Han commanderies and kingdoms
c.1 Proto-3 K Proto-Three Kingdoms period of Korea c.1CE. map: Historiographer

1 wikHK
Apr 10
KUNG KUANG, Grand Tutor from ?, changed to be Grand Master and WANG MANG becomes Grand Tutor. 1 HFHDX 38
1 Ap/My CHEN FENG, superintendent of the Imperial Household from 1BC, promoted to Senior General. 1 HFHD 19
May 18
CHEN FENG appointed Marquis of Guangyang until 10, with income of 5,365 households, because he helped enthrone Emperor Ping. 1 HFHD 19
c.1 Yi Xiang marquisate is given to Liu Kuei. 1 HFHDX 33
c.1 SHIH TAN, out of office from 6BC, made a Kuan-nei Marquis by Emperor Ping. 1 HFHD 174
c.1 Mingkuang Palace, built 101, is abandoned. 1 HFHD6 97
c.1 WANG MANG has his allies convince Grand Empress Dowager Wang of his faithfulness, and is created Duke of Anhan "Duke who makes Han secure", though there had been no previous such duke created in Han history. 1 CHC 228, wikWM, wikPn
c.1 WANG MANG bribes vassal states to make offerings of rare animals, viewed as signs of heavenly blessing, to Han.  With all praising Wang Mang, he has his followers persuade Grand Empress Dowager Wang, age 69, to let him make important state decisions, thus becoming the most powerful person in the empire.  To prevent Emperor Ping's Wei relations from becoming rivals at court, Wang Mang limits the titles of Ping's uncles to acting marquises and his mother Consort Wei to "Princess Xiao of Zhongshan" (Prince Xiao being Prince Xing's posthumous name).  Wang Mang only created Emperor Ping's 3 sisters ladies.  Wang Mang orders the Weis, including Consort Wei, and Ping's sisters to remain in Zhongshan. 1 wikWM, wikPn
c.2 WANG MANG decides to have his dau marry Emperor Ping.  After declaring, in accordance with customs, that Emperor Ping will have 1 wife and 11 concubines, he starts a selection process of eligible noble young ladies.  Then, in an act of false modesty, he asks Grand Empress Dowager Wang that his dau not be considered - and then incites a popular petition drive to have his dau selected empress.  Petitioners storm the outside of the palace.  Grand Empress Dowager Wang orders that Wang Mang's dau be made empress. 2 wikEWP, wikPn, wikWM     3 wikPn
c.2 Han court, under Wang Mang's influence, promulgated new regulations concerning the Xiongnu's relations with the Chinese and other peoples. One of the regulations forbade the Xiongnu to take captive any Wu-huan people who surrendered to them. In enforcing this new regulation the Chinese office in charge of Wu-huan affairs therefore told the Wuhuan to stop paying skin and cloth taxes to the Xiongnu. 2 CHEIA 126
c.2 WANG MANG issues a list of regulations to the ally-vassal Xiongnu, which the Xiongnu chanyu Nangzhiyasi obeys, grudgingly, but he doesn't like being treated like a subordinate. 2 wikWM
c.2 Xiongnu princess YUN is brought to Chang'an by Wang Mang, and placed in the entourage of grand empress dowager Wang. 2 CHC 236
2 May 18 CHEN FENG, Marquis of Guangyang 1-10, made Grand Minister of Works. 2 HFHD 19
c.2 GUANGDE becomes a kingdom in Danyang Commandery until 9. 2 HFHDX 17
c.2 China has 20 kingdoms.  Royal fiefs comprise 1,353,000 households. 2 CHC 257
Han 2CE
Han kingdoms & commanderies in 2CE           GNU FDL
c.2 WANG MANG issues 4 regulations to the allied Xiongnu that the taking of any hostages from Chinese vassals, i.e. Wusun, Wuhuan, and the Western Regions, will not be tolerated. 2 wikWsn
c.2 Wang Mang's son WANG YU dislikes his father's dictatorial regime and personality cult.  He fears a future backlash when Emperor Ping is grown.  Wang Yu befriends Emperor Ping's Wei uncles, and tells Consort Wei to assure Wang Mang that she would not try to become an empress dowager.  Wang Mang still refuses to let Consort Wei visit the capital. 2 wikWM, wikPn
2 Sp/Oc CENSUS first recorded in China.  57.7 million people.  44 million live north of the Chinling Mountains, Huai Mountains, and Yangtze estuary, 13.7 million in south China, a ratio of 7.6 to 2.4.  Next census 140. 2 CHC 240
c.3 KUNG HOCHI becomes duke of Song. 2 HFHDX 33
2 or 4 HFHD 113
c.3 Provincial SCHOOLS improved by Wang Mang. 3 CHC 228
3 Mr/Ap SHIH TAN, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 1, made Marquis of Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery and given income of 2,100 families. 3 HFHD 174
3 May SHIH TAN dies.  Marquis of Yiyang in Nanyang? Commandery in 3.  Son SHIH YEH succeeds until ?. 3 HFHD 174
c.3 In a vain attempt to reconcile with China, a WUSUN chief is duped and killed. 3 wikWsn
c.3 LIANG, a kingdom from 203, becomes a commandery until 5. 3 HFHD 118
c.3 Wang Mang's son WANG YU conspires with Emperor Ping's maternal uncles of the Wei clan against Wang Mang.  They are discovered.  Wang Mang forces Wang Yu to suicide, and has the Weis (except Consort Wei) executed.  He uses this opportunity to accuse many actual or potential enemies as being part of the conspiracy, and to execute or exile them. 3 wikRY, wikWM, wikPn
c.3 Victims of the purge include Emperor Yuan's sis Princess Jingwu, Wang Mang's own uncle Wang Li, and his own cousin Wang Ren.  Wang Mang tells Grand Empress Dowager Wang, falsely, that they had died of illnesses.  Many opponents of Wang Mang are purged. 3 wikWM, wikPn
c.4 LOYANG contains 52,839 households. 4 HFHD 141
4 Mar 16 Emperor PING marries Wang Mang's dau WANG and creates her empress until 21. 4 CHC 228, wikEWP, wikPn, wikWM
c.4 HYKKOSE KOSOGUN ends.  King of Silla Korea from 57BCNAMHAE CHACHAUNG succeeds until 24. 4 rcK
c.4 ACADEMY enlarged by Wang Mang. 4 CHC 228
4±2 Yellow River splitYELLOW RIVER, north of the Shandong Peninsula from 112, splits with one branch flowing south of the Peninsula and into the East China Sea until 70. 3 wikHH
