COINS under Augustus
coin value in asses value in sesterces metal weight in grams CDCC 214

Jan 1
CONSULS:  C. CAESAR (now in Asia) and bro-in-law L.() AEMILIUS PAULUS 1 DGRBM 1-556, 2-769, FHBC 84, OCD 792, about, wikCon, wikLAP
Jan 1
CONSULS:  P. Alfenus VARUS and P. Vinicius
Suffete: P. Cornelius Lentulus Scipio
2 DGRBM 3-1228, FHBC 84, OCD 45, about, wikCon
 2 Portico of Caius and Lucius built in front of Basilica Aemilia in the Forum. 2BC scrs
2 CAH 10-936
2 Aug 20 Adopted son of Augustus, consul-elect, LUCIUS CAESAR dies of illness at Massilia, enroute to an appointment in SpainBro Caius is now heir apparent until 4. 2 B76 2-371, CAH 10-157, DGRBM 1-556, 3-1118, Dur 3-231, GHH, HRE 53, LEWH 115, MCAW, OCD 150, 191, SORH, reTi, wikAg, wikAP, wikTi
 2 AUGUSTUS, yielding to nagging wife Livia, allows her son Tiberius to return to Rome. 2 CAH 10-609, Dur 3-23i, reTi
 2 TIBERIUS, on Rhodes from 6BC, returns to Rome lives there in retirement until 4. 2 DGRBM 3-1118, HRE 54, MCAW, SORH, anhiTi, reTi
c.2 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS is sent to Syria, to be tutor to Caius Caesar until 4. 2 IDB 3-976
c.2 Palace of Augustus on the Palatine from 27 BC, destroyed by fire that also damages Temple of Cybele. 2 DGRG 2-803, CAH 10-136
3 wikHA
 2 Temple of CYBELE (Magna Mater) on west slope of the Palatine Hill, restored from 28, damaged by fire. 28 CAH 10-136
Jan 1
Suffete: L. Volusius Saturninus
3 DGRBM 2-239, 714, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
 3 Agrippa POSTUMUS, age 15, gets toga virilis.  His name is added to the list of aristocratic youth eligible for training as military officers. 5 wikAP
 3 PRINCIPATE of Augustus expires, and is renewed by senate, this time for 10 years, with no co-regency. 3 CAH 10-157, OCD 150, SORH
Jan 1
CONSULS:  Sex. AELIUS CATULUS and C. SENTIUS SATURNINUS 4 DGRBM 1-656, 3-725, FHBC 84, about, wikCon, wikGSS
4 Feb 21 1st son of Agrippa & Julia, and heir apparent from 2, CAIUS CAESAR dies of a wound in Lycia.  Widow Livilla remarries same year.  Tiberius is now heir apparent.
 4  Lex Aelia Sentia    Completes restrictions on manumissions introduced by Lex Fufia Canina in 2 BC.  Prohibits any manumission to the detriment of the creditors of the slave's master and fixes minimnm age limits for the manumissor (20 years) and the slave (30 years).  Exceptions admitted when the reason for the manmission is justified and approved by a commission (consilium) appointed for these maners.  Slaves manumitted against the rules become Latini iunani, and in certain cases (previous conviction of a crime) they get the lowest degree of freedom, that of deditici.  See Norbana 19. 4 BNTH 236, CAH 10-894, DGRBM 3-725, EDRL 547, ERLG, HRE 63, MCAW, OCD 601, SHERL 66, 81, 667, SORH, wikLAS, wikLRL
 4 GERMANICUS writes a Latin (and much revised) version of Aratus'  Phaenomena  (275BC), which survives. 4 wikGrm
