0±70  Prayer of Manasseh  15 verses recording a penitential prayer written probably in Greek, a penitential prayer attributed to king Manasseh of Judah. 0±100 IDB 3-256 pre-70 wikPM'  
c.1 DecapolisDECAPOLIS, receiving inadequate protection from Syria, Judea, & Nabatea, these cities form a league for trade and mutual defense. map: Nichalp

1 ENBD 304
2 HERODIAS marries either HEROD-II (Lk 3:19) or HEROD PHILIP (Mt 14:3, Mk 6:17) until 27. 1/2 nweHds
Herod-II is son of Herod-I & Malthace, and full bro of Antipas.
Herod Philip is son of Herod-I and Cleo, and therefore half bro of Antipas.
 5 MARIAMNE, wife of Archelaus from ?, divorced. Wars 2:7:9
 5 ARCHELAUS marries GLAPHYRA, dau of Archelaus of Cappadocia, wid of Alexander from 7 BC, divorcee of Juba of Mauretania.  This worstens relations with Jews because Glaphyra had 2 sons by Alexander.  Forbidden by  Lev 18:18 . Wars 2:7:4 5 CAH 10-339, Jud 3-334
5/6 Dau of Archelaus of Cappadocia, GLAPHYRA dies.  Wid of Alexander from 7BC, wife of Archelaus, dreams of being reproved by dead 1st husband, Alexander, and dies.  Wars 2:7:4
 6 Separate EMBASSIES from JUDEA and SAMARIA go to Rome, complain to Augustus about ethnarch Archelaus, request abolition of Herodian monarchy. 6 CAH 10-339, Jud 3-334, 853
 6 ARCHELAUS, ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, Idumea, summoned to Rome, to answer charges of cruelty. 5 GHH
6 Jud 7-334
 6 ARCHELAUS, ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, Idumea, from 4BC, now in Rome, deposed for incompetence by Augustus, banished to Vindobona (Vienna). 6 B76 10-146, 17-950, BAA 148, BI+N 198, BNTH 25, 32, CAH 10-334, 744, Dur 3-452, ENBD 522, CHH, IDB 1-207, ISBE 2-694, 923, Jud 3-333, LEWH, MUTC 28, rcHL, wikHAnt, wikArc, wikHrD, wikJRP
 6 Judea c.6CE JUDEA and SAMARIA made a Roman province under an imperial prefect, under the proconsul of Syria until 41.  Prefect now has authority to appoint high priests until 41.  There are no legionary troops present until 66. map: Rh0809

6 BBA 201, 456, BNTH 32, ENBD 1132, GHH, HRE 112, IDB 4-102, Jud 7-334, MCAW, rcHL, wikJRP
c.6 IDUMEA, under Archelaus from 4 BC, comes under Rome until 60. 6 rcHL
Map: Pomponius Mela
Map by Pomponius Mela 43CE reconstructed by Konrad Miller 1898           Photo {{PD-US}}
 6 COPONIUS becomes first Roman prefect of Judea until 9, hqs at Caesarea.  He has power to inflict death penalty. Wars I:8:1, Ant 28:1:1     6 BAA, BBA 56, BI+N 199, FHBC 236, IDB 3-893, Jud 5-955, JZ 29, rcHL, wikJRP     6/7 jePr     7 GHH
 6 MASADA, comes under a Roman garrison until 66. 6 IDB 3-294, ISBE 3-274, Jud 11-1078
 6 CAESAREA, under Judea from 30 BC, biggest port of Judea from 10 BC, becomes an imperial domain, and Roman capital of the province until 41. 6 CDCC 156
 6 Λ CENSUS ordered in Galilee by Quirinius. Ax 5:37     6 B76 X-868, CDCC 475     6/7 B76 2-948, IDB 1-600
 6 ZEALOTS sect founded by JUDAS the Galilean to oppose the census and paying taxes to Rome. 6 BBA 41, ENBD 1354, MUTC 41, Jud 11-1314
 6 Sulpicious QUIRINIUS, proconsul of Syria and COPPONIUS, procuator of Judea, arrive together in Judea to hold a CENSUS, and deal with the property of Archelaus. Ant 18:1:1, 18:2:1     6 BAA 148, BI+N 199, CAH 10-193, FHBC 235, GSNT 218, Jud 5-955, MCAW, MUTC 41
no date: Jud 13-1428
 6 JOEZER ben BOETHUS, high priest 3BC-6CE, persuades Jews to submit to the census. 6 JZ 67
 6 Judas the Galilean and Zadok the pharisee, leaders of the Zealots, urge Judeans to resist the census (the 1st step toward making Judea a province), and stop paying taxes. Ax 5:37     6 BAA 73, GSNT 148, Jud 10-354, 16-916, 947
 6 JOEZER ben BOETHUS, high priest from 3 BC, deposed by QUIRINIUS, who appoints ANNAS ben Seth successor until 15. Ant 18:2:1     6 BAA 118, BBA 91, BI+N 198, 200, BNTH 69, CBCNT 71, ENBD 39, FHBC 284, Jud 2-922, rcHL
6/7 IDB 1-138     7 ISBE 1-128
 6 HIGH PRIESTHOOD comes under control of a few wealthy priestly families, who support the Sadducees, who support the status quo. 6 BNTH 63
 6 JUDAS the Galilean and ZADOK the pharisee die.  Leaders of the Zealots, captured and killed in Galilee by Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea.  Judas' family continue as leaders of the Zealots. 6 Jud 10-354, MUTC 41
 6 SICARII (sometimes a derogatory term for Zealots) become active until 73. 6 Jud 14-1491
6/7 Punitive expedition sent by P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS governor of Syria 6-7, against mountains of Lebanon. 6/7 CAH 10-282
 7 Taxing of Judea by Quirinius 7 GHH
7/8±1 Samaritans scatter bones in the temple during a passover. 6-9 ENBD 1132
 8 Mary, Joseph, & Jesus visit Jerusalem. 8 MCAW
c.8 Jesus hears the doctors and asks them questions in the temple. 8 GHH, MCAW 9 CBCNT 104
 8 Rise of the sect of Judas Gaulonitus (the Galilean). 8 GHH
 8 SEPPHORIS Galilee, burnt 4 BC, rebuilding by Antipas begins until 10. 4 CAH 10-338 8 ISBE 2-694
 9 COPONIUS, 1st prefect of Judea from 6/7, returns to Rome.  M. AMBIVIUS succeeds until 12. Ant 18:2:2     9 BAA, BBA 56, BI+N 199, BNTH 33, FHBC, GHH, IDB 3-893, Jud 5-955, jePr, rcHL, wikJRP
 10 Dau of Antipater & Cypros, SALOME dies.  Divorcee of Costobar, wife of Alexas.  Bequeaths Jabneh & palm groves of Phaselis to Livia. Wars 2:9:1     10 CAH 10-662, wikHrD, wikSl1 10-13 DGRBM 3-699
 10 HILLEL ha Zakein dies.  Babylonian Jew, Nasi from 30 BC, proponent of pharisaic Judaism.  SIMON succeeds as Nasi until 30. 9 prgE     10 Dur 3-539, Jud 8-483, jeH, wikHE     16 rcHL 20 IDB 2-605, ISBE 2-716, Jud 15-801
10 ±40 Nazareth ins  Nazareth inscription  inscribed in Greek on marble from Kos island, but a French collector claims to have gotten it from Nazareth.
