c.1 Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), inner earthwork, constructed encloses an area of 32 hectares until 45 as a capital of the Atrebates. 1 wikCA
c.5 DUMNOVELLAUNUS, king of the Trinovantes, Catuvelauni and Canti from 5 BC, ends.
VOSENUS succeeds in Canti until 10.
TASCIOVANUS succeeds over the Catuvelauni until 9.
5 MCAW, rcC, rcCE
c.7 TINCOMMIUS, king of the Atrebates from 25 BC, driven out by bro EPILLUS, who succeeds until 20. 1 OCD 1078     7 rcC rcCE
no date: OCD 144
c.9 TASCIOVANUS, king of the Catuvelauni at Verulamium from 5, ends.  CUNOBELIN of the Trinovantes succeeds until 41.  He moves capital from Verulamium to Camulodunum in Trinovantes land. 5 B76 3-194, MCAW
9 wikKB, wikTs
10 B76 III-297, rcC, rcCE
c.9 CUNOBELIN invades Trinovantes land, in violation of treaty 54 BC. 5 MCAW
9 OCD 301
c.9 CAMULODUNUM, in Trinovantes land, taken by Cunobelin, king of the Catuvelauni, under them until 43. 5 MCAW
9 OCD 200, 301 10 B76 III-297
c.10 VOSENUS, king of the Canti from 5, ends.  EPILLUS king of the Atrebates from 7, becomes king of Belgae, and Canti until 25. 10 rcC, rcCE
14 Aug 19 AUGUSTUS dies.   TIBERIUS succeeds until 37.
c.20 Son of Commius, EPILLUS, king of Atrebates, Belgae, and Canti from 7, loses the Atrebates.  VERICA succeeds until 42. 15 rcC, rcCE
no date: OCD 144
c.25 EPILLUS, king of the Belgae, and Canti from 7, ends.  AMMINIUS succeeds as king of the Canti until 40. 25 rcC, rcCE
c.35 Factions appear in court of Cunobelin.  Pro-Roman under son Amminius; anti-Roman under sons Togodumnus and Caratacus. 35 MCAW
39 CUNOBELIN, king of the Catuvelauni and Trinovantes at Verulamium 9-41, banishes son ADMINIUS, who goes to Gaul. 35 CDCC 246 40 B76 III-297, EBRB 56
37 Mar 16 TIBERIUS dies.  CALIGULA succeeds until 41.
c.39 Adminius and other exiled members of the Catuvelaunian dynasty meet CALIGULA and ask him to invade Britain. 39/40 wikRB
39 CALIGULA leads his 200,000 man army to the channel, intending to invade Britain, decides against it, gathers some sea shells "the spoils of conquered ocean", and returns to Rome. 39 GHH, MCAW, accla     40 wikRB
40 AMMINIUS, king of the Canti from 25, ends.  CARATACUS succeeds until 43. 40 rcC, rcCE
41 Jan CALIGULA dies.  CLAUDIUS succeeds until 54.
41 Temple to Claudius built at Camulodunum. 41 MCAW
41 CUNOBELIN dies.  King of the Catuvelauni and Trinovantes at Verulamium from 9 CE.  Sons TOGODUMNUS and CARATACUS succeed until 43. 41 EBRB, MCAW, OCD 181, rcC, rcCE     42 B76 II-546, III-297, wikKB     43 CDCC 246
41 Burial mound raised at Lexden near Camulodunum for either Cunobelinus or a noble of his.  Buried with a war chariot and many grave goods, which are by now more Roman than Celtic. 41 MCAW
42 VERICA, king of the Atrebates from 20, dethroned. 42 CDCC 246
43 ANTENDRIGA and VERICA fight for throne of the Iceni.  Verica appeals to Rome. 43 EBRB
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS, with 4 legions in north Gaul, faces a mutiny by Gallic infantry, who don't want to cross to Britain, because they think the ocean is the boundary of the human world.  They are persuaded by Claudius's freedman and secretary Narcissus. 43 B76 3-194, wikAPl
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS, with 4 legions: 50,000+ men invades Britain, lands on the east coast of Canti unopposed, ostensibly to restore Verica, as king of the Atrebates and an ally of Rome.
1st expedition since Caesar left in 54 BC.
