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c.1 TRADE between Red Sea and Indian Ocean increased because navigators learn to use the monsoons. 1
PW 17
c.1 Roman trade with India begins.  Roman pottery exported to south India. 1 PW 17, wikI
c.1 First non-stop voyages from Egypt to India. 1 wheIT
c.1 CEYLON has extensive irrigation systems. 1 PW 17
c.6 16th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 19 BC, GAURAKRISHNA ends.  HALA succeeds until 7. 6 MRDK 429
c.7 17th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 6, HALA ends.  MANDULAKA succeeds until 12. 7 MRDK 429
c.9 CHORANAGA Vijaya dies.  king of Ceylon from 3 BC, Poisoned by wife Anula.  KUDA TISSA succeeds until 12. 50BC MRDK 445 9 CHI 641, HCIP 2-239
c.9 Son of Kutakanna Tissa, BHATIKABHAYA ends.  Vijaya raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 20 BC.  Bro, MAHADATHIKA MAHANAGA succeeds until 21. 9 wikBAA, wikHV, wikLSLM, wikMMA
c.12 18th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 7, MANDULAKA ends.  PURINDRASENA succeeds until 33. 12 MRDK 429
c.12? TAXILA, under Sakas from 140, comes under Parthia until . no date: B76 IX-848
c.12 KUDA TISSA, Vijaya king of Ceylon from 9, ends.  47BC MRDK 445 12 CHI 641
c.15  Mathura Inscription #1  of the year 72 (Vikrama Era)  3 lines engraved on a frsgmentary stone pedestal. 15 HCIP 2-133/4
c.16 Son of Mahachula Mahatissa, KUTA KANNA TISSA, becomes Vijaya king of Ceylon until 38. 41BC MRDK 445 16 CHI 641, HCIP 2-239
c.20 INDO PARTHIAN Kingdom begins with Gondophernes.  Lasts until 226. 10 wikTI     19 wikIPK 21 wikSI
c.21  Taxila Inscription  of the year 78 (Vikrama Era) 21 HCIP 2-126
c.21 Bro of Kutakanna Tissa, MAHADATHIKA MAHANAGA ends.  Vijaya raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 9.  Son, MANDAGAMANI ABHAYA succeeds until 30. 21 wikAAA, wikHV, wikLSLM, wikMMA
c.30 Kushan ruler from 20 BC, KUJULA KADPHISES dies.  VIMA TAKTO? succeeds until 90?. 30 rcCAS     35 MRDK 394 80 wikVT     90 wikVT
c.30 Son of Mahadathika Mahanaga, MANDAGAMANI ABHAYA ends.  Vijaya raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 21.  Bro, KANIRAJANU TISSA succeeds until 33. 30 wikAAA, wikHV, wikKTA, wikLSLM
c.33 19th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 12, PURINDRASENA ends.  SUNDARA SVATIKARNI succeeds until 34. 33 MRDK 429
c.33 Son of Mahadathika Mahanaga, KANIRAJANU TISSA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 30.  Neph, CHULABHAYA succeeds until 35. 33 wikCAA, wikHV, wikKTA, wikLSLM
c.34 20th Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 33, SUNDARA SVATIKARNI ends.  Chakora Svatikarni succeeds and ends.  SIVASVATI succeeds until 78. 34 MRDK 429
c.35 Western satrapiesWestern Satrapies formed.  Western satraps are Saka rulers of south Pakistan (Sindh and eastern Balochistan).  Called Western Satraps to distinguish them from "Northern Satraps", in Punjab and Mathura.  There are 27 independent Western Satraps lasting until 405. 35 wikSI, wikTI, wikWSt
c.35 Son of Amandagamani Abhaya, CHULABHAYA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 33.  Sis, SIVALI succeeds, but its called an interregnum until 38. 35 wikHV, wikLSLM, wikSA 36 wikCAA
c.38 Son of Mahachula Mahatissa, KUTA KANNA TISSA ends.  Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 16.  Son BHATICA ABHAYA succeeds until . 19BC MRDK 445 38 CHI 641, HCIP 2-239, wikLSLM
c.38 Sivali, female ruler (called an interregnum) of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 35, ends.  Neph ILANAGA succeeds until 44. 38 wikHV, wikIA, wikLSLM
c.40 Greek Merchant HIPPALUS sails from Berenice Egypt into Red Sea to Indian Ocean, sails to Madras India and back.  A journey that usually took 2 years, he does in months, because he learned that the monsoons reversed directions twice a year.  The Arabs probably already knew this. 40 TTPC
c.44 Raja of Ceylon from 38, ILANAGA ends.  Son, CHANDAMUKHA succeeds until 52. 44 wikCA, wikHV, wikIA, wikLSLM
c.46 Greek philosopher Apollonius of Tyana visits the city of Taxila.  He says the Indo-Parthian king of Taxila, Phraotes, had a Greek education at the court of his father and spoke Greek fluently. 46 wikIPK
52 Legend says apostle THOMAS in Gandhara from 50, goes to the Malabar coast, south India, establishes Syrian churches.
Historical evidence of Indian Cty begins in 7th cen.