Edict of Caesar
It is my decision [concerning] graves and tombs, whoever has made them for the religious observances of parents, or children, or household members, that these remain undisturbed forever.  But if anyone legally charges that another person has destroyed, or has in any manner extracted those who have been buried, or has moved with wicked intent those who have been buried to other places, committing a crime against them, or has moved sepulcher-sealing stones, against such a person, I order that a judicial tribunal be created, just as [is done] concerning the gods in human religious observances, even more so will it be obligatory to treat with honor those who have been entombed.  You are absolutely not to allow anyone to move [those who have been entombed]. But if [someone does], I wish that [violator] to suffer capital punishment under the title of tomb-breaker.
It may have been a reaction to the desecration of the grave of Kos tyrant Nikias c.20BC or about stealing the body of Jesus.
photo: Cumont

50BC -50CE wikNI

0-50 wikNI
There is no record of Nazareth as a town outside of the NT until 221CE. wikNzr
10 SEPPHORIS Galilee, under construction by Antipas from 8, finished, becomes Antipas' capital. 10 ISBE 2-694
12 M. AMBIVIUS, 2nd prefect of Judea from 9, returns to Rome.  Annius RUFUS succeeds until 15. Ant 18:2:2     12 BAA, BBA 56, BI+N 199, IDB 3-893, jePr, rcHL, wikJRP     13 GHH
13 BETH HARAM rebuilt, completed, renamed JULIAS. 13 ISBE 2-694
Josephus thinks this city was named for Augustus' wife, rather than his dau, which may be why he called Livia Julia.
CONFUSION ALERT!  BETHSAIDA is also named Julias.
14 Aug 19 AUGUSTUS dies.   TIBERIUS succeeds until 37.
15±15  Assumption of Moses  written by a scribe or pharisee who sympathizes with the Essenes.  Possibly 2 separate works: Assumption & Testament.
Moses gives Joshua an apocalyptic review of Jewish history from Canaan to the end of the world.  Contains NO messianic hope.  Alluded to in Jude 9, but no extant MSS has a dispute over the body of Moses.  Final decision is determined by fight between God & the Demon.   
post-4BC ISBE 1-158     6-30 CBCNT 58, ENBD 1061
7-29 AΨΨ
pre-30 B76 2-936, IDB 3-451
15 SAUL of Tarsus attends school of Gamaliel in Jerusalem until 20. Ax 22:3 15 blbPl
15 Annius RUFUS, 3rd prefect of Judea from 12, ends.  Valerius GRATUS succeeds until 26. Ant 18:2:2     15 BAA 118, BBA 56, BI+N 200, BNTH 33, DGRBM 2-304, IDB 3-893, jePr, rcHL, wikJRP
15 ANNAS ben SETH, high priest from 6, deposed by Valerius Gratus, who appoints ISHMAEL ben Phabi successor, then ELEAZAR ben Annas until 16. Ant 18:2:2
15 BAA 118, BI+N 199, 200, BNTH 64, CBCNT 71, ENBD 39, FHBC 284, IDB 1-138, ISBE 1-128, 2-1051, Jud 2-922, 9-86, rcHL
ANNAS is still called HP after 15 in the NT.
