Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.200 XIONGNU, under Baghur 209-174, emerge on west border of Han China. 200 B76 9-597
c.200 QIANG tribes reported as inhabiting the steppe northwest of China. 200 B76 18-378
c.200 BAGHUR (Called Mao-Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu 209-174, unites Turkic-speaking Xiongnu in Central Asia around Lake Bajkal and southeast Mongolia. 200 scar
c.200 BAGHUR, and recent defector Hann Xin attack Taiyuan in Dai. 200 CHEIA 121, HFHD 128
c.200 LIU XI (Liu Chung), king of Dai 201-200, flees south to Loyang, tells Gaozu he doesn't want to rule. 200
HFHD 128
c.200 Emperor GAOZU 202-195 orders prose writing of court protocols to enhance dignity of his throne. 200
B76 4-315
c.200 GREAT GRANARY built by Xiao Ho. 200 HFHD99c 35
c.200 JIANGXIA Commandery established by Gaozu.
But I haven't found it on any maps until 108.
200 HFHD99c 26
c.200 LIU TUO made Marquis of Pingao (near Loyang) by Emperor Gaozu.  He has taxing rights on 580 peasant households. 200 Jun R2T 190
c.200 LU SHENG made Marquis of Nieyang (near Nanyang city) by Emperor Gaozu.  He has taxing rights on 1,500 peasant households. 200 mid R2T 190
c. 200 Emperor GAOZU 202-195 personally leads attack on Hann Xin (not Han Xin).  Generals Fan Kuai, Zhou Bo, Xiahou Ying, and Guan Ying follow.  Fan Kuai and Zhou Bo turn and defeat Hann Xin at Tongdi (Qinxian in Shanxi), then move north and defeat Hann Xin at Jinyang (Taiyuan) and overrun 6 cities.  Hann Xin flees north into Xiongnu land.  Emperor Gaozu with 300,000 men then invades Xiongnu land, retakes Shuaren and Wuquan, drives Xiongnu north.  But the Xiongnu retreat is only to lure Gaozu into a trap.  Gaozu and his vanguard are well ahead of the rest of the Han army when they reached the fortified frontier town of Pingcheng (about 150km west of Datong) near Mount Baideng. 201
CHC 127, IUG 4.4,
R2T 195
CHEIA 121, ICMH 133, icX, spks, wikBBd
c. 200 400,000 XIUNGNU, under Mao Tun surround Han Emperor Gaozu with 300,000 in BAIDENG Mountain.  Siege lasts 7 days.  when Han royal court, on councilor Chen Ping's suggestion, sends spies to bribe Mao Tun's wife.  Another story is that they informed her that Gaozu's beautiful concubines would easily replace her if Gaozu were conquered.  Gaozu and his men are allowed to withdraw to Datong.  The Xiongnu withdraw after looting the area of everything they could carry on their horses. 200
LEWH 145, R2T 197, icX, spks, wikHD, wikT, wikBBd
This was not Chen Ping's idea, but Lou Jing's. HFHD 142
c.200 XIANYANG in Shensi, under reconstruction by Xiao He from 201, completed.  Han Capital:  LOYANG from 202, moved by Emperor Gaozu to Xianyang, name changed to CHANG'AN, remains capital until 23 CE.  Changlo Palace is completed, and becomes Gaozu's residence. 200 GHCC, HFHDX 26, bk, yutH
199 wikXH
c.200 LOU JING (now Liu Jing) proposes that the prestigious families of former Zhou principalities, Chu-Zhao-Jing families of Chu in sourthern China and Tian-Huai families of Qi in Shandong Province, be relocated to Chang'an for sake of defense against the Xiongnu as well as easy supervision of those Zhou Dynasty people. 200
R2T 199, icX, spks
c.200 Weicheng (temporarily called New City 206-114) territory is made subordinate to Chang'an. 200
c.200 Scholar JIA YI becomes advisor to emperors until 168. 200 GHCC 116
c.200 LU ZE, older bro of Empress Lu Zhi, is made Marquis Lingwu of Choulu until 198. 200 HFHD 149
c.200 Man Qiu Chen and Wang Huang, under Hann Xin former king of Hann, who remained in the area of Hann, make ZHAO LI, a descendant of the former King of Zhao, king of that area.  He is supported by the Xiongnu. 201 HFHD 16 200 R2T 196
c.200 XinjiangTURFAN, district in northern Xinjiang, comes under Sinicized Turks until 397CE. map TUBS
200 rcCAE
c.200 PINGCHENG (about 150km west of Datong) founded after Battle of Baideng. 200 wikDt
c.200 LIU XI (Liu Chung), elder bro of Liu Bang, prince of Dai from 201, having fled from the Xiongnu, demoted to Marquis of Heyang (in Shaanxi) until 193.  Neph LIU RUYI, 4th son of Liu Bang, age 8, is made prince of Dai until 198. 200 HFHD 128, wikLX, wikLR, wikPD
c.200 100,000 people, including many ex-Zhou noble families dispatched by other kings in their respective principalities, are relocated to Chang'an. 200 icX
c.200 Taoist LU JIA, at request of Gaozu, writes  New Discourses .  Outlines traditional principles of good rulership. 200 bk
c.200 Weiyang PalaceWEIYANG PALACE complex, built near Chang'an by order of Gaozu as an administrative centre and imperial residence.  Largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8kmē (1,200 acres).  Partly burnt 191, but lasts until 23 CE. photo {{PD-US}}

200 wikWP
c.200 The new Han  Law Code  compiled by chancellor Xiao He, who enlarges the Qin code of 6 chapters by 3 new chapters, the 9 chapters all being concerned with criminal matters, with 2 pertaining to procedure. 200 CHC 526
c.200 SwordsBronze SWORDS of the Han period.  Bronze single-edge (dao) introduced, followed by steel daos, which are as long as the more common steel double-edge (jian) counterparts.  Differential heat-treatment implemented on steel blades.  This becomes standardized blade construction for the next 2,000 years.  Ring pommels begin on bronze and steel jians and daos.  Earliest tunkou (metal collar at the forte), made of bronze or copper. pic: pub dom

206-1CE wikCS
c.200 CLASSICAL PERIOD of Chinese literature from 600 ends. 200 B76 15-223, CHAC 90
c.200 PAI TUNG, an alloy of copper, nickel, and zinc first made by Chinese. 200 B76 VII-682
c.200 TU-KIANG DAM built by a man named Mr. Li and his son, providing water for nearly 500,000 acres.  Still operating (but nobody seems to know where it is). 200
B76 9-899
c.200 BAMBOO TABLETS, until now the main medium for writing, are gradually replaced by silk waste. 200
B76 15-222
c.200 TEA:  Han Emperor rules that when referring to tea, a special written character must be used illustrating wooden branches, grass, and a man between them. 200 ctw
c.200 WATER BUFFALO used as draft animal in southeast Asia. 200 PW 17
c.199 Hann Xin, former King of Hann, sends generals Wang Huang and Man Qiu Chen to persuade Chen Xi, chancellor of Zhao, to set up Zhao Li, a descendant of Zhao royalty as king of Zhao, and rebel against Emperor Gaozu. 199 ICMH 134
no date: R2T 201
c.199 XIONGNU join the rebels of Zhao, Dai and Hann, march south, but are defeated by Han forces at Jinyang (Taiyuan) and Lishi. 199 ICMH 134, spks
c.199 In fall, LIU BANG (Kao Tsu, Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195, marches north to attack the Xiongnu, but they just retreat as usual.  Winter arrives, and his men are insufficiently clothed.  Gaozu, with a small force goes to border fortress Dating (Baideng) in Dai.  Baghur sends 400,000 select soldiers to surround Dating.  They negotiate 7 days.  Chen Ping devises a plan to enable Gaozu to escape. Baghur, probably bribed, withdraws some forces, and Gaozu breaks thru and escapes to Pengcheng in south QiA Han relief force arrives, and the Xiongnu withdraw. 199
ICMH 134
no date: HFHD 21
c.199 In the middle of a civil war, laws are enacted to reduce merchants' lifestyle.  They are forbidden to wear silk, ride horses, or carry arms.  These laws are reduced in 188. 199
GHCC 145
199/8 LIU JING, on orders of Gaozu, transports more than 100,000 people of the families of the ancient rulers of Qi, Chu, Yen, Hann, and and other well-known families to Hanzhong. 199/8 HFHD 142
c.198 LIU BANG (Kao Tsu, Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195, has no choice but to take the advice of Liu Jing and seek peace with the Xiongnu.  The  HO-CHIN peace alliance , designed by Liu Jing, is made.  Originally the 2 parties agree that:  Han will relinquish control of the Ordos region north of the Qin defensive walls, a Han princess will marry the chanyu.  Several times a year the Han would send gifts of various kinds, including fixed amounts of silk, wine, and food, to the Xiongnu;  the Xiongnu is a brother state equal in status to the Han.  The Xiongnu promise not to raid or invade Han lands.
From now until 135 the Xiongnu and Han will sign at least 10 Ho-Chin treaties, each less favorable to Han.