43 B76 3-194, CDCC 146, DGRBM 3-406, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, TToH, reCld, wikAPl, wikCld, wikRC
43 VESPASIAN, a legate of Legion-II Augusta at Argentorate (Strassbourg) in Germany from 41, is transferred with II Augusta to Britain.  He commands the left wing. 43 DGRBM 2-1138, 3-1246, OCD 105, 1115, britVs, wikVs
43 BRITAIN is under 4 legions until 90. 43 implied
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS surprises and defeats Togodumnus and the Catuvelauni in east Canti. 43 B76 II-546, 3-194, CAH 10, GHH, LEWH, wikAPl
43 Wales Aulus PLAUTIUS defeats Caratacus decisively on the Medway crossing near Rochester, from which Caratacus escapes to Wales. map:

43 B76 II-546, 3-194, MCAW, TToH, wikAPl
43 TOGODUMNUS, co-king of the Catuvelauni 41-43, defeated by Plautius on the Thames. 43 wikAPl
43 Co-king of the Catuvelauni from 41, TOGODUMNUS dies.  Bro CARATACUS, king of the Canti from 40, succeeds until 51.  CANTI comes under Rome until 395. 43 B76 3-194, GHH, rcC, rcCE, wikAPl
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS could advance to Camulodunum, but halts at the Thames, and sends for Claudius to give him credit for the final victory. 43 B76 3-194, GHH, wikAPl
43 Fort RUTUPIAE (later Richborough) founded near the mouth of the Stour by Plautius where he landed near the coast of Canti. 43 wikRC
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS becomes governor of Britain until 46, makes hqs at Londinium. 43 MCAW, wikAPl, wikGRB
c.43 LONDINIUM founded by Aulus Plautius. 43 B76 11-96, TToH, TTPC 47 CDCC 528     49 GHH
43 Durovernum Cantiacorum (Canterbury) taken by Romans, becomes a military post until c.60. 43 alog, wikDC
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS sends 2 legions into the midlands, one north, and Legion-II Augusta under Vespasian west. 43 B76 19-95 MCAW
c.43 Wessex hill forts, including Maiden Castle near Durnovaria taken by Vespasian. 43 GHH, MCAW     44 B76 3-194
43 CAMULODUNUM, capital of the Catuvelauni from 9 CE, taken by Aulus Plautius, under Rome until 61.  Becomes 1st legionary fort in Britain. 43 B76 X-126, 3-194, CAH 10-676, GHH, OCD 200, wikClc
c.43 Vespasian, commanding II Augusta takes the Isle of Wight off the south coast. 43 DGRBM 3-1246, GHH, MCAW, britVs     44 B76 3-194
43 South and east Britain conquered by Plautius.  The area corresponding to England is now under Rome. 43 MCAW, woER
43 mid CLAUDIUS, with some X-consuls, and additional forces including elephants, from Rome arrives in Britain to claim credit for Plautius victory. 43 B76 4-696, CDCC 208, DGRBM 1-776, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, reCld, wikCld
43 Legion XIV Martia, in Moguntiacum from 9, is sent to Britain until 67. 43 wikL14
43 CLAUDIUS receives submission of many tribes at Camulodunum. 43 MCAW
43 The "king of Orkney" is among 11 British kings submitting to Claudius. 43 wikSRE
43 CAMULODUNUM, under Romans 43-61, rebuilt as a fortress by Claudius for his officials. 43 CDCC 160, MCAW
43 VERULAMIUM granted self-government (municipium) by Claudius. 43 MCAW 50 wikSAl
43 CLAUDIUS, in Britain only a few days, returns to Rome. 43 DGRBM 1-776, GHH, MCAW, reCld
43 COGIDUBNUS, king of the Regni of west Sussex, entitled "King and legate of Augustus in Britain". 43 MCAW
43 ALAUNA (later Alchester) established for Legion II Augusta by Vespasian until 49. 43 wik2Ag
43 NOVIOMAGUS REGINORUM (later Chichester) established in Atrebates land as a winter fort for Legion II Augusta by Vespasian.  Abandoned a few years later. 43 wikNR