 4 TIBERIUS, in retirement in Rome from 2, forced by death of Caius to return to public life. 2 HRE 54, wikAg
4 Jun 27 TIBERIUS and AGRIPPA POSTUMUS, age 16, are adopted by Augustus - Tiberius officially as heir.  4 CAH 10-157, CDCC 888, DGRBM 1-78, 3-1118, Dur 3-210, HRE 54, IDB 4-640, MCAW, OCD 31, SORH, reTi, wikAg, wikAP, wikGrm, wikTi
 4 On order of Augustus, GERMANICUS, son of Drusus & Antonia, is adopted by uncle TIBERIUS, as senior to Drusus, Tiberius' son by Vipsania.  4 B76 IV-499, CAH 10-157, DGRBM 2-258, 3-1118, HRE 54, HRRP 4.1-141, MCAW, OCD 465, SORH, wikAg, wikTi
 4 TIBERIUS receives tribunicia potestas 2nd time, this time for 10 years, He is made co-princep for 10 years, and given a 5 year command in Germany. 4 CAH 10-157, HRE 54, MCAW, SHWC 130, SORH, wikAg
 4 TIBERIUS sent to GermanyLegate C. Sentius Saturninus, and historian Velleius Paterculus accompany. 4 CAH 10-157, DGRBM 3-1118, GHH, HRE 54, HRRP 4.1-122, OCD 955, SORH
 4 Gn. Cornelius CINNA conspires.  He and his associates are pardoned.  4 HRE 60, SORH
4 Jun AUGUSTUS, dangerously ill, considers abdication of the consulate to the most distinguished men of republican sentiments, Gn. Calpurnius Piso and L. Sestius Quirinus for the rest of the year.  4 HRE 60
c.4 JULIA the Elder, only child of Augustus & Scribonia, exiled (with her mom) to Pandateria island off the coast of Campania from 2 BC, both allowed to come to mainland at Rhegium, where Augustus grants Julia property and a yearly income until his death in 14. 4 OCD 566, wikJE, wikScr
 4 Son of Tiberius, Nero Claudius DRUSUS changes name to DRUSUS Julius Caesar. 4 wikDJC
 4 Son of Tiberius, DRUSUS Julius Caesar marries cousin LIVILLA until his death 23.  She is widow of Caius Caesar from 4CE. 4 wikDJC, wikLvl, no date: OCD 614
4/5 C.(1) Asinius Pollio dies.,  In Italy from 39, dies age 79, in his Tusculan villa   Friend of Virgil and Horace. 4 DGRBM 3-438 5 HRE 151
Jan 1
Suffetes: C. Ateius Capito and C. Vibius Postumus
5 DGRBM 1-599, 755, 3-512, 1283, FHBC 84, OCD 202, 242, about, wikCon
 5 Consuls' term shortened to 6 months. 5 B76 15-1108
 5  Lex Valeria Cornelia  regarding voting in the Comitia Centuriata. 5 EDRL 560, OCD 333, 605, wikLRL, wikLVC
 5 Adopted son of Tiberius, GERMANICUS marries Vipsania AGRIPPINA (the Elder) until he dies 19.  She is dau of M. V. Agrippa & Julia, dau of Augustus. 5 CDCC 29, OCD 31, wikGrm no date: wikAE
 5 MILITARY SERVICE is increased from 16 years in 13BC to 20 years for legionaries, 25 for auxiliaries.  Praetorian time of service is increased from 12 to 16 years.  Legionaries get 10 asses per day + 3,000 denari gratuity.  Praetorians get 2 denari per day + 5,000 denari gratuity.  Retirement benefits are listed. 5 CDCC 113, HRE 69, 70, MCAW
 5 FAMINE & FLOODS in Rome. 5 MCAW
5 Jul C. Ateius Capito and C. Vibius Postumus become suffects consuls until December. 5 wikGAC
5±12 Livy publishes  History of Rome  in 142 books.