16 ISHMAEL ben Phabi, high priest from 6, deposed by Valerius Gratus, who appoints ELEAZAR ben Annas until 17. Ant 18:2:2     16 BAA 118, BNTH 64, CBCNT 71, FHBC 284, Jud 2-922, 9-86, rcHL
17 ELEAZAR ben ANNAS, high priest of Judea from 16, deposed by prefect Valerius Gratus, who appoints SIMEON ben KIMHIT high priest until 18. Ant 18:2:2     17 BAA 118, BBA , BNTH 64, CBCNT 71, FHBC 285, rcHL
18 SIMEON ben KIMHIT, high priest of Judea from 16, deposed by prefect Valerius Gratus, who appoints son-in-law of Annas, Joseph CAIAPHAS high priest until 36. Ant 18:2:2     17 MCAW
18 BAA 118, BBA 92, BI+N 200, BNTH 34, 64, CBCNT 71, 104, FHBC 285, IDB 1-481, ISBE 1-570, Jud 5-19, rcHL
c.18 ARETAS-IV, king of Nabatea 4BC-40CE, lavishly entertains GERMANICUS. 18 CHA 10-730
c.18  Universal History  by Nicolaus of Damascus published.  144 books from earliest times to death of Herod the Great.  It will be used by Josephus. 18 MCAW
c.18 City of TIBERIAS begun at southwest shore of Sea of Galilee by Herod Antipas as a gentile city.  Built over a cemetery, therefore unclean to Jews.  Finished 22. 14 Jud 15-1131 18 CBCNT 53, MCAW, ISBE 4-847
19 B76 IX-994
22 MUTC 24
c.22 City of TIBERIAS, begun 18 at southwest shore of Sea of Galilee over a cemetery, therefore unclean to Jews.  Finished.   See 39. 18 Jud 15-1131     20 ENBD 1275 22 BAA 128, BI+N 203, BNTH 27, ENBS 522, ISBE 4-847, MUTC 24 25 IDB 2-347, 4-639, ISBE 2-694
22 Temple of ZEUS begun at Gerasa. 22 ISBE 2-448
23 Herod ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea, enroute to Rome, lodges with either bro Herod-II or half bro Philip, gets hot for his wife Herodias, though currently married to Phasaelis dau of Aretas-IV. 23 BAA 128
23 JEWS in Strabo's  Geographical Sketches 
"They have penetrated to every country, and it would be hard to find anywhere in the world a place that has not had to endure this race, and in which it did not strive for mastery."
20 MNDQ 610
23 Sep Herod Julius AGRIPPA, still heavily in debt, returns from Rome to family estates at Maltha fortress in Idumea until 26.  He marries Cypros. 23 BAA 242, BI+N 204, ENBD 523, GHH, ISBE 2-696, Jud 2-415
25 Capital of Galilee, Sepphoris from ?, moved to Tiberias. 25 IDB 2-345, 4-639
c.26 Valerius GRATUS, 4th prefect of Judea from 15, ends.  Pontius PILATE succeeds until 36.  He has 5,000 inf and 120 cav at Caesarea, and a small detachment at fortress Antonia Jerusalem. Ant 18:2:2, Lk 3:1     25 GHH     26 B76 VII-1005, 2-948, BAA 108, 118, BI+N 199, BNTH 34, 64, CAH 10-751, CBCNT 104, CDCC 708, DGRBM 3-496, IDB 3-811, 893, ISBE 2-923, 4-848, JZ 68, MCAW, MUTC 28, WHCC 14, jePr, rcHL, wikHAnt, wikJRP     26/7 ISBE 3-867     27 DGRBM 2-304
26 Pontius PILATE, prefect of Judea 26-36, leads army from Caesarea to Jerusalem to quarter for winter.  He takes his standards with their Celtic images with him, angering the Jews.  He leaves the standards there, and returns to Caesarea. Ant 18:3:1, Wars 2:9:2 26 JZ 69
26 Jews of Jerusalem stage orderly demonstration, march to Caesarea, ask Pilate to withdraw Roman insignia.  Pilate refuses, because it would be an insult to the EmperorJews sit down Pilate threatens them with death.  They remain 6 days. Wars 2:9:3 26 JZ 70
26 Pilate withdraws Roman insignia from Jerusalem.  Wars 2:9:3     26 JZ 70
26 High Priest VESTMENTS are confiscated by the procurator until 36. 26 guess
26 Herod Julius AGRIPPA, in Idumea from 23, returns to Rome to seek court favor; wife Cypros remains in Judea. 26 GHH
c.26 JOHN the BAPTIST begins ministry in the wilderness of Judea until 28. 26 CBCNT 118, FHBC 259, GHH, MCAW, Qlb 31     27 BAA, BNTD 12, MCAW     26-8 ISBE 2-1109 28 IDB 1-9   29 CBCNT 104
15th year of Tiberius (ruled 14-37) Luke 3:4
28/9 according to Luke, or 27 if co-regency of Augustus and Tiberius is included. wikHAnt
c.27 JESUS, at Bethabara baptized by John, goes into wilderness 40 days. Mt 3:3-16, Mk 1:9, Lk 3:21
26 CBCNT 102     27 ENBD 622, GHH, IDB 1-603, TToH     27/8 B76 2-948     28 BAA     28/9 Jud 10-11 29 ENBD 227
NOT at Bethany, as John says (Jn 1:28).  No site east of the Jordan has been identified as Bethany. bibleplaces
c.27 John the Baptist, next day after seeing Jesus, tells 2 of his disciples including Andrew, "Look, the lamb of God".  Andrew and the other disciple follow Jesus. Jn 1:35
26 CBCNT 102
c.27 Andrew tells bro Simon, "We have found the messiah.", brings Simon to Jesus. Jn 1:41
c.27 Next day after Simon introduced, Jesus walks from Jordan river into Galilee. Jn 1:43 28 BAA
c.27 Jesus, in, or enroute to Galilee, tells Philip to follow him. Jn 1:43
c.27 JESUS begins ministry. 26 or 29 GSNT 19     27 Qlb 31 27/8 B76 2-948     28 BAA
c.27 3rd day after Andrew followed Jesus, they are at a wedding in Cana Galilee.  Water to wine. Jn 2:1     26 CBCNT 102
c.27 JESUS in Galilee, goes from Cana to Capernaum, heals a nobles son. Jn 4:46-54
27 CBCNT 102
c.27 JESUS in Galilee, goes from Capernaum to Nazareth, speaks in a synagogue, taken to be stoned, leaves, goes back to Capernaum. Mt 4:13, Mk 1:21-25, Lk 4:31, Jn 2:12     26 MUTC 113     27 CBCNT 102, MCAW     28 GHH
c.27 JESUS at Capernaum in Galilee, expells a demon, goes to Peter's house, heals his mom-in-law and others, goes to the desert, preaches in Galilee synagogues, back to Capernaum.  Matthew joins disciples. Mt 8-9, Mk 1:29-2:14, Lk 4:32-44 27 CBCNT 102
c.27 JESUS in Galilee, goes to sea, catches fish, impresses disciples. Mt 8:23, Lk 5:1-11
27 CBCNT 102
c.27 Philip tells Nathaniel about Jesus. Jn 1:44
c.27 JESUS goes from ??? to Jerusalem 2nd time. Jn 5:1     28 BAA
c.27 JESUS in Jerusalem meets Nicodemus. Jn 2:23 - 3:21     27 CBCNT 102
c.27 Jesus & Baptist both preach in Judea. Jn 3:22-26
c.27 LYSANIAS becomes tetrarch of Abilene until 28 Ant 20:7:1
27 ENBD 761
c.27 HERODIAS, wife of either HEROD-II (Lk 3:19) or HEROD PHILIP (Mt 14:3, Mk 6:17) from 2, divorced. 14 wikHAnt 23 nweHds post-31 Jud 8-388
no date: wikHds
Herod-II is son of Herod-I & Malthace, and full bro of Antipas.   Herod Philip is son of Herod-I and Cleo, and therefore half bro of Antipas.
