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divided GaulIn the 1st cen. Aquitania, Lugdunensis, and Belgica are collectively called the 3 Gauls or Gallia Comata (Gaul of the long hairs). B76 7-961
c.1 SCANDINAVIA, in Celtic Iron Age from 440BC, enters Roman Iron Age until 400. 1 B76 16-305
c.1 ARMINIUS, and younger bro Flavus, sons of Segimer, chief of the Cherusci, and a Roman ally, join Roman army until 6, learn Latin. 1 wikArm
c.1 Roman pottery exported as far as north Europe. 1 PW 17
c.1 M. VINICIUS becomes legate of Lower Germany until 4. 1 SORH, wikGGI
c.1 War begins in Germany.  Proconsul M. Vinicius. 1 SORH
2 Aug 20 Consul-elect LUCIUS CAESAR dies of illness at Massilia, enroute to Spain after a boating accident while fishing. 2 B76 2-371, CAH 10-157, DGRBM 1-556, 3-1118, Dur 3-231, GHH, HRE 53, HRRP 4.1-141, LEWH 115, MCAW, OCD 150, 191, SORH, reTi
c.2/3 Maison CarreeMAISON CARREE "Square House" temple built at Nemausus (Nimes) near south Rhone.  Vitruvian style.  A large door (6.87m high by 3.27m wide) leads to the small windowless interior, where the shrine is.  Dedicated or rededicated to Gaius and Lucius Caesar 4-7. reconst. Aoudot25

2/3 CDCC 71
no date: wikMC
 4 TIBERIUS sent from Rome to Germany.  Legate C. Sentius Saturninus accompanies. 4 CAH 10-157, DGRBM 3-1118, GHH, HRE 54, HRRP 4.1-122, OCD 955, SORH
c.4 3rd campaign in Germany begins until 6.  TIBERIUS subdues the Bructeri, recovers the Cherusci. 4 Dur 3-217, HRE 131, SORH
c.4 ARMINIUS, Cherusci prince in Roman army 1-6, commands an auxiliary detatchment, sent to Pannonia until 7/8. 4 wikArm
c.4 M. VINICIUS, legate of Lower Germany from 1, ends.  C. Sentius SATURNINUS succeeds until 6. 4 wikGGI, wikGSS
 4 TIBERIUS reaches the Visurgis (Wesser). 4 CAH 10-157, HRE 131, MCAW, OCD 955     5 CAH 10-157, HRE 131, MCAW, OCD 955
 4 Prefectus equitum VELLEIUS PATERCULUS comes to Germany, is legate under Tiberius  . 4 B76 X-382, SORH
4-5 Roman army winters east of the Rhine 1st time in the fort of Aliso on the Luppia.  . 4-5 HRE 131
 5 TIBERIUS crosses the Visurgis (Wesser). 5 CAH 10-157, HRE 131, MCAW, OCD 955
 5 The Marcomanni move south into Bohemia. 5 GHH
 5 Boii immigrate into Noricum. 5 GHH
 5 Maroboduus makes a treaty with the Goths, Quadi, and other tribes.  He favors the Romans to the disadvantage of the German tribes.  Maroboduus increases in power.  He goes to war with the Cherusci. 5 GHH
 5 TIBERIUS, free of concern about Maroboduus, reaches lower Albis (Elbe). 5 CAH 10, HRE 131, MCAW 6 HRRP 4.1-124
 5 TIBERIUS subdues the Chauci.  First encounters the Langobardi. 5 HRE 131
 5 LANGOBARDI (Lombards) on lower Albis (Elbe) defeated by Tiberius. 5 HRE 131, LEWH 164, TTPC
 5 A remnant of CIMBRI are discovered in their ancestral home in Jutland by naval expedition sent by Tiberius. 5 OCD 240
 5 Some tribes east of the Albis, (e.g. Senoni, Charydes, Cimbri (in Jutland)), send envoys seeking friendship of Rome. 5 HRE 131
 5 CARNUNTUM, on upper Danube is Tiberius' base camp against Maroboduus. 6 B76 II-579
 5 TIBERIUS prepares to surround Maroboduus in Bohemia.  . 5 MCAW
 5 New province formed in Germany. 5 GHH
 6 TIBERIUS begins 2nd German campaign against Maroboduus in Bohemia.  Legion XX Valeria Victrix participates. 6 CDCC 389, HRE 131, wik20VV, ooctA
 6 Messalla MESSALLINUS, legate of Illyricum, helping Tiberius against Maroboduus, sent back to Illyricum to deal with rebels.  . 6 OCD 674
c.6 Rise of Germanics east of the Elbe prevents Roman expansion there. 6 B76 7-961
 6 MAROBODUUS is recognized as king of the Marcomanni and friend of Rome until 19.  Marcomanni are friendly with Romans until 89 6 CAH 10, MCAW
c.6 C. Sentius SATURNINUS marches with 2 or 3 legions east from Moguntiacum, to join Tiberius who is marching northwest from Carnuntum, intending to crush the Marcomanni.  But the Illyrian Revolt forces them to return. 6 wikGSS
 6 Rebellion in Pannonia & Dalmatia prevents TIBERIUS from subduing Maroboduus. 6 CDCC 389, MCAW, wikGSS
 6 12 legions under Tiberius & Saturninus overrun Bohemia and Illyricum.  . 6 CAH 10-368-9, OCD 955
 6 Augustus wants to destroy the Marcomanni, because they are too powerful.  But Tiberius is busy with the Pannonian revolt. 6 wikMrb
 6 TIBERIUS, on orders from Augustus, makes peace with Maroboduus of the Marcomanni, and recognizes him as king, so Tiberius can deal with the Pannonian revolt. 6 wikMrb
 6 TIBERIUS declares Germany pacified. 6 wikVar
c.6 C. Sentius SATURNINUS, legate of Lower Germany from 4, ends.  P. Quintilius VARUS succeeds until 9. 6 wikGGI, wikGSS, wikVar
 6 P. Quintilius VARUS fixes his camp on the Visurgis (Weser); he introduces Roman laws into Lower Germany, levies taxes. 6 GHH
 6 Archelaus is banished from Rome to Vindobona (Vienna) until death 16. 6 GHH, HRRP 4.1-100, IDB 2-591, Jud 3-334
 7 GERMANICUS commands in Germany.  . 7 GHH
c.7 P. Quintilius VARUS is appointed governor of the new province of Germany until 9. 7 wikVar