1-5:  Foundations to sack by Gauls 390 BC
6-10:  Samnite Wars       11-20:  lost
21-30:  2nd Punic to 201 BC
31-45:  to end of war with Perseus 167 BC
46-142:  lost
no date: B76 II-3
Jan 1
Suffete: L. Nonius Asprenas
6 DGRBM 1-353, 388, 2-769, FHBC 84, OCD 123, 597, about, wikCon
 6 Separate EMBASSIES from Judea and Samaria go to Rome to bring charges against ethnarch Archelaus, and request end of Herodian monarchy. 6 CAH 10-339, Jud 3-334, 853
 6 ARCHELAUS, ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, Idumea, summoned to Rome, to answer charges of cruelty.. 5 GHH
6 Jud 7-334
 6 Agrippa POSTUMUS, known for being brutish, insolent, stubborn, and potentially violent, is kicked out of the Julian clan, and banished to a villa at Surrentum, near Pompeii until 7. 6 wikAP
 6 P. Plautius Rufus reacts to the famine and fire with a revolutionary pamphlet campaign, which threatens the regime. 6 CAH 10-795
 6 FREE GRAIN, distributed to 150,000 in 44 BC, 200,000 in 2 BC, now distributed to 320,000.  Nearly a third of the city.  Rome imports @14,000,000 bushels per year for the city alone, 1/3 from Egypt, the rest mostly from North Africa.  This requires several hundred square miles of cropland. 6 TTPC
 6 Archelaus is banished to Vindobona (Vienna) until death 16. 6 GHH, IDB 2-591, Jud 3-334     7 DGRBM 1-261
 6 FIRE in Rome prompts Augustus to form 1st state fire department of professional firemen. 6 B76 15-1068, CDCC 349, wikGFR
 6 4% TAX on sale of slaves established by Augustus.  Proceeds are used to set up a new VIGILES force. 6 wikVg
 6 VIGILES, a firemen/police force of 6,000 slaves from 27 BC, reorganized into 7 military cohorts of watchmen, each cohort composed of 1000 to 1200 freedmen appointed by the Emperor.  These cohorts consist chiefly of freedmen.  Each cohort is divided into 7 centuries, 70-80 men each under a centurion.  They are quartered in 7 stations in the city, so that each cohort did service for 2 of the 14 regions into which Rome is divided.   See 22. 6 HRE 65, wikVg
 6 AUGUSTUS forms 8 new legions, making a total of 26.  . 6 HRE 72
 6 Cornelius Cossus Lentulus, gets a triumph and the surname Gaetulicus.  . 6 DGRG 1-925
 6 Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum, destroyed from 14 BC, rebuilt.  The twins are identified with Augustus' intended heirs, Gaius and Lucius Caesar.  The remains visible today are from the temple of Tiberius, except the podium, which is from the time of Metellus. 6 wikTCP
 6 AUGUSTUS is unable to meet demands of Dalmatian soldiers by ordinary means, and is driven to instituting a 2nd treasury, the AERARIUM MILITARE, with 170,000,000 sesterces to pay bonuses to retiring legionary veterans.  It is administered by 3 prefecti, chosen by lot, for 3 years, from praetorian senators.  Sources of revenue are a 5% tax on inheritances, and 1%, on auctions. 6 B76 I-111, 15-1109, HRE 70, LEWH
c.6  Lex Julia de vicesima hereditatum    All collegia (clubs) must be sanctioned by emperor or senate.  5% tax on testamentary inheritances, exempting close relatives. 6 ERLG, OCD 603, SHERL 81 7 CDCC 212, OCD 256
 6 Son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia the Elder, AGRIPPA POSTUMUS has affair with LIVILLA, wife of Drusus Caesar.  Caught.  Disinherited by Augustus and banished to a villa at Surrentum until 7. 6 wikAP, wikJE 6/7 reTi
no date OCD 31
Jan 1
CONSULS:  Q. Caecilius METELLUS CRETICUS SILANUS and A. LICINIUS NERVA Silianus 7 DGRBM 2-1065, 1169, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
c.7 C. VELLEIUS PATERCULUS is quaestor.  He is excused from drawing lots for a province, and serves as legate under Tiberius. 7 B76 X-382, DGRBM 3-134
 7 GERMANICUS becomes quaestor 5 years prematurely, and is sent to join uncle Tiberius in Illyricum until 9. 6 B76 IV-499, MCAW
7 DGRBM 1-475, 2-258, wikBB, wikGrm, wikIlrc
 7 Son of M. V. Agrippa & Julia the Elder, AGRIPPA POSTUMUS, banished to a villa at Surrentum from 6, condemned by senate to perpetual exile under high security on Planasia island in the Tuscan Archipelago until 14. 7 HRRP 4.1-142, OCD 31, wikAg, wikAP, wikTi
c.7 Parthian embassy arrives in Rome to ask for return of VONONES, eldest son of Phraates-IV (sent there in 9 BC) to be king of ParthiaAugustus complies.  Vonones sails east. 5 RPar 230 6-8 CAH 10-278
c.7 Office of PREFECT ANNONAE created by Augustus to manage grain supply.  2 former praetors to be appointed annually, with powers transferred from aediles' office. 7 mem, wikPrA 7/8 CDCC 353
7 Jan Porticus of Livia begun 15 BC on the Esquiline Hill, finished and dedicated by Augustus in honor of his wife Livia Drusilla.  Nothing remains of it. 7 CAH 10-937, wikPL
c.7 OVID completes  Metamorphoses    15 books in hexameter.