2-5 B76 19-537
3-5 CHC 241
11 B76 19-537, wikHD
c.5 WANG MANG revives the "9 bestowments", an ancient Zhou ceremony wherein emperors give awards those who have made great contributions to the state.  He has himself so awarded. 5 wikWM, wikPn
c.5 A CONFERENCE in the capital is called by Wang Mang on classical texts, astronomy-astrology, pitchpipes, philology, and divination. 5 CHC 228
c.5 A ROAD is built from the Wei River valley thru the difficult mountain ranges south of it to Sichuan. 5 CHC 228
c.5 All members of the imperial house, including remotely (1,000+ persons), are invited to assist at the ancestral sacrifices.  Grants are made to all.  Wang Mang says 100,000+ persons are registered among the clan. 5 HFHD 182
5 Mar 1 LIANG, a commandery from 3, becomes a kingdom until 8.  LIU YIN becomes king until 8. 5 HFHD 118
c.5 DECIMAL FRACTION: 1st known use by Liu Xin. 1-9 TTS
c.5 WHEELBARROW invented by Ko Yu. 1-9 TTS
c.5 From 118BC to 5CE, the Han government mints 28 billion coins, an average of 220 million a year. 1-9 wikHH
5 Apr 28 KUNG KUANG dies.  Grand Master from 1. 5 HFHDX 38
c.5 SUSPENSION BRIDGES strong enough for vehicles to cross built by Chinese. 1-9 TTS
c.5 Ship RUDDER depicted by Chinese. 1-9 TTS
c.5 Adjustable CALIPER used by Chinese. 1-9 TTS 9 wikCl
c.5 WANG MANG has political allies force Grand Empress Dowager Wang to grant him the title of "Acting Emperor", with commission to rule as emperor until a great-great-grandson of Emperor Xuan could be selected and raised. 5 wikWM
5/6 There are 53 great-grandsons of Emperor Xuan (d.48BC) still living, but they are all adults.  Wang Mang dislikes that situation, and wants a child whom he can control. 5/6 wikRY
c.6 WANG MANG gives pepper wine (thought to chase away evil spirits) to the emperor, but has it poisoned.  This unsubstantiated charge is not made until 7CE. 5 wikEWP, wikPn, wikWM
6 Feb 3 PING TI dies, age 14, without heir.  13th Han emperor from 1BC under dowager Wang Chang Chun.  The throne lies vacant for the next few years.  It is necessary to choose a successor from among descendants of Xuan-ti (d.48BC) and his concubines.  Eligible successors are 5 kings and near 50 marquises.  4 families of imperial consorts fight for supremacy. 5 B76 VII-1017, 4-310, wikPn     6 B76 19-537, CHC 228, rcC, wikHD, wikHH, wikPn, wikRY, wikWM, wikXD
6 Apr CHEN FENG, Marquis of Guangyang 1-10, is made Grand Support Aiding on the Right. 6 HFHD 19
6 Apr 17 WANG MANG, regent of China , selects youngest of over 50 eligible heirs, one year old, LIU YING as designated successor to Emperor Ping, claiming that soothsayers told him Ying is most favored by the gods.  Ying is Ping's cousin-once-removed.  Ying is named RUZI.  He never takes the throne.  Wang Mang becomes acting emperor until 9. 5 wikWM     6 B76 19-537, CHC 229, HFHD 214, wikEWP, wikHD, wikRY
c.6 LIU SHOU dies.  King Ching of Guangling from 11 BC. 6 HFHDX 31
c.6 GUANGLING, a kingdom from 47 BC, reverts to a commandery until ?. 6 guess
6 My/Jn LIU CHONG, marquis of Hanchung (north of Sichuan, attacks Wancheng in Nanyang commandery, and fails form lack of popular support.  Wang Mang has Chong's house filled with filthy water. 6 CHC 229, 245, wikRY, wikWM
6 Jul Grand empress dowager reconfirms Wang Mang as acting emperor. 6 CHC 229
c.6 Candidates for political office are required to take civil service exams. 6 TTPC
c.6 OMENS start being reported saying Wang Mang should be emperor. 6 CHC 231
c.6 MILITARY SERVICE extended from 16 years active + 4 reserve to 20 years active + 5 reserve. 6 OCD 121
c.7 ZHAI YI, governor of Dong Commandery and LIU XIN, marquis of Yanxiang (father of Liu Kuang, Prince of Dongping (modern Taian, Shandong)) accuses Wang Mang of poisoning his former emperor, starts large rebellion against him.  They are joined by agrarian rebellion leaders Zhao Peng and Ho Hong from west of Chang'an.  They declare Liu Xin emperor.  Wang Mang sends messengers all around pledging that he will return the throne to Emperor Ruzi (Liu Ying) once he is grown. 7 CHC 230, wikRY, wikWM, wikXD
c.7 New CURRENCY denominations ordered by Wang Mang in 7, 9, 10, 14.  Marquises and low ranking nobles are required to exchange all gold in their possession for less than its full value in coin. 7 CHC 232
c.7 late Wang Mang's armies defeat Zhai Yi and Liu Xin in winter.  Zhai Yi is captured, drawn and quartered.  Liu Xin flees and is never captured.  Zhao Peng and Ho Hong are also eventually defeated and executed. 7 wikRY, wikWM
7/8 A secondary rebellion breaks out near the capital. 7/8 CHC 230
c.8 KAOLING marquisate, existing in Langye area from 195BC, dissolved. 8 HFHD99c 66
c.8 LIU CHING, king of Xindu from 5 BC, is demoted to duke until 9. 8 HFHDX 34
c.8 LIU LI, king of Chengyang from 19 BC, is demoted to duke until 9. 8 HFHDX 20
8 WANG TSUNG, grandson of Wang Mang, is made marquis of Xindu. 8 HFHDX 20
c.8 LUANTI YU, younger bro of the Chanyu, is made wise king of the West. 8 HFHD99c 15
8 LIANG, a kingdom from 5, becomes a duchy until 9.  King LIU YIN is demoted to duke until 9. 8 HFHD 118, HFHDX 20
c.8 late WANG MANG gets a prophecy written on a casket by Ai Zhang pretending to be a divine decree from Emperor Gaozu (Liu Bang), stating that the throne should be given to Wang Mang, and that Grand Empress Dowager Wang (Wang Mang's own dau) should follow this divine will. 8 wikRY, wikWM
9 Jan 10 WANG MANG says that Han had run its course.  He accepts the requests that he proclaim himself emperor.
Ruling at Chang'an from 202, HAN DYNASTY ousted until 25 by WANG MANG, who establishes the XIN DYNASTY until 23.  Xin means new.