43 War between Caratacus and Aulus Plautius. 43 GHH
43 CARATACUS in Wales recruits an army of Silures. 44 MCAW
43 COGIDUBNUS becomes client king of the Atrebates until 75. 43 OCD 144, 258     44 EBRB
Map: Pomponius Mela
Map by Pomponius Mela 43CE reconstructed by Konrad Miller 1898           Photo {{PD-US}}
Fosse Way
Fosse Way           map Neddyseagoon
43 The FOSSE WAY, a trench-mound from Isca Dumnoniorum (Exeter) in the southwest to Lindum (Lincoln) in the northeast, becomes the west boundary of Roman Britain.  A road will be built c.55 fortified (in some parts) with a ditch (Fosse). 43 wikFW by 47 owws
43 CARTIMANDUA becomes queen of the Brigantes until 69, with Venutius, who reigns until 72. 43 rcC, rcCE
43 Aulus PLAUTIUS is 1st governor of Britain until 47. 43 wikAPl     44 CAH 10-499, wikGRB
43 late BRITAIN becomes an imperial province until 410 fringed by several client kingdoms. 43 CAH 10-676, IDB 4-104 44 EBRB     50 EBRB
43 - 47 southeast Brit map author: Creative Commons
45 Flavius SABINUS, bro of Vespasian, serves under Aulus PLAUTIUS in Britain. 45 DGRBM 3-689
45 Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), capital of the Atrebates from 1 CE, occupied by Romans, enlarged to about 40 hectares (99 acres). 43 wikCA     45 wikCA, wikSlc
47 CASTLE HILL, site of future fort Duroliponte 70CE, comes under Rome until 395. 47 rcCE
47 Aulus PLAUTIUS governor of Britain from 43, returns to Rome,  P. Ostorius SCAPULA succeeds until 52.  Though Britain remains imperial, it is governed by senatorial legates. 47 B76 3-194, CAH 10-682, DGRBM 3-406, MCAW, OCD 762, wikGRB, wikAPl, wikScap 50 EBRB, GHH
47 Ostorius SCAPULA governor of Britain 46-52, orders tribes on his side of the line to disarm. 47 MCAW
47 Roman boundary line established in Britain between the Trent and the Severn.  Within it are grain growing lands. 47 MCAW
47 ALCHESTER fort founded by Romans just north of the Fosse Way. 47 wikAlc
47 LEICESTER near a bridge on the Fosse Way, visited by Romans, begins as the tribal capital of the Corieltauvi under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. 47 wikLc
47 CARATACUS in Wales raids into Roman territory until 50. 47 Dur 3-452, MCAW
47 fall The ICENI of East Anglia, and others rebel.  OSTORIUS reacts quickly.  They are subdued, but allowed to remain nominally independent.  PRASUTAGUS becomes client king of the Iceni until 60. TAn 12:31
47 B76 4-696, MCAW, rcCE
47/8 WATLING STREET begun by Romans from the bridgehead on the Thames straight to what will become Newgate on the west side of the Londinium wall.  It will not be named until after the Saxon invasion. 47/8 wikWS
48 Ostorius SCAPULA governor of Britain 46-52, helps Cartimandua, pro-Roman queen of Brigantes, quell anti-Roman disturbances. 48 B76 II-600, EBRB
48 Ostorius SCAPULA governor of Britain 46-52, begins conquest of Albion (Wales) until 78. 48 LEWH, TTPC
c.48 GLEVUM (Gloucester), fort built by Romans at an important crossing of River Severn, and near the Fosse Way.  Remains a fort until 96/7. 48 wikGl
49 MENDIP LEAD MINES exploited by Romans, evidenced by an inscription on a block of iron. by 49 SHT 9
49 EBRB 77, MCAW mndt
49 Legion XX, at Camulodunum from ?, moves west.  49 wikClc
49 CAMULODUNUM, under Romans 43-61, becomes a veteran colony for retired Roman soldiers 49 B76 3-195 50 EBRB
by 59 MCAW
49 Legion II Augusta, at Alauna (later Alchester) from 43, moves to Waddon Hill until 55. 49 wik2Ag