"Love and dignity cannot share the same abode.  You must go safely in the middle."   "None must be counted happy until his funeral rites are paid."
5 TToH     7 Dur 3-256, TTPC
8 B76 I-649, 13-799, TTPC
Jan 1
CONSULS:  M. Furius CAMILLUS and Sex. Nonius QUINTILLIANUS   Suffete: L. Apronius 8 DGRBM 1-251, 592, 3-636, FHBC 84, OCD 88, about, wikCon
 8 JULIAN Λ CALENDAR of 46 BC BC, made accurate, adopted by Augustus, remains in use in Europe until 1582. 8 B76 V-631, CDCC 159, Jud 16-1263
no date: TAWH 18
 8 CLAUDIUS, age 18, becomes augur. 8 MCAW
 8 ARCH of PAVIA erected to honor the Imperial clan. 19 wikCld
 8 M. Aemilius PAULUS dies.  Husband of Julia (dau of Agrippa & Julia) from 4 BC, allegedly plots against Augustus, caught, executed. 19 OCD 792, wikAP
 8 Dau of M. V. Agrippa & Julia dau of Augustus, wife of L. Aemilius Paullus, JULIA the Younger, banished for adultery with senator D. Junius Silanus to Trimerus island north of the spur until death 28. 8 OCD 567, Dur 3-232, wikAP, wikJE, wikLAP
 8 Son of C.J.S., bro of M.J.S., D. Junius SILANUS convicted of adultery with Julia, voluntarily exiled until 20. 19 OCD 989
 8 M. Valerius Messala CORVINUS dies. 8 B76 VI-821
 8 Another  Lex Fufia Caninia  by ?????, sets a fixed limit to the manumission of slaves by will.  Owner of 2-10 may free not more than 1/2.
Owner of 10-30 may free not more than 1/3.
Owner of 30-100 may free not more than 1/4.
Owner of 100-500 may free not more than 1/5.
8 HRE 63, SHERL 66, 182
8 Dec OVID banished to Tomi in Scythian Thrace on the Black Sea until death 17.  On notice of banishment, he destroys  Metamorphoses , but copies made by friends survive. 8 B76 13-799, CAH 10-534, 912, DGRBM 3-70, Dur 3-232, IR 107, TTPC
9 HRE 158, TToH
9 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Q. SULPICIUS CAMERINUS and C. Poppaeus SABINUS until July
Suffete: M. Papius Mutilus and Q. Poppaeus Secundus
9 CAH 10-184, DGRBM 3-119, 686, 691, 764, FHBC 84, about, wikCon, wikGPS
 9  Lex Papia Poppaea  by suffect consuls, M. Papius Mutilus and Q. Poppaeus Secundus, continues both Leges Julia 18 BC, by saying only those of senatorial rank may not marry X-slaves.  Deals with several problems connected with marriage and legal procreation.  Makes inheritance easier for celibates, but doubles the period in which widows and divorcees must remarry in order to inherit.  Establishes a system of rewards.  A father of 3 kids at Rome, is exempt from some public, burdens: not required to perform the duties of a judex or a guardian, and is given preference in standing for magistracies.  These privileges are called the ius trium liberorum.  Same privileges are granted to fathers of 4 children in Italy, or of 5 in the provinces. 9 BNTH 236, CAH 10-887, Dur 3-224, EDRL 553, ERLG 251, HRE 62, HRL 308, OCD 604, 650, SHERL 66, 81, wikLPP, wikLRL
9 BASILICA JULIA, finished 46 BC, burned, in ruins until 12. 9 wikBJ
Jul 1
CONSULS from Jan, Q. Sulpicius Camerinus and C. Poppaeus Sabinus are succeeded by C. POPPAEUS SABINUS and Q. POPPAEUS SECUNDUS 9 wikGPS
 9 News of VARUS annihilation in Teutoburg Forest reaches Rome.  Augustus is stunned.  Augustus tears his clothes, refuses to cut his hair for months and, for years afterwards moans, "Quinctilius Varus, give me back my Legions!" Citizens are indifferent to the crisis.  Many refuse to place their names on the military roll; and Augustus is obliged to resort to fines and threats of severer punishment. 9 HRE 73, 137, wikVar
 9 Legions XI and VII are recorded as being at Burnum, mostly in construction and development works such as roads. 9 wik11C
 9 German body-guards of Augustus are disbanded. 9 HRE 69
 9 Augustus abandons hope of conquest beyond the Rhine. 9 B76