ICMH 134 198 CHC 386, CHEIA 122, GHCC 119, spks, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikXng
c.198 LIU BANG plans to send his only daughter by Lu Zhi, Princess Liu Yuan, to marry Baghur.  His wife, Lu Zhi raises a fuss, and talks him out of it. no date: R2T 199
c.198 CHEN PING, Marquis of Huyou from 202, promoted, for his good advice, to marquis of Chu-ni with income of the whole place - more than 5,000 families. no date: HFHD 21
c.198 LU ZE, older bro of Empress Lu Zhi, Marquis Lingwu of Choulu from 200, dies. 198
HFHD 149
c.198 Over 100,000 people of rich families of Qi in north Shandong, and Chu on middle Yangtze, and lower valley of the Han are deported to region around capital Chang'an. 198
GHCC 114
c.198 In winter Liu Jing escorts a girl from the Liu family, as a royal princess, to the Xiongnu to marry Baghur. 198 CHEIA 122, GHCC 119, wikHD
c.198 2nd AMNESTY (except for capital cases) declared by Gaozu. 198 CHC 123
c.198 Shu-sun Tung is made Grand Tutor of the crown prince. 198 HFHD 179
c.198 LIU BANG (Kao Tsu, Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195, defeats Zhao rebels Wang Huang and Man Qiu Chen at Dongyuan. 199
ICMH 135
c.198 KUAN KAO, chancellor of Zhao, who had tried to ambush to Emperor Gaozu in 201, is discovered by Han officials.  Gaozu orders the King of Zhao and all conspirators arrested, and orders that if anyone from Zhao dares follow them, he will be exterminated with his 3 sets of relatives. Only Tien Shu, Meng Shu, Kuan Kao, and 7 others put on red convicts garments, shave their heads, wear iron convict collars, and follow the King of Zhao to Chang'an.  Kuan Kao is tortured to get him to implicate King Zhang Ao.  He doesn't. 200
HFHD 106
HFHD 6, 193
c.198 ZHANG AO, king of Zhao from 202, married to Liu Bang's dau, Princess Yuan of Lu, falsely accused of conspiring rebellion, is pardoned for plotting to kill Liu Bang, but demoted to Marquis of Xuanping until 182.  Chancellor Kuan Kao suicides. 199 HFHD 15, wikKZ 198 HFHD 6, 193, ckZA
197 HFHD 106
c.198 LIU RUYI, 4th son of Liu Bang (by concubine Qi Ji), age 10, prince of Dai from 200, replaces Zhang Ao as prince of Zhao until 195.  He does not go to Zhao (now torn by rebellion), but stays in Chang'an.  Half bro LIU HENG, age 4, becomes prince of Dai until 196. 198 R2T 221, bril, wikLR, wikLZ, wikPD
no date: R2T 199
c.198 FAN KUAI sent by Gaozu to recover Dai from rebels, does so. 199 ICMH 135
c.198 The 3 kingdoms of Guanzhong:  Yong, Zhai, and Sai, from 206, are reunited under a single Metropolitan Superintendent until 155. 198 bril
Yet somehow the commanderies of Longxi, Beidi, and Shang remain in place. confusing if true
c.197 LIU ZHI JIA, (Liu Taigong) father of Liu Bang, dies. May 197 R2T 201
c.197 YO SHU made Hua-cheng Baronet at Yoxiang by Gaozu. 197 HFHD 229
c.197 Emperor GAOZU fears that son by Lady Qi Ji LIU RUYI will be murdered after Gaozu dies.  Gaozu appoints powerful and competent Zhou Chang chancellor of Zhao, so that he will protect Liu Ruyi.  Gaozu then sends an envoy to summon chancellor Chen Xi back from Zhao to Chang'an. 197 R2T 201
c.197 Hann Xin, former King of Hann orders his general Wang Huang to tempt Chen Xi to rebel. 197 HFHD 71
c.197 CHEN XI, Marquis of Yangxia and chancellor of Zhao, joins rebellion of Wang Huang and Man Qiu Chen.  Chen Xi claims to be king of Dai at Julu, and occupies areas of Zhao and Dai. 197 HFHD 68, 144, 161, R2T 201
196 HFHD 74, wikLZ
c.197 CHEN XI sends general Wang Huang to the Xiongnu to ask for help. 197 HFHD 144
no date: R2T 220
c.197 LU WAN, King of Yen, attacks Chen Xi. 197 HFHD 144
c.197 LU WAN, King of Yen, sends minister Zhang Sheng to tell the Xiongnu that Chen Xi's army had been defeated.  When Zhang Sheng reaches the Xiongnu, son of Zhang Tu, Tsang Yen, is hiding there.  Tsang Yen tells Zhang Sheng that if Chen Xi's rebellion fails, the kingdom of Yen would be next to be dispossessed by Gaozu.  Zhang Sheng buys it, so he secretly advises the Xiongnu to attack Yen. 197
HFHD 144
no date: R2T 220
c.197 LU WAN, King of Yen, learn of Zhang Sheng's apparent betrayal, so he asks Gaozu to exterminate the family of Zhang Sheng.  But, when Zhang Sheng returns from his mission, he explains matters.  Lu Wan then kills a criminal's family, uses Zhang Sheng as an envoy to the Xiongnu, and also secretly sends Fan Chi to Chen Xi, urging him to keep fighting Gaozu. 197 HFHD 144
c.197 LIU BANG (Gaozu), Han emperor, personally leads an army against Chen Xi at Julu.  He sends an order to Peng Yu king of Liang to bring his army and join him. 197 HFHD 161, ICMH 135, R2T 201, 205
c.197 CHEN XI fears an attack from the rear by Lu Wan king of Yen, doesn't go south to defend Handan.  Therefore Gaozu is able to cross the Zhang River unopposed. 197
ICMH 135
c.197 LIU BANG (Gaozu), Han emperor, occupies Handan.  Zhou Chang chancellor of Zhao reports that of the 25 cities in the Changshan area, 20 had been occupied by Chen Xi. 197 ICMH 135, R2T 201, 205
c.197 GUO MENG, Marquis of Dongwu 201-183, routs an army of Chen Xi. 197 HFHD 113
c.197 PENG YU, king of Liang 202-196, says he is sick.  He sends his army under his generals to HandanGaozu is angry and sends an envoy to reprimand Peng Yu.  Peng Yu wants to go personally to apologize, but his general Hu Zhe says it is too late.  It would be better to rebel against Gaozu.  Peng Yu refuses to listen to him. 197
HFHD 161, ICMH 135, R2T 205
c.197 Hann Xin, former King of Hann, raids along the Han frontier to help the Zhao rebels. 197 ICMH 135
c.197 LU WAN, king of Yen 256-195, sends an army to attack the army of Chen Xi from northeast. no date: R2T 219
c.197 In winter Emperor Gaozu is in Handan.  Hou Chang, a general of Chen Xi, commanding more than 10,000 troops, moves about threateningly.  The other rebel Wang Huang commands 1,000 cavalry in Quni (Baoding, Hebei Province). 197 R2T 201
c.197 CAO SHEN, Chancellor of Qi, attacks the army of Chen Xi. 197 HFHD 200
c.197 LI SHANG, Senior Lieutenant Chancellor, attacks Chen Xi. 197 HFHD 116
c.197 Rebel general Zhang Chun sends more than 10,000 infantry across the Yellow River to attack Liaocheng (in Liang) but is severely routed. 197 HFHD 7, R2T 201
197/6 While Gaozu is away, Empress LU ZHI hears rumors of Han Xin's involvement in Chen Xi's rebellion.  She plots with chancellor Xiao He to lure Han Xin into a trap. 197 HFHD 68 197/6 wikHX 196 R2T 202
c.196 GUO MENG, Marquis of Dongwu 201-183, sent by Emperor Gaozu to engage 3 rebel generals who had served HANN Xin.  With aid from Cao Shen, chancellor of Qi, Guo Meng defeats Zhang Chun in Liaocheng, then eliminates the others. 197/6 R2T 201 196 ICMH 135
c.196 Han generals ZHOU BO and FAN KUAI advance thru Taiyuan into Dai.  Zhou Bo attacks Mayi, but the army in Mayi would not surrender.  Zhou Bo damages Mayi. 197/6 R2T 201 196 ICMH 135
c.196 Zhang Xiangru (Xiangju), administrator of Hejian, attacks Chen Xi. 196 HFHD 8
c.196 HOU CHANG, general of Chen Xi, is attacked by general Guan Ying at Chuni, routed, and executed. 196
c.196 DONGYUAN in Zhao attacked by Emperor Gaozu, besieged 1 month, taken and renamed CHENTING. 197/6 R2T 201
196 HFHD 209, HFHD6 56, ICMH 135
c.196 Emperor GAOZU takes Dongyuan, offers reward for the capture of Wang Huang and Man Qiu Chen.  Their own officers capture Wang Huang and Man Qiu Chen, and bring them before Emperor Gaozu.  Chen Xi's army is then totally defeated. 197/6 R2T 201 196 ICMH 135
c.196 DaiHan general ZHOU BO is sent to pacify Dai.  He starts from Taiyuan, pacifies 17 counties of Yanmen Commandery and 12 counties of (future) Yunzhong Commandery. 196
R2T 214
c.196 Han general LU CHEN, for help attacking Chen Xi, is made Marquis of Ningling until 170 with taxing rights on 1000 families until 170. 196
HFHD 147
c.196 Han general ZHOU BO pursues Chen Xi to Lingqiu and defeats him. 196 Oct R2T 214
c.196 YINGCHUAN Commandery, under Han from 201, assigned, in whole or part, to Huaiyang Commandery until 194. 196 bril
c.196 CHEN XI, pretended king of Dai from 197, is beheaded by Zhou Bo.  His chancellor Cheng Zong, general Chen Wu, and general Gao Si are all captured.  Zhou Bo recovers 9 counties of Dai. 196 HFHD 19, R2T 214
195 ckCX, wikWn
194 ICMH 136
c.196 One of Chen Xi's subordinates tells Gaozu that Lu Wan, King of Yen told Chen Xi to keep fighting Gaozu.  Gaozu sends a messenger to summon Lu Wan to court.  Lu Wan feigns illness and declines.  Gaozu sends Shen Yiji and Grandee Secretary Chao Yao.  They question intimate subjects of Lu Wan, who becomes fearful and tries to hide. 196 HFHD 144
c.196 HAN XIN, marquis of Huaiyin (in Jiangsu Province) from 202, goes to Changle palace at Chang'an for an obligatory meeting arranged by Empress Lu Zhi, arrested by Lu Zhi, tortured, and executed.  His mother, wife, and clan are exterminated.  Lu Zhi sends an envoy to Handan to inform Gaozu. 196
R2T 203, wikHH, wikHX
c.196 LIU BANG (Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195, at Handan, learns that Han Xin has been executed.  Gaozu sends an envoy to Chang'an to grant chancellor Xiao He an additional tax on 5,000 peasant households, and 500 bodyguards.  This is considered a great reward. 196 R2T 216
c.196 GAOZU returns to Chang'an, asks Lu Zhi if Han Xin had any last words.  Lu Zhi says, "Han Xin said he regretted not taking Kuai Che's advice." (203)  Gaozu orders arrest of Kuai Che from Qi.  Kuai Che is brought before Emperor Gaozu, and argues that it would be unjust to kill him, because "a dog barks at anyone who is not his master".  Gaozu pardons him. 196
HFHD 105, R2T 204
c.196 The chancellor of Liang is out of favor with King Peng Yu, and therefore runs away to Emperor Gaozu, and reports that Peng Yu and his general Hu Zhe conspire to rebel.  Gaozu sends envoys to Liang to surprise and arrest Peng Yu. 196
ICMH 136, R2T 205
c.196 PENG YU, king of Liang from 202, is brought back to Chang'an and imprisoned.  He is found guilty of conspiracy, but Gaozu pardons him and deposes him as king of Liang.  Peng Yu is sent into exile to Qingyi of Shu. 197 wikLng     196 HFHD 161, ICMH 136, R2T 205, wikLng
c.196 PENG YU, on his way to exile at Qingyi, meets Empress Lu Zhi.  Whether she believes Peng Yu's story or not, she takes Peng Yu back to Chang'an.  Lu Zhi tells Gaozu that it was a mistake to let Peng Yu go, and to find some pretext to kill Peng Yu.  She then secretly induces some of Peng Yu's followers to accuse him of conspiring to rebel again.  Minister of Justice Wang Tian Kai proposes to Gaozu that the entire families of Peng Yu, and his parents be exterminated.  Gaozu approves, and Peng Yu is executed in March.  Peng Yu's head is cut off and hung on a post in front of the gate of Chang'an.  Gaozu orders the arrest of anyone who pays respects to the head of Peng Yu. 197
HFHD 118, 161
ICMH 136, R2T 205, wik, yutH
c.196 GAOZU, Han emperor 202-195 orders Peng Yu's headless corpse minced, salted, and distributed to all the noble families of China. 196 wik, yutH
c.196 LUAN PU, a minister of Liang, had been sent by Peng Yu on a mission to Qi.  When he returns to Liang, he is told that Peng Yu has been executed. 196
R2T 206