c.27 Herod ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea, married to Phasaelis dau of Aretas-IV from ?, dumps her, and marries HERODIAS, divorcee of either his bro Herod-II or half-bro Herod Philip. 14 MCAW     25 jeHA1
27 ISBE 2-699
34 CAH 10-744
c.28 John the Baptist, preaching from 27, imprisoned by Herod Antipas.     Mt 4:12, Mk 1:4, Lk 4:14 27 CBCNT 118     28 BAA, ISBE 2-1110 30 CBCNT 104
c.28 After the Baptist is imprisoned, Jesus goes from Judea to Samaria, talks to woman at well, goes to Galilee.
Mt 4:12, Mk 1:14-18, Lk 4:14
28 BAA
c.28 Jesus goes from Capernaum to a solitary place.  Simon & companions go to same place, find Jesus, tell him everyone is looking for him.   Mk 1:35-6, Lk 4:42
c.28 Jesus in Galilee by Sea, gets in Simon's boat, preaches to crowd, tells Simon to sail out to catch fish, catches a lot of fish.   Lk 5:2-3
c.28 Jesus in Galilee, walks by Sea, tells Simon & Andrew to follow him, tells James & John to follow him.   Mt 4:18-22, Mk 1:15-18
c.28 JESUS chooses the 12. Mk 3:13-19, Lk 6:12-15 28 CBCNT 102
c.28 Jesus goes from Galilee to Jerusalem for Passover. 29 BAA, TTPC
c.28 Mar 1st PASSOVER of Jn 2:13.  Jesus cleans the temple again. 28 BNTD 12, GHH     29 TTPC     30 CBCNT 104
ONE temple cleaning 27 or 29 FHBC 294
28 2nd PASSOVER: Jesus is at Sea of Galilee.      31 CBCNT 104
28±9 SCRIPTURE in 4 Maccabees 18:10-16, divided into LAW and PROPHETS, despite including Psalms, Proverbs, and DANIEL. no date: Jud 4-821
c.28 JOHN the Baptist beheaded by Herod Antipas. 27 MCAW     28         pre-29 ISBE 2-1110     29 GHH, Jud 10-160       31/2 CBCNT 104, ISBE 2-695
because he criticized Antipas for marrying his bro's wife - Herodias. gospels
because Antipas fears a rebellion. Josephus
29 15th year of Tiberius, in which Luke says:
Pilate is governor of Judea.  [correct]
Herod [Antipas] is tetrarch of Galilee.  [correct]
Philip is tetrarch of Iturea & Trachonitis.  [correct]
Lysanias is tetrarch of Abilene.  [probably]
Annas & Caiaphas are high priests.  [Caiaphas is hp]
Lk 3:1
27/8 ISBE 1-42
28/9 B76 10-148, Dur 3-558
29 B76 2-948
August 19, 28CE to August 18, 29CE IDB 1-601
29 Herod ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea 4BC-39CE goes to Rome. 29 ISBE 2-695
29 JABNEH (Jamnia), under Livia from 10, bequeathed to her son Tiberius. 29 Jud 9-1176
30 PASSOVER is in early April.  Jesus is in Jerusalem. Jn 2:13 30 BNTH 188, ENBD 227
30 Jesus appears before Antipas in Jerusalem. 30 BI+N 203
Unscrambling the chronology of Jesus' ministry has already been attempted many times by people with more motivation than I have.
His ministry may have lasted 1 year, as indicated by the Synoptics, or 3 years, as indicated by Gospel of John. B76 2-948
