, 799, hwD, lvG, lvLx, lxtl, wikPrd     323 bk
c.324 Physician GLAUCOS, who tried and failed to save Hephaestion, is either crucified or hanged by Alex-III. 325 DGRBM 2-276
c.324 Alex-III leaves Ecbatana for Babylon and campaigns against the Cossaean brigands of the Zagros. 324 late CAH 6-842,
DGRBM 3-582, MCAW 170
324 COSSAEANS in the hills of Luristan are victims of a savage Macedonian punitive expedition. 324 late CAH 6-842, B76 1-472
c.323 Alex-III, in Persia from 324, returns to Babylon and dies. 323 lxtl
c.323 PEUCESTAS becomes satrap of Persia until 320. 323 DGRBM 3-228, hifiP
c.323 PITHON, son of Craterus, becomes satrap of Media 316.  It's too big to govern alone, so he makes Atropates satrap of north Media. 323 wikPei
c.323 ATROPATES, Macedonian satrap of Media from 327, confirmed as satrap of north Media by Pithon until 320. 323 hifiP
c.323 PHRATAPHEMES becomes satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania until 320. 323 hifiP
c.323 TLEPOLEMOS satrap of Carmania 325-20 holds his post at death of Alex-III. 323 hifiP
c.323 ARACHOSIA and GEDROSIA come under Sibyrtius satrap of Arachosia. 323 DGRBM 2-1008
c.321  Treaty of Triparadisus  in north Syria appoints satraps, in effort to hold the empire together.
c.321 PHILIP satrap of Sogdiana from 327, transferred by Triparadisus to Parthia. 321 DGRBM 3-270, wikPr
c.321 PHRATAPHEMES, satrap of Parthia and Hyrcania from 323 ends.  PHILIP succeeds until 318. 321 BHS 1-267, DGRBM 3-270
320 hifiP, wikPr
c.320 PEUCESTAS, satrap of Persia from 323 ends.  PERSIA, under Macedonia from 330, comes under SELEUCUS until 316. 320 hifiP
c.320 ANTIGENES, commander of the Silver Shields, becomes satrap of Susiana until ?. 321/0
BHS 1-247
c.320 TLEPOLEMOS, satrap of Carmania from 323 ends.  Carmania is incorporated into Persia. 320 hifiP
c.319 ANTIPATER dies in Macedonia, leaving ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus alone the prospect of reuniting the Empire. 319
OCD 69, 73
c.318 PHILIP satrap of Parthia from 321, deposed and killed by Pithon satrap of Media, who becomes honcho of Parthia until 316 and installs his bro Eudamos as satrap until 317. 318 BHS 1-267, DGRBM 3-270, wikPr
c.317 Satraps of Eastern provinces unite against attack by Pithon satrap of Media. 317 atl4, wikPthn
c.317 PITHON, son of Craterus, satrap of Media, tries to subdue leaders of eastern provinces.  Peucestas and other satraps unite to resist.  They convene at Susa. 317 lvG
c.317 Peucestas and Sibyrtius join Eumenes at Susa. 317 DGRBM 3-815
c.317 Eumenes of Cardia, in Phoenicia from 318, comes to Persia. 317 implied
c.317 EUMENES of Cardia arrives at Susa, convinces eastern satraps to side with Polyperchon and Eumenes against Ptolemy, Cassander, and Antigonus, assumes overall command of their army. 317 DGRBM 2-89, atl4, lvD
c.317 Peucestas wants to remain neutral, but is forced to join Eumenes' army at Susa.  Peucestas brings armies from Media, Persia, and other eastern provinces. 317 DGRBM 2-89, lvG
c.317 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus arrives at Susa, but is prevented by Eumenes from crossing river Coprates. 317 atl4, lvD Jun 316 lvD
c.317 EUMENES of Cardia leaves a garrison to guard treasures at Susa, goes behind Pasitigris riverANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus only now marches against him. 317 DGRBM 2-89
c.317 At PARAECENE northeast of Susa:  EUMENES of Cardia's best troops desert.  ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus defeats Eumenes, but not decisively. 317 LEWH 90, OCD 415, atl4, hwD, lvG, wikAntg, wikEum, wikWD
c.317 EUMENES holds a funeral for dead troops.  Dead Indian general CETEUS has 2 wives, who both want to be burned alive with him.  Indian custom allows only 1 wife this honor, so the other can care for the children.  The elder wife being pregnant, the younger wife gets the honor.  She lies beside her husband, and is burnt without screaming.  All Greeks are impressed, but dispute the morality of it. 317 atl4
c.316 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus retires to Media to rest his troops.  Eumenes pursues him. 317 atl4
Aug 316 lvD
c.316 PITHON, son of Craterus, satrap of Media from 323, defeated by Antigonus who appoints NICANOR satrap of Media until 312. 316 DGRBM 2-1176, wikNc     315 hifiP