 9 Tiberius is severely criticised for recommending Varus as governor of Germany.  Tiberius is forced to sacrifice his friend and former bro-in-law to save his career. 9 wikVar
 9 Except for legions in Egypt, and auxiliary troops in some small provinces, military forces of the Empire are commanded by senators.  This leads Augustus to appoint the legatus legionis, an officer of senatorial, generally praetorian, rank, who commands both the legion and the auxilia associated with it.  The military tribune thus became subordinate to the legatus. 9 HRE 69
 9 Orator M. Valerius Messalla dies. 9 HRE 150
9 late GERMANICUS with uncle Tiberius in Illyricum from 6, returns to Rome. 9 B76 IV-499
10 DGRBM 2-258, wikGrm
9 late GERMANICUS gets triumphal insignia (without an actual triumph) and the rank (but not title) of praetor.  He is given permission to be a candidate for consul before the regular time, and the right to speak first in the Senate after the consuls. 9 wikGrm
10 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P. Cornelius DOLABELLA and C. Junius SILANUS
suffetes: Q. Junius Blaesus and Servius Cornelius Lentulus Maluginensis
10 DGRBM 1-1060, 3-821, FHBC 84, OCD 130, 170, 359, 989, about, wikCon, wikMJS15
10  Lex Junia Velleia  permits kids and grandkids of testator born after making of the will to be instituted or disinherited. 10 ERLG 223
10  Senatus consultum Silanianum    All slaves present in the house when the master is murdered shall be tortured. 10 CAH 10-886, wikLRL
10 Germanicus successfully defends a quaestor accused of murder.  The prosecutor, fearing the jurors would be biased out of deference for Germanicus, demands trial before Augustus. 10 wikGrm
c.10 Augustus sends a procurator to take charge of Cappadocia. 10 CAH 10-744
10 Son of Tiberius, DRUSUS Julius Caesar is quaestor. 10 DGRBM 1-1087, wikDJC
10 Temple of ConcordTemple of CONCORD on the west end of the Forum, destroyed 45 BC, rebuilt by Tiberius, starting 7 BC, dedicated in the name of himself and his dead bro Drusus, as aedes Concordiae Augustae.  Dedicated now or in 13. model: L.VII.C

9 DGRBM 1-824 10 HRE 142, OCD 277
c.10 Landscape painters work on house walls at Pompeii and elsewhere. 10 MCAW
c.10 FENESTELLA publishes  Annales , history of Rome in at least 22 books.  Fragments survive. 10 B76 IV-91
c. 10/11 Jurist M. Antistius LABEO dies.  Republican.  His  dicta  recurr in the writings of the classical jurists, and hold greatest authority to the time of Hadrian.  Several of his works are abridged and annotated by later hands, including Proclus, for which Labeo is the founder of the Proclean school.  Rival of C. Ateius Capito. 10/11 wikMAL
11 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Manius AEMILIUS LEPIDUS and T. STATILIUS TAURUS 11 DGRBM 2-770, 3-985, FHBC 84, OCD 597, about, wikCon
11 GERMANICUS is made quaestor, and holds office until 11. 11 wikGrm
11 GERMANICUS is made proconsul, and sent with army to help Tiberius on the Rhine. 11 B76 IV-499, DGRBM 2-258, OCD 465
c.11 Jurist senator C. Ateius Capito becomes curator aquarum responsible for water supply and regulation thruout the city of Rome. 10/11 wikGAC
11 ASTROLOGY:  Augustus publishes his own horoscope, forbids prophesying anyone's death day, or prophesying to 1 person secretly. 11 OCD 134
12 Jan CONSULS:  GERMANICUS CAESAR and C. FONTEIUS Capito 12 B76 IV-499, DGRBM 1-602, 2-258, 688, FHBC 84, OCD 465, about, wikCon, wikGrm
12 GERMANICUS is detained in Rome by duties of consulship. 12 DGRBM 2-258, HRE 137
12 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS governor of Syria (2nd time) from 6, returns to Rome.  Remembered for business sense and avarice. Ant 2:2:4     7 BBA 116, FHBC 235     9 ENBD 1069, ISBE 4-12