c.196 LUAN PU goes to Chang'an, sees the head of Peng Yu at the city gate, kneels, and pays his respects.  He is arrested, and the incident is reported to Gaozu.  When Luan Pu is brought before Gaozu, who orders him boiled to death.  Luan Pu reminds Gaozu that he would not be emperor but for the services of Peng Yu, and suggests that the rest of Gaozu's servants will fear for their own lives.  Gaozu releases Luan Pu and appoints him commander of the royal guards. 196
R2T 206
no date: HFHD 145
c.196  Xinyu , a book of 12 chapters written by Confucian(?) Lu Jia (Chia, Gu) (d.157) citing benefits of governing by moral virtue as opposed to using harsh laws (as under Qin) given by Lu Jia to Emperor Gaozu.  Still extant. 196 HFHD 90, 143
no date: wikGz
Taoist scholar HFHD 143
c.196 Since Han Xin and Peng Yu are killed, YING BU, king of Huainan 206-196, fears the same, and secretly starts to collect troops from neighboring commanderies. 196
c.196 LIU HUI, 5th son of Emperor Gaozu, is made King of Liang until 181. 196 HFHD 118, 133, R2T 206, wikLng, wikPL     195 R2T 221
c.196 CHIN CHIANG made Marquis of Fenyang until 185. 196 HFHD 35
c.196 HUAIYANG, a commandery under Chu 206-201, under Han from 201, becomes a kingdom until 194.  Runan is included in it until 155.  Yingchuan is included in it until 194. 196 HFHD8 46, bril
c.196 LIU YU, 6th son of Emperor Gaozu by an unknown concubine, made prince of Huaiyang until 194.  Capital at Chen. 196 HFHD 140, HFHD8 46, R2T 206, wikLng, wikLY, wikPL     195 R2T 221
c.196 BEN HE, military minister of Huainan, suspected of treachery, flees to Chang'an, tells Emperor Gaozu that Ying Bu King of Huainan plans rebellion. 196
R2T 208
c.196 YING BU, former bandit, king of Huainan 206-196, accused of plotting rebellion, now has no choice but to rebel against Gaozu.  He exterminates Ben He's entire family. 196 HFHD 124, July R2T 208, fall R2T 217 195 wikHH
c.196 GAOZU, Han emperor 202-195 makes his 7th son by Consort Zhao LIU CHANG king Li of Huainan.  But Gaozu is sick, and cannot take the field against Ying Bu.  Huainan is called Huainan guo, and comprises Jiangxia, Jiujiang, Lujiang, Yuzhang and Luan until 174. 196
HFHD 124 R2T 210, 221
c.196 XIEH, chancellor of Chu advises Liu Bang on how to deal with the rebellion of Ying Bu.  He is therefore given taxing rights on 1000 families. 196
c.196 Chang Tsang, Master of Accounts of Dai 201-197, made lieutenant chancellor to Liu Chang, king of Huainan. 196
c.196 HANN XIN (not Han Xin), former king of Hann, with some Xiongnu, goes to Sanhe (now Dingxiang, Shanxi Province). 196 spring
c.196 Zhang Xiangru (Xiangju) made Marquis of Dongyang commandery with income of 1300 families. 196 HFHD 8
c.196 YING BU King of Huainan 206-196, marches east, siezes lands of Liu Gu king of Jing (south Jiangsu Province). 196 HFHD 126, ICMH 136
c.196 LIU GU (Liu Jia), King of Jing (south Jiangsu Province) from 201, is attacked by Ying Bu, flees to Fuling, and is killed.  His troops defect to Ying Bu.  Since Liu Gu, has left no heir, Emperor Gaozu changes Jing into Wu kingdom, and in October, Gaozu makes LIU PI, son of his elder bro Liu Chung, King of Wu.  There are 53 cities in 3 prefectures in Wu. 196 HFHD 37, 126, 135, Oct R2T 214, 221, bril     195 bril
c.196 YING BU King of Huainan 206-196, crosses the Huai River to attack Chu.  Liu Jiao, King of Chu, sends an army to fight Ying Bu in the area between Xu and Tong.  The Chu commander divides his army into 3 so that when one is attacked, the other 2 might come to the rescue.  Ying Bu defeats one of the 3 Chu armies.  The other 2 scatter and run away to their own homes.  Liu Jiao flees.  Ying Bu marches west.  The kingdom of CHU is now recreated and in rebellion. 196
ICMH 136, R2T 212, wikHui
c.196 LI SHANG, Senior Lieutenant Chancellor, participates in campaign against Ying Bu. 196
HFHD 116
c.196 LiangDONGJUN, part of Chu from 206, assigned to Liang until 179. 196 bril
c.196 Before marching to Zhao, Emperor Gaozu sends Liu Jia south to inform Zhao Tuo, king of Nanyue 204-137, that Gaozu accepts Zhao Tuo as autonomous. 196 CHC 128, 452, ICMH 135, wikZT
c.196 LIU BANG (Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195 personally leads an army against Ying Bu. 196 R2T 217
c.196 GuanzhongOn campaign GAOZU sends several teams of envoys back to Guanzhong to visit chancellor Xiao He, who rightly thinks Emperor Gaozu distrusts him because of Xiao He's popularity at Guanzhong.  To decrease his popularity, Xiao He forces peasants to sell land to him at low prices. 196
R2T 217
c.196 The Qi army under Liu Fei and Cao Shen joins the Han army under Gaozu in Dan (now Dancheng, Henan Province).  Gaozu's army meets Ying Bu's army at GUEIZHU in the west of Dan.  Ying Bu's army is defeated.  Ying Bu with 100 followers escapes to south of the Yangtze.  Gaozu, wounded by an arrow, sends some generals to pursue Ying Bu.  Gaozu starts for home.  The Han general pursuing Ying Bu demolishes Ying Bu's followers. 196
HFHD 200, ICMH 136, Oct R2T 212 195
CHC 130
by 196 All but one of the kings who had been acknowledged in 202 have been replaced by a bro or son of Gaozu.  Wu Rui king of Changsha is the exception. by 196
CHC 124
c.196 After defeating Ying Bu, Gaozu, previously contemptuous of Confucius, visits Shandong, pays respects to Confucius at the Kung family's ancestral temple. 197
B76 4-1100 196 wikGz
c.196 GAOZU, Han emperor 202-195, returning from campaign against Ying Bu, encounters some people kneeling along the route.  They present written complaints accusing Chancellor Xiao He of forcing the peasants to sell land to him at low prices.  When Gaozu goes back to Chang'an, Chancellor Xiao He goes to the palace to see Gaozu, and is imprisoned.  Gaozu later relents, and releases him. 196 R2T 217-8
c.196 HANN XIN (not Han Xin), former king of Hann is staying in Sanhe (now Dingxiang, Shanxi Province) with the Xiongnu, opposing Han.  Gaozu sends General Chen Wu to attack Sanhe. 197 ICMH 135
196 spring
HFHD 71, R2T 203
c.196 Han general CHEN WU (Chai Wu) sends an envoy to Sanhe with a letter to Hann XinThe envoy enters Sanhe and presents the letter to Hann XinThe letter says Emperor Gaozu will pardon Hann Xin.  Hann Xin writes a reply letter saying he knows he will not be pardoned.  Chen Wu then attacks Sanhe. 196
HFHD 71, R2T 203
c.196 HANN XIN (not Han Xin), former king of Hann is killed in battle against Chen Wu at Sanhe and beheaded. 197 ICMH 135 196 HFHD 5, 71, R2T 204
c.196 Hengshan to HuainanHENGSHAN, a separate kingdom from 206, is part of Huainan kingdom until 164. 199 HFHD99c 27
196 bril
c.196 YUZHANG, assigned to Huainan kingdom until 174. 196 bril
c.196 After Emperor Gaozu returns from his expedition against Ying Bu, his illness, now complicated by an arrow wound, worsens.  He wants to replace Crown Prince Liu Ying.  Zhang Liang tries unsuccessfully to persuade him to give up the idea.  Zhang Liang gets so angry that he stops attending to state affairs, claiming illness. 196 Oct R2T 214, wikGz
c.196 LIU PI, son of Liu Chung, former prince of Dai, age 20, made Marquis of Pei until 195 by Gaozu. 196 HFHD 135, wikLPPW
c.196 LIU BANG (Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195 establishes the first Han regulation for recruiting men of merit into government civil service. 196 bk, wikHH
c.196 The duties of the chancellery are divided between a Right Chancellor and Left Chancellor from now to 180. 196 wikGHd
c.196 Several revolts in 197-6 make Gaozu doubt Chancellor Xiao He's loyalty.  An adviser suggests to Xiao He that he buy large amounts of farm land to prove his loyalty;  that is, to establish an obvious stake in the empire as it is.  Xiao He follows this advice so energetically that someone presents to the Emperor a document accusing Xiao He of forcibly buying lands and houses at cheap prices from thousands of people. 196 SDFH 205
c.196 Now that Hann Xin is dead, Gaozu makes his 4th son (by consort Bo) LIU HENG, Prince of Dai from 198, king of Dai until 180.  Capital of Dai is Jinyang (now Taiyuan, Shanxi Province). 196 R2T 203-4, 221, bril, wikWn
c.196 TAIYUAN part of Zhao from 221, detached by Gaozu and attached to Dai (where Liu Heng is king) until 178. 196 ICMH 136, bril
c.196 Han general LIU ZE, a cousin of Liu Bang, is made Marquis of Yingling until ?, with income of 11,000 families. 196
HFHD 137
c.196 YunzhongYUNZHONG, part of Dai from ?, detached to form an independent commandery. 196 bril
c.196 GAOZU, Han emperor 202-195, passes by kingdom of Lu.  Confucian teacher Shen Pei visits him. 196 HFHD6 4
c.196/5 YING BU King of Huainan from 202, is lured by Wu Rui King of Changsha to a desolate place, pretending that he was taking him to Yue.  Ying Bu is brought to a farmhouse and killed by the people of Boyang.  LIU CHANG, 7th son of Emperor Gaozu, succeeds until 174. 196 HFHD 37-8, ICMH 136, R2T 213, wikKH
195 yutH
c.195 LIU BANG (Gaozu), Han emperor 202-195 appoints Fan Kuai chancellor and sends him with an army to attack Lu Wan King of Yen.  Gaozu makes his 8th son LIU JIAN King of Yen until 181.  Capital at Ji.
YEN, a kingdom from 208, comes under Han, but remains nominally a kingdom.
195 HFHD 127, Feb R2T 221, bril, wikPY
194 ICMH 136
c.195 HAEMOSU ends.  King of Buyeo in west Korea from 239MORISU succeeds until 170. 195 rcK
194 wikLMK
c.195 Emperor GAOZU sets the amount of tribute to be paid by vassal kings to the imperial court in the 10th lunar month of every year. 195 wikGz
c.195 Emperor GAOZU institutes mourning ceremonies for Chen Sheng, 1st to rebel against Qin.  They will still be held when  Shiji  is compiled, c.100 years later. 195 CHC 113
c.195 Emperor GAOZU believes slanders against chancellor Fan Kuai now in Yen, sends generals Chen Ping and Zhou Bo to execute Fan Kuai.  They decide to take Fan Kuai prisoner in case Gaozu regrets executing him.  They invade Yen, capture Fan Kuai and send him back. 194
ICMH 137
c.195 Chancellor XIAO HE sees that Chang'an is becoming more congested and the imperial garden is full of uncultivated land.  He suggests to Gaozu to carve out parts of the garden and grant them to peasants as farmland.  Gaozu accuses Xiao He of accepting bribes and dishonoring imperial authority.  Xiao He is imprisoned, but released later after Gaozu is convinced that Xiao He has the people's interests at heart. 194 wikXH
c.195 LIU PI, Marquis of Pei from 196, promoted to Prince of Wu until 154 by Gaozu. 195 wikLPPW, wikPW
c.195 An edict orders SHRINES erected in honor of Gaozu in the capital and the provinces. 195 CHC 208
c.195 LI CHIEH, son of Li Yiji, is made Marquis of Kaoliang until ?. 195 HFHD 117
c.195 KAOLING marquisate established in Langye area of Qi by Gaozu until 8 CE.  WANG YUJEN Is marquis until ?. 195 HFHD99c 66
c.195 Han general Zhou Bo takes Ji, capital of Yen, then takes Hundu, and massacres inhabitants. 194
ICMH 137
c.195 Han general Zhou Bo defeats Lu Wan's cavalry at Shanglan (near Taiyuan?), then at Juyang (?), then pursues him as far as the old wall.  Lu Wan leads his army to a spot near the border. 194
ICMH 137
c.195 , made WEI COMMANDERY by Gaozu until ?.  Headquarters at Ye.  It is grouped in Qi Province, has 212, 849 households, 909,655 people, and 18 prefectures. 195 HFHD 215, HFHD8 40, bril