30 SHAMMAI dies, Zugot 10BC-10CE. 30 Jud 14-1291, ISBE 2-716
30 SIMON, Nasi from 10, ends.  Rabban GAMALIEL-I the Elder succeeds until ?. 30 rcHL
30 SANHEDRIN loses authority to inflict capital punishment.
Quoted from Jerusalem Talmud. Mishna v4, Philip Blackburn p233
30 BNTH 200
30/1 JESUS is in Samaria. Jn 4:35 30 BNTH 200
31±3 Herod ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea 4BC-39CE, appoints bro-in-law AGRIPPA-I market overseer of Tiberias in Galilee. 27-30 ISBE 2-696
3? Jud
c.31 SAUL of Tarsus becomes a pharisee. Phil 3:5     31 blbPl
32 Pontius PILATE, prefect of Judea 26-36, sets on the former palace of Herod some gilded shields with no image or emblem, but an inscription with name of Tiberius and the man who dedicated the shields. 32 JZ 72
32 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, market overseer of Tiberias, goes to Syria, stays with legate Flaccus until 36, accumulates debts. 32 Jud 3-443 32/3 ISBE 2-696
32 4 Herodian princes head a delegation to Caesarea, ask Pilate to remove the shields.  Pilate refuses.  They charge Pilate to show authority for the act.  They threaten to appeal to Tiberius.  They go to Rome and do so. 32 JZ 72
32±3 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, market overseer of Tiberias, quarrels with bro-in-law ANTIPAS. 3? Jud
32/3 ANTIPAS and Herod Julius AGRIPPA, both get drunk at a banquet.  Antipas shames Agrippa for his poverty, and rubs his nose in his dependence on Antipas. 32/3 ISBE 2-696
33 Apr 3 Lunar eclipse, 6:20pm.' It was 20% visible as far west as Jerusalem. 33 Apr 3 wikCJ
The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood... Ax 2:20
33 DAMASCUS, under Rome 30BC-37CE comes under Aretas-IV. 33 ENBD 289
c.33 Apr JESUS crucified, on Golgotha knoll north of Jerusalem Friday, April 3, about 2:00 in the afternoon.  Jerusalem remains church center until 44. 29 WHCC 19     29/30 MUTC 113, Qlb 31, 35
30 Apr 3 CBCNT 129, GHH     30 Apr 4 MCAW     30 Apr 7 IDB 1-603     30 B76 2-948, BAA, BNTH 201, CAH 10-851, CDCC 472, FHBC 320, ISBE 1-43, Jud 10-11, TToH, gnwd     29-33 ODCC 737     30-33 CBCNT 118, GSNT 19, wikJRP
30 or 33 BNTH 36, ENBD 224     32 mtmg
33 BNTH 36, CAH 10-649, CBCNT 104, 129, ENBD 227, GSNT 318, JZ 75     30-36 wikCJ
Mk, Mt, & Lk say that on Friday Joseph of Arimathea gets Jesus' body from Pilate, wraps it, and puts it in a tomb.  Apparently the disciples help, because they then roll a stone in front of it.  At sunrise Sunday morning, some women bring embalming spices to the tomb, expecting easy access to the body.  Why didn't the disciples tell their women to either quit preparing embalming spices, or take some men with them to roll the stone away?  John resolves the problem by embalming the body on Friday, at the price of contradicting Mk and Lk.  In all 4 gospels, Jesus resurrects at least one full day sooner than he predicted. essay
33 On the Monday after crucifixion, 2 second class disciples on the road to Emmaus encounter the resurrected Jesus.  But they don't recognize him.  Toward evening, he has supper with them, and they recognixe him.  Jesus disappears.  The 2 return to Jerusalem and tell the 11 primary disciples.  Jesus appears and convinces them that it's really him.  He then walks with them to Bethany and ascends into heaven. Lk 24
33 But Jesus comes back.  He stays with the disciples 40 days.  On the 40th day they are on the Mount of Oives.  Jesus tells them to stay in Jerusalem until they are baptized with the Holy Spirit, which is to happen in a few days.  Jesus ascends again and disappears into a cloud. Ax 1:1-12
33 The 11 disciples want a 12th to replace Judas.  They choose 2 candidates, and cast lots to let God determine which gets promoted.  Matthias becomes 12th disciple. Ax 1:23-26
33 May 24 PENTECOST:  The disciples gather in a house in expectation of some Holy Spirit event, as Jesus foretold.  Either some spooky stuff happens, or they imagine spooky stuff.  They get worked up, and pray loudly, attracting a crowd outside.  Peter tells them the Holy Spirit is being poured out as propesied in Joel 2:28.  The crowd (including many foreigners) joins in the praying, often in their various native languages.  The locals don't understand those languages, but want to join in the holy hooplah, so they start blabbering in gibberish, which escalates the phenomenon.  About 3,000 turn Ctn. 
OR... maybe it happend exactly as the book of Acts says.  In any case, blabbering gibberish is now believed to be evidence of being full of the Holy Spirit, and is called the "gift of tongues".
Ax 2
30 CBCNT 127, 129, ENBD 964, gnwd 33 CBCNT 129
33 May? PETER & JOHN go to the temple, heal a lame man.  Peter preaches to crowd.  They are arrested by the Sanhedrin.  More converts are made, bringing the total to 5,000 men.  Women and kids are not counted. Ax 3:1-4:4
31 gnwd
33 CBCNT 129
33 May? PETER & JOHN are interrogated by the Sanhedrin.  The crowd is unruly, partly because the healed man is present.  Sanhedrin tells P & J to keep quiet.  P & J refuse.  Sanhedrin threatens.  P & J ignore them, and preach to the crowd.  Sanhedrin fears the crowd, and lets them go. Ax 4 31 gnwd 34/5 CBCNT 129
33 Ctn converts give money to the apostles.  Ananias and wife Saphira claim to have given more than they actually gave, and die by supposedly supernatural means.  People bring sick and afflicted people to the apostles, who allegedly heal all of them.  Sanhedrin arrests some apostles, but they are broken out of jail by "angels", and return to preach in the temple.  Sanhedrin is divided until pharisee Gamaliel advises them to let it go, and see what comes of it.  The apostles are beaten, released, and return to preach every day. Ax 5 33 gnwd 33/4 CBCNT 129