12 Dur 3-558, rcS, wikRGS
12 TIBERIUS commanding the Rhine army from 10, returns to Rome.  Legate historian C Vellius Paterculus accompanies. 9 Dur 3-231     12 DGRBM 3-134 MCAW, wikTi     13 DGRBM 2-258
12 Apparently GERMANICUS returns with Tiberius to Rome.  But no source says so.  They just say Germanicus went to Germany in 11 and 13.
12 M. AMBIVIUS, 2nd prefect of Judea from 9, returns to Rome.  Annius RUFUS succeeds until 15. Ant 18:2:2     12 BAA, BBA 56, BI+N 199, IDB 3-893, jePr, rcHL, wikJRP     13 GHH
12 AUGUSTUS addresses a letter to the senate, in which be commends Germanicus to its protection, and commends the senate itself to the vigilance of Tiberius. 12 HRE 138
Basilica Julia
Basilica Julia reconstruction Lasha Tskhondia                     ruins Eric Livak-Dahl
12 BASILICA JULIA, built 46 BC, burned 9 CE, rebuilt, enlarged, and dedicated by Augustus. 12 ISBE 4-233
12 Aug 31 CAIUS (Caligula) born (3rd of 6 surviving kids) to Germanicus & Agrippina at Antium. 12 CAH 10-654, DGRBM 1-563, HRRP 4.1-370, wikCal
Birthplace is uncertain. 12 accla
12 Jurist M. Antistius LABEO dies.  Founder of Proculeian school of law. 10/11 B76 V-967 12 HRE 161
c.12 Orator historian, T. LABIENUS dies.  12 DGRBM 2-699
Oct 23
TIBERIUS has triumph for Pannonia and Dalmatia, which he had postponed because of the Varus disaster. 12 DGRBM 3-1118, FHBC 259, wikTi     13 DGRBM 2-258, wikAg, wikGrm
13 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. Munatius PLANCUS and C. SILIUS 13 DGRBM 3-385, 823, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
13 Apr 3 AUGUSTUS WILL is sealed, and put in temple of Vesta. 13 wikAP
13 AUGUSTUS principate expires.  renewed 5th time for ten years. 13 B76 2-371, CAH 10-158, DGRBM 1-429, HRE 138
13 TIBERIUS is raised to equality with Augustus by a law introduced by the consuls, that he should have proconsular power in all provinces and over all armies, co-ordinate with the proconsular power of his "father", and that he should hold a census in conjunction with Augustus.  Tiberius receives a renewal of tribunician power, this time for life; and gets to hold the foremost place in the senatorial committee, which at the request of Augustus had been appointed to represent the whole senate. 12 FHBC 259 13 CAH 10, HRE 54, 138, DGRBM 1-429, MCAW, reTi, wikAg, wikTi
13 Son of Tiberius, DRUSUS Julius Caesar receives the privilege of standing for consul in 3 years, without the preliminary step of praetorship. 13 HRE 138
13 MESSALA, Curator Aquarum from ?, ends. C. Ateius CAPITO succeeds until death 22. 13 DGRBM 1-599
13 GERMANICUS sent with 8 legions to Germany, becomes commander in chief of Gallic and German provinces.  Wife Agrippina the Elder accompanies. 13 CAH 10-610, DGRBM 2-258, HRE 84, OCD 465, wikDC, wikGrm
14 wikAE
13 Office of URBAN PREFECT (not urban praetor), revived from 27 BC, is made permanent. 13 B76 2-371
13 COHORTES URBANAE, a heavy duty police force, capable of riot control, created by Augustus under the urban prefect.  Originally 3 cohorts of 1,000 men each, commanded by tribunes. 13 OCD 258
no date: wikCU, wikPU
13 Portland VasePORTLAND VASE made, probably in Greece for a Roman.  Best known piece of Roman cameo glass.  25cm high, 56cm circumference, made of violet-blue glass, surrounded with a single continuous white glass cameo making 2 distinct scenes, depicting 7 human figures, plus a large snake, and 2 bearded and horned heads below the handles, marking the break between the scenes. photo: Jastrow

13 MCAW 5-25 wikPV
14 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Sex. APPULEIUS and Sex. POMPEIUS 14 DGRBM 1-248, 2-1001, 3-476, FHBC 84, OCD 1106, about, wikCon
Spain 3 legions . . IV. Macedonk-a, VI Victrix, X. Gemina.