8 B76 V-168, VII-1017, 4-308, wikEWP     9 B76 4-308, 311, 19-537, CDCC 187, CHC 231, CHEIA 141, HFHD 214, TAWH 18, 81, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWM, wikXD
9 Jan RUZI (Liu Ying), titular ruler of Han from 6, with only the title of crown prince, deposed by Wang Mang, and made duke of Dingan.  Wang Mang never lets Ruzi rule, but keeps him a virtual prisoner. 9 rcC, wikEWP, wikRY
9 Jan Capital 200BC-23CE, CHANG'AN destroyed. 9 B76 4-308, TAWH 18, 81
Jan 15
CHEN FENG, Marquis of Guangyang 1-10, made General of a New Beginning and Duke tending the Xin Dynasty. 9 HFHD 19
c.9 Private SLAVES can no longer be bought and sold by order of Wang Mang until 12. 9 CHC 232, TTPC, wikHH
c.9 New CURRENCY denominations ordered by Wang Mang in 7, 9, 10, 14. 9 CHC 232
c.9 Land reform is attempted.  All able-bodied men receive a standard allotment of land.  Families with more land than the formula allowes are to distribute the surplus to land-poor relatives and neighbors.  Sale of land is prohibited. 9 wikHH, no date: wikWFS
c.9 WELL FIELD system established by Wang Mang.  A square area of land is divided into 9 equal squares.  The 8 outer squares are privately cultivated by serfs and the center square communally cultivated on behalf of the landowning aristocrat. 9 wikHH, no date: wikWFS
c.9 GUANGDE, a kingdom in Danyang Commandery from 2, ends. 9 HFHDX 17
c.9 LIU YANG, Prince of Zhending from 7 BC, demoted to duke until 10 by Wang Mang. 9 wikGuo
c.9 LIU CHING, duke of Xindu from 8, is dismissed. 9 HFHDX 34
c.9 LIU LI, Duke of Chengyang from 8, is dismissed. 9 HFHDX 20
c.9 LUANTI YU, younger bro of the chanyu, is sent to the Xin court to make presents to the Emperor and to beg for the chanyu's former seal. 9 HFHD99c 15
9 LIANG, a duchy from 8, becomes a commandery until ?.  Duke LIU YIN is dismissed. 9 HFHD 118, HFHDX 20
c.9 HEJIAN (Hochien), a kingdom from 32, under king Liu Liang from 6 BC, no longer a kingdom. 9 HFHD 73
c.9 2 uprisings of the former imperial house are suppressed. 9 CHC 231
c.9 Bureaucracy is reorganized and new titles introduced. 9 CHC 232
c.9 Marquis of Xuxiang, LIU KUAI dies.  He attacks duchy of Fuchong, of his bro Liu Ying, former Prince of Jiaodong.  Liu Kuai is defeated and dies fleeing from battle. 9 wikRY, wikWM
c.9 XIONGNU at peace with China from 36BC, resume war, because Wang Mang "demoted" the chanyu to a lesser rank. 9 CHC 237
c.9 LIU GUANGHAN, king of Guangping (Pinggan) from 4BC, dismissed by Wang Mang. 9 HFHD 110
c.9 GUANGPING (Pinggan) with 4 other cities, is made seat of the Dukedom of Established Tranquility and given to Liu Ying (Ruzi). 9 HFHD 163
c.9 Emperor WANG MANG nationalizes Chinese land, divides large estates until 12, builds state granaries. 9 TTPC, wikWM
c.9 Emperor WANG MANG claims king Min of Qi (324-284BC) as an ancestor and sends messengers to worship him at his burial place. 9 HFHD 153
c.10 Economic Adjustment Agency established by Wang Mang.  It controls fluctuations in prices of food and textiles by purchasing excess goods and selling them when the price goes up.  It loans money to entrepreneurs at 3% per month.  Offices are in Chang'an, Loyang, Handan, Linzi, Wancheng, and Chengdu. 10 wikWM
c.10 SLOTH TAX imposed by Wang Mang.  If landowners leave land uncultivated, city dwellers leave their houses without trees, or citizens refuse to work, fines are to be paid, with textile tribute.  Those unable to pay are required to work for the state. 10 wikWM
c.10 INCOME TAX imposed by Wang Mang.  10% of profits, on hunters, fishermen, sericulturists, artisans, professional men, and merchants.  Previously, all Chinese taxes were either head taxes or property tax. 10 CHC 232, wikWM
10 New CURRENCY denominations ordered by Wang Mang in 7, 9, 10, 14, which amounts to a debasement of the coinage. 10 CHC 232
c.10 State monopoly on liquor, salt, and iron implements, on casting of coins, and on income derived from mountains and marshes, all instituted by Wang Mang.  Market for essential commodities, such as grain, cloth, and silk, is stabilized by government purchases when prices are low and sales when prices are high.  Government storehouses are established for that purpose in 5 cities.  Reaffirmed in 17. 10 CHC 232, HFHD99c 32, wikWM
c.10 Prefect of the Western Market is changed to the Master in Charge of the 5 Equalizations at the Court Market, in establishing an office for equalization at that market. 10 HFHD 219
10 Minor mutiny in Central Asia quickly suppressed. 10 CHC 231
10 Many Han nobles are demoted to commoners by Wang Mang.  After this, gold is again permitted to circulate. 10 CHC 231, 233
10 LIU YANG, duke of Zhending from 9, demoted to commoner by Wang Mang. 10 wikGuo
10 CHEN FENG dies.  Marquis of Guangyang from 1, made Western Chief.  He is implicated in the intrigue of his son, Chen Xun, and executed. 10 HFHD 19
10 CHEN XUN, son of Chen Feng, and LIU FEN, son of Liu Xin, again presents portents to Wang Mang.  So Wang Mang has them killed along with those connected with them. 10 HFHD 225
c.10 Wang Mang sends ambassadors to the Xiongnu to inform Chanyu Zhi that he had become emperor and that the Han dynasty is replaced by Xin. 10 wikWM
c.10 XUZHILI dies.  King of Rear Cheshi, concerned by the cost of hosting Xin ambassadors, is so distressed that he considers abandoning his kingdom and fleeing to the Xiongnu.  Xin's Xiyu commissioner Dan Qin summons Xuzhili and executes him.  Xuzhili's bro Hulanzhi flees to the Xiongnu and attacks Dan Qin, inflicting severe casualties, before withdrawing. 10 wikWM
c.10 Wang Mang changes his dau's title from Duchess Dowager of Dingan to Princess Huanghuang, terminating her formal linkage with the Han dynasty.  He intends to marry her to a son of one of his important officials, Sun Jian.  He tells Sun Jian's son to dress well and accompany physicians to visit Princess Huanghuang.  She is offended, and stops receiving guests. 10 wikEWP
10/11 Xiongnu, at peace with Han from 33 BC, prepare to intervene in China. 10/11 wikXD
10/11 In winter, WANG MANG puts 300,000 troops along the north border.  This leads the Xiongnu to back down, but raiding continues. 10/11 CHC 237, wikHH, wikXD
10/11 A local Xin commander kidnaps one of Chanyu Zhi's bros, Xian, Prince of Zuoliwu, and his sons Deng and Zhu, by trickery.  Chanyu Zhi is enraged and attacks Xin border regions, causing much distress.  Eventually, Xian escapes back to the Xiongnu, but his sons are kept as hostages until 12. 10/11 wikWM
11 YELLOW RIVER overflows, flooding much surrounding land.  The ensuing famine leads to prophecies that Wang had lost the Mandate of Heaven and that the Han dynasty would be restored. 11 CHC 241, wikHD, wikHH, wikWM
11 With financial support from Wang Mang, XIAN is proclaimed counter chanyu, which, as intended, increases dissension among the Xiongnu.  Tho Xian must surrender to his half-bro, he is strong enough to escape punishment, and remain heir to the throne. 11 CHC 237
c.12 Emperor WANG MANG's land reforms of 9, having caused much protest, are repealed. 12 CHC 234, TTPC, wikWM
c.12 Emperor WANG MANG fends off an attack by Goguryeo (an early Korean state around the Yalu River) in the Korean peninsula. 12 CHC 239, wikHH
c.12 Tribes of Tsangko commandery in what is now Guizhou kill the Chinese governor. 12 CHC 235
c.12 Private SLAVERY, outlawed by Wang Mang from 9, reinstated due to widespread protest 12 CHC 234, wikHH
c.12 After hearing reports that Xian's other son Jiao had been a successful Xiongnu military strategist, Wang, in anger, executes Xian's son Deng and his attendants. 12 CHC 238, wikWM
c.13 Chanyu UCHILONOTI (Otiuru) dies.  Chanyu from 8 BCXIAN succeeds until 18. 13 CHC 238, wikHH, wikWM, wikWsn
c.13 Dual kingdom Wusun (which, under a system set up by Han, had 2 kings - the greater king is a descendant of a Han princess and her husband the king of Wusun, and the lesser king is a descendant of her bro-in-law) sends ambassadors to Chang'an to offer tribute.  Because Wang Mang knows that the people of Wusun prefer the lesser king, Wang Mang places the ambassador of the lesser king in a higher position than the ambassador of the greater king, which insults the greater king. 13 wikWM
c.13 The Xiyu kingdoms join forces and rebel against Xin, attack the Xiyu commissioner Dan Qin, and kill him.  The Xiyu kingdoms, by that point, no longer pledge allegiance to Xin. 13 CHC 238, wikHH, wikWM