33 Greek Ctns complain to apostles because their widows are not getting their share of charity.  Apostles appoint 7 men to oversee it. Ax 6:1-7 33 gnwd, 34/5 CBCNT 129
33 Jews from outside of Judea learn of the Ctns, and many come to Jerusalem to debate.  Stephen stands out as chief Ctn apologist. Ax 6 34 gnwd
33±1 Joseph CAIAPHAS, high priest 18-36, grants to SAUL of Tarsus letters of introduction to the synagogue of Damascus, and authority to extradite Ctns in chains to Jerusalem. Ax 9:1
33±1 First Jewish persecution of the Ctns; STEPHEN martyred, convicted of blasphemy by Sanhedrin, stoned to death.  SAUL of Tarsus present.  PETER is now officially the head of the church at Jerusalem until 43. Ax 7:58-8:1     32 blbPl
32/3 CBCNT 127
33 BNTH 294, MCAW 32-5 CBCNT 118 34 GHH, gnwd 35 DDS 531, CBCNT 129 36 B76 IX-555
33±1 SAUL of Tarsus goes toward Damascus, sees a bright light and is blinded.  He sees Jesus and converts to Cty.  His companions take him to Damascus, where after 3 days, a Ctn named Ananias takes him in, and says the Holy Spirit told him to.  Saul gets his sight back, and stays with some Ctns. Ax 9:1-19     33 BAA, ISBE 1-43, 3-709, MCAW     33-5 CBCNT 118, 127     34 blbPl, gnwd 34/5 ENBD 225
34-6 ISBE 1-288     35 CBCNT 129, GHH, WHCC 25, clwa, gnwd 36 civPl     37 mtmg
33±1 SAUL of Tarsus goes to Arabia, returns to Damascus, starts preaching, stays 3 years. Gal 1:17, Ax 9:20-25, 2Cor 11:32     33 BBA     33/4 FHBC 320     34 blbPl35 CBCNT 127, gnwd 37 mtmg 38 gnwd
c.33 AQUEDUCT built at Jerusalem by Pilate, using temple funds. 33 MCAW
c.33 Peter first preaches Christianity to Gentiles at Cesarea. 33 GHH
c.33 Son of Herod-I & Malthace, HEROD-II dies. 33 wikHds
c.34 Son of Herod-I & Cleo, Herod PHILIP dies childless.  Tetrarch of Iturea, Trachonitis, Gaulanitis, Auranitis, Batanaea from 4 BC.  His tetrarchy comes under the governor of Syria until 37. Ant 18:4:6     33 CAH 10-744, GHH
33/4 ENBD 984     34 B76 VII-940, 10-147, 17-950, BBA 456, BI+N 203, BNTH 27, CAH 10-751, DGRBM 3-272, HRRP 4.1-361, IDB 1-480, 2-591, 773, 3-785, 4-677, ISBE 2-695,6, 923, Jud 8-390, LEWH, MUTC 23, jeHP, rcHL, wikHrD, wikPhT     37 B76 2-948
34 DAMASCUS:  Coins showing Roman occupation are lacking until 62. 34 BAA 197, BBA 192, ENBD 945
35±1 Aretas, governor of Damascus, and his garrison, and the Jews want to kill SAUL.  Christians let him down the wall in a basket at night. Ax 9:25, 2Cor 11:32, Gal 1:18
36 dnt     38 clwa, gnwd     40 OCD 104
35±1 SAUL, in Damascus from 34?, returns to Jerusalem.  He is feared by disciples until Barnabas vouches for him.  Peter and James accept him.  He lives with Peter 15 days, sees no other apostles but James bro of Jesus.  Saul disputes with Hellenizers until they try to kill him. Ax 9:25, Gal 1:18
35 BAA, ISBE 1-43, 3-709     36 MCAW
37 CBCNT 129, blbPl
37/8 ENBD 225     38 civPl, clwa, gnwd     40 OCD 104, mtmg
35±1 Because of death threats, Christians take SAUL from Jerusalem to Caesarea.  He sails to Tarsus Cilicia, and does not return for 14 years. Ax 9:30, Gal 1:21 36 MCAW
37 CBCNT 129, blbPl     38 civPl, clwa, gnwd
36 IZATES, son of Monobaxus & Helena, becomes king of Adiabene until 60. 35 Jud 9-1157 36 Jud 2-267
36 SAMARITANS, led by a prophet to believe some sacred vessels traditionally hidden on Mt. Gerizim would be revealed by the Messiah.  They assemble armed, climb the mount, expecting a messianic move against Romans.  Pilate sends troops to Mt. Gerizim, which kill some and capture others who are later executed.  Ant 18:4:1-2 36 B76 VII-1005, ENBD 1132, JZ 80
36 SAMARITANS send embassy to Syria, complain to L. Vitellius about Pilate  Vitellius sends Marcellus to Judea to remove Pilate Ant 18:4:2 36 JZ 80
36 5th prefect of Judea from 26, Pontius PILATE deposed by order of Vitellius via Marcellus, recalled to Rome for trial.  MARCELLUS succeeds until 37. Ant 18:4:2     36 B76 2-948, BAA 108, BI+N 199, CAH 10-650, 751, CDCC 708, DGRBM 3-496, IDB 3-811, 893, ISBE 1-689, 923, 3-867, JZ 80, MCAW, WHCC 14, rcHL, wikHAnt, wikJRP     36/7 BBA 159     37 BAA, GHH, MUTC 29, jePr
36 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, with Flaccus in Syria from 33, leaves unpaid debts in Syria, borrows some money, goes to Rome until 38, intending to accuse Antipas to Tiberius. Wars 2:9:5
35/6 ISBE 2-696
36 B76 V-3, BAA 242, CAH 10-642, ENBD 523, IDB 2-591, Jud 2-416, jeHA1
36 Joseph CAIAPHAS, high priest from 18, deposed for unknown reason by L. Vitellius, who appoints JONATHAN ben Annas high priest until 37. Ant 18:4:3     36 BAA 118, BBA 92, 129, BI+N 200, BNTH 34, 64, CBCNT 71, FHBC 285, ISBE 1-570, 689, Jud 5-19, 10-185, rcHL     36/7 IDB 1-481
36 L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-40, abolishes a market tax, returns high priest vestments that had been confiscated in 26.  They remain under Jews until 44. 36 BNTH 63, CAH 10-650
36 late ARETAS-IV, king of Nabatea 4BC-40CE, still angry at Antipas for divorcing his daughter, 27, invades Perea, destroys army of Antipas.  News gets to Rome. Ant 28:5:1     36 BI+N 203, BNTH 30, CAH 10-744, ENBD 80, 523, IDB 2-591, ISBE 2-696, Jud 3-76     37 CAH 10-730
36 late Destruction of Antipas' army by Aretas-IV is seen by some of the Jews as divine retribution at Antipas for killing John the Baptist. Ant 28:5:2
c.37 L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-9, is ordered by Tiberius to punish Aretas-IV for attacking AntipasMarches south toward Ptolemais. 37 ISBE 2-696, Jud 3-76
37 L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-40, assembles 2 legions plus auxiliaries at Ptolemais, intending to march across Judea to NabateaHigh priest JONATHAN asks him to go around Judea because the images on their insignia would violate the 2nd commandment. 37 BNTH 31, 65, JZ 81