Lower Germany . . 4 legions . . I., V. Alauda, XX. Valeria Victrix, XXI. (Rap ax).
Upper Germany . . 4 lpgions . . II. Augusta, X 111. Gemina, XIV. Gemina, XVI.
Pannonia .... 3 legions . . VIII. Augusta, IX., XV. Apollinaris.
Dalmatia .... 2 legions . . VII., XI.
Mcesia 2 legions . . IV. Scythica, V. Macedonica.
Syria 3 legions . . III. Gallka, VI. Fetrata, X. Fretensis.
Egypt 3 legions . . III. Cyrenaica, XII. Fulminata, XXII. Deiotariana.
Africa 1 legion . . JIT. Augusta.
Total number of legions 25.
14 HRE 71
14 CENSORS:  AUGUSTUS and TIBERIUS. 14 DGRBM 3-1118, IDB 1-600
14 Λ CENSUS V:  4,190,117. 14 GHH, HRE 138
4,937,000 14 CDCC 179
14 M. Aemilius LEPIDUS becomes governor of Nearer Spain until . 14 OCD 597, wikMAL
14 AUGUSTUS comissions TIBERIUS co-princep to deal with Illyricum. 14 CAH 10-158, DGRBM 1-429
14 TIBERIUS sets out for Illyricum, to resume supreme command.  Augustus accompanies as far as Beneventum, but in returning to the Campanian coast gets dysentery. 14 CAH 10-158, DGRBM 1-429, HRE 138
14 AUGUSTUS is anxious over the simultaneous German and Panonian campaigns.  The Pannonic army is nearer, but the Germanic army is far larger.  He stays in Rome doing nothing. 14 HRE 169
14 mid AUGUSTUS, with one trusted friend, senator Paulus Fabius Maximus, leaves Rome, secretly visits Agrippa POSTUMUS exiled on Planasia island.  . 14 OCD 429, wikAP
14 Paulus Fabius Maximus tells wife Marcia that Augustus had visited Postumus.  Marcia tells Livia, wife of Augustus. TAn 1:5
14 DGRBM 2-910
14 Friend of Augustus, Paulus Fabius MAXIMUS dies. TAn 1:5       13/4 DGRBM 2-910, wikAP
14 Aug 19 Son of C. Octavius & Atia, AUGUSTUS dies, age 75, at Nola.  Princeps from 27.  Last words, "Have I played the part well? Then applaud as I exit."   Wid Livia keeps his death secret, and sends a messenger to Tiberius. 14 B76 2-371, 18-370, BAA, CAH 10-158, CDCC 111, DGRBM 1-429, 3-1118, DGRG 2-443, Dur 3-232, FHBC 88, GHH, HRE 138, HRRP 4.1-146, IDB 1-319, IR 59, ISBE 1-364, LEWH, MCAW, SHWC 130, TToH, TTPC, anhiTi, reTi, wikAg, wikAP, wikCld, wikGrm, wikTi

Italy 14-37