7/8 ARMINIUS Cherusci prince, in Panonia from 4, returns to Germany. 7/8 wikArm
7/8 ARMINIUS becomes chief of the Cherusci until 19.  . TAn 2-88 7
8±1 8 of the 11 legions in Germany move east of the Rhine to crush a rebellion in Pannonia, leaving Varus with only 3 legions of 6,000 men each. 6 to 9 wikArm
 8 The eastern BOII on the Danube are annexed by Rome. 8 wikB
 9 Quintillius VARUS plans to extend Roman territory from the Rhine to the Elbe. 9 HRE 135
 9 LANGOBARDI Germans east of the lower Elbe, move west of it. 9 OCD 618
9 mid Quintillius VARUS with 3 legions (XVII, XVIII, XIX) occupies summer-quarters at Vetera on the Rhine, planning to return to Moguntiacum.  The camp is full of advocates and clients, and the chief conspirators are present, on intimate terms with Varus and constantly dining with him. 9 HRE 135, wikVar
 9 A false message (secretly from Arminius) arrives that a northern tribe had revolted, and Varus decides to take a roundabout way homewards in order to suppress it. 9 HRE 135, wikVar
 9 Cherusci chief SEGESTES, rival of Arminius, warns Varus of a conspiracy of Arminius, Sigimer, and other Cherusci chiefs. 9 DGRBM 3-766
 9 Germany YELLOW = land controled by Rome in 31BC

GREEN = land conquered under Augustus

PINK = tributary tribes in 9CE before Teutoburg Forest
map: Cristiano64

9 wikArm
 9 P. Quintillius VARUS diverts 3 legions (XVII, XVIII, XIX) plus 3 cav detachments and 6 cohorts of auxiliaries north to deal with the assumed revolt.  They are ambushed by the Cherusci under Arminius, plus the Marsi, Catti, Bructeri, Chauci, and Sicambri in Teutoburg Forest Germany, and WIPED OUT in a 3 day battle.  Some cav abandon the inf and flee towards The Rhine, but they are intercepted by Germans and killed.  Some captured Romans are caged and burned alive; others are enslaved or ransomed. 9 CDCC 870, DGRBM 2-961, DGRG 1-608, Dur 3-218, GHH, HRE 73, 135, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 123, 1109, SHWC 128, TToH, TTPC, wikArm, wikGrm, wikMrb, wikVar, woER
c.9 Governor of Germany from 7, P. Quintilius VARUS dies at Kalkriese Hill, the 1st to suicide, falling on his sword.  Other officers follow.  Others surrender. 9 B76 X-362, Dur 3-218, GHH, HRE 136, wikArm, wikGGI, wikVar
 9 Romanization of Germany ends permanently.  The Rhine is now the official boundary between Romans and Germans. 9 TTPC
c.9 Segimundus, son of Segestes, was an ally of Rome from ?.  After Teutoburg Forest, he immediately defects to the Germans. 9 wikSgm
c.9 The BATAVI remain incorporated in the empire, but pay no taxes. 9 OCD 162
c.9 Legion XIII Gemina is sent as reinforcement to Augusta Vindelicorum. 9 wik13G
c.9 Legion XXI Rapax is sent as reinforcement to Lower Germany, where they share Castra Vetera (Xanten) with V Alaudae until 43. 9 wik21R
c.9 Legion XIV Martia is stationed in Moguntiacum until 43. 9 wikL14
c.9 Germans quickly annihilate every trace of Roman presence east of the RhineRoman settlements such as the uncompleted Waldgirmes Forum trading post are abandoned. 9 wikArm
c.9 ALISO fortress in Germany, under Romans from 11 BC, under prefect L. Cedicius from ?, taken by Germans until 15.  Romans retreat into Gaul. 9 DGRG 1-104, wikArm
 9 HEAD of Varus is sent by Arminius to Maroboduus of the Marcomanni, who sends it to Augustus in Rome. 9 DGRBM 2-961, wikMrb
c.9 L. Nonius Asprenas, commanding legion I Germanica and V Alaudae, begins to organize Roman defense, on the Rhine. 9 wikArm
 9 Legion II Augusta is sent from Hispania Tarraconensis to Germany. 9 wik2Ag
 9 Legion XX Valeria Victrix is sent to Lower Germany, based at Oppidum Ubiorum. 9 wik20VV
10 TIBERIUS marches from Pannonia, takes command of the Rhine army, which is increased to 8 legions: 4 at Moguntiacum and 4 at Vetera.  Tiberius takes over as governor of Lower Germany until 11, and remains until 12. 10 DGRBM 1-348, GHH, HRE 137, wikTi
11 DGRBM 2-258
10 Germanic leagues form, Cherusci in the north, Marcomanni in the south. 10 GHH
11 ADEL-IV Asinga, king of Frisia from ?, ends.  DIOCARUS SEGON succeeds until 15. 11 rcLC
11 GERMANICUS is made proconsul, and sent from Rome with army to help Tiberius on the Rhine. 11 B76 IV-499, DGRBM 2-258, OCD 465, wikGrm
11 GERMANICUS is sent against Arminius.  Battles are inconclusive. 10 MCAW 11 wikGrm
11 TIBERIUS crosses the Rhine, spends summer in Germany, but does nothing significant. 11 HRE 137, wikGrm
12 ARGENTORATA (Strassbourg) garrisoned by Legion II Augusta until 43 12 OCD 105
12 TIBERIUS, governor of Lower Germany from 9, commanding the Rhine army from 10, leaves neph Germanicus in charge, returns to Rome.  GERMANICUS succeeds until 14, but remains inactive. 11 GHH, wikGGI
12 B76 IV-499, MCAW 13 DGRBM 2-258, HRE 137, wikIGrm
12 Apparently GERMANICUS returns with Tiberius to Rome.  But no source says so.  They just say Germanicus went to Germany in 11 and 13.