49 Colonia Claudia VICTRICENSIS founded near Camulodunum until 61 by Ostorius Scapula as a veteran colony and example of Roman civilization. 49 B76 3-195, OCD 200, wikScap
50 BRIGANTES defeated by Romans. 50 B76 II-269, GHH
50 Manlius VALENS becomes legate of a legion in Britain.  50 DGRBM 3-1207
50 Ostorius Scapula carries on the war in the west successfully. 50 GHH, HRRP 4.1-422
47 - 52 southeast Brit map author: Creative Commons
50 LONDON BRIDGE: the temporary bridge over the Thames is replaced by a permanent timber piled bridge, maintained and guarded by a small garrison until 61. 50 wikLB
50 Revolt of the Iceni of East Anglia suppressed.  Caratacus heads the Silures. 50 GHH
c.50 URICONIUM, capital of the Cornovii, on the Severn River on a route to the south leading to the Wye valley is used as a frontier post for a cohort of Thracian Auxiliaries under P. Ostorius Scapula until 53. no date: wikVC
c.50 LINDUM (Lincoln), built by legion IX Hispania.  Remains just a fort until 71. 50 wik9Hs
c.50 Castrum DEVA VICTRIX (Chester) at the mouth of the Dee occupied. 50 OCD 333 60 rcCE
51 CARATACUS, head of the Silures in Shropshire Wales, rebels, harasses the Romans. 51 EBRB, GHH
51 CARATACUS is decisively defeated at Caer Caradocby Ostorius Scapula with legions IX and XX Valeria Victrix and captured along with his wife.  Caratacus escapes to his mother-in-law queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes.  She treacherously delivers Caratacus to Ostorius. 50 wikCld     51 B76 II-600, CAH 10, CDCC 169, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 204, 209, rcCE, wik9Hs , wikRB, no date: wik20VV
51 Caratacus, former king of the Silures in Shropshire Wales, is brought before Claudius, then sent to Rome. 51 GHH
52 EBRB 63
52 Governor of Britain from 47, P. Ostorius SCAPULA dies of exhaustion.  Manlius Valens takes over until A. Didius GALLUS arrives, and becomes governor until 57. TAn 12:40     51 GHH
52 OCD 457, 762, wikGRB, wikScap     54 EBRB 64
no date: DGRBM 2-227
c.53 URICONIUM, capital of the Cornovii, under Thracian Auxiliaries from 50, taken over by Legion XIV Martia until 80 and enlarged to prepare for invasion of Albion (Wales). 53 EBRB post-55 wikWrx
no date: wikVC
c.53 WROXETER fort founded at Uriconium on the Severn River on a route to the south leading to the Wye valley. 55 wikWrx
53 CAERLEON fortress founded on Usk River on south coast of Albion (Wales).  See 75. 53 EBRB
54 DRUID religion outlawed by Claudius, who, according to Suetonius, "completely abolished the barbarous and inhuman religion of the Druids in Gaul".  (see 61) 54 PD 119, 127
54 Oct 13 Empire 54CECLAUDIUS dies.   NERO succeeds until 68.
52 - 57 Didius Gallus map author: Creative Commons
c.55 CAERDYF hillfort built on the Dyf river by the Silures in Wales.  See 75. 50-60 wikHCrd
55 Legion II Augusta, at Waddon Hill from 49, moves to Exeter until 66. 55 wik2Ag
c.55 ISCA Dumnoniorum (later Exeter), a 42-acre rectangular fort built on the Usk River at the southwest terminus of the Fosse Way for Legion II Augusta which stays there until 75. 55 wikID, wikXtr
c.55 BURRIUM fortress is built by Aulus Didius Gallus, on the Usk River until 75. 55 wikUs
c.55 Legion XX Valeria Victrix under Manlius Valens is moved by Aulus Didius Gallus from Glevum to Usk Wales, in an unsuccessful attempt to pacify the Silures in Wales. 55 wik20VV, wikUs
c.55 Doctor's grave at Camulodunum has earliest identifiable surgical instruments in Britain. 50-60 CDCC 160