c.316 STASANOR of Soli, governor of Bactria as vassal of Seleucus Nicator, is appointed governor of Parthia. 316 wikPr
c.316 PARTHIA / HYRCANIA, under PHILIP from 318, annexed to Bactria, under Stasanor of Soli until ?. 316 BHS 1-267-8
c.316 EUMENES of Cardia has inconclusive battle with ANTIGONUS-I and son Demetrius at GABAE (Gabiene) central Persian desert.  Eumenes' partisan, Peucestas retreats from battle, causing Eumenes defeat. 316 B76 8-377, CDCC 847, DGRBM 3-229, LEWH 90, OCD 415, atl4, hwD, lvG, wikAntg, wikEum, wikWD
Jan 315 lvD
c.316 2nd War of the Diadochi from 319 ends in the west, with the accepance of Cassander as regent in Macedonia, and in Anatolia and the east with death of Eumenes of Cardia at Gabae. 316 lvG
315 lvD, lvG, wikWD
c.316 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus captures family and riches of the Silver Shields, an elite regiment in Eumenes' army, which delivers Eumenes to Antigonus for their release.  EUMENES is exectued by Macedonians of both armies at Gabae. 316 B76 III-993, 8-377, CDCC 847, DGRBM 1-187, LEWH 90, MCAW 174, OCD 415, atl4, hwD, wikAntg, wikEum     315 wikWD
c.316 Hieronymus of Cardia, the historian, wounded at Gabae, captured by Antigonus-I.  Treated well. 316 DGRBM 2-458
c.316 EUDEMUS, cavalry commander of Eumenes, executed by ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus. 316 wikEud
c.316 Peucestas surrenders to Antigonus, but is not reinstated as satrap of Persis.  He drops out of history. 315 lvG
c.316 PERSIA, under SELEUCUS-I from 320, snatched by ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus until 312. 315 hifiP
c.316 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, now ruling everything from Anatolia to Bactria, seizes treasures at Susa, goes to Babylon. 316 B76 8-377, wikAntg
c.315 CASSANDER, LYSIMACHUS, PTOLEMY, and SELEUCUS ally against ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalamus and Polyperchon until 311.  They deliver an ultimatim to Antigonus:
Return Babylonia to Seleucus.
Abandon Syria to Ptolemy.
Abandon Phrygia to Lysimachus.
Abandon Cappadocia & Lycia to Cassander.
Share the loot taken from Eumenes.
B76 8-377, LEWH 90, 632, MCAW 174, OHG, lvD
c.315 3rd War of the Diadochi begins until 311.
CASSANDER, PTOLEMY, and LYSIMACHUS fight ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus until 311.
315 OCD 69, lvD 314 lvD, wikWD
c.314 PITHON, son of Craterus, invited to a friendly conference by Antigonus-I Monophthalmus and executed.  Antigonus now puts Media under a local satrap and a Macedonian army commander. 316 BHS 1-47, atl4
314 wikPθ
CONFUSION ALERT!  Sources confuse PITHON son of Craterus d.314 and son of Agenor d.312.
c.312 PERSIA, under Antigonus-I Monophthalmus from 316, recovered by SELEUCUS-I, under Seleucids until 141. 312
B76 8-378
c.312 NICANOR, satrap of Media from 316 under Antigonus-I, no longer so. 312 wikNc
c.311 ECBATANA, under Antigonus-I Monophthalmus from 316, taken by SELEUCUS-I until ?. 311 lvBW
c.311 NICANOR, under Antigonus-I from 321 defeated by Seleucus, who enlists Nicanor's troops and marches south to Susa. 312 wikNc
c.311 SUSA, under Antigonus-I Monophthalmus from 316, taken by SELEUCUS-I until 305.  Seleucus then goes to Media. 311 lvBW, lvD
309/8 Antigonus-I Monophthalmus, in control of Persia from ?, expelled by SELEUCUS-I. 309/8 CAH 7.1
c.307 PARTHIANS conquered by SELEUCUS-I. 307 atl4
c. 301

c. 301
RESULT of IPSUS:  Kingdom of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus is split up.
LYSIMACHUS in Thrace receives eastern Aegean, north and central Anatolia.
Demetrius delivers his wife's bro PYRRHUS of Epirus as a hostage to Egypt.
PLEISTARCHUS, bro of Cassander, gets Lycia and Cilicia until 299.
SELEUCUS-I Nicator gets Syro-Palestine, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Persia as far as Sogdiana and Bactria.
CASSANDER is king of Macedonia, and is declared king of Greece, but DEMETRIUS Poliorcetes holds a fleet, Peloponnese, Aegean islands, Cyprus, Tyre, and some cities in Anatolia.
PTOLEMY gets Cyrenaica, Egypt, south Palestine, coastal Syria, and some parts of Lycia and Pisidia.
North Cappadocia goes to Ariarathes.
B76 8-378, MCAW 183, OCD 69, 632, 1031, MRDK,
RAH 378, anan, lvD, rcT
300 lvG

Persia 300-201