13 GERMANICUS sent from Rome with 8 legions to Germany, becomes proconsul and commander in chief of Gallic and German provinces until 17. 13 CAH 10-610, DGRBM 2-258, HRE 84, OCD 465, wikDC, wikGrm
14 Legions of Lower Germany cross the Rhine, cut thru Silva Caisia, and thru the rampart which Tiberius had built after Varus' disaster. 14 HRE 169
14 Romans reach Marsi land between rivers which are now called Lippe and RuhrCaecina with light cohorts reconnoiters and clears the way. 14 HRE 169
14 Aug 19 AUGUSTUS dies.   TIBERIUS succeeds until 37.
14 Aug GERMANICUS learns of Augustus' death, returns to Rome. 14 implied
14 Aug 4 LEGIONS in Germany on Lower Rhine when Augustus dies, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XX Valeria Victrix, XXI Rapax, are under A. Caecina in summer quarters on the Ubii border.  On Upper Rhine are II, XIII, XIV, XVI under C. Silius. 14 DGRBM 2-258
14 GERMANICUS returns from Rome to Germany until 17.  Wife AGRIPPINA-I and L. Apronius accompany.  Son CAIUS (Caligula) is soon sent to join them.  Punitive operations are begun until 16 against Germans. 14 DGRBM 1-78, 251, Dur 3-210, MCAW, wikAE, wikArm, wikGrm
14 Romans easily defeat the Marsi devastate the country for 50 miles, kill all Marsi, level holy places including precinct of deity Tamfana.  The Bructeri, Tubanti, and Usipi try to ambush the Romans on return trip, but fail. 14 HRE 169
Rhaetia and Vindelica
Belgica, Rhaetia, and Vindelica at death of Augustus     map: Marco Zanoli
14 Legions in Pannonia and Germany have not been paid bonuses promised by Augustus.  They expect action from Tiberius. 14 wikTi
14 Legions I Germanica, V Alaudae, XX Valeria Victrix, and XXI Rapax of Lower Germany under A. Caecina SEVERUS at summer camp in Ubii land, learn of death of Augustus, who had promised them bonuses.  They mutiny for those bonuses, more pay, term reduction from 20 to 16 years, and less punishment.  They maul their centurions.  Those in Pannonia also rebel. TAn 1:31
14 CAH 10-618, DGRBM 1-529, 2-258, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 187, wik21R , wikGrm
14 Oct Sep 18 message from senate reaches GERMANICUS (now collecting taxes in Gaul), informing of Augustus death, and Germanicus' elevation to proconsul.  He, also learns of Rhine mutiny, rushes to Lower Germany, tries charm, then threats, then threatens to kill himself.  None of it works.  He forges a letter from Tiberius granting their demands.. TAn 1:33-35 14 GHH, MCAW, wikDC, wikGrm
14 Legions I Germanica and XX Valeria Victrix retire to Colognia Agrippinensis, while Germanicus goes to seek senatorial confirmation and approval by Tiberius. 14 wikIGrm
14 THUSNELDA, dau of Cherusci prince Segestes, who is pro-Roman, is abducted, impregnated, and married by Arminius.  14 wikArm
14 Mutineers send L. Apronius and 2 others to carry their demands to Rome 14 DGRBM 1-251
14 GERMANICUS, commander of the Rhine, forced to discharge old soldiers and pay legions XXI Rapax and V Alaudae out of his pocket.  He goes to Upper Germany, and buys off the legions before they make demands. TAn 1:37 14
14 GERMANICUS takes command of the legions and deploys on the Amisia (Ems) to penetrate into Germany.  But Arminius had gathered strength. 14 DGRBM 1-348, reTi
14 GERMANICUS, in Upper Germany, sends letter to A. Caecina, legate of Lower Germany, says he is enroute with a large army, and will massacre indiscriminately unless the mutiny is stopped. TAn 1:48
14 Legions XXI Rapax and V Alaudae hold Vetera fortress on lower Rhine until 70, observing the Cugerni tribe and guarding the confluence of the Rhine and Lippe. TAn 1:48 14 DGRG 1-563
14 Loyal troops, in Lower Germany, massacre the mutineers at night. TAn 1:48
c.14 GERMANICUS, governor of Lower Germany from 11, ends.  A. Caecina SEVERUS succeeds until 16. 14 wikGGI
14 GERMANICUS, commander of the Rhine, promises legions loot from conquest in Germany, cross the Rhine, surprise the MARSI, and wipe them out, occupy all territory to the Albis (Elbe) TAn 1:49
14 CAH 10, OCD 466, wikTi
c.14 C. SILIUS becomes governor of Upper Germany until 16. 14 DGRBM 3-823, wikGS
14 CENSUS in Gaul.  14 OCD 220
15 DIOCARUS SEGON, king of Frisia from 11, ends.  DIBBALD SEGON succeeds until 28. 15 rcLC