c.195 LIU BANG, Emperor GAOZU dies.  1st Han emperor from 202.  Widow Lu Zhi keeps it secret 4 days.  Son age 15, crown prince from 202, LIU YING succeeds as Emperor HUI TI until 188.  LU ZHI is dowager (imperial name Lu Hou) until 180. 195 B76 IV-896, V-699, 4-310, CHAC 160, 970, HFHD 98, IUG 4.4, MRDK 456, Apr R2T 224, bk, chc3, frie, hceisH, rcC, scar, Jun spks, tcgHn, wikGz, wikHD, wikHH, wikHui, wikLZ 194 ICMH 137
China 195BCE
c.195 HUI TI, Han emperor 195-88 lowers taxes and corvee.  The land tax on agricultural production is reduced from the Qin 1/10 to 1/15 of crop yield until 168. 200 CHC 537, 596 195 SDFH 22, wikGz
c.195 AMNESTY (except for capital cases) declared. 195 CHC 123
c.195 TAO SHE, marquis of Kaifeng from ?, ends.  Son TAO CHINGTI, succeeds as marquis YI of Kaifeng until 155. 195 HFHD 186
c.195 QI JI, mother of Liu Ruyi, jailed by dowager Lu Zhi. 195 R2T 227
c. 195 Empress Dowager LU ZHI summons Liu Ruyi (age 12) to Chang'an.  But Zhou Chang, chancellor of Zhao, refuses to let Liu Ruyi king of Zhao go.  Then Lu Zhi summons Zhou Chang to Chang'an.  Zhou Chang had to go.  After Zhou Chang arrives in Chang'an, Lu Zhi summons Liu Ruyi again.  Without the protection of Zhou Chang, Liu Ruyi King of Zhao has to go from Handan to Chang'an.  Emperor Liu Ying knows that his mother hates Liu Ruyi, so Liu Ying personally meets him in Bashang.  Then he puts his younger bro in his own palace.  Liu Ying keeps his bro beside him and tries to protect him. 195 R2T 227
c.195 Emperor Hui Ti goes hunting.  He does not bring Liu Ruyi with him because Liu Ruyi refused to get out of bed.  While he is away LU ZHI sends an assassin to force poisoned wine down Liu Ruyi's throat. 195 Dec R2T 228, wikHui     194 wikLZ, yutH
c.195 LIU RUYi, 4th son of Liu Bang and concubine Qi Ji, king of Zhao from 198, poisoned by order of Empress Liu Zhi. 195 Dec R2T 228, wikHui 194 HFHD 102, wikLZ, wikPZ, yutH
c.195 WU, an area made of commanderies from 473, made a vassal kingdom until 154. 195 HFHD 220
c.195 KUAIJI city, under Jing kingdom from 202/1, comes under Wu kingdom until 153. 195 bril
c.195 GUANGLING city, under Jing kingdom from 201, becomes part of Wu kingdom until 153. 195 bril
c.195 LINHUAI, part of Jing kingdom from 201, becomes part of Wu kingdom until 153. 195 bril
c.195 ZHANG, part of Jing kingdom from 201, assigned to Wu Kingdom until 153. 195 bril
c.195 WUJUN city, under Jing kingdom from 202, assigned to Wu kingdom. 195 bril
c.195 Empress Dowager Lu Zhi has Qi Ji's hands and legs cut off, her eyes gouged out, and made her deaf and dumb with poisons.  Lu Zhi puts Qi Ji in a latrine.  When Emperor Hui Ti sees Qi Ji he does not recognize her.  When he is told it is Qi Ji, he burst into tears.  He falls ill and can not attend state affairs.  From then on, Liu Ying indulges in sensual pleasure and does not hold court. 195 Dec R2T 228     194 wikLZ, yutH
c.194 LU WAN, king of Yen 256-195, fearing Empress Dowager Lu Zhi, flees to the Xiongnu, who make him King Lu of the Eastern Hu, where he lives about a year.  LIU JIAN is prince of Yen 195-81. 195 CHC 124, HFHD 144, HFHD6 79     194 ICMH 137, wikPY
c.194 WEI MIN, a general of Lu Wan king of Yen, flees east, establishes himself in Joseon (old Choson) Korea and Zhenpan, including Liaodong Peninsula. 195 HFHD6 79 194 ICMH 137, wikWJ
c.194 KING JUN ends.  King of Joseon (old Choson) Korea from 221, ends.  WEI MIN usurps throne.  Wangxian (Pyongyang) becomes his capital.  The Jin Confederacy succeeds until 100.  MAHAN becomes a kingdom in southwest Korea comprising 54 local clans, one of which eventually emerges as Paekche.  Mahan rulers call themselves kings of Jin.  GITAK is king of Jin until 189. 194 ICMH 137, wikJsn, wikLMK, wikWJ
193 rcK
c.194 LIU YU, 6th son of Liu Bang, prince of Huaiyang from 196, made king of Zhao until 181 by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi. 195 HFHD8 46, 194 HFHD 140, wikLY, wikPZ
no date : R2T 228
c.194 CAO SHEN, chancellor of Qi from 201, demoted to Lieutenant Chancellor until ?. 194 HFHD 200
c.194 CAO CAN, Daoist, becomes chancellor in Qi until 185. 194 bk
c.194 ChengyangAll or part of CHENGYANG area, a commandery under Qi from 203, is made an estate to Lu Yuan Gongzhu, under the name of Lu guo until 179. 194 bril
c.194 WU CHEN, king CHENG of Changsha from 201, ends. 194 HFHD 220
c.194 HUAIYANG, a kingdom from 196, becomes a commandery until 187. 195 HFHD8 46 194 bril
c.194 YINGCHUAN, part of Huaiyang from 196, reverts to a commandery under Han until ?. 194 bril
c.194 DONG TIEH, marquis of Cheng from ?, ends.  Son DONG CHI succeeds until 151 with the income of 5,600 families. 194
HFHD 204
c. 194 LIU FEI, Liu Bang's eldest son by Lady Cao, Prince of Qi, visits Chang'an.  He and Emperor Hui Ti attend a banquet hosted by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi.  Emperor Hui seats Liu Fei at the highest place, as in a family.  Lu Zhi secretly instructs her servants to pour a cup of poisoned wine for Liu Fei, and then toasts him.  Just as Liu Fei is about to drink the wine, Emperor Hui realises his mother's intention and grabs Liu Fei's cup as if he would drink from it.  Lu Zhi jumps up and knocks the cup out of Emperor Hui's hand.  Liu Fei feigns drunkenness, and leaves, then offers to give up Chengyang commandery to Lu Zhi's daughter Princess Yuan of Lu, and honor her as his Queen Dowager.  Lu Zhi accepts and allows him to leave. 194 HFHD 129, bk, wikHui, wikLZ
by 193 Nearly 150 marquisates have been given to Gaozu's supporters who had shown civil or military merit. by 193
CHC 126
c.193 HeyangLIU XI (Liu Chung), elder bro of Liu Bang, Marquis of Heyang (in Shaanxi), from 200, dies. 193 HFHD 128, wikLX
c.193 XIAO HE dies.  Marquis of Zan and chancellor of Han from 201.  His son succeeds as marquis.  CAO SHEN (Taoist) succeeds as chancellor until 190. 195 HFHD 200
193 CHAC 588, CHC 108, 694, HFHD 88, wikHD, wikT, wikXH
Executed. c.193 yutH
Dies of illness. July 193 R2T 228
c.193 YONG CHI, Marquis Xiao of Shifang (in Sichuan Province) from 201, dies. 193 HFHD 230
c.193 CAO SHEN, chancellor of Qi in Linzi, learns that Xiao He had died.  He tells his followers to get ready to go to Chang'an because he expects to be appointed chancellor of Han.  He is correct.  The imperial envoy summons him, he goes to Chang'an, and becomes chancellor until 190. 193
CHAC 988, R2T 228-9
c.192 20,000 "criminals and servitors" sent from the states of kings and marquises work with corvee laborers to build the city wall of Chang'an. 192
SDFH 224
c.192 146,000 people living within 250km of Chang'an are recruited to work 30 days to strengthen the walls, to augment the continuous labor of 20,000 convicts.  (repeated 190) 192 CHC 575
c.192 HUI TI, Han emperor 195-88, sends another so-called princess to marry Baghur. 192 CHC 386, CHEIA 123, CHC 135
c.192 Secretaries are sent to inspect the commanderies. 192 HFHD6 85
c.192 DongyueKingdom of DONGYUE (Donghai, Eastern Ou) established by Gaozu, who makes TSOU YAO, lord of Min, king of Dongyue until ?.  Capital at Dongau. 192
CHC 135, 170, 455, HFHD 202, wikSeHd
c. 192

c. 192
BAGHUR (called Mao Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu, sends letter to dowager empress Lu:
"I am a lonely widowed ruler, born amidst the marshes and brought up on the wild steppes in the land of cattle and horses.  I have often come to the border wishing to travel in China.  Your majesty is also a widowed ruler living a life of solitude.  The both of us are without pleasures and lack any way to amuse ourselves.  It is my hope that we can exchange that which we have for that which we are lacking."
Lu Zhi is infuriated.  In a heated court session, her generals advise her to rally an army and exterminate the Xiongnu immediately.  She agrees.  An outspoken attendant named Ji Bu points out that the Xiongnu army is much more powerful than the Chinese.  The court falls silent.  Lu Zhi rethinks it.  Later she replies in a letter to Baghur (Mao Tun):
"My age is advanced and my vitality weakening.  Both my hair and teeth are falling out, and I cannot even walk steadily.  The chanyu must have heard exaggerated reports.  I am not worthy of his lowering himself.  But my country has done nothing wrong, and I hope that he will spare it."
Baghur sends an envoy to thank the Empress, with his apology.  The ho-chin treaty is resumed.
CHC 387, spks, wikLZ, wikXng 191
c.192 LU QING, Marquis of Xinyang (west of Changsha) from 201, dies.  Son LU CHEN succeeds until 174. 192
HFHD 147
c.192 LIU CHAN (originally Xiang Bo) Marquis of Sheyang (in Jiangsu Province) from 201, dies. 192
192/1 At insistence of Empress Dowager Lu Zhi, Emperor HUI Ti marries his niece Zhang Yan (dau of Princess Yuan of Lu) and makes her empress.  They have no children. 192 wikEZY, wikHui     191 wikLZ
c.191 Emperor HUI Ti is acknowledged to have achieved manhood in an official ceremony. 191 CHC 130
c.191 WEIYANG PALACE complex, near Chang'an from 200, administrative centre and imperial residence, burnt, but not destroyed. 191 HFHD 95
c.191 Most rigorous laws of Qin are abolished.  Conservative literature, including private teachings and private possession of ancient texts, banned in China from 213, ban lifted. 191 CHC 135, 753, GHCC 116, IUG 4.9, LEWH 145
c.191 At Empress Dowager Lu's instruction, Empress Zhang Yan takes several male children as her own and kills their mothers.  (Whether these children were Emperor Hui's is disputed, though it appears that they were Emperor Hui's children by his concubines.) no date: wikEZY
c.191 It is alleged that Lu Zhi tells Zhang Yan to adopt 8 boys and have their mothers killed.  The traditional view is that these children are not Emperor Hui's.  Modern historians believe they were born to his concubines. no date: wikLZ
c.190 150,000 peasants and women of Wei valley conscripted to work 30 days on construction of Chang'an until it is completed in the 9th month. 190
CHC 575, GHCC 114
c.190 CHANG'AN defensive walls are completed by 150,000 conscript workers.  These brick and rammed earth walls are originally 12m (40 ft) tall, and rectangular (with irregularities due to topography).  Their ruins still stand. 190
CHC 122, 131, wikHH
Silk Road
c.190 SILK ROAD connects Chang'an to Ecbatana which is already connected by the Royal Road to Ephesus which is connected by sea to Europe.  Auxiliary routes will be finished by 121. 190 wikT
c.190 Magic SquaresMAGIC SQUARES, discovered by Chinese.  A square array of numbers, usually positive integers, in which the sums of the numbers in each row, each column, and both main diagonals are the same.  a 3rd order square has 9 numbers.  Developed 95 CE. 190 wikMS '  
c.190 CAO SHEN, Marquis Yi of Pingyang from 202, chancellor of Han from 193, dies.  Son Cao Cho succeeds as Marquis Ching of Pingyang until 161.  WANG LING, marquis Wu of Anguo from 202, is appointed 1st chancellor until 187, and Chen Ping is appointed 2nd chancellor until 187. 192 HFHD 39
190 CHAC 988, HFHD 200, Aug R2T 230, wikCS 189 HFHD 22, 199, 214
c.189 ZHANG LIANG, Taoist, former key advisor to Emperor Gaozu, unwillingly summoned to serve Empress Lu Zhi, dies. 189 mid R2T 230, wikHH, wikT     187 CHC 810
186 HFHD 10
c.189 GITAK ends.  King of Jin Korea from 193.  GIKAM succeeds until 157. 189 rcK
c.189 HAN general FAN KUAI, Marquis of Wuyang (in Henan Province) from 201, executed.  Son FAN KANG succeeds until 180. 189 HFHD 54, wikFK, yutH