57 A. Didius GALLUS governor of Britain from 52, ends.  Q. VERANIUS succeeds until 59. TAn 14:29     57 wikGRB, wikQV 58 DGRBM 3-1240, OCD 459
57 Veranius Q. VERANIUS, governor of Britain, operates against the Silures. map: Creative Commons

57 wikQV
57 Cartimandua has affair with Velocatus, her husband Venutius's armor bearer. 57 CDCC 169
57 VENUTIUS, anti-Roman king of Brigantes 43-72, tries to oust pro-Roman queen from 43, Cartimandua, prevented by Romans, reigns with her until her death 69. 57 B76 II-600, rcCE
58 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA serves under Suetonius Paulinus in Britain until 62. 58 wikAgr
59 4 Legions are now in Britain.  59 MCAW
59 Q. VERANIUS, governor of Britain from 57, dies.  C. Suetonius PAULINUS succeeds until 62. TAn 14:29     58 DGRBM 3-1240, wikGRB     59 B76 I-144, 3-195, DGRBM 3-145, GHH, LEWH, MCAW
59 Suetonius PAULINUS begins training soldiers for conquest of Albion (Wales). 59 MCAW
59 TITUS Flavius Vespasian, military tribune in Germany from 57, ends.  Soon goes with reinforcements to Britain until 63. 59 wikTt
60 PaulinusC. Suetonius PAULINUS invades Albion (Wales). map author: Creative Commons

c.60 PRASUTAGUS dies.  King of the Iceni in East Anglia from 47.  Leaves his kingdom jointly to wid BOUDICA, their daus, and Rome. 59 rcCE, wikNr     60 B76 V-279, 3-195, MCAW, OCD 177     60/1 DGRBM 1-493 61 B76 15-1112, rcC
c.60 C. Suetonius PAULINUS crosses the Menai Straits to Mona (Anglesey) island, interrupts Druids performing human sacrifice, massacres inhabitants, destroys Druid shrine and sacred groves. TAn 14:29     60 B76 3-195, GHH, wikAng     61 DGRBM 3-145, DGRG 2-368, EBRB, MCAW, LEWH
c.61 DRUID religion in Britain, supposedly abolished in 54, still being abolished, according to Tacitus, who again thinks it's stamped out. 60 wikAng
61 MCAW, PD 119
c.60 BOUDICA is flogged, and her 2 daus raped by Romans. 60 MCAW 61 EBRB 65
60 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA becomes aide to Suetonius Paulinus in Britain until 62. 60 CDCC 25, DGRBM 1-76, GHH
c.60 Durovernum Cantiacorum (Canterbury) Roman military post from 43 demilitarized, becomes a civitas until 410?. 60 alog
60 CAESAROMAGUS (Chelmsford) founded as a town around a newly built Roman fort. 60 wikClm
c.61 Large Roman loans made to British nobles to Romanize themselves are called in.  Chief creditor is Seneca. 61 MCAW
c.61 Camulodunum:  Roman statue of victory falls over causing religious fervor and prophesy among Druids.  Romans appeal for help to procurator Decianus TAn 14:32
60 B76 II-1048, OCD 200
c.61 TRINOVANTES at Camulodunum, under Romans from 43, forced to maintain temple of Claudius, massacre 70,000 Romans and Romano-Britons at Camulodunum, Verulamium, and Londinium.  Revolt begins until later 61. 60 B76 X-126, CDCC 143 60/1 B76 12-966, CDCC 147     61 Dur 3-452, MCAW, TTPC     62 GHH
c.61 BOUDICA and the Iceni rebel, and are joined by the Trinovantes. TAn 14:29     60/1 B76 3-195, wikRB     61 B76 15-1112, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC     62 DGRBM 1-493, GHH
c.61 The BRIGANTES under Cartimandua do not join the revolt. 60 CDCC 169
c.61 Petilius CEREALIS, commanding legion IX Hispana tries to relieve Camulodunum, and is defeated by the Iceni.  Only the cavalry escapes. TAn 14:32 62 DGRBM 1=673, wik9Hs
c.61 CAMULODUNUM, under Romans from 43, sacked and burnt by the Trinovantes and Iceni.  TAn 14:32 60 B76 II-1048, OCD 200     61 LEWH, wikClc     62 GHH