15 There are 2 invasions of Germany this year.  Though the Cherusci under Arminius are most formidable, Germanicus decides to 1st attack the Catti. 15 HRE 170
15 SEGESTES and son Segimundus are besieged by ARMINIUS. 15 wikSgm
15 spring The Cherusci have domestic discords.  Pro-Roman chief Segestes conflicts with son-in-law Arminius.  Segestes is forced by tribesmen to oppose Germanicus, but secretly sends son Sigimundus to inform Germanicus of Cherusci movements. 14 DGRBM 3-766
15 HRE 170
15 spring The 4 Lower Rhine legions cross the river from Castra Vetera under A. Caecina, who is to prevent the Marsi and Cherusci, from aiding the Catti.  Germanicus, with the 4 upper Rhine legions advance to Mount Taunus, surprise attack the Catti, and slaughters them. TAn 1:56 15 CAH 10, GHH, HRE 170, OCD 463, wikGrm
15 MATTIACUM (Mattium), Capital of the Catti in Mattiatici land, burnt. 15 DGRBM 2-259, DGRG 2-296
15 spring After destroying Mattiacum, Germanicus penetrates as far as the Visurgis (Weser). 15 DGRBM 2-259, GHH, wikGrm
15 spring A. CAECINA, legate of Lower Germany, returning from a raid on the Catti, defeats the Cherusci and Marsi. TAn 1:56 15 DGRBM 1-78
15 spring Messengers of Segestes reach Germanicus as he returns from Germany to the Rhine, and ask him to relieve Segestes, who is blockaded by Arminius.  The Romans retrace their steps, enter Cherusci land, and rescue Segestes, who in return, restores the eagle of legion XIX and some of the spoils of Varus, and hands over some hostages, including Segestes' dau Thusnelda, pregnant wife of Arminius. TAn 1:57
15 CAH 10, HRE 170, OCD 121, 465, wikArm, wikGrm, wikTi
15 Germanicus' troops ravage land between the Ems and the LippeGermanicus and Caecina visit Teutoburg Forest, where the remains of Varus legions lay unburied.  Germanicus erects a mound over the bones, and has funeral rites.  Arminius had hidden his forces in the forest, and attacks at the "long causeways", and trap Germanicus' cavalry.  Fighting lasts 2 days.  Cherusci win.  Romans retreat to the Amisia (ems) with difficulty.  On the 3rd day, the infantry checks and routs them.  Germanicus withdraws to the Rhine. TAn 1:61-63
15 GHH, HRE 171, OCD 465, wikGrm
16 CDCC 870
15 L. STERTINUS, lieutenant of Germanicus, defeats the Bructeri. 15 DGRBM 3-908
15 Bro of Segestes, SEGIMERUS surrenders himself and his son Sesithaces to Stertinus, lieutenant of Germanicus,. 15 DGRBM 3-766, 908
15 ALISO fortress in Germany, under Germans from 9, recovered by Romans,. 15 DGRG 1-104
15 L. APRONIUS becomes legate to Germanicus until 16. 15 DGRBM 1-251, OCD 88
15 A. CAECINA returns from the Amisia (ems) to the Rhine under such heavy German attacks that the campaign was hardly worth the cost. TAn 1:63
15 DGRBM 2-259, HRE 171, OCD 187
15 Germanicus and Caecina return to the Rhine, plan another expedition against the Germans, on the same plan which Drusus had adopted with success.  The army is divided into 3 parts. 15 DGRBM 2-259, HRE 170
15 GERMANICUS sends P. Vitellius and C. Antius to collect taxes in Gaul, and orders Silius, Anteius, and Caecina to build a fleet. 15 wikGrm
15 mid Caecina marches thru Bructeri land to the banks of the upper Amisia (ems)Germanicus and the 4 upper Rhine legions go to the North Sea coast and enter the Amisia at its mouth.  The cavalry, under Pedo Albinovanus, marches to the same goal thru Frisii land.  They unite and devastate the land between the Amisia and Luppia. TAn 1:60 15 HRE 170-1
15 Romans make no advance into Germany. 15 DGRBM 1-348
15 M' Vibius BALBINUS becomes proconsul of Narbonensis until 17. 15 wikGN, wikNrb
15 P. Vitellius with legions II Augusta & XIV Gemina Martia Victrix returns from expedition against the Catti. 15 DGRBM 3-1273
15 VINDONISSA (Windisch), having a small Roman guard post from 15 BC, becomes a permanent settlement and legion camp, 49 acres, surrounded by a wooden and earthen wall with wooden gates and low watchtowers surrounded by a double ditch.  15 wikVn
15 Nov 6 Wife of Germanicus, AGRIPPINA the Elder, bears dau AGRIPPINA the Younger at Oppidum Ubiorum, an outpost on the Rhine. 15 wikAY
16 The ANGRIVARII Germans between the Visurgis and Albis, submissive to Romans from ?, rebel, join the Cherusci league. 16 DGRG 1-136