c.189 In effort to increase population, all unmarried women between age 15 and 30 are required to pay up to 5 suan (600 chien). 189
CHC 598
c.189 ZHOU BO is made Minister of War until ?. 189 HFHD 40
c.189 Western market of Chang'an opens (implying that an eastern market was already open). 189 CHC 134
c.189 LIU FEI, 1st son of Liu Bang by Lady Cao, king of Qi from 201, dies.  eldest son by Consort Si, LIU SHANG (Xiang) succeeds until 179. 189 HFHD 129, R2T 232, wikPQ
c.188 Only son of Liu Bang by Lu Zhi, LIU YING (Imperial name HUI TI) dies.  2nd Han emperor from 195 under dowager Lu Zhi, drinks himself to death, age 23.  He is childless by his queen, Zhang Yan, but by consorts he leaves 2 infant sons (disputed).  At the funeral Empress Lu Zhi cries loudly, but without tears.  Infant "son" Liu Gong succeeds as Emperor SHAO TI KUNG until 184. 188 B76 4-310, CHAC 987, CHC 135, HFHD 88, 102, ICMH 137, IUG 4.4, MRDK 456, R2T 231, bk, chc3, frie, hceisH, rcC, spks, tcgHn, wikHH, wikHui
187 yutH
c.188 Empress Lu Zhi (imperial name Lu Hou) rules China as regent until 180. 188 bk
187 GHCC 116
c. 188 AFTERLIFE:  After Liu Ying dies, Empress Dowager Lu Zhi wants to make her male relatives kings.  But Liu Bang had made a rule with all ministers and generals that no one with a family name other than Liu be made king.  Lu Zhi summons all ministers and generals to court.  She asks 1st chancellor Wang Ling's opinion.  Wang Ling says, "Emperor Gaozu made all ministers and generals swear to destroy those kings who are not descendants of the Liu family.  Making members of the Lu family kings violates the rule." The Empress then asks the opinion of 2nd chancellor Chen Ping, and military minister Zhou Bo.  They say, "When Emperor Gaozu was on the throne, His Majesty made his bros and sons kings.  Now you are in power.  You may make Lu family members kings."  After court, Wang Ling scolds Chen Ping and Zhou Bo.  "When Emperor Gaozu made the rule, weren't you there?  Now Emperor Gaozu is dead and you go against the rule to please the Empress.  Won't you feel ashamed when you die and have to meet Gaozu in heaven?" no date: R2T 231, wikLZ
188 Jul 17 Partial SOLAR ECLIPSE recorded in Italy and China.   "Before the new magistrates departed for their provinces, a three-day period of prayer was proclaimed in the name of the College of Decemvirs at all the street-corner shrines because in the daytime at the third hour darkness had covered everything."   (Livy)
"Emperor Hui, 7th year, 5th month, day ting-mao, the last day of the month. The Sun was eclipsed; it was almost complete. It was in the beginning of (the lunar lodge) Chi-hsing."   (Pan Ku: Han-shu (58-76CE)
188 Jul 17 mrec
c.188 Laws against merchants in 199 are made less severe. 188 GHCC
c.188 XUE AO, Marquis of Guangping (in Hebei Province) from 202, dies. 188 HFHD 89
c.187 LIU BUYI, son of Liu Ying, becomes Prince of Hengshan until 186. 187 HFHD 148
c.187 WANG LING, 1st chancellor of Han from 190, is appointed tutor to young Emperor Shao Ti by Empress Lu Zhi, thereby depriving him of chancellorship.  Wang Ling resigns due to "poor health".  Lu Zhi promotes Chen Ping to 1st chancellor and makes Shen Yiji 2nd chancellor until 180. 187 HFHD 22, 173, 214, yutH
no date: R2T 232
c.187 Empress Dowager Lu Zhi makes her elder bro Lu Ze, who died in 198 King Dao of Wu.  This is the first king from the Lu family she makes. 187
R2T 232
c.187 YUAN of Lu, dau of Liu Bang and Lu Zhi, older sis of Emperor Shao Ti, wife of Zhang Ao, mom of dau Zhang Yan and son of same name, dies. 187 wikLCD, wikYL
c.187 LU WU, of the Lu family, but passed off as a son of Emperor Hui, made Marquis of Hu-kuan until 183. 187
HFHD 149
c.187 LU JIANG, son of Lu Ying, made King Huai of Huaiyang until 183. 187 HFHD 147, HFHD8 46
c.187 HUAIYANG, a commandery from 194, is again a kingdom until 180. 187 HFHD8 46, bril
c.187 LU KENGSHIH, nephew of Lu Zhi, is made Marquis of Deng until 180. 188 HFHD 148
c.187 LU CHAO, a boy passed off as as a son of Emperor Hui, is made Marquis of Qin until 184. 188 HFHD 147
c.187 LuJINAN, a commandery of Qi from 203, given to Lu Ze marquis of Yingling, becomes Lu kingdom, until 181. 188
HFHD 129 187 bril
c.187 LU TAI, 1st son of Lu Ze and Yuan of Lu - bro of Empress Lu Zhi, made king SU of Lu until November by Empress Lu Zhi. 187 HFHD 149, Apr R2T 232     186 wikLZ
ZHANG YAN, son of Zhang Ao and Yuan of Lu 187 wikLCD
c.187 LU LU, younger son of Lu Shizhi and nephew of Lu Zhi, is made Marquis of Hanyang until 181. 187 HFHD 123
c.187 LIU ANG, son of Liu Fei of Qi, is made Marquis of Pingchang until 164. 187 HFHD 123
c.187 LU TAI, king of Lu from April, dies.  Son Lu Jia succeeds until 183. Nov. 187 R2T 232 186 HFHD 103
c.187 Most penal laws of Qin abolished. 187 GHCC
c.187 Qin law from 746 had punished some criminals with execution of "3 sets of relatives".  This is abolished by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi. 187
HFHD 187, SDFH 74
c.187 LIU SHAN (later renamed Liu Yi, then Liu Hong), disputed son of Liu Ying, created Marquis of Xiangcheng (city and county in Henan?) until 186. 187
HFHD 148, wikEHH
c.187 LU CHAN, younger bro of Lu Tai, is made Marquis of Wen until 183. 187 HFHD 146
c.186 LIU ZHANG, 2nd son of Liu Fei, is made Marquis of Zhuxu (Jiaonan Shandong) until 178 by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi. 186 HFHD 123, May R2T 232
c.186 LIU ZHANG, Marquis of Zhuxu 186-78, summoned by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi to Chang'an and appointed commander of palace guards.  In order to control him, Lu Zhi marries a girl of the Lu family to him. 186 R2T 232
c.186 LIU YINGKE, son of Liu Jiao, becomes superintendent of the Imperial House. 186 HFHD 140
c.186 Marquis Li Cang, chancellor for Kingdom of Changsha, dies. 186 wikHD
c.186 LIU BUYI, son of Liu Ying, Prince of Hengshan from 188, dies of unspecifed causes without heir. 186 HFHD 148, wikHui
LU, not Liu Buyi HFHD 148
c.186 ChangshanChangshan, part of Zhao from 203, re-established as a kingdom until 180. 188 bril
HFHD 14 185 bril
c.186 LIU HONG, disputed son of Liu Ying, Marquis of Xiangcheng from 187, made Prince of Hengshan until 18?.  His name is changed to LIU YI. 186 wikEHH
c.186 COINS:  Gaozu closed the government mint in favor of private minting of coins early in his reign.  Government reverses his decision, and now tries unsuccessfully to ban private minting.  Again 144. 186 wikHD
c.185 CAO CAN, Daoist chancellor in Qi from 194 ends. 185 bk
c.185 CHIN CHIANG Marquis of Fenyang from 196, dies. 185 HFHD 35
c.184 SHAO TI KUNG, son of Liu Ying, child emperor of Han 188-4 under dowager Lu Zhi, discovers that he is not Princess Zhang Yan's son, and his birth mother was executed by Lu Zhi.  He foolishly says that when he grows up he will make Empress Dowager Zhang pay for his mother's death.  Lu Zhi hears of it, and has the young emperor secretly confined in the palace, and publicly announces that Emperor Shao Ti is seriously ill and unable to meet anyone. 184 spks, wikLZ
c.184 Son of Liu Ying, LIU GONG (Qianshao), Emperor SHAO TI KUNG dies.  Child Emperor of Han from 188 under dowager Lu Zhi, murdered by order of Lu Zhi.  Half bro Liu Yi succeeds as SHAO TI HUNG (Houshao) until 177. 184 HFHD 148, IUG 4.4, Feb R2T 232, frie, hceisH, spks, wikEHH, wikHH, wikHui, wikLZ
Liu Yi should be LU SHAN, which was changed to LU YI. HFHD 148
c.184 Lu Zhi grants her younger sis Lu Xu the title of Marquise of Lingguang, in a separate fief from that of Lu Xu's husband Fan Kuai. 184 ICMH 137, wikLCD, wikLZ
c.184 ZHOU BO made Grand Commandant (a reestablished post). 184 ICMH 137
c.184 To curb the flow of iron weapons to the Xiongnu, IRON trade with Nanyue is embargoed by Han dowager Lu Zhi until 179. 184 ICMH 138
c.184 XU LI made marquis of Chu-tzu (in Shandong) until 158/7. 184 HFHD 91
c.184 LU CHAO, Marquis of Qin from 187, is made King of Changshan until 180. 184 HFHD 147
c.184 NanyueZHAO TUO King of Nanyue 203-137 protests the iron trade embargo, then attacks Wu Rua king of Changsha, taking several Han border towns. 184 ICMH 138
c.184 Han general Zhou Zao marches south to recover border towns, but heat and diseases prevent him from crossing mountains into Yue. 184
ICMH 138
c.184 CHEN YING, Marquis of Tangyi from 202, Chancellor for King Yuan of Chu from 196, dies. 184 HFHD 23
c.183 ZHAO TUO King of Nanyue 203-137 begins calling himself Emperor Wu of Nanyue until 179. 183 CHC 136, wikHH, wikZT
c.183 LU JIA, king of Lu from 187, deposed for illegal activities by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi.  Lu Jia remains Marquis of Chui until 182. 183 R2T 232 182 HFHD 146
c.183 LuLU CHAN, younger bro of Lu Tai, Marquis of Wen from 187, promoted to king of LU by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi until 181. 183 R2T 232
182 HFHD 146
c.183 LU JIANG, son of Lu Ying, King Huai of Huaiyang from 187, dies of unspecifed causes without heir.  LIU WU, son of Emperor Wen and Empress Xiaowen, succeeds until 180. 183
HFHD 149, wikHui
LU WU, not Liu Wu HFHD 149
c.183 GUO MENG, Marquis of Dongwu (in Shandong Province) from 201, dies. 183
HFHD 113
c.182 DONGMAO (now Maoping, Shandong Province) becomes a marquisate under Liu Xingju until ?. 182
HFHD 208
c.182 LIU XINGJU, younger bro of Liu Shang, King of Qi, is made Marquis of Dongmao by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi. 182 HFHD 132, Apr R2T 233
c.182 LIU XINGJU, Marquis of Dongmao 182-78, is appointed a commander of palace guards by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi. 182 R2T 233
c.182 WANG LING, former 1st chancellor of Han 190-87, dies. 182 HFHD 214
c.182 ZHANG AO, son of Zhang Er, former king of Zhao 202-198, Marquis of Xuanping from 198, dies. 182 HFHD 6, ckZA, wikLCD
c.182 LIU YU, King of Zhao 194-81, summoned to Chang'an by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi, who marries one of her nieces to him. 182 Dec R2T 233
c.182 COINS:  Lu Zhi issues a bronze coin much lighter than previous coins.  This causes widespread inflation that is not reduced until 175. 182 wikHD
c.182 LU JIA, Marquis of Chui from ?, dies.  Bro LU TONG succeeds until 180. 182 HFHD 149
c.182/1 Xiongnu invade Longxi commandery. 182/1 CHC 136
c.181 LU TONG appointed Prince of Yen by Empress Lu Zhi until 180. 181 wikPY 180 bril
c.181 LIU HUI, King of Liang from 196, moved by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi to be king of Zhao.  Liu Hui is forced to marry Lu Chan's dau and make her queen of Zhao.  Liu Hui does not like the queen.  He loves one of his concubines.  The queen, postumously called Lady Xuan, sends someone to poison that concubine. 181 HFHD 92, 118, 133, Feb R2T 233, wikLng, wikPL, wikPZ, wikWn
c.181 LIU HUI, 5th son of Liu Bang by unknown concubine, king of Zhao 181, devastated by the murder of his concubine, suicides. 181 HFHD 133, Feb R2T 233, wikPZ, wikWn
c.181 LIU JIAN, 8th son of Liu Bang, King of Yen from 195, dies.  He has only 1 son born by a concubine.  Empress Dowager Lu Zhi sends a person to kill that child.  Then, since there is no one to succeed the throne of Yen, Lu Zhi makes LU TONG, a son of her bro Lu Ze, king of Yen until 180. 181 HFHD 127, Sep R2T 233     180 wikLZ, wikPY
Lu Tong is son of Lu Tai. 181 wikLCD