37 Mar 16 TIBERIUS dies.   CALIGULA succeeds until 41.
37 Apr L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-40, complies with Jonathan's request, marches his 2 legions north of Judea. 37 BNTH 31, CAH 10-650, JZ 81
37 Apr L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-40, visits Jerusalem 3 days for Passover, well received by Jews, offers sacrifices to Yahweh.  On the 4th day he learns of death of Tiberius, commands Jews to swear allegiance to Caligula, abandons expedition to Nabatea, returns to Antioch. Ant 18:4:3, 5:3
36 BAA 119, GHH 37 BNTH 31, DGRBM 1-278, Jud 5-60, ISBE 2-696, JZ 82
37 JONATHAN ben Annas, high priest from 36, deposed by L. Vitellius, who appoints his bro THEOPHILUS ben Annas high priest until 41. Ant 18:5:3     37 BAA 118, 119, BI+N 200, BNTH 64, CBCNT 71, FHBC 285, Jud 5-19, 10-185, JZ 82, rcHL
37 6th prefect of Judea from 36, MARCELLUS ends.  P. MARULLUS succeeds until 41. 37 BAA, GHH, IDB 3-893, jePr, rcHL, wikJRP     38 GSNT
37 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, imprisoned in Rome from 36, is released by Caligula, remains in Rome until 38. 37 B76 , CAH 10-751, GHH, Jud 2-415
37 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, still in Rome, is given by Caligula, the title of king until 41.  His kingdom includes the tetrarchy of Philip (Iturea, Trachonitis, Gaulanitis, Auranitis (Hauran), Batanaea); Galilee, and the former tetrarchy of Lysanias (Abilene). Ant 18:7:2     37 B76 V-3 BAA 128, BBA 232, 456, CAH 10-751, DGRG 1-4, ENBD 523, 984, GHH, IDB 2-537, 4-677, 591, ISBE 1-9, 42, 633, 2-696, 3-763, Jud 2-415, 8-390, jeHP     40 Jud 8-388     41 BBA 220, wikHrD
37 BATANAEA, under the governor of Syria from 33, given to Agrippa-I. 37 MUTC 23
37 ABILENE, in tetrarchy of Lysanias under the governor of Syria from 4BC, given to Agrippa-I until 44. 37 DGRG 1-4, IDB 1-9, ISBE 1-9 41 ISBE 2-940
37 ARETAS-IV, king of Nabatea 4BC-40CE, permitted by Caligula to reoccupy Damascus.  Nabateans remain there until 54. 37 B76 5-447, IDB 3-492
no date: OCD 311
37 ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea, informs Caligula of his alleged treaty with Parthia before Vitellius does, which gets Vitellius mad at Antipas. 37 Jud 3-76
37 Contentions between Jews and Greeks in eastern cities. 37 GHH
c.37  4th Book of Maccabees  written in Greek, in oratorical style, by a Jewish Stoic.  A diatribe on supremacy of reason over emotion.  Asserts immortality of the soul, but never mentions resurrection of the dead.  Wrongly ascribed to Josephus by Eusebius and Jerome. 63BC-38CE AΨΨ 654 18-37 IDB 3-214 37-41 B76 VI-431     20-130 wik4m
37/8 Joseph ben Matthias (JOSEPHUS) born to a Hasmonean family in Jerusalem. 37 CBCNT 53, GHH, wikJs     37/8 B76 10-277, IDB 2-987, ISB 2-1132
38 Kingdom of Soaemus of the Itureans siezed by Caligula. 38 IDB 2-773, ISBE 2-940
c.38 Apostle PHILIP goes to Samaria, preaches, does miracles, makes converts, including a sorcerer named Simon.  News gets to Jerusalem.  Peter & John go to Samaria, and show Ctns how to get the Holy Spirit.  How is not mentioned, but we may assume it's the "gift of tongues".  Simon is impressed, and wants to buy into the Holy Spirit franchise.  P & J tell him he doesn't get it.  P & J return to Jerusalem. Ax 8:5-25 34 gnwd
38 IDB 1-249
c.38 Apostle PHILIP goes south, meets an Ethiopian eunuch, who happens to be reading Isaiah.  Philip converts him, then goes to Azotus (Ashdod), then turns north toward Caesarea.  Ax 8:25-40
34 gnwd
38 IDB 1-249
38 Jul Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 37-44, in Rome from 36, leaves Rome 1 step ahead of creditors for his tetrarchy via Alexandria. 37 CAH 10-310, IDB 2-591
38 Aug Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 37-44, escapes from Alexandrian riots to Judea. 38 IDB 2-591, 2, ISBE 2-696,7
38 HERODIAS, sis of Agripp-I and wife of Antipas, is miffed because Agrippa was made king, goads husband Antipas, to go to Rome and get a crown of his own. 38 ISBE 2-696
c.38 ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea, goaded by Herodias, goes to Rome to solicit Caligula for promotion from tetrarch to king.  Herodias accompanies. Ant 18:7:2     29 MUTC 24 38 DGRBM 2-428, GHH 39 ISBE 2-696, 7
40 Jud 8-388
39 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I sends freedman Fortunatus to Rome to accuse uncle Antipas of a conspiracy with the Parthians against Rome. 29 MUTC 24
39 GHH, ISBE 2-696,7, wikCal
39 Herod ANTIPAS, tetrarch of Galilee & Perea from 4 BC, in Rome 38-9, is deposed by Caligula, and his tetrarchy annexed to Agrippa-I's dominions. Ant 18:7:2     38 ISBE 2-940
39 B76 2-948, 10-147, BAA 128, 242, BBA 245, BI+N 205, CAH 10-744, ENBD 523, GHH, IDB 1-61, ISBE 2-696, MCAW, MUTC 24, rcHL, wikHAnt, wikJRP