16 Romans appear east of the Visurgis (Wesser).  Arminius on the right collects his army on plain of Idistavisus.  Neither attacks.  They await Germanicus TAn 2:9, 16
16 DGRBM 1-348, 2-174
16 Germanicus plans a bigger campaign to reach the Albis, and break the last resistance of the Cherusci.  Builds or collects 1,000 ships where the Rhine broadens and branches into the Vahalis 16 DGRBM 2-259, HRE 172
16 L. Seius TUBERO is a legate under Germanicus 16 DGRBM 3-1180
c.16 A. Caecina SEVERUS, governor of Lower Germany from 14, ends.  Sparce data until 28. 16 wikGGI
16 Agri DecumatesFrom 16 to 68, the AGRI DECUMATES is formed in the Black Forest on the east of the Upper Rhine, and on the north of the Upper Danube.  Originally populated with Helveti. 16 DGRG 1-997
16 Archelaus dies.  Former king of Judea.  Banished to Vindobona (Vienna) from 6. 16 Jud 3-334
16 Before starting, Germanicus sends legate C. Silius with 3,000 cav and 33,000 inf to a devastate Catti land.  Results not mentioned.  Germanicus with 6 legions, marches up the Luppia valley, invades Marsi land for 3rd time to secure strongholds and make provision for the return of his army. 16 DGRBM 3-823, HRE 172, wikGrm
16 Romans recover 2nd of the 3 eagles lost in Teutoburg Forest. 16 wikArm
c.16 C. SILIUS, governor of Upper Germany from 14, ends.  No data on Upper Germany until 29. 16 wikGS
16 Germanicus' fleet sails down the Fossa Drusiana, reaches the mouth of the Amisia (ems) safely.  16 DGRBM 1-91, HRE 172
16 The BATAVI help Germanicus. 16 OCD 162
16 Romans leave ships anchored and guarded, advance south-east to the Visurgis (Wesser), where the Germans had concentrated forces under Arminius.  16 HRE 172
16 GERMANICUS goes to the Visurgis (Wesser), defeats Arminius and the Cherusci in the plain of Idistavisus (Minden), east of the Visurgis.  Arminius and Inguiomer escape, perhaps owing to the treachery of some German auxiliaries.  Most are slain, with few Roman losses.  Tiberius (not Germanicus) is hailed Imperator. 16 CAH 10, DGRBM 2-574, DGRG 2-14, HRE 173, OCD 121, 465, wikBI no date: wikArm
16 mid Germanicus returns from campaign.  Some legions return by land, others by sea on the ships at the mouth of the Amisia (ems). 16 HRE 174, wikGrm
16 fall Germanicus' ships are scattered by storms. 16 HRE 174 17 GHH
16 fall Germanicus plans another German offensive, sends P. Vitellius & C. Antius to collect taxes in Gaul; orders Caecina, C. Silius & Anteius to build a fleet. TAn 2:6 16 OCD 465
16 fall Germanicus, has a few successes against the Marsi and Catti. 16 HRE 174
16 fall Germanicus' planned invasion of Germany in 17 is nixed by Tiberius, who offers him a triumph in compensation. 16 wikArm
17 early GERMANICUS, in charge of Gaul from 13, in Germany from 14, recalled by Tiberius, returns to Rome.  Wife Agrippina and son Caius are with him. 16 Dur 3-210, reTi
17 CAH 10-619, DGRBM 1-348, GHH, HRE 84, wikAE, wikGrm
17 M' Vibius BALBINUS, proconsul of Narbonensis from 15, ends.  No data until 30. 17 wikGN, wikNrb
17 INGUIOMER, uncle of Arminius, splits off from the Cherusci, joins Maroboduus. 17 DGRBM 2-574
17 LANGOBARDI Germans join Arminius. 17 OCD 618
17 War begins between ARMINIUS, chief of the Cherusci 7-19, and MAROBODUUS of the Marcomani.  17 wikMrb
17 MAROBODUUS of the Marcomani withdraws into the hilly forests of Bohemia.  18 wikMrb
17 ARMINIUS, chief of the Cherusci 7-19, allied with Semnones & Langobardi, defeat MAROBODUUS of the Marcomani, and drive him into Roman territory.  His power between the Albis (Elbe) and Visurgis (Weser) is broken. 17 B76 8-43, CAH 11-57, DGRBM 2-574, 961, DGRG 2-271, OCD 121, 229     18 wikCt
17 divided GaulThe 3 provinces of Gaul, Aquitania, Belgica, Lugdunensis, are now administered by 3 praetorian governors.  The 2 frontier districts, Upper and Lower Germany, are kept separate under 2 consular legati, who are strictly military commanders.  For many years the province of Lower Germany extends beyond the Rhine and as far as the Lower Amisia. 17 HRE 175
CONFUSION ALERT!  Though Transalpine Gaul is technically all Gaul north of the Alps, the term is often used to mean specifically Narbonensis.