181 Mar 4 SOLAR ECLIPSE observable in Chang'an:  "Empress of Kao-tzu, 7th year, first month, day chi-chou, the last day of the month.  The Sun was eclipsed; it was total;  it was 9 deg in (the lunar lodge) Ying-shih, which represents the interior of the Palace chambers.  At that time the (Dowager) Empress of Kao-[tzu] was upset by it and said,  'This is on my account'.  The next year it was fulfilled."   (Pan Ku: Han-shu (58-76CE)
"On the jichou day [Mar 4] the sun was eclipsed and during the day it became dark.  The Empress Dowager hated it and was displeased.  She said to her attendants 'This is because of me'."   (Sima Qian: Shih-chi c.100CE)
181 Mar 4 mrec, nasa
180 Mar 4 HDSER
c.181 LU TONG, Marquis of Chui from 182, made king of Yen until 180. 180 HFHD 149
c.181 LIU HENG, king of Dai 196-80, is offered the more prosperous principality of Zhao by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi.  Liu Heng, judges correctly that she intends to make her brother's son Lu Lu prince of Zhao, politely declines, and indicates that he prefers remaining on the border.  Liu Zhi then makes Lu Lu prince of Zhao. 181
R2T 233, wikWn
c.181 LuKingdom of LU from 187 reverts to being a commandery under Liang until 179. 181 bril
c.181 LU LU, son of Lu Shizhi, Marquis of Hanyang from 187, is made prince of Zhao until 180 by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi. 181 HFHD 148, wikLCD, wikLZ, wikPZ
c.181 LU CHAN, son of Liu Ze, king of Lu from 183 moved by Empress Dowager Lu Zhi, to be king of Liang until 178.  Lu Chan does not go to Liang to take the throne, because Lu Zhi asks him to stay in Chang'an to tutor young Emperor Shao Ti Hung.  Her purpose is to strengthen the power of the Lu family in the capital. 181 HFHD 118, 146, Feb R2T 233, wikLZ
Lu Chan is son of Lu Tai. 181 wikLCD
c.181 LangyeLANGYE, an area under Qi from 201, becomes a kingdom until 179, and given to Liu Ze until 179. 181 HFHD 138, bril
c.181 LIU YU, King of Zhao, prefers his concubines to his wife, the niece of Liu Zhi.  The wife complains to Lu Zhi that Liu Yu plans to kill her after Lu Zhi dies.  Lu Zhi summons Liu Yu to Chang'an, has him imprisoned and deprived of food. 181 R2T 233
c.181 LIU YU, 6th son of Liu Bang by an unknown concubine, King of Zhao from 194, imprisoned, makes a song cursing the deeds of Empress Dowager Lu to the Liu family, starves to death. 181 HFHD 103, 140, R2T 233, bril, wikLY, wikPZ
c.181 Empress Dowager LU ZHI holds a banquet to entertain the ministers and generals and members of the Lu family.  Lu Zhi appoints Liu Chang to supervise the banquet and see to it that no one becomes so drunk as to do anything impolite.  Liu Chang gets her to authorize him to punish drunks in accordance with military law.  A Lu family member gets drunk, and Liu Chang kills him.  Lu Zhi has to dismiss the banquet.  From then on, the Lu family are afraid of Liu Chang. 181 July R2T 233
c.181 ZHAO TUO King of Nanyue 203-137 invades Han kingdom of Changsha. 181 CHC 136, wikHH
c.181 Han expedition against Zhao Tuo, king of Nanyue, fails in disaster. 181 LEWH 145
c.180 Empress Dowager LU ZHI is seriously ill.  To strengthen the power of the Lu family before she dies, she appoints nephew Lu Lu (king of Zhao) commander-in-chief of the army and orders him to command the army north of the capital, and orders Lu Chan (king of Liang) to command the army south of the capital.  Lu Zhi makes Lu Chan chancellor.  She orders Emperor Shao Ti Hung to marry a daughter of Lu Lu, and appoints that girl empress.  At this time 3 of Gaozu's descendants hold kingdoms in Chu, Huainan, and Dai 180 CHC 136, HFHD 148, R2T 235
c.180 LU LU, son of Lu Shizhi, prince of Zhao from 181, is killed by son-in-law Liu Zhang.  LIU SUI, 1st son of Liu Yu, succeeds until 154. 180 HFHD 123, 148, wikPZ
179 HFHD 137
c.180 juluJULU, a commandery (including Bohai, Qinghe, Hejian, and Guangping) under Zhao from 203 or 200, comes under Han until 179. 180 bril
c. 180 Widow of Liu Bang, LU ZHI dies.  (Imperial name LU HOU), dowager Han empress from 195, regent from 188, dies of illness.  The Lu family think they should stage a coup, but are afraid of Chancellor Chen Ping and General Zhou Bo, so they hesitate.  Liu Zhang, Marquis of Zhuxu, secretly sends a letter to his bro Liu Shang, King of Qi, telling him to kill all Lu members, notify all other kings to do the same, raise an army, march to Chang'an, and take the throne. 180 B76 4-310, CHC 107, 136, GHCC 116, HFHD 101, 129, ICMH 138, IUG 4.4, MRDK 456, R2T 235, bk, chc3, frie, hceisH, rcC, scar, spks, tcgHn, wikHD, wikWn
179 B76 4-310, frie, icX, wikCM, wikHH, wikLZ, yutH
c.180 On the day Lu Zhi dies, SHEN YIJI 2nd Chancellor from 187, resigns and becomes Grand Tutor until after the extermination of the Lu clan. 180
HFHD 173
c.180 LU KENGSHIH, nephew of Lu Zhi, Marquis of Deng from 187, is killed. 180 HFHD 148
c.180 Two possible candidates for emperor, the kings of Dai and Huainan, are sons of Gaozu; the 3rd, Liu Shang king of Qi, is Gaozu's grandson, but he can claim that his father had been senior to his uncles.  The kingdom of Qi had been established in 201;  Liu Shang's line is thus senior to those of Dai and Huainan, which had been founded in 196. 180 CHC 137
c.180 LU CLAN DISTURBANCE: Zhou Bo, Chen Ping, Liu Chia, and Lu Zhi's other rivals at Chang'an take back the government, killing every member of the Lu family they can find.  They reject Liu Shang of Qi because they fear his in-laws.  Then they find Gaozu's oldest living son Liu Heng (by consort Bo), king of Dai from 196, and crown him WEN TI, 4th Han emperor until 157. 180 B76 4-310, GHCC 116, HFHD 40, 143, ICMH 138, MRDK 456, bk, chc3, frie, hceisH, rcC, scar, spks, tcgHn, wikHD, wikHH, wikHui, wikPD, wikT, wikWn 179 B76 4-310, IUG 4.4, frie, icX, wikCM, yutH
c.180 Disputed son of Liu Ying, LIU YI, Emperor SHAO TI HUNG dies.  (Houshao) child Emperor of Han from 184 under Empress dowager Lu Zhi, deposed and executed by officials.  They offer the throne to Son of Gaozu and Consort Bo LIU HENG over his nephew Emperor Houshao, whom they accuse of not being imperial blood.  Liu Heng succeeds as emperor WEN TI until 157. 180 HFHD 149, spks, wikEDBo, wikEHH, wikHD, wikHui, wikWn
His name was LU Yi, not Liu Yi. HFHD 148
c.180 When Emperor Wen arrives, SHEN YIJI 2nd Chancellor 180, resigns again. 180 HFHD 173
c.180 LI SHANG, 1st Chancellor, Marquis Ching of Chu-chou with income of 18,000 families, dies.  Son LI JI succeeds. 180 HFHD 114, 116
c.180 FAN KANG, Marquis of Wuyang from 189, killed.  Successor unknown until 155. 180 wikFK
c.180 Emperor Wen asks Tien Shu who is the best man in the empire.  Tien Shu recommends Meng Shu.  At that time Meng Shu had been sentenced for allowing the Xiongnu to make a great incursion into Yunzhong, and had been dismissed.  Tien Shu explained matters to the Emperor, and Meng Shu is reappointed Administrator of Yunzhong. 180 HFHD 193
c.180 Lu Lu is the First Ranking General and holding the Northern Army so Minister of War, Zhou Bo, cannot get control of the Northern Army.  So Zhou Bo sends someone to compel Li Shang to order his son Li Ji to trick Lu Lu.  Lu Lu believes what Li Ji says and goes for a walk with him.  Zhou Bo is able to get into and get control of the Northern Army.  Thereby he exterminates the Lu family.  The world calls Li Ji "a seller of his friend." 180 HFHD 114
c.180 LIU WU, passed off as a son of son of Liu Ying, Prince of Huaiyang from 183, is murdered by officials. 180 HFHD 150, wikHui
c.180 HUAIYANG, a kingdom from 187, becomes a commandery until 176. 184 bril
180 HFHD8 46
c.180 LIU TAI, son of Liu Ying, Prince of Jichuan from ?, murdered by officials. 180 wikHui
c.180 LU TONG, king of Yen from 181, is killed.  A cousin of Liu Bang, LIU ZE, king of Langye from 181, is transferred to be Prince of Yen until 178. 180 wikPY
179 HFHD 138, 149, bril
c.180 LU CHAO, King of Changshan from 184, is killed. 180 HFHD 147
c.180 ChangshanChangshan, a kingdom from 186, becomes part of Zhao until 154. 180 bril 179 HFHD 14
c.180 Chang Tsang, lieutenant chancellor of Huainan from 196, made Grandee Secretary until 176. 180 HFHD 11
c.180 LIU SHANG, son of Liu Fei, king of Qi, with bros Liu Zhang and Liu Xingju, marches east to attack Jinan commandery. 180 ICMH 138
c.180 LIU SHANG, king of Qi, occupies Jinan commandery. 180 ICMH 138
c.180 CHANG SHICHING, eunuch who persuaded officials to ask for the appointing of kings from among the Lu family, is made Marquis of Chienling. 180
c.180 GuanzhongLU CHAN learns that Liu Shang is marching west toward Guanzhong.  He orders general Guan Ying to lead an army to attack Liu ShangHan general Guan Ying marches out of Guanzhong. 180 ICMH 138, R2T 236
c.180 Han general GUAN YING marches to Xingyang, sends envoys to Qi expressing his intention to defect.  When Liu Shang king of Qi gets the message, he stops marching west and waits to see what happens. 180
ICMH 138, R2T 236
c.180 Princess Dowager BO is honored as empress dowager, even though she had not previously been an empress. 180
c.180 LIU SHANG, king of Qi, having been rejected as emperor, returns to Qi, disbands his troops. 180
ICMH 138
c.180 8 general amnesties are declared between 180 and 141. 180 CHC 149
c.180 The duties of the chancellery, divided between a Right and Left Chancellor from 196, are no longer divided.  Both positions remain, but the Left Chancellor's post becomes merely titular and has no real authority. 180 wikGHd
c.180 NANYUE becomes vassal kingdom to Han. 180 wikSeHd
c.179 LIU CHIEH made Marquis of Yangxin (Xinyang) until 166, with taxing rights on 2000 families. 179 Jan HFHD 127
c.179 SZU CHUN made Marquis of Wu until 177. 179 HFHD 182
c.179 The empire has mostly reverted to what it had been at the end of Gaozu's reign.  Kings who had been installed by Lu Zhi have been either replaced by members of the Liu house, or their territories have been restored to the units from which they had been detached.  Again the central government owns the metropolitan area and adjacent commanderies, which are now 19 in number, surrounded by 11 kingdoms.  (see 143) 179 CHC 139
c.179 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, abolishes the law that permits arrest and imprisonment of parents, wives, and siblings of criminals - except for treason. 179 wikWn
c.179 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, creates a government assistance program for poor people.  Loans or tax exemptions are offered to widowers, widows, orphans, and seniors without children.  He orders that monthly stipends of rice, wine, and meat be given to seniors over age 80, and more stipends of cloth and cotton to seniors over age 90. 179 wikWn
c.179 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, makes his oldest son Liu Qi Crown Prince and Liu Qi's mother, Consort Dou, Empress until 157. 179 wikDou, wikEJ, wikJg, wikWn
c.179 LIU SHANG, 1st, king of Qi from 189, ends. 179 wikPQ
c.179 JINAN, called Jichuan guo from 181, restored to Qi until 164. 179 bril
c.179 LangyeLANGYE, a kingdom under Liu Ze from 181, absorbed back into Qi until 144. 179 HFHD 138, bril
c.179 ChengyangAll or part of CHENGYANG area, an estate of Lu Yuan Gongzhu, under the name of Lu guo from 194, is restored to Qi until 178. 179 bril