c.13 Grand Empress Dowager WANG ZHENGJUN dies.  widow of Emperor Yuan and mother to Emperor Cheng. 13 wikHD, wikHH, wikWM
c.13 The Heavenly Stems are incorporated to number the years and replace the previous system which uses only the Earthly Branches. 13 wikWM
c.14 XINGYANG, a city of Henan Commandery, is made a Commandery composed of Jangyang and other prefectures of Chenliu Commandery, without Loyang.  Wang Mang soon makes it into the Qi Neighboring Commandery. 14 HFHD 96
c.14 Tribes rebel in Yichou commandery. 14 CHC 235
c.14 There is a temporary detente, with the Xiongnu when Chanyu Xian returns Xin defectors Chen Liang and Zhong Dai, who, as junior army officers in Xiyu, had killed their superiors and surrendered to the Xiongnu. 14 wikWM
14 New CURRENCY denominations ordered by Wang Mang in 7, 9, 10, 14, which amounts to a debasement of the coinage. 14 CHC 232
c.14 A minor official at Haiqu county in Shandong, is accused of a minor offence and executed by the county magistrate.  His mom, Lu Mu - MOTHER LU, a substantial landowner, sells her property and recruits poor young men to fight for her.. 14 HFHD99c 4, no date: wikRE
c.14 late After Chanyu Xian knows that his son Deng had been executed, he resumes raids against the border regions but maintains a fascade of peace. . 14 wikWM
c.15 GONGSUN SHU is appointed governor of Daojiang until 23.  Daojiang is a former Shu Commandery of Han, with its capital at Linqiong.. 15 wikGS
c.15 THURINDA, king of Arakan on west coast of Burma from 16 BC, ends.  RALAMAYU succeeds until 37.. 15 rcSAM
c.15 LUANTI YU, younger bro of the Chanyu, is made Luli King of the East, while an older bro becomes chanyu. 15 HFHD99c 15
c.16 WANG MANG makes another attempt to intimidate the Xiyu kingdoms back into submission, but his armies are divided and cut off from each other.  One army is wiped out.  The other is forced to withdraw to Qiuzi (in modern Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang) with its way back to Xin proper cut off.  The army settles there and is unable to return for the rest of Xin Dynasty's duration. 16 wikWM
c.16 WANG MANG sends a force to retaliate against Karasahr.  It is ambushed but not annihilated.  It attacks Karashahr, massacres part of its population, quells their resistance, and ensures that the region remains under Xin control.  It then returns to China. 16 CHC 238, wikHH
c.16 The bank of the Ching River collapses at Changping Slope, blocking the river. 16 HFHD8 72
c.16 MEDICINE:  Wang Mang orders that an executed man be dissected by the grand physician in order to examine his viscera and arteries and find cures for illness. 16 CHC 239
by 16 Yichou Commandery (northeast Yunnan) had become corrupt, and yet Juting remains powerful.  Wang Mang commissiones 2 generals, Lien Tan and Shi Xiong, against Juting.  They are initially successful, but soon have problems with food supply and plagues.  However, Wang Mang refuses to reinstitute the Han system of using awards to buy the submission of southwest tribes. by 16 wikWM
c.17 6 Monopolies on liquor, salt, iron, coinage, forestry, and fishing, and the price stabilization program from 10 are reaffirmed.  But rampant corruption limits benefit to the imperial treasury, while the people are greatly burdened.  Monopolies last until 22.. 17 wikWM
c.17 Communicator FENG CHANG is dismissed by Wang Mang for protesting against the 6 monopolies. 17 HFHD99c 3
c.17 FAMINE: Jing Province (modern Hubei, Hunan, and southern Henan) exacerbated by corruption and incompetence of Xin officials.  Victims must eat wild plants, and even those are in short supply, causing the people to attack each other.  Wang Kuang and Wang Feng, both from Xinshi, (in Jingmen, Hubei) arbitrate disputes, and become leaders of the people. 17 ckRELU, wikLln
c.17 As burdens from wars and corruption increase, the people can no longer subsist on farming.  Many agrarian rebellions start, partly also because of a famine in Jing Province, and southern Henan).  The more significant ones include:
  • Kutien Yi in modern Suzhou, Jiangsu c.17
  • Mother Lu in Haiqu county c.17
  • Chimei "Red Eyebrows" under Fan Chong, c.18.
  • Zhang Ba in modern Jingzhou, Hubei
  • Yang Mu in modern Xiaogan, Hubei
  • Diao Zidu in modern western Shandong and north Jiangsu
  • Lulin Mountain rebels, aka Xinshi rebels c.20
17 wikRE, wikWM
c.17 MOTHER LU (Lu Mu), recruiting in Haiqu county from 14, now with thousands of men, storms the county seat and kills the magistrate who had executed her son.  Her success inspires people all over the country to rebel against Wang Mang.  Her force grows rapidly to tens of thousands.. 17 HFHD99c 4, wikRE
c.17 Tax on SLAVE holding introduced by Wang Mang. 17 LEWH, TTPC
c.17 HOU PA becomes Administrator of the Laws at the Emperor's Right & Left For the Extirpation of Wickedness.. 17 HFHD99c 3
c.17 KUTIEN YI, bandit chief of Linhuai Commandery, rebels, establishes himself in Changchou in Kuaiji Commandery.. 17 HFHD99c 4, ckRELU
c.17 7 regional commissions establish high, medium, and low prices on staples, and to buy surplus goods at cost.  But imperial merchants and capitalists provoke rebellions.. 17 TTPC
c.18 YURIMYONG WANG, king of Goguryo Korea from 19 BC, ends.  TAEMUSIN WANG succeeds until 44. 18 rcK
c.18 Rebel leader in Haiqu county Lu Mu, MOTHER LU dies of illness.  Most of her followers join bandit leader Fan Chung. 18 wikRE
c.18 Wang Mang orders troops mobilized.. 18 CHC 243
c.18 Bandits under FAN CHUNG based at Mt. Tai, become strong enough to defeat Wang Mang's armies, rebel in Shandong.  They are joined by other groups under Pang An, Xu Xuan, Xie Lu and Yang Yin.  Rebellion spreads quickly.. 18 B76 VIII-460, 19-537, ckRELU, wikHH, wikRE
c.18 Bandit leader FAN CHUNG gathers 10,000 men.. 18 wikRE
c.18 FAN CHUNG allies with other rebel leaders: Pang An, Xu Xuan, Liu Xiu and Yang Yin.. 18 wikRE
c.18 During the widespread rebellion against Wang Mang, the Korean state of Goguryo raids Han's Korean commanderies until 30. 18 wikHD
c.18 Confucian philosopher/poet of the Old Text school, YANG XIUNG dies, age 70. 18 B76 X-797, 4-1101, HFHD 222, wikHD
c.18 Palace Attendant TAI YUN sent by Wang Mang to examine and punish his granddau Wang Fang and Wang Xing.. 18 HFHD99c 6
c.18 Granddau of Wang Mang, WANG FANG dies.  Older sis of Wang Tsung, and wife of Wang Xing, driven to suicide . 18 HFHD99c 6
c.18 XIAN dies.  Chanyu from 13.  His conservative bro LUANTI YU (HUDUERSHI?) succeeds until 46. 18 CHC 238, 265, CHEIA 136, HFHD99c 15, wikHH, wikWM
c.18 Chanyu LUANTI YU wants peace with Wang Mang, and sends a nephew as ambassador to Chang'an.  In response, Wang Mang sends Wang Zhaojun's bro Wang She to meet Princess Yun and her husband Xuyu Dang.  At the meeting, however, Xin forces surprise and kidnap the princess and her husband and take them to Chang'an.  Wang Mang creates Xuyu Dang chanyu and envisions placing him on the Xiongnu throne by force.  This ends any hope of peace with Xiongnu. 18 wikWM
c.19 WANG SHE, Marquis of Chuyang from 6 BC, is entitled Marquis of the Straight Path and made General of the Guard. 19 HFHD99c 6
c.19 Agrarian rebellions cause key official Tian Kuang to ask for more money.  WANG MANG raises taxes. 19 wikRE
c.19 Bandit leader, FAN CHUNG, rebelling against the Xin government from 18, forces Wang Mang to shift troops from other areas to deal with it. 19 HFHD99c 7, wikXD
c.19 KUO XING, Commandant of the Protecting Army subordinate to the Commander-in-chief, is sent against the southwest barbarians. 19
HFHD99c 12
c.19 LI YEH, a Shepherd of Yung Division, is sent by Wang Mang against the southwest barbarians. 19 HFHD99c 12
c.19 XUYU DANG, husband of Yun, is set up as a rival chanyu by Wang Mang, while maintaining the army at the border.  This drains Xin resources.  Yun remains in Chang'an. 19 CHC 238, wikXD
c.19 LUANTI YU (HUDUERSHI?), chanyu 18-46, raids Chinese borders.  But the war is not resumed. 19 CHC 238, wikHH
19/20 2 insurgent bands in Hubei are recruited by Han loyalists.  Led by Liu Yin (Posheng), they become known as the Lulin (Green Forest) band. 19/20 wikXD
CONFUSION ALERT!  LIU YIN is usually the man called Bosheng or Posheng.  Sometimes it's Liu Yan or Liu Lin.