19 CATUALDA, exiled Marcomanic noble, leader of the Gutoni (Goths), allied with Cherusci, invades Bohemia, defeats Maroboduus. TAn 2:62     19 CAH 11-57, DGRBM 2-961, DGRG 2-272, GHH, hifiHrm
19 DRUSUS Caesar, governor of Illyricum 17-20, sent into Germany, sews discord among Germans, urges them to complete the destruction of Maroboduus, befriends Catualda. TAn 2:62 19 GHH
c.19 ARMINIUS dies, age 37.  He aspires to be king of the Cherusci.  Independent spirited Germans, mostly under Segestes and Catualda, oppose him, and start a civil war.  He is killed by his own relatives. TAn 2:88     19 CAH 10, DGRBM 1-348, MCAW     21 GHH, HRE 177, wikArm
19 From now on, no single leader unites the Germanic armies.  No trouble from Germans for 50 years. 17 HRE 175, MCAW
19 CATUALDA, a young Marcomannic noble living in exile among the Gutones, returns, perhaps by a subversive Roman intervention, and defeats Maroboduus. 19 wikMrb
19 MAROBODUUS, former chief of the Marcomani 6-17, is expelled by his own people, and goes to Italy. TAn 2:63     19 B76 VI-605, GHH, LEWH, MCAW
19 The Marcomanni, friendly with Romans 6-89, are assigned to land between the Marus and Cusus. TAn 2:63
19 DGRG 2-690
19 CATUALDA, exiled Marcomanic noble, leader of Goths, expelled by the Hermunduri, comes to beg asylum and is sent to Frejus in Narbonensis. 19 HRRP 4.1-304
19 The SUEVI are settled north of the Danube between rivers March and Waag by Drusus. 19 fyf
19 Quadian chief VANNIUS is made king of the Suevi and Marcomani until 50 by Drusus, governor of Illyricum 17-20. TAn 12:29
19 DGRBM 3-1220, DGRG 2-690, ooctA
Germanicus; not Drusus DGRBM 3-1220
19/20 DRUSUS Caesar, governor of Illyricum 17-20, learns of death of Germanicus, returns to Rome, and is then sent back to Illyricum?. TAn 2:75, 80?
c.21 A rebellion of the Treveri under Julius Florus and the Aedui under Julius Sacrovir takes Augustodunum, incites uprising of the Andes Gauls, before it is suppressed by C. SILIUS, VISELIUS, and INDUSFlorus and Sacrovir suicide. 19 MCAW     21 B76 I-107, CAH 10, DGRBM 3-692, 823, DGRG 1-30, 134, 401, 967, HRRP 4.1-323, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 12, reTi
c.21 A rebellion of the Andecavi and Turonii, in Lugdunensis is suppressed by legate Acilius Aviola. TAn 3:41
21 DGRBM 1-434
c.21 GAUL, until now resistive to Romanization because of powerful Gallic landowners, broken by Tiberius, who taxes them to poverty.  Urban class of merchants & craftsmen appears, mostly loyal to the emperor. 21 B76 7-961
28 DIBBALD SEGON, king of Frisia from 15, ends.  TABBO succeeds until 47. 28 rcLC
28 The Frisii, under Rome from 12 BC, irritated by oppression of governor Olennius, assert independence until 47. 28 CAH 10, DGRG 1-917, GHH, HRRP 4.1-363
c.28 L. APRONIUS becomes governor of Lower Germany until 34. 28 wikGGI
28 L. APRONIUS attacks Frisian rebels, has initial success, then suffers heavy losses, then is defeated. TAn 4:73
28 OCD 88
28 Legion V Alaudae suppresses the Frisian rebels, but Tiberius allows the Frisians independence. 28 wik5Al
c.29 Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS GAETICULUS becomes governor of Upper Germany until 39. 29 wikGS
30 OCD 595
30 Torquatus Novellius ATTICUS becomes proconsul of Narbonensis until 34. 30 wikGN, wikNrb
c.30 COMOSICUS, a king in Dacia from 9 BC, ends.  SCORILO succeeds until 70. 30 wikRTD
34 Torquatus Novellius ATTICUS, proconsul of Narbonensis from 30, ends.  T. Mussidius POLLIANUS succeeds until 37. 34 wikGN, wikNrb
c.34 L. APRONIUS, governor of Lower Germany from 28, ends.  No data until 40. 34 wikGGI