c.179 All commanderies which had been taken from Liu Shang's kingdom of Qi during the time of Empress Dowager Lu Zhi are returned to him. 179
HFHD 130
c.179 SUNG CHANG, palace military commander to Emperor Wen when he was Liu Heng King of Dai, is made marquis of Chuangwu until 146 with income of 1400 families. 179
HFHD 181
c.179 SHENTU CHIA, who had followed Liu Bang from 206, is made Kuan-nei Marquis with taxing rights on 500 families. 179
HFHD 171
c.179 YIN YANG SCHOOL founded by Confucian Dong Zhongshu. 179 bk
c.179 CHAO CHIEN, maternal uncle of Liu Chang, made Marquis of Chouyang until 174. 179
c.179 Chen Ping and Zhou Bo become left and right ministers until 178. 179 yutH
c.179 TSAI CHIEN made Marquis of Fan until 166. 179 HFHD 198
c.179 juluJULU, a commandery (including Bohai, Qinghe, Hejian, and Guangping) under Han from 180, comes back under Zhao until 154. 179 bril
c.179 HejianHEJIAN (Hochien) in Jizhou, part of Zhao from 210, detached as a separate kingdom until 165. 198 HFHD 73
179 bril
c.179 LIU PICHIANG, son of Liu Yu, becomes king of Hejian until 166. 178 HFHD 134
c.179 LiangLIANG kingdom reduced in size considerably, by loss of Dongjun and Chenliu. 179 bril
c.179 DONGJUN, part of Liang from 196, becomes a separate commandery until ?. 179 bril
c.179 CHENLIU, part of Liang from 202, becomes a separate commandery until 144. 179 bril
c.179 WANG XI, marquis Ting of Ching-ho from 201, dies. 179 HFHD 213
c.179 LIU LI, son of Liu Jiao, is made Marquis of Pinglu until 154. 179 HFHD 133
c.179 Economic embargo on Nanyue, imposed by Lu Zhi in 184, lifted by Emperor Wen. 179 wikWn
c.179 BO CHAO, younger bro of Empress Dowager Bo, cavalry general, made Marquis of Chih until 170, with taxing rights on 10,000 families. 179
HFHD 163
c.179 Left minister Chen Ping suggests that Lu Jia be again sent to Nanyue.  Emperor Wen sends him with a letter and gifts, admitting that Empress Lu Zhi had done Zhao Tuo wrong, setting Mt. Fu as the boundary of Zhao Tuo's kingdom, but declaring that there cannot be 2 emperors at the same time. 180 CHC 452
179 HFHD 17
c.179 ZHAO TUO, king of Nanyue 204-137, makes peace with Han, recognizes emperor Wen as overlord, renounces his title as Emperor Wu. 180 wikSeHd 179 GHCC, HFHD 17, wikWn, wikWu
c.179 WEN TI, Emperor 180-57, builds a tomb for the parents of Zhao Tuo at Chenting (formerly Dongyuan), established a town of keepers for their tomb, and orders that their worship should be kept up.  He makes the brothers and cousins of Zhao Tuo high officials, and gives them gifts. 179 HFHD 17
c.178 LIU ZE, cousin of Liu Bang, Prince of Yen from 180, dies. 178 HFHD 138
c.178 SHENTU CHIA, Kuan-nei Marquis from 179, is made governor of Huaiyang Commandery until 162. 178
HFHD 171
c.178 Han kingdoms are reduced in 178, 164, 155, 144 & 122, by splitting some into smaller kingdoms or taking over territories as commanderies under direct Han control. 178 bril
c.178 Chia Yi tells Emperor Wen that even after several decades of peace public and private grain stores are small.  "When there is a lack of timely rains, the people cast wolfish glances; when the harvest is bad and is not harvested, pleadings to be allowed to sell titles and children have been heard." 178 SDFH 86
c.178 Xiongnu cross Yellow River into Ordos region, defeat Meng Shur, governor of Yunzhong Commandery. 178 ICMH 139
177 CHC 151
c.178 Chen Ping, left minister from 179, dies.  ZHOU BO succeeds for 10 months. 179 HFHD 22
178 CHC 108, yutH
c.178 TAIYUAN, part of Dai from 196, made a separate kingdom under Liu Can until 176. 178 HFHD 185, bril
c.178 LIU CAN, son of Emperor Wen by a concubine, is made king of Taiyuan until 176. 178 HFHD 137, 139
c.178 ChengyangCHENGYANG, under Qi from 179, is made a kingdom until 172 by Emperor Wen.  LIU ZHANG, Marquis of Zhuxu from 186, is made King CHING of Chengyang until 177. 178 HFHD 25, 123, bril
c.178 LIU JIAO, younger half bro of Liu Bang by a different mother, king YUAN of Chu from 201, dies.  2nd son LIU YINGKI succeeds as Prince YI of Chu until 174. 179 HFHD 127 178 HFHD 140, wikLJ, wikLY
c.178 LU CHAN, son of Liu Ze, prince of Liang from 181, executed.  LIU YI, son of Emperor Wen, becomes prince HUAI of Liang until 169. 180 HFHD 118, 139-40, 147
178 wikLng, wikPL
c.178 LIU WU, 2nd son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress Dowager Bo (Xiaowen), created prince of Dai until 176. 178 HFHD 139, wikLWPL, wikWn, wikPD
c.178 BO CHAO, Emperor Wen Ti's uncle, cavalry general, is sent from Chang'an to Dai to bring Emperor Wen's mother to Chang'an. 178
HFHD 163
c.178 JibeiJIBEI, part of Qi from ?, becomes a kingdom until 176.  LIU XINGJU, son of Liu Fei, Marquis of Dongmao from 182, becomes king of Jibei at Taian until 177. 187 HFHD 26, 133 178 bril
c.178 TAISHAN COMMANDERY, part of Qi from 203, made part of Jibei kingdom until 176 by Emperor Wen. 178 HFHD 184, bril
Dec 22
SOLAR ECLIPSE observable at Chang'an, (seen as evidence of divine displeasure in China), causes Emperor Wen to ask officials to give him honest criticism and recommend capable individuals for governmental positions.  He also tries to decrease mandatory taxes and hard labor. 178 Dec 22 wikLSE
177 Dec 22 HDSER
c.177 Xiongnu overcome most small states in Western Regions from Loulan. 177 CHC 405
c.177 SZU CHUN, Marquis of Wu from 179, dismissed. 177 HFHD 182
c.177 ZHOU BO, Marquis of Jiang 201-169, left minister from 178, is sent to Jiang as an example to the marquises to go to their states.  He then fears being murdered, so he has his retainers wear armor. 177 CHC 108
no date:
c.177 Xiongnu Rightside Wise King raids non-Chinese tribes living under Han protection in Beidi and Shang Commanderies, invades south of Yellow River.  Wen Ti dispatches chancellor Guan Ying with 85,000 cavalry. 178 ICMH 139       177 spks, wikHH
176 icX
c.177 LIU CHANG, King of Huainan 196/5-74 visits emperor Wen Ti, behaves disrespectfully. 177 HFHD 124
c.177 LIU ZHANG, King CHING of Chengyang from 178, dies. 177 HFHD 123
c.177 LIU AN, son of Liu Chang, is made King of Huainan until 122.  But LIU CHANG is supposedly King of Huainan 196/5-74. 177 wikKH
c.177 Xiongnu invade Henan. 177 GHCC, bk     176 scar
c.177 Chancellor Guan Ying with 85,000 cavalry chase Xiongnu back across the Yellow river. 178 ICMH 139
177 spks, wikHH 176 icX
c.177 GUAN YING, chancellor from ?, dies. 177 HFHD 110
c.177 ZHENG HE, Marquis Ku of Chi 201-169, is made a general and sent to take command of garrison at Xingyang. 177 HFHD 200, ICMH 139
c.177 LIU CHANG, King of Huainan 196/5-74 visits Shen Yiji.  When Shen Yiji comes to see him, Liu Chang kills him and orders his followers to cut off his head.  Liu Chang runs to the throne and begs for the Emperor's pardon, saying that he had avenged his mother's death.  Emperor Wen pardons him. 178
HFHD 173 177
HFHD 124
c.177 JibeiLIU XINGJU, king of Jibei at Taian (in Shandong) 178-7, rebels, attacks Han camp at Xingyang. 177
HFHD 133, ICMH 139, bril
c.177 Han general CHEN WU (Chai Wu) is made General-in-chief and sent to suppress Liu Xingju, king of Jibei. 177 HFHD 5, ICMH 139
c.177 JibeiLIU XINGJU, king of Jibei from 178, is defeated by Chen Wu and suicides.  JIBEI Kingdom is reabsorbed into Qi until ?. 177
HFHD 133, ICMH 139, bril
c.176 TAISHAN COMMANDERY, part of Jibei from 178, detached until 164. 176 HFHD 184
c.176 Chang Tsang, Grandee Secretary from 180, made imperial Lieutenant Chancellor until 162.  He tries to reform the calendar. 176
c.176 LIU XIAN, son of Liu Fei, made Marquis of Wucheng until 164. 176 HFHD 132
c.176 The YUEZHI are raided by the Xiongnu. 176 wikWsn
c.176 BAGHUR (called Mao Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu 209-176, writes to emperor Wen Ti, informing him that the Wise King of the Right, allegedly insulted by Han officials, acted without his permission. 176 wikHH
c.176 ZHOU BO, Marquis of Jiang (in Shanxi Province) 201-169, who had helped Emperor Wen become emperor, and who had retired to his march, is falsely accused of treason. 176 wikEDBo, wikWn
c.176 HUAIYANG, a commandery from 180, becomes a kingdom until 168. 176 HFHD8 46
c.176 Instead of investigating first, Emperor Wen Ti has arrested, brought to Chang'an, and imprisoned.  Intercession of his mother Empress Dowager Bo (Xiaowen) and his daughter Princess Changping ( dau-in-law) is all that gets charges against dismissed. 176 wikEDBo, wikWn
c.176 LIU WU, son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress Dowager Bo (Xiaowen), prince of Dai from 178, made prince of Huaiyang until 168.  Bro LIU CAN replaces him as prince XIAO of Dai until 162. 176 HFHD 139, wikLWPL, wikPD
175 HFHD8 46, wikWn
c.176 Jul 1 LIU XIANGLU, son of Liu Fei, is made Marquis of Po-shih until 164. 176 HFHD 133, HFHD7 10
c.176 LIU CAN, King of Taiyuan from 178, is now King XIAO of Dai, including Taiyuan until 162. 176
HFHD 137
c.176 TAIYUAN, a separate kingdom under Liu Can from 178, absorbed back into Dai until 114. 176 HFHD 185, bril
c.176 EQUALITY before the law is challenged by JIA YI, who advocates distinctions based on social class. 176
GHCC 116
c.176 A Confucian tutor is appointed to the imperial prince.  It sets a precedent ensuring that future Han emperors would be well educated. 176 CHC 768
c.175 Private minting of copper and tin COINS is permitted by Emperor Wen, over objections of Jia Yi.  The main beneficiaries are those with access to copper, including court official Deng Tong, to whom Emperor Wen had given a major copper mine in Yandao, and Liu Pi, Prince of Wu, whose principality has a copper mine at Yuzhang.  This leads to serious inflation. 175 GHCC, MCAW, wikWn
c.175 Chia Yi protests in a memorial to Emperor Wen about the lavish customs of the day.  He refers to the sale and treatment of young slaves, probably entertainers.  These youths are dressed in "embroidered clothes and silken shoes with the edges all embellished." 175 SDFH 181
c. 175 BAGHUR (called Mao Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu, orders his son Laoshang, Wise King of the Right, to attack the Yuezhi again on a greater scale.  This time the Yuezhi are routed.  After this defeat the Yuezhi can no longer hold their position in Gansu corridor, and split into 2 groups: the Great and Small Yuezhi.  The Small Yuezhi retreat into the southern Chilien Mountains (south of Gansu corridor), and mix with the Qiang.  The Great Yuezhi go west and settle in the Ili River valley. 177
ICMH 139 175
CHEIA 127, spks
c. 175 BAGHUR (called Mao Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu 209-175, writes to emperor Wen Ti:
"Through the aid of Heaven, the excellence of our fighting men, and the strength of our horses, we have succeeded in wiping out the Yuezhi, slaughtering or forcing to submission every member of the tribe.  In addition we have conquered the Loulan, Wusun, and Huchieh tribes as well as the 26 states nearby, so that all of them have become a part of the Xiongnu nation.  All the people who live by drawing the bow are now united into one family, and the entire region of the north is at peace.  Thus I wish now to lay down my weapons, rest my soldiers, and turn my horses to pasture, to forget the recent affair and to restore our old pact."
Wen Ti holds a court conference.  They agree that the Han must comply with Mao Tun's wishes to renew the ho-chin treaty.