61 Colonia Claudia VICTRICENSIS, near Camulodunum from 49 with a Roman theater and senate house, destroyed by the Trinovantes and Iceni. 61 prs
c.61 LONDINIUM sacked and burnt by the Trinovantes and Iceni.  Inhabitants massacred. 60 B76 II-1048, CDCC 528, OCD 200     61 LEWH, TTPC     62 GHH
c.61 VERULAMIUM burnt; inhabitants destroyed. Britons become furious.  In a few days 70,000 Romans and native confederates are killed. 60/1 B76 X-408, OCD 200, 61 B76 3-195, 15-1112, LEWH, wikSAl     62 GHH
c.61 LONDON BRIDGE, a permanent timber bridge maintained by Romans from 50, probably destroyed by Trinovantes and Iceni until 63. 60 wikLB
c.61 C. Suetonius PAULINUS on Mona (Anglesey) island, learns of Boudica revolt, returns to Wales, defeats the rebels somewhere in the midlands. TAn 14:31 61 GHH
c.61 Campaign in Wales is interrupted by Iceni revolt.  Suetonius PAULINUS marches from Wales to Londinium. 62 GHH
c.61 C. Suetonius PAULINUS withdraws from Londinium to more defensible terrain. TAn 14:33
c.61 BOUDICA defeated, and her army routed by legions XIV Martia and XX Valeria Victrix.  80,000 Britons are indiscriminately massacred.  Revolt ends. TAn 14:37     61 MCAW, TTPC, wik20VV, wikL14 62 GHH
c.61 BOUDICA dies, kills her daus, then suicides by poison. TAn 14:37     61 MCAW, rcCE 61/2 LEWH     62 GHH
no date: OCD 177
61 Legion XIV Martia, in Britain 43-67, receives the added name Victrix . 61 wikL14
62 Gn. Julius Agricola, aide to Suetonius in Britain from 60, returns to Rome. 62 CDCC 25, wikAgr
62 Romans under Cereailis flee, and procurator Decianus Catus escapes to Gaul. TAn 14:32 62 GHH
62 Julius CLASSICUS Acratus arrives with 2,000 legionaries, 8 cohorts of auxiliaries, 1,000 cav. to replace Catus as procurator under Paulinus. TAn 14:38 62 GHH
62 Julius CLASSICUS Acratus favors restoration of peace.  Paulinus wants total victory.  Classicus writes to Rome that peace is impossible unless Paulinus is replaced. TAn 14:38
61 OCD 244 62 GHH
62 Freedman POLYCLITUS is sent from Rome to mediate between Paulinus and Classicus. TAn 14:39     61 CAH 10-727     62 GHH
62 C. Suetonius PAULINUS, governor of Britain from 58, recalled to Rome.  P. Petronius TURPILIANUS succeeds until 63. TAn 14:39     61 B76 I-144, 3-195     62 DGRBM 3-1192, EBRB, wikGRB
c.62 LONDINIUM surrounded by a Roman wall 6 feet thick. 61 TTPC
63 P. Petronius TURPILIANUS, governor of Britain from 62, ends.  M. Trebellius MAXIMUS succeeds until 69. 63 wikGRB
63 LONDON BRIDGE, probably destroyed in 61, rebuilt across Thames. 63 CDCC 528
63 TITUS Flavius Vespasian, military tribune in Britain from 59/60, returns to Rome. 63 wikTt
65 ±15 Bloomberg Tablet Bloomberg Tablets :  405 wood tablets in Londinium, found 2010-13, buried 40 feet underground.  Written in Roman cursive.  90 have been translated.  Content varries. photo: Udimu

50-80 wikBlT
66 Legion II Augusta, at Exeter from 55, moves probably to Glevum. 66 wik2Ag
c.66 Batavian regiments are withdrawn from Britain to Gaul. 66 wikRob
67 Legion XIV Martia Victrix in Britain from 43, at Wroxeter from 58, withdrawn to Gaul and then to the Balkans until 70. 67 wikL14, wikMVB
68 Jun NERO dies.  Year of 4 emperors begins until 70.
68 Caelius ROSCIUS commands legion XX Valeria Victrix in Britain. THs 1:60     68 DGRBM 3-663
69 Jan Legions in Britania side with Vitellius. 69 dirVt, wik20VV
69 Jan Part of legion II Augusta sides with Otho until he is defeated, then switches to Vitellius. 69 wik2Ag
69 CARTIMANDUA dies.  Pro-Roman queen of Brigantes from 43, dumps husband Venutius