52 B76 9-355, wikTom
c.52 Son of Ilanaga, CHANDAMUKHA ends.  Vijaya raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 44.  Bro, YASSALALKA succeeds until 60. 52 wikCA, wikHV, wikYTA, wikLSLM
c.53 Apostle THOMAS martyred on the Malabar coast. 53 B76 IX-958 68 WNHI 84
72 wikTom
c.60 Son of Ilanaga, YASSALALKA ends.  Last Vijaya raja of Ceylon from 52.  Hall porter, SUBHARAJA succeeds until 66. 60 wikHV, wikLSLM, wikSA, wikYTA
c.64 PUNJAB, under Sakas from 2 BC, comes under Kushans until 180. 45 wikPnj
64 CHI 645-6
c.64 East PUNJAB, under Saka Pahlavas from 75 BC, comes under Kushans until ?. 64 CHI 644
c.65 VIJAYA DYNASTY of Ceylon ends.  Began 485.
LAMBAKANNA DYNASTY begins until 432.  VASABHA becomes king until 109.
65 B76 X-433, 4-2, CHI 641 66 wikLSLM
c.65  Pantjar Inscription  of the year 122 (Vikrama Era) 65 HCIP 2-139-41
c.65/6 Embassy from China to India to study Buddhism.
First BUDDHIST missionaries sent to China
65 KIH 114     65-7 MCAW
c.66 SUBHARAJA ends.  Raja of Anuradhapura Ceylon from 60.  VASABHA succeeds as first king of Lambakanna dynasty until 111. 66 wikLSLM, wikSA, wikVA
c.70 Saka satrap BHUMAKA establishes Saka power on NW coast of Deccan plateau. 70 LEWH
c.75 Kushan Kujula Kadphises gets control of Gandhara.  Kushan rule begins until ?. 75 wheIT
75 ±5  Periplus Maris Erythraei  "Circumnavigation of the Red Sea" (actually Indian Ocean) written anonymously by a Greek navigator.  Describes coastal routes from Egypt to India along east Africa.  Explains how to use monsoons. 59-62 wikREg
70-80 HCIP 2-112, 121, 128     80 Dur 3-325-6
89 B76 5-991     90 TTPC 1-99 B76 VII-879, OCD 802     90 TTPC
c.78 Kushan kingdom of KASHMIR founded by Kanishka, who is king until 103. 77 MCAW     78 B76 16-780, HCIP 2-144
c.78  Taxila Inscription  of year 136 (Vikrama Era):  A scroll found at Taxila records enshrinement of Buddhist relics, and indicates that Kushan monarchs call themselves "great king,"king of kings," and "son of heaven," emulating the Chinese title. 78 HCIP 2-130/1, 140, WNHI 74
c.78 21st Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 34, SIVASVATI ends.  GAUTAMIPUTRA SATAKARNI succeeds until 86. 62 MRDK 429
78 wikTI    86 wikStD
109 B76 VIII-912
c.78 SALIVAHANA dies.  Legendary ruler of Pattan in Maharashtra.  CHASHTANA succeeds until 130.
SAKA ERA (aka Shaka, Salivahana Era) begins.
78 B76 VIII-799, 4-574, KIH 112, wikSkE, wikSlv
c.80 JAINISM, having 6 schisms from beginning 468, 7th & last schism led by SIVABHUTI evolves into 2 sects: SVETAMBARA (white robed), and DIGAMBARA (naked). 80 B76 10-8
c.86 22nd Satavahana king of Maharashtra from 78, GAUTAMIPUTRA SATAKARNI ends.  PULUMAVI-II VASISHTHIPUTRA succeeds until 114. 86 MRDK 430
100 wikStD
130 B76 VIII-912
87 Pushpadanta starts to write  Shatkhandagam . 87 wikTJ
by 89 Lower Indus is under Kushans. by 89 CHI
c.90±10 KANISHKA, king of Kashmir 77-103, turns Buddhist. no date: B76 V-689
c.90±10 Kanishka supports Buddhist missionaries. 77 MCAW
c.90 ±10 4th Buddhist Council held by Kanishka near Jalandhar.  Authorized commentaries on Buddhist canon are engraved on copper plates.  It is attended by Sarvastivadins and Sthaviravadins.  The Mahayana viewpoint is not represented.  Council is not recognized by Theravada sect in the south. 78-101 wikTB no date: B76 V-689, 3-406
c.90 BARTHOLOMEW goes to India.  He is one of the 12 disciples mentioned in the synoptics, sometimes identified as Nathaniel.  He takes the  Gospel of Matthew  written in Hebrew. acc. to Eusebius no date: BBP 183, ODCC 137
c.93 Sis of the last king, SIVALI becomes queen of Ceylon until 96. 93 HCIP 2-239
c.96 Sis of the last king, SIVALI, queen of Ceylon from 93, deposed by cousin ILANAGA, who succeeds until 102. 96 HCIP 2-239
c.100 Kushan ruler from 80?, VIMA KADPHISES dies.  KANISHKA-I succeeds until ?. 64 WNHI 74     100 wikHD, wikHH     103 rcCAS
127 wikVK, '  
c.100 ASVAGHOSA, Hinayana Buddhist poet, writes  Buddhacarita , the life of the Buddha for laymen. 100 CSHB 57
c.100  Vibhasha , commentary to the Abhidharma, compiled by Sarvastivadin Buddhists, fixes their canon. 100 CSHB 56
c.100 Gandhara Buddhist art in Peshawar valley shows strong Greek influence. 100 PW 17
c.100 MAHAYANA Buddhism begins until 800, in opposition to Theraveda Buddhism.  Mahayana says Boddhisatvas delay their realisation to stay in Samsara and help other humans.  Theravada says Bodhisattvas seek enlightenment first before they can help others stuck in Samsara. 1-100 wheIT wikMhy 100 B76 3-419