c.20 In addition to the Commander-in-chief in the court, Wang Mang establishes 5 commanders-in-chief outside the courts who are called commanders-in-chief of the Van, Rear, Right, Left, and Center. 20 HFHD 48
c.20 WATERWHEEL mentioned by Huan Tan.  Used to turn gears that lift iron trip hammers, and are used in pounding, threshing and polishing grain.   See 31. 20 wikHD
c.20 WANG MANG establishes:
125 Lieutenant Generals: all officials set over commanderies are also called Lieutenant Generals.
1,250 Major Generals: Prefects and Chiefs of Associations become Major Generals.
37,500 Majors, 112,500 Captains, 225,000 Centurions, 450,000 petty officers, 1 for each 3 soldiers.
20 HFHD99c 19, 20
c.20 WANG KUANG and WANG FENG, who had settled disputes in Jiangxia Commandery from 17, are set up by the people as leaders of several hundred men.  Various outlaws, Ma Wu, Wang Chang, Chen Tan, and others, follow them.  They attack Lixiang hamlet and hide in the Lulin Mountains in south Henan and northern Hubei regions.  After several months, they have 7-8,000 men. 20 HFHD99c 27, wikWM, no date: wikLln
c.20 WANG MANG sends messengers to the Lulin rebels issuing pardons in hopes of causing them to disband.  When the messengers return to Chang'an.  Some honestly report that the rebels gathered because harsh laws made it impossible for them to make a living. no date: wikLln
c.20 WANG MANG changes his presumed heir.  He suddenly deposes Crown Prince Wang Lin, because evil may come from the fact that Crown Prince Lin is younger than his bro Lord An, and should not have been crown prince.  He then creates Lord An Prince of Xinqian, and Wang Lin Prince of Tongyiyang. 20 wikWM
c.20 Chienchang (Jianzhang, Chengkuang) Palace, begun 104BC, plus Chuantai Palace, Paoyang Palace, Pinglo Lodge, Tanglu Lodge, Yanglu Lodge are all destroyed by Wang Mang to get building materials for his Nine Ancestral Temples. 20 HFHD6 88, 89, HFHD99c 22, 23
c.20 Nine Ancestral Temples begun by Wang Mang south of Chang'an.  They will be finished in 22, and burnt in fall 23.  The 9th is for his dad Wang Wan, who is entitled King Xien of Xindu. 20 HFHD99c 23, HFHDX 20
c.21 Dau of Wang Mang, WANG dies.  Empress from 4. 21 wikWM
c.21 The Shepherd (governor) of Jing Province mobilizes 20,000 men to attack Lulin rebels under Wang Kuang and Wang Feng.  Wang Kuang and the others attack them at Yundu, rout them, killing several thousand, and taking their provisions and baggage.  When the governor tries to retreat, his retreat route is temporarily cut off by Ma Wu, but Ma Wu allows him to escape, not wanting to offend the government more than necessary.  Instead, the Lulin rebels attack and take Chingling by force, turn around and attack Yundu and Anlu, kidnapping many women, before returning to Lulin Mountain.  By this point, they have 50,000 men, and the province and commandery cannot control them. 21 wikLln 22 HFHD99c 26
c.21 Xin official, TIAN KUANG dares to mobilize troops without orders, but is forgiven and put in charge of Jing and Xu Provinces. 21 HFHD99c 7, 17
c.21 FAN CHUNG, bandit leader, attacks army of Wang Mang's official, Tian Kuang, and routs it, killing 10,000+ men.  Next Fan Chung goes north into Jing Province, and plunders it. 21 HFHD99c 7, 17
c.21 Bandit chief of Linhuai Commandery, KUTIEN YI dies.  He is persuaded by Chu Xia and Li Sheng to surrender to Wang Mang, but dies before he surrenders.. 21 HFHD99c 4, 30
c.21 CHU XIA, from Shanggu Commandery, is made a Gentlemen-of-the-Household. 21 HFHD99c 30
c.21 Xin official, TIAN KUANG, who had earlier aggravated rebellions, proposes that villagers be evacuated to the cities to force the rebels to attack fortifications.  Wang Mang distrusts Tian due to his military successes, refuses to support Tian and summons him back to Chang'an. 21 wikRE
c.21 Junior generals JING SHANG and WANG DANG are sent by Wang Mang to try to quell the rebellions. 21 wikRE
c.21 TROOPS of generals Jing Shang and Wang Dang lack military discipline, and further anger the populace which had not rebeled, causing the populace to join or help the rebels. 21 wikRE
c.21 TIAN KUANG is made Master Commandant Grandee. 21 HFHD99c 17
c.21 FAN CHUNG, bandit leader, returns from Jing Province to Taishan Commandery, and stops and camps at Nancheng. 21 HFHD99c 7
c.21 Wang Mang's wife dies.  She is a dau of Wang Xien, Marquis of Yichun.  She bore him 4 sons, Yu, Huo, An, and Lin.  The first 2 were executed by Wang Mang before her death.  Yuanpi had been a female attendant on Wang Mang's wife and had been balled by Wang Mang.  She is later balled by Wang Mang's son, Wang Lin.  Yuanpi and Lin fear the adultery would be known, so they plot to murder Wang Mang.  Suspicion leads Wang Mang to have Yuanpi arrested.  She confesses, and is doubtless executed.  21 HFHD99c 27-8
c.21 CHIN FENG of Lichiu in Nan Commandery gathers almost 10,000 men and pillages 12 prefectures in Jing Province. 21 HFHD99c 31
c.21 Chief Grand Astrologer, TSUNG XUAN is charged by Kungsun Lu with having misread portents. 21 HFHD99c 31
c.21 Marquis of Geographical Arrangements, SUN YANG is charged by Kungsun Lu with having had a share in inventing the ching system of cultivated fields. 21 HFHD99c 32
c.21 Grand Governor of Weicheng Commandery, LI YEN dies.  He plots with soothsayer Wang Kuang2 to rebel against Wang Mang.  The plot is exposed and both are executed. 21 HFHD99c 29
CONFUSION ALERT!  There are 3 contemporary Wang Kuangs:  1. the Lulin leader   2. the soothsayer (d. 23)   3. the Xin general
c.21 Wang Tang, Commandant of the Protecting Army to the General of a New Beginning, is sent with troops to attack rebels in Xu Province. 21 HFHD99c 30
22 Jn/Fb Nine Ancestral Temples, begun in 20 by Wang Mang south of Chang'an, are finished.  They will be burnt in fall 23.  Chief Workman Chiu Yen is enfeoffed as vassal of Handan Hamlet. 22 HFHD99c 32
c.22 DAESO, king of Buyeo Korea from 7 BC, ends.  22 rcK
c.22 6 government monopolies from 17 are abolished because they can no longer be enforced during a large-scale rebellion. 22 CHC 234, wikHH
by 22 TROOPS of Xin generals Jing Shang and Wang Dang are too disorderly to function. by 22 wikRE
c.22 Wang Mang dispatches a large army which enters Shandong in winter, when the water of the Yellow River is low.  A battle is fought in which imperial forces are defeated and Jing Shang killed.. 22 CHC 243
c.22 Xin general JING SHANG is killed in battle with rebel Fan Chung. 22 CHC 243, wikRE
22 FAMINE in Nanyang Commandery causes many guests of various great families to become robbers. 22 HFHD99c 38
c.22 Liao Shen and Chen Mu lead 1,000+ men who call themselves the Pinglin Troops.  They join Liu Shengkung (i.e. Liu Xuan). 22 HFHD99c 34
CONFUSION ALERT!  CHEN MOU and CHEN MU are different men.