39 GADARA, part of Galilee from 4 BC, comes under tetrarchy of Antipas. 39 rcJdn
39 Herod ANTIPAS, in Rome from 38, banished by Caligula to Lugdunum GaulHis wife from 29 HERODIAS chooses to accompany him. Ant 18:7:2     39 B76 V-4, 17-950, CAH 10-744, CBCNT 53, ENBD 523, FHBC 302, GHH, GSNT, IDB 2-591, ISBE 2-696, MUTC 25
banished to Spain Wars 2:9:6, wikHrD
c.39 PETER goes to Lydda, heals lame man named Aeneas.  Peter is summoned to Joppa to resurrect a woman named Dorcas.  He does so, and stays at Joppa with a tanner named Simon. Ax 9:32-43 39 gnwd
c.39 Centurion CORNELIUS at Caesarea is a proscelite of John the Baptist.  He has a good reputation.  An angel tells him to send servants to Joppa and fetch Peter.  He does so.  At Joppa, Peter dreams of being told to kill and eat non-kosher animals.  When Cornelius' servants arrive, Peter interprets the dream to mean it's OK to socialize and dine with gentiles.  He goes with them to Caesarea, meets Cornelius, converts him to Cty, and probably tells him about the "gift of tongues".  Bystanders, including gentiles, hear Peter and start blabbering in gibberish, which convinces Peter that they are full of the Holy Spirit.  So he baptizes them all, stays a few days, and returns to Jerusalem. Ax 10:1-48 33 GHH 39 gnwd
c.39 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 37-44, gets tetrarchies of Antipas including:  Galilee, Perea, Sepphoris, Tiberias. Ant 18:7:2, Wars 2:9:6
39 ISBE 3-763, Jud 2-416, jeHA1wikCal     40 CAH 10-744, 751, rcHL
c.39 TIBERIAS, capital of Galilee from 22, comes under Agrippa-I until he dies 44. 39 Jud 15-1132
39 late Gentiles of JAMNIA (Jabneh), send envoys to Rome to complain to Caligula that their Jews refused to let them to set up altars for emperor worship. 39 CAH 10-752
c.40 Ctn Jews in Jerusalem learn that Peter had dined with gentiles in Caesarea, and demand explanation.  Peter recites his Joppa-Caesarea experience, and convinces them that gentiles are OK with Jesus. Ax 11:1-18 40 gnwd
40 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, king 37-44, sails from Judea to Italy until Oct 41. 40 implied
40 CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41 orders his statue erected in the temple at Jerusalem. 40 B76 II-459, BAA 14, CDCC 475, IDB 1-14, ISBE 3-714, vrmCal
c.40 P. PETRONIUS, governor of Syria 39-42, with 2 legions and 1 Syrian legion to overcome resistance.  He marches as far as Ptolemais, sees that the Jews have left their sowing to defend the temple. Wars 2:10:1
39/40 JZ 85     40 BNTH 234, 254, CAH 10-496, 662-3, Jud 2-415
40 Jewish delegation including Aristobulus goes to Ptolemais, asks Petronius to rescind Caligula's statue order. 40 GHH, Jud 3-443
40 Embassy of Jews to Caligula at Rome. 40 GHH
c.40 Learning that Ctn Judaizers are increasing in Antioch, the Ctns at Jerusalem send Barnabas to set them straight.  Ax 11:19-22
40 gnwd
41 CBCNT 129 43 clwa
40 P. PETRONIUS sends a letter to Caligula asking him to postpone the statue construction until after harvest, so crops won't be wasted.  Caligula insists that the statue take precedence. Wars 2:10:1
39/40 JZ 85     40 BNTH 234, 254, CAH 10-496, 662-3, GHH, Jud 2-415
40 P. PETRONIUS at Ptolemais tells the stone cutters of Sidon to take their time, and make a true masterpiece. 40 Jud 5-61
40 P. PETRONIUS at Ptolemais is so impressed with the Jews determination to die rather than surrender that he withdraws the army to Antioch. Wars 2:10:5
40 The Ctns are first called Christians at Antioch. Ax 11:20     39 Tacitus;
40 GHH     43 gnwd Others say 60CE.
40 King of Nabateans from 9 BC, ARETAS-IV dies.  MALIKU-III succeeds intil 70. 40 BAA 86, 205, BBA 58, 191, BI+N 203, BNTH 28, CAH 10-733, Dur 3-508, ENBD 80, 289, IDB 1-183, 218, 3-492, ISBE 1-690, 3-229, 468, Jud 3-407, MRDK 359, mtmg
40 Reversal of the statue decree of Caligula obtained by Herod Julius Agrippa-I now at Rome. 40 GHH
40 P. PETRONIUS at Ptolemais, not knowing that the statue order was rescinded, risks his life by writing to Caligula of dire consequences if the order is not rescinded. 40 BNTH 254, JZ 86
40 Ananias, Jew instructor of Izates, king of Adiabene, advises Izates to worship Yahweh, but not get circuncised, so as not to offend his subjects. Ant 20:2:4
40 BBA 287, BNTH 282
40 IZATES, king of Adiabene at Arbela 36-60, and mom Helena, convert to Judaism.  Dynasty remains loyal to Judea until 70. Ant 20:2:4
30 Jud 8-288
40 BBP 181, Jud 4-38
40 Jun Gentiles of Jamnia set up an altar to CaligulaJews destroy it.  Caligula is offended. 40 Jud 5-60
c.40  The Prophets  are translated into Aramaic by Jonathan ben Uzziel, pupil of Hillel. no date: Jud 10-188

Levant 41-70