37 Mar 16 TIBERIUS dies.  CALIGULA succeeds until 41.
37 T. Mussidius POLLIANUS, proconsul of Narbonensis from 34, ends.  Sparce data until 77. 37 wikGN, wikNrb
37 Pontius PILATE is banished to Gaul until death 39. 37 GHH, MUTC 29
37 Former chief of the Marcomanni, MAROBODUUS dies at Ravenna. 37 GHH
39 ADMINIUS, son of Cunobelin, quarrels with father, flees from Britain to Gaul. 35 CDCC 246 40 EBRB
39 Sep CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, comes from Rome to Moguntiacum, accompanied by surviving sisters, Julia LIVILLA, and AGRIPPINA-II (the Younger).  Agrippina's paramour M. Aemilius Lepidus accompanies. 39 BNTH 252, CAH 10-689, accla, vrmCal, wikGCLG
40 DGRBM 1-565
c.39 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, goes to Gaul to help Caligula. 39 CAH 10-731
39 Legion XV Primigenia is recruited by Caligula to aid in Germanic campaigns and stationed in the Rhine frontier until 70. 39 wik15P
39 Legion XXII Primigenia is recruited by Caligula to aid in Germanic campaigns and stationed at Moguntiacum.  Emblems are Capricorn and Hercules. 39 wik22P
39 CALIGULA unexpectedly goes to Germany at Upper Rhine. 39 B76 II-459, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, vrmCal
39 Pontius PILATE, banished to Gaul from 37, suicides on order of Caligula (Christian tradition). 39 B76 VII-1005
39 CALIGULA makes some triumphant raids on Germans. 39 CAH 10-659
39 Adminius and other exiled members of the Catuvelaunian dynasty meet CALIGULA and ask him to invade Britain. 39/40 wikRB
39 Oct PLOT of the 3 DAGGERS:  A conspiracy led by Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS GAETULICUS is betrayed by Anicius Cerialis.  Gaetulicus intended to kill Caligula and replace him with the former husband of Drusilla, M. Aemilius Lepidus, who is paramour of Caligula's sis, Agrippina the Younger. TAn 16:17
39 DGRBM 1-672, GHH, LEWH, accla, vrmCal, wikAY, wikCal
39 Oct Son of L. Aemilius Paulus & Julia d28, M. Aemilius LEPIDUS is executed by a tribune at Moguntiacum. TAn 14:2     39 CAH 10-659, CDCC , DGRBM 2-770, GHH, wikAY, wikGCLG
39 Oct AGRIPPINA-II is compelled by her bro Caligula to carry the ashes of alleged paramour M. Aemilius Lepidus to Rome.  Caligula sends 3 daggers to the temple of Temple of Mars the Avenger to celebrate the conclusion of it all. 39 DGRBM 1-81, wikAY, wikMAL
39 Oct Governor of Upper Germany from 29, Gn. Cornelius Lentulus GAETULICUS is executed by order of Caligula without causing commotion.  Servius Sulpicius GALBA succeeds until ?. TAn 4:42,46, 6:30     39 B76 IV-384, CAH 10-659, DGRBM 2-206, GHH, LEWH, OCD 595, accla, vrmCal, wikCal, wikGCLG , wikGl, wikGS
39 CALIGULA leads his 200,000 man army to the channel, intending to invade Britain, decides against it, gathers some sea shells "the spoils of conquered ocean", and returns to Rome. 39 GHH, MCAW, accla 40 wikRB
39 Herod ANTIPAS and his wife from 29 HERODIAS banished by Caligula to Lugdunum Gaul. 39 B76 17-950, FHBC 302, GHH, GSNT , IDB , Jud , MUTC 25
banished to Spain Wars 2:9:6
39 C. Calvisius SABINUS governor of Pannonia from ?, recalled to Rome by Caligula, who suspects him and his wife of plotting. 39 wikGCS
39 Nov? CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, goes from Germany to Gaul to extort money from inhabitants. 39 B76 II-459, BNTH 252, CAH 10-669, GHH
39/40 CALIGULA marries Milonia CAESONIA in Gaul. 39/40 CAH 10-663
39/40 CALIGULA winters in Gaul and/or Germany. 39/40 vrmCal
40 spring CALIGULA in Gaul, begins preparations for a triumph of unprecedented grandeur, summons client kings from all parts, declares intent to overthrow the senate. 40 CAH 10-659