c.22 WANG MANG finally sees (as many of his officials told him earlier) that the agrarian rebellions are more dangerous to his rule than the Xiongnu.  He commissions 2 key officials, Wang Kuang3 (not to be confused with Lulin leader Wang Kuang1) and Lien Tan with 100,000+ men to attack the agrarian rebells.  Fan Chung's group is their first target. 22 HFHD99c 7, wikHH, wikRE, wikWM
c.22 Xin generals Lien Tan and Wang Kuang3 attack the Fan Chung bandits, who now fear that in a battle their men would become confused with Xin troops, so they all redden their foreheads, so as to recognize each other.  They are then called the Chimei "Red Eyebrows". 21 HFHD99c 7
22 mid Troops from Xinshi turn north and cross the border into Nanyang commandery, welcomed by locals, while the so far invincible Chimei approach from the east.  Local peasant leaders in south Nanyang respond by assembling a band of their own which they call the troops from Pinglin.  Among them is a member of the Liu family in Nanyang, Liu Xuan, who had been forced to avoid the authorities because of a blood feud. 21 CHC 244, 245
c.22 Lulin forces suffer a major plague, killing at least 25,000, about half of the rebels.  This causes them to divide into 3 forces.
1.  Xiajiang Force under Wang Chang and Cheng Dan heads west toward Nan Commandery, the region of modern Jingzhou, Hubei
2.  Xinshi Force under Wang Feng, Wang Kuang, Ma Wu, Chu Wei and Zhang Ang goes north toward Nanyang Commandery
3.  Pinglin Force under Chen Mu and Liao Zhan
22 wikLln, wikWM
c.22 Prophecies spread that the Liu clan would return to power. 22 wikWM
c.22 LIU YAN, a descendant of a distant branch of the Han imperial clan, who live in Chongling (in modern Xiangyang, Hubei), has long been disgusted by Wang Mang's usurpation, and wants to rebel.  His bro Liu Xiu, by contrast, is a careful man, content to be a farmer.  Many men gather around Liu Yan.  He agrees to lead them. 22 wikEGH, wikLln, wikLYn, wikWM
22 late LIU YAN with his bros, and Li Tong and his cousin Li Yi, plan to kidnap the governor of Nanyang Commandery and call for the people of the commandery to join him. 22 wikEGH, wikLln, wikLYn
22 late LIU YAN with his bros, and Li Tong and his cousin Li Yi, assault Wancheng, capital of the commandery.  Severely defeated by Zhen Fu, governor of Nanyang.  Liu Yan's sis Liu Yuan and bro Liu Zhong are killed in the battle.  Encouraged, Zhen Fu then pursues, intending to crush all Liu-Lulin rebels. 22 wikEGH, wikLln, wikLYn
22 late Alarmed, the Xinshi and Pinglin forces consider withdrawing from the Lulin coalition and fleeing.  The Xiajiang force arrives, and Liu Yan convinces Wang Chang, who is respected by the other Xiajiang leaders, that Liu Yan is a capable military leader.  The Xiajiang Force therefore joins the coalition, convincing the Xinshi and Pinglin Forces to stay in the coalition, which now captures territory instead of just roving and raiding. 22 wikLln, wikLYn, wikWM
22 Oc/Nv Bro of Liu Yan, LIU XIU, age 27, with Li Tung and his cousin, Li Yi rebel at Yuan. 22 HFHD99c 38
22 Oc/Nv Rebels rise at various places in the countryside, and rapidly join forces. 22 CHC 245
22 Nov? Hanist LIU YIN (Liu Posheng) summons troops of Xinshi and Pinglin, with their leaders, Wang Feng and Chen Mu, negotiates an alliance, goes west, and attacks Changchu. 22 CHC 245, HFHD99c 38
22 Nov? Solu Hui of Wuyan (in modern Taian, Shandong) raises troops and takes Wuyan. 22 HFHD99c 36
22 Nov? Xin generals Wang Kuang3 and Lien Tan have some initial success against rebel leader Solu Hui, capturing Wuyan, and taking 10,000+ heads. 22 HFHD99c 36, wikRE
22 Dec Xin general WANG KUANG3 orders his men to attack the Chimei stronghold of Liang.  Lien Tan reluctantly attacks Liang with him.  At the battle of Chengchang (in modern Tai'an, Shandong), Chimei colonel Tung Xien defeats the tired Xin forces, and they collapse losing 10,000+ men.  LIEN TAN dies in battle.  When his colonel Wang Lung hears that Lien Tan is killed, he and others gallop into the Chimei and die fighting.  Xinist Wang Kuang3 flees without troops. 21 HFHD99c 7, ckRELU
22 HFHD99c 36, wikHH, wikRE, wikWM
22 Dec The Chimei pursue Lien Tan's Xin troops to Wuyan. 22 HFHD99c 36
c.23 Jan 22 Under Liu Yan's leadership, the joint Han forces again fight Zhen Fu and Liangchiu Tzu and routs it severely, beheading Zhen Fu and Liangchiu TzuLiu Yin (Posheng) also routs Wang Mang's generals Chuang Yu and Chen Mu, at Yuyang.  But they advance and besiege Liu Xiu, Li Tung and his cousin, Li Yi in Yuan. 23 CHC 246, HFHD99c 39, 60, wikEGH, wikLln, wikWM
c.23 Luliners under Liu Yin (Posheng) besiege Wancheng (capital of Nanyang).  Messengers fan out to other parts of the empire, openly declaring that Wang Mang should be overthrown. 23 CHC 246, wikWM
c.23 LIU YANG, former duke of Zhending 9-10, commoner from 10, rebels against Wang Mang, reclaimes title of Prince of Zhending.  His people support him. 23 wikGuo
c.23 Fb/Mr Xin generals Wang Xun and Wang Yi reach Yingchuan Commandery and again join Chuang Yu and Chen Mou. 23 HFHD99c 39
c.23 Fb/Mr The Lulin rebels want to support a descendant of the Han imperial house as emperor.  Men under Liu Yan and the Xiajiang leaders all support Liu Yan.  But Xinshi and Pinglin Forces are jealous and dislike Liu Yan's strict discipline, prefering a weaker ruler.  They find a minor leader within the Pinglin Force - a descendant of the Han imperial house and 3rd cousin of Liu Yan, named LIU XUAN, who is called General Gengshi at the time.  They support Liu Xuan as emperor.  Liu Yan, after initial opposition, agrees, in order to avoid a fight. 22 wikEGH, wikGE     23 wikLln
23 Fb/Mr Liu Yan's 3rd cousin, LIU XUAN is proclaimed Emperor GENGSHI of Han.  Liu Yin (Posheng) is made Grand Minister Over the Masses.  Liu Xiu is made Grand Master of Ceremonies and Secondary General.  Wang Kuang, Wang Feng, Zhu, Liu Yan, and Chen Mu are top officials. 23 CHC 246, HFHD99c 39, ckWA, wikEGH, wikGE, wikHH, wikLln, wikLYX, wikWM