CHEIA 123, wstn
175 spks
175/4 icX 174 wikYz
175/4 BAGHUR (called Mao Tun by Chinese) chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu, sends a messenger to Han court claiming that he had punished the Wise King of the Right by sending him on a campaign against Yuezhi in the west. 176 wikHH 175/4 icX
c. 175/4 LIU CHANG, half bro of emperor Wen Ti, King of Huainan 196/5-74, sends messengers to Minyue and to the Xiongnu, has 70 people, with Chai Wu's son, Chai Jimo, with 40 chariots, rebel at Kukou. 175/4 HFHD 124
c.175/4 LIU CHANG, King of Huainan 196/5-74, is summoned to Chang'an.  The officials say Liu Chang should be executed, but Emperor Wen Ti pardons him and exiles him to Shu. 175/4 HFHD 125
c.174 (Called Mao Tun by Chinese) BAGHUR dies.  Chanyu (chief) of the Xiongnu from 209.  Son (called Jiyu by Chinese) LO SHANG (aka Kayuk) succeeds until 160.  At this time, Xiongnu domains stretch from what is now Manchuria and Mongolia to the Altai and Tian Shan mountain ranges in Central Asia. 174 B76 VI-589, 9-597, CHC 387, CHEIA 124, GHCC 119, MRDK 450, bk, rcN, spks, wikCny, wikHD wikHH, wikXng, wnck, wstn 173 ICMH 139, icX
c.174 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, quickly sends new chanyu Lo Shang a daughter according to the ho-chin treaty, which keeps the peace 198-135. 174 wikWn
c.174 CHAO CHIEN, maternal uncle of Liu Chang, Marquis of Chouyang from 179, dismissed for some crime. 174
c.174 LU CHEN, son of Liu Qing, Marquis of Xinyang (west of Changsha) from 192, dies. 174 HFHD 147
c.174 LIU CHANG, half bro of emperor Wen Ti, King of Huainan from 196/5, enroute to exile in Shu, dies in Yong, probably suicide.  Huainan, comprising later Han units of Jiangxia, Jiujiang, Lujiang, Yuzhang and Luan, is terminated until 164, and replaced by commanderies of Jiujiang (including the later Lujiang, Jiangxia and Luan guo), and Yuzhang.  LIU AN continues as king of Huainan 177-22. 174
CHAC 970, HFHD 124, bril, wikKH, wikWn
c.174 HUAINAN becomes JIUJIANG Commandery until 164. 174 bril
c.174 YUZHANG, part of Huainan from 196, become a commandery under Han until 164. 174 bril
c.174 LIU YINGKI, son of Liu Jiao, prince of Chu from 178, dies of a sudden illness.  Son LIU WU succeeds until 154. 175 HFHD 140 174 wikLWPC, wikLY
c.173 The WUSUN are overrun by the YUEZHI.  NANDOUMI, kunmo (chief) of the Wusun, is killed.  Some time later, his infant son Liejiaomi is left in the wild.  According to a legend in the  Hanshu  (a sequel to Sima Qian's Shiji), Liejiaomi is suckled by a she-wolf and fed meat by ravens.  Liejiaomi will be eventually found by the Xiongnu. 173 spks, wikWsn
c.173 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, orders eunuch Chung-hing Yue to accompany a Han princess to the Xiongnu.  Yue asks to be excused, but Wen Ti refuses.  Yue warns that Han will regret sending him. 174 wstn, 173 icX
c.173 Eunuch Chung-hing Yue submits to Chanyu Lo Shang, agrees to help the Xiongnu to attack Han.  Yue also teaches the Xiongnu how to count cattle and horses.  Yue also makes the size of bamboo for chanyu letters to be double the size of Han Emperor Wen Ti, and paraphrases the chanyu as 'Born by Heaven and Earth and Confirmed by Sun and Moon'. 173 icX
c.173 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, buys off the Xiongnu with an imperial princess and other gifts.  Secures peace until 166. 173 LEWH 145, icX
c.172 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, still lamenting Liu Chang's death 174, creates his sons Liu An, Liu Bo, Liu Ci, and Liu Liang Marquises, again over Jia Yi's objection.  Liu An, age 7/8, is Marquis of Fouling until 122.  Liu Ci is Marquis of Yangchou until . 172 HFHD6 29, 33, wikWn
c.172 ChengyangCHENGYANG, a kingdom from 178, is made a commandery within Qi until 168. 172 bril
c.172 XIA-HOU Ying, Lord of Teng, Marquis Wen of Ju-yin, Gaozu's charioteer and Master of the Stud, dies. 172 bril
c.172 gold cup Gilt bronze figure of a maidservant holding an oil-lamp, almost 19 inches tall, excavated from tomb of Dou Wan, wife of one of Emperor Wu's bros (Prince Liu Sheng), at Mancheng in Hebei province.  It allows adjustments in the directness and brightness of the light and adjustments to trap smoke in the body. photo Refrain

172 wikCXd
c.171 TEDZAWUN, king of Arkan (west coast of Burma) from 207, ends.  MUNDZAYABA succeeds until 137. 171 rcSAM
c.170 LU CHEN, Marquis of Ningling from 196, dies. 170 HFHD 147
by 170 Only 3 of the kings are sons of the reigning emperor.  One is a grandson, one a great-grandson of Gaozu;  a son of Gaozu's elder bro reigns in Wu, a grandson of one of his younger bros in Chu, and a collateral relative in Yen. by 170 CHC 140
c.170 MORISU ends.  King of Buyeo in west Korea from 195GOHAESA succeeds until 121. 170 rcK, wikLMK
c.170 Tarim BasinThe YUEZHI (Yueh Chih), Indo-Scythians in the Tarim Basin from ?, driven out by the Xiongnu, migrate west to central Asia until 140. 176 wikYu 170 CAH 12-107     165 HCIP 2-136
c.170 Emperor Wen Ti's uncle BO CHAO, who had served in his administration, kills an imperial messenger.  Emperor Wen forces Bo Chao to suicide, though Bo Chao is Empress Dowager Bo's only sibling. 170 HFHD 163, wikEDBo, wikWn
c.169 ZHENG HE, Marquis Ku of Chi from 201, general from 177, dies. 169 HFHD 200
c.169 JIA YI, poet, educator statesman, advisor of emperors from 200, dies.  He is author of the treatise  Xinshu , containing political and educational insights. 169 CHAC 970, CHC 108, 388, CHEIA 124, wikHD, wikHH, wikJY 168 GHCC, HFHD 27
c. 169

c. 169
CHAO CUO, then a low level official, presents memorandum  Guard the Frontiers and Protect the Borders  to Emperor Wen, compares Xiongnu and Han battle tactics, offers suggestions on dealing with the Xiongnu.  Chao calls Xiongnu horsemen better prepared for rough terrain due to their better horses, better with horseback archery, and better able to withstand the elements and harsh climates.  However, on level plains, he thinks Xiongnu cavalry inferior especially when faced with Han shock cavalry and chariots, as the Xiongnu are easily dispersed.  Xiongnu are incapable of countering superior Han equipment and weaponry.  Han armies are better in disciplined formations.  Xiongnu are defenseless against coordinated onslaughts of arrows - especially long-range and in unison, due to their inferior leather armor and wooden shields.  When dismounted in close combat, the Xiongnu lack ability as infantry.  Emperor Wen is impressed, and makes Chao Cuo a member of Crown Prince Qi's household. 169 wikCC, wikHXW, wikWn
c.169 LIU YI, son of Emperor Wen by a concubine, prince HUAI of Liang from 178, dies of a fall from a horse.  He has no heirs. 169 HFHD 29, 118, 140, wikLng, wikPL, wikWn
c.169 ZHOU BO, Marquis of Jiang (in Shanxi Province) from 201, dies.  1st son succeeds until 162. 169 wikZB
c.168 ChengyangCHENGYANG, a commandery within Qi from 172, is again made a kingdom until 18 BC. 168 bril
c. 168  Mawangdui Silk Texts  of Chinese philosophical and medical works are interred at tombs of Marquis of Dai at Mawangdui.  They include some of the earliest known textual versions of I Ching, 2 copies of the Tao Te Ching, one copy of Strategies of the Warring States, and works of Gan De and Shi Shen, as well as previously unknown medical texts like recipes for 52 Ailments.  They contain 120,000 words covering military strategy, mathematics, cartography and the 6 classical arts: ritual, music, archery, horsemanship, writing and arithmetic.
The tomb also contains the earliest known piece of PAPER.
ASTRONOMY:  A text reports times and locations of the rising and setting of planets at night sky from 246 to 177.
168 wikSTH, wikT
c.168 At Chao Cuo's suggestion, Emperor Wen Ti decrees that if people contribute food for use by the northern defense force against the Xiongnu, they could receive titles or have their crimes pardoned. 168 wikWn
c.168 Yellow River floods in Hedong province.  Breach soon repaired. 168 HFHDX 11, wikT
c.168 Tomb #3 at Mawangdui in Changsha is sealed.  It contains the Mawangdui Silk Texts: philosophical and medical works written on silk.    168 wikMST
c.168 LIU WU, son of Emperor Wen Ti and Empress Dowager Bo (Xiaowen), prince of Huaiyang from 176, made prince of Liang until death 144. 169 HFHD 118, 139, wikWn     168 wikLng, wikLWPL, wikPL 166 HFHD8 46
c.168 HUAIYANG, a kingdom from 176, becomes a commandery until 155. 166 HFHD8 46
c.168 Han agriculture tax, 1/15 from 195, reduced to 1/30 until 167. 168 CHC 150, 596, IUG 4.4, wikHD, wikHH
c.167 Han agriculture tax, 1/30 from 168, abolished altogether until 156. 167 CHC 150, 596, SDFH 22, wikHH
c.167 Punishment by mutilation, e.g. amputation of nose or foot, facial tattooing are removed from Chinese penal code by Emperor Wen in favor of whipping.  Hard labor is added.  The whipping actually causes more deaths, so the amount of whipping will be further reduced in 156. 167 CHC 58, 149, 533, GHCC, SDFH 84, bk, wikHH, wikWn
c.167 CHANG WU, Chief of the Gentlemen-at-the-Palace in Chang'an, made General of Chariots and Cavalry to encamp north of the Wei River to protect the capital against the Xiongnu. 167
c.167 Chao Cuo advises Emperor Wen to grant honorary ranks in exchange for slaves who would be sent to colonize the frontier.  Chao Cuo also suggests that criminals be allowed to atone by giving slaves.  The Emperor follows his counsel. 167 SDFH 119
c.166 Gongsun Chen presents a  treatise on the Five Elements  to Emperor Wen.  It says that the appearance of a yellow dragon would be proof that the Han dynasty ruled by virtue of the element earth.  His ideas are rejected by Lieutenant Chancellor, Chang Tsang, who says the dynasty ruled by virtue of the element water.  See 162. 166 HFHD 112
c.166 In the 14th year of Emperor Wen the Xiongnu enter thru Xiao Pass and burn Huichung Palace. 166 HFHD6 82
c.166 TSAI CHIEN, Marquis of Fan from 179, dies. 166 HFHD 198
c.166 An edict stresses the religious importance of shrines. 166 CHC 208
c.166 TUIDANG, son of Hann Xin, having defected to the Xiongnu from ?, surrenders, and is made a marquis. 166 ICMH 140 166-4 SDFH 102
c.166 DONG CHI, Marquis of Cheng 194-51, is made Prefect of Chang'an. 166 HFHD 204
c.166 LIU CHIEH, Marquis of Yangxin from 179, dies. 166 HFHD 127
c.166 LUAN PU is made general and sent to drive out the flocks of the Xiongnu from the steppes. 166 ckLB
c.166 Fire and smoke signaling codes on steppe frontier first mentioned. 166 GHCC
c.166 LO SHANG, chanyu 174-60, with 140,000 cavalry, raids into China, attacks Xiaoguan Pass, kills Sun Ang, Han governor of Beidi Commandery, burn down an ex-Qin rotating palace (Palace Linguang), and attack ex-QinThey penetrate to within 120 kilometers of Chang'an, carry off many people and animals, and return. 167 spks
167/6 HFHD 181 166 CHC 152, 389, CHEIA 124, ICMH 140, spks, wikXng, wnck     165 icX
c.166 LI GUANG is with the Han army.  He kills so many Xiongnu that he is made a Cavalry Gentleman and Regular Attendant. 166 HFHD6 11
c.166 LIU PICHIANG, son of Liu Yu, king of Hejian from 179, dies. 166 HFHD 134
c.165 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, dispatches 100,000 cavalry, led by Zhou She and Zhang Wu, against the Xiongnu by stationing the army next to Chang'an.  Lu Qing, Wei Xiao, Zhou Zao, Zhang Xiangru and Dong Chi are ordered to attack the Xiongnu, who stay put for several months before retreating out of "sai" (border garrison) in face of Han armies.  Zhang Xiangru pursues, but can't overtake them.  Thereafter, Xiongnu harass the border almost yearly, inflicting damages in border areas of Yunzhong & Liaodong Commanderies. 167
ICMH 140
165 icX
c.165 WEN TI, 4th Han emperor 180-57, is the first emperor to personally visit the shrines of the Five Powers at Yong. 165 CHC 151
c.165 Zhang Xiangru (Xiangju) dies. 165 HFHD 8
c.165 DONG CHI, Marquis of Cheng 194-51, Prefect of Chang'an, is made a general against the Xiongnu. 165
HFHD 204
c.165 At the instigation of sorcerer Xinyuan Ping, Emperor Wen builds a temple north of Wei River dedicated to the 5 gods.  Wen then promotes Xinyuan and awards him with much wealth. 168 wikWn
c.165 HejianHEJIAN (Hochien) in Jizhou, a separate kingdom from 179, made a commandery until 155. 165 bril 165/4 HFHD 73
c.165 Civil service exams begin in China.  Exams require knowledge of the 5 classics, Conficius, Lao Tsu, and Mencius. 168 ICMH 139     165 bk, wikWn     158 GHCC
c.165 SUNSPOTS 1st observed and recorded by Chinese. 165 TTS

East Asia 164-145