40 Jun CALIGULA, Princeps 37-41, in Gaul from 39, returns to Italy. 40 CAH 10-662-3
c.40 A. Gabinius SECUNDUS becomes governor of Lower Germany until 41. 40 wikGGI
41 Jan CALIGULA dies.  CLAUDIUS succeeds until 54.
c.41 A. Gabinius SECUNDUS, governor of Lower Germany from 40, ends.  No data until 46. 41 wikGGI
41 T. Flavius VESPASIAN sent from Rome as legate of Legion-II Augusta in Germany until 43. 41 wikVs
43 DGRBM 2-1138
41 P. Gabinius recovers 3rd of the 3 eagles lost in Teutoburg Forest. 41 wikArm
42 wikVar
41 Victories of Galba and Germanicus over the Germans. 41 GHH
41 The Chauci are defeated by Gabinius Secundus. 41 CAH 10
41 The Catti are compelled by the Romans to move east of the Rhine., The power of the Cherusci is destroyed. 41 GHH
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS, sent by Claudius with 4 legions, including XX Valeria Victrix comes from Italy to Gaul planning to invade Britain. 43 B76 4-696, wik20VV, wikAPl, wikRB
43 Legion-II Augusta, at Argentorata (Strassbourg) from 12, and legate VESPASIAN, in Germany from 41, are transferred to Britain. 43 DGRBM 2-1138, 3-1246, OCD 105, 1115, britVs, wikVs
43 Legion XXI Rapax at Vetera from 9 CE, is replaced by legion XV Primigenia.  XV occupies the east half of the base, and V the west.. 43 wik5Al
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS, with 4 legions in north Gaul, faces a mutiny by Gallic infantry, who don't want to cross to Britain, because they think the ocean is the boundary of the human world.  They are persuaded by Claudius's freedman and secretary Narcissus. 43 B76 3-194, wikAPl
43 Legion XIV Martia, in Moguntiacum from 9, is sent to Britain until 67. 43 wikL14
Map: Pomponius Mela
Map by Pomponius Mela 43CE reconstructed by Konrad Miller 1898           Photo {{PD-US}}
c.45 CANAL from the Rhine to the Meuse built by Corbulo. 45 TTT
45 JUVAVUM (later Salzburg) in Noricum, founded 15 BC, is made a municipium.  45 wikSb 50 B76 VIII-825,
c.46 Q. Sanqinius MAXIMUS becomes governor of Lower Germany until 47. 46 wikGGI
46 Legion XXI Rapax occupies Vindonissa until 69 with 2 auxiliary cohorts, first III Hispanorum and VI Raetorum, and later VII Raetorum equitata and XXVI voluntariorum civium Romanorum. 46 wik21R
c.46 PLINY the Elder comes from Rome to Germany, serves under L. Pomponius Secundus until 52. 46 DGRBM 3-414
c.47 Q. SANQUINIUS Maximus, governor of Lower Germany from 46, dies.  Gn. Domitius CORBULO succeeds until 51. TAn 11:18
47 CDCC 234, DGRBM 2-999, wikGGI
47 The FRISII, rebelling from 28, subdued by Corbulo commanding V Alaudae and XV Primigenia. 47 CAH 10, 11-53, GHH, wik5Al
Corbulo failed. 47 DGRG 1-917
47 TABBO, king of Frisia from 28, ends.  ASCONIUS and ADELBOLD succeed until 58 as Roman vassals.  Independence of Frisia from 28 ends. 47 rcLC
47 ZeelandZEELAND in southwest Netherlands comes under Rome until 286. map: TUBS

47 rcLC
47 The CHERUSCI are conquered by Lombards, but not subdued.  They ask Claudius to send them a royal descendant as king.  TAn 11:16
47 Neph of Arminius, ITALICUS is sent by Claudius to rule the Cherusci.  After factional strife, he secures the throne. TAn 11:16
47 DGRBM 2-634
47 GANNASCUS, a Batavian auxiliary to Roman army, deserts to become leader of the Chauci.  Ravages west bank of the Rhine. TAn 11:18
47 DGRBM 2-230
47 GANNASCUS, leader of the Chauci, invades Lower Germany while Sanquinius is legate. TAn 11:18
47 FLAVIUS, bro of Arminius, becomes chief of the Cherusci. 47 DGRBM 2-174
47 Leader of the Chauci 47, GANNASCUS dies.  Betrayed to Corbulo, executed as a deserter. TAn 11:18
47 DGRBM 2-230
47 Gn. Domitius CORBULO, legate of Lower Germany, is successful against the Chauci, but is forbidden to go farther by Claudius. TAn 11:19
47 OCD 289
c.48 The AEDUI ask for recognition of their long standing loyalty, and are the 1st tribe of Gallia Comata to have reps accepted as senators in Rome. 48 B76 I-107, DGRBM 1-776
50 Oppidium Ubiorum, chief town of the Ubii on the Rhine, refounded as COLONIA AGRIPPINENSIS (Cologne) by a colony of veterans sent by Claudius.  It is named after Nero's mom, who was born there.  It is governed by the admiral of the Rhine fleet, and helps control the frontier. THs 1:56     50 B76 4-861, CAH 10-844, CDCC 29, GHH, HRRP 4.1-426, MCAW, OCD 264, TTPC, fyf, wikAY     51 B76 4-697
c.50 L. Pomponius SECUNDUS becomes governor of Upper Germany until 54. 50 wikGS
c.50 GOTONI (Goths) migrate from Scandinavia to lower Vistula. 50 wikWC
c.50 SLOVAKIA, north of Hungary, under Dacia 100, comes under Iazygians until 200. 50 rcCE
50 ±50 OKSYWIE culture on lower Vistula practicing cremation from 2nd cen BC, ends.  WIELBARK culture succeeds until 5th cen, practicing cremation and burial, under the influence of the Goths, Rugii and Gepids. 0-100 wikWC
50 L. Pomponius FLACCUS SECUNDUS, legate of Upper Germany, checks an incursion of the Catti. TAn 12:27     50 CAH 10, DGRBM 3-764
51 DGRBM 2-156
50 The QUADI rebel against king Vannius.  The Lugii (subtribe of Suevi) and Hermunduri unite and oppose Roman influence in Germany. 50 DGRG 2-230
c.50 VANNIUS, king of the Suevi 19-50, deserted by Sarmatian cavalry, defeated by the Lugii and Hermunduri, sails up the Danube to P. Atellius Hister gov of Pannonia, who has instructions to welcome him. TAn 12:30
c.50 VANNIUS, king of the Suevi from 19, deposed by Vibillius king of the Hermunduri, Vangio, and Sido.  Suevi kingdom is divided between Vangio & Sido, who remain loyal to Rome. TAn 12:29 50 DGRBM 3-1220
50 GLASS is common around the Alps.  Blown glass is common in Europe. 50 SHT 232, 337
c.51 Gn. Domitius CORBULO, governor of Lower Germany from 47, ends.  No data until 54. 51 wikGGI
c.52 PLINY the Elder, in Germany from 46, and L. Pomponius Secundus, governor of Upper Germany 50-54, return to Rome. 52 DGRBM 3-414

Europe 54-100