23 Fb/Mr LIU YAN becomes Gengshi's prime minister until later 23. 23 wikWM
23 Fb/Mr Wei Ao's uncles Wei Cui and Wei Yi, plus local leaders Yang Guang and Zong Zhou, decide to lead a local insurgency supporting Gengshi.  Wei Ao occupies Tienshu commandery and proclaims the reign motto "Revival of the Han".  Gengshi makes Wei Ao General to the Right. 23 ckWA
23 Mar CHENG DAN is made Supreme General of Waters and Parks by Emperor Gengshi. 23 HFHD99c 53
c.23 Mar CHEN MU is made Grand Minister of Works by Gengshi. 23 HFHD99c 34
c.23 CHUANG YU and CHEN MU defect to Wang Mang. 23 guess
23 Mar WANG MANG marries NEE SHIH, dau of Shih Shen, who is made Marquis of Harmony and Peace and General of a Peaceful Beginning. 23 HFHD99c 59, 60
23 Mar? LIU YANG, prince of Zhending, nominally submits to Gengshi Emperor until late 23. 23 wikGuo
23 Apr? LIU XIU separates from the other Lulin generals and overruns Kunyang, Tingling, and Yanxian, takes their castles, and makes them all surrender.  He takes many cattle, horses, valuables, and several hundred thousand hu of grain. 23 HFHD99c 39, wikBK
23 Apr? LIU XIU besieges Yanguan. 23 HFHD99c 39, wikBK
23 Ap/My An expeditionary force enters Yingchuan commandery, which borders on Nanyang in the northeast. With it goes Posheng's only surviving bro, Liu Xiu, who, in spite of having been made superintendent of ceremonies, continues to serve in the field as a lowly lieutenant general. 23 CHC 247
c.23 Ap/My Wang Mang sends his cousin Wang Yi and his prime minister Wang Xun with 430,000 men, intending to crush the newly reconstituted Gengshi regime.  9,000 men are in 2 groups: 1 led by Wang Feng, Wang Chang, and Liu Xiu, and 1 led by Liu Yan, which is still besieging Wancheng. 23 CHC 247, wikEGH, wikLln, wikWM
23 Jn/Jl Liu Xiu leads several thousand Lulin troops, at Yang Pass.  When the other 9,000 Lulin men see the 430,000 man Xin army, they turn and flee to Kunyang, and are besieged by Xinists Wang Yi and Wang Xun. 23 CHC 247, HFHD99c 39
c.23 LIU XIU, besieging Yanguan, hears of the arrival of the main Xin forces, retreats to Kunyang. 23 HFHD99c 39, wikBK
c.23 The 9,000 Gengshi rebels in Kunyang want to scatter, but Liu Xiu opposes it, advocating that they defend Kunyang, while he gathers all other available troops in surrounding areas and attack Xin forces from outside.  After initially rejecting Liu Xiu's idea, the Kunyang rebels agree. 23 CHC 247, HFHD99c 40, wikBK, wikEGH, wikLln, wikWM
23 With Xin forces approaching Kunyang from the north, Liu Xiu leads 13 horsemen out of Kunyang at night to find reinforcements from Dingling and Yanxian. 23 wikBK
c.23 WANG MANG suspects the guards at the city gates because they came from the east, therefore he selects some of the Picked Cavalry to guard the gates. 23 HFHD 47
23 City of XUAN is besieged by Gengshi general Liu Yin (Posheng). 23 HFHD99c 40
23 Jn/Jl City of XUAN is taken by Gengshi general Liu Yin (Posheng). 23 HFHD99c 50, 55
23 Jn/Jl Xin Grand Minister Over the Masses, WANG XUN and Grand Minister of Works, WANG YI, with 1,000,000 troops, of whom 420,000 are armed, reach Yingchuan Commandery and again join Chuang Yu and Chen Mou. 23 wikXD
23 Jul 4 Liu Yan finally captures Wancheng.  The Gengshi Emperor enters and makes it his temporary capital. 23 CHC 247, wikLln
23 Jul 7 LIU XIU, with 10,000 troops gathered from surrounding areas returns to Kunyang.  He leads 1,000 men to engage the Xin forces, while another 3,000 march around to the rear of the Xin army and attack the Xin main camp.  Wang Yi and Wang Xun, annoyed, lead 10,000 men to attack Liu Xiu and order the rest of their troops not to move from their siege locations. 23 CHC 247, wikBK, wikEGH, wikLln
23 Jul 7 Xin general WANG XUN dies.  He foolishly attacks Liu Xiu's force with a small force, and is killed.  Lulin forces disrupt the remainder of the Xin army, forcing Wang Yi to retreatLulin forces inside Kunyang burst out and attack the other Xin units. 23 wikBK, wikEGH, wikHH
23 Jul 7 Xin armies are completely defeated by Han restorationists in the Battle of Kunyang. 23 CHC 247, HFHD99c 50, wikBK, wikEGH, wikHD, wikHH, wikXD
23 Jul Wang Mang's Communicator, CHUANG YU, and his Arranger of the Ancestral House, Chen Mou, are defeated at Kunyang, so they flee to Pei Commandery until Aug.  23 HFHD99c 55, 80
23 Jul Unable to gather most of his men, WANG YI withdraws with several thousand Xin troops back to Loyang. 23 wikBK
23 Jl/Ag Emperor Gengshi enters Yuan and makes it his capital.  He makes all members of the imperial clan and the generals marquises, over 100 in all. 23 HFHD99c 55
23 Jl/Ag Son of King Ching of Changsha, and descendant of Emperor Ching, LIU SHENG, marquis of Chungwu, raises troops for his own Han rebellion, and overruns territory in Junan Commandery.  23 HFHD99c 55, 80
23 Jl/Ag LIU YIN (Posheng) dies.  Grand Minister Over the Masses, is executed by Li Yi and Chu Wei by direction of Gengshi.  LIU TZU, who had been Superintendant of the Imperial Household, becomes Grand Minister Over the Masses. 23 Jl-Oc HFHD99c 50, 55
23 Aug Wang Mang's Communicator, CHUANG YU, and his Arranger of the Ancestral House, CHEN MOU, in Pei Commandery from July, hear about Liu Sheng and follow him. 23 HFHD99c 55, 80
c.23 After Gengshi's Han forces succeed, a Taoist in household of Wang She produces a prophecy that the Han dynasty would revive and the name of the next ruler would be the same as Liu Xiu (which is the same as future emperor Guangwu's name).  Wang She fears that Gengshi's forces would be successful and kill Wang She, so he plots with librarian Liu Xin and Tung Chung to abduct Wang Mang and surrender to Gengshi's forces.  Palace Attendant Tai Yun is sent by Wang Mang to question Liu Xin, Tung Chung, and Wang She.  The plot is discovered and Wang She, Liu Xin, and Tung Chung are executed. 23 HFHD99c 6, 17
23 LIU XIN dies. 23 ckWA
23 After Liu Xin dies, WEI AO returns home to Jicheng in Tienshu commandery. 23 ckWA
23 Aug 26 A letter is sent to Wang Mang's officials from General-in-chief Wei Ao, White Tiger General Wei Tsui, General of the Left Wei Yi, General of the Right Yang Kuang, General of Brilliant Majesty Wang Tsun, General of the Cloud Banner Chou Tsung, and others, recounting Wang Mang's crimes. 23 HFHD99c 61
c.23 fall Son of Wang Tan, WANG XUN dies.  An official of Wang Mang, is attacked and killed by Wei Ao. 23 HFHD99c 69
c.23 fall Teng Yeh raises troops at Nanxiang with Yu Kuang for the cause of the Han dynasty, persuades the ruler of Xi to surrender, compells the Chief Commandant in charge of Wu Pass to surrender, attacks and kills the Grandee in charge of the Western Neighboring Commandery, and takes Hu by storm. 23 HFHD99c 69
23 Sep? Irregular militias of Zhuang Ben and Zhuang Chun attack Chang'an. 23 wikXD
23 Sep? Gengshi commissions 2 armies, 1 led by Wang Kuang, targeting Loyang, and 1 led by Shentu Jian and Li Sung, targeting Chang'an.  All the populace on the way welcome and join them. 23 HFHD99c 26, wikLln
no date: wikGE
23 Sep? Gengshi generals Shentu Jian and Li Sung , quickly reach the outskirts of Chang'an.  Young men within Chang'an also rise up and storm Weiyang Palace, the main imperial palace. no date: wikGE
23 fall Wei Ao's uncle, Wei Tsui rebels, over Wei Ao's protest.  Wei Ao, because he has a reputation, is made General-in-chief of the rebellion.  Wei Ao makes Fang Wang, from Pinglin his army advisor.  Fang Wang tells Wei Ao that it is necessary to establish a Temple to Emperor Gaozu and make sacrifices to Han emperors. 23 HFHD99c 61
23 fall Temple to Emperor Gaozu is built and an oath made between 31 generals from 16 clans to revive the Han dynasty. 23 HFHD99c 61
23 fall Li Yu, Grand Governor of Tienshu Commandery, is kidnapped by Wei Tsui.  Li Yu enters the service of warlord Gongsun Shu who makes him a general. 23 HFHD99c 69
23 fall The Tiger Generals are 9 men appointed by Wang Mang to guard the passes into Guanzhong.  They include: Shih Xiung, Wang Kuang3, Kuo Chin, Chen Hui, and Cheng Chung. 23 HFHD99c 71
23 fall LI SUNG had been Director of Service of Gengshi's Lieutenant Chancellor, and had been sent by Gengshi to attack Wu Pass.  Teng Yeh enters Guanzhong and opens Wu Pass for Li Sung, who enters with more than 2000 men. 23 HFHD99c 74
23 fall WANG XIEN, a Division Head of Hungnung Commandery, is made a colonel by Teng Yeh.  Wang Xien thereon leads several hundred men north from Hu, crosses the Wei River, and enters Tsopingyi Commandery and goes north to Pingyang.  Cities and towns on the way welcome him and surrender.  He is followed by many people. 23 HFHD99c 74
23 fall Wei Ao leads 100,000 troops to attack Shepherd of Yung Province Chien Ching, and Grand Governor of Anding Commandery, Wang Xiang. 23 HFHD99c 62, 69
c.23 fall Shepherd of Yung Province, CHEN CHING dies.  He is attacked and killed by Wei Ao. 23 HFHD99c 62, 69
23 fall Grand Governor of Anding Commandery, Wang Xiang surrenders to Wei Ao. 23 HFHD99c 62, 69
23 Sp/Oc Marquis of Chungwu, LIU SHENG sets himself up as the Son of Heaven until Dec., with Chuang Yu as his Commander-in-chief and Chen Mou as his Lieutenant Chancellor. 23 HFHD99c 55, 80
23 Sp/Oc Wang Meng from Lantien, leads several thousand men in to attack Chang'an. 23 HFHD99c 75
c.23 Sp/Oc Wang Mang sends his Grand Master, Wang, Kuang, and State General, Ai Chang, to hold Loyang. 23 HFHD99c 56
c.23 Sp/Oc Gengshi sends Wang Kuang to attack west of Loyang, and his supreme general Shentu Jian and his Director of Service to Lieutenant Chancellor, Li Sung, to attack Wu Pass.  Capital commanderies quake with fear 23 HFHD99c 56
c.23 Oct 4 Capital from 200, CHANG'AN falls.  Lulin rebels under Shentu Jian and Li Sung break thru one of east gates. 23 B76 19-537, CHC 248, ckRELU, wikHH, wikRE, wikWM
c.23 Oct 4 Chang Han, Baron of Brilliant Scholarship and Grand Minister Over the Masses, is killed. 23 HFHD99c 22
c.23 Oct 5 Lulin rebels are joined by some citizens.  All force their way to Weiyang palace, burn it, and sack Chang'an. 23 B76 19-537, CHC 248, wikHH, wikRE, wikWM
23 Oct 5 WEIYANG PALACE, built in 200BC, burnt by arsonists. 23 HFHD8 80
23 Oct 5 Princess Huanghuang, dau of Wang Mang, burns to death in Weiyang Palace. 23 wikEWP
c.23 Oct 6 WANG MANG is taken to the Chien Tai (Terrace Bathed by Water), where his supporters make their last stand.  Palace Attendant TAI YUN dies defending Wang Mang. 23 CHC 248, HFHD99c 6, wikHH
23 Oct 6 Neph of empress Wang Chen Chun, WANG MANG dies. Usurper emperor of China from 9, beheaded.  Wang Xien secures his head and seals, calls himself Han General-in-chief.  He parties in the Eastern Palace, pretending to be emperor until Oct 9. 23 B76 V-168, 4-311, 19-537, CDCC 187, CHC 248, CHEIA 141, 160, HFHD 214, HFHD99c 56, 62, 74, TTPC, rcC, wikGE, wikHH, wikWM, wikXD     24 MCAW
23 Oct 9 GENGSHI's armies reach Chang'an. 23 CHC 248, wikHD
23 Oct 9 Nobody, WANG XIEN is killed for acting like an emperor.  A man from Donghai Commandery, Kungpin Chiu, collects the imperial seals and cords.  Many claim credit for killing Wang Mang, and tens of soldiers die in the ensuing fight.  Wang Mang's body is cut to pieces, his head delivered to Gengshi's headquarters at the provisional Han capital Wancheng, to be hung on the city wall.  The angry people take it off the wall and kick it around.  Someone cuts his tongue out.  Eventually, the head is preserved and kept in a court vault.  Liu family fights with each other until 25.
Xin Dynasty ends..
23 B76 V-168, 4-311, 19-537, CDCC 187, HFHD 214, HFHD99c 62, 74, TTPC, wikGE, wikHH, wikWM, wikXD

East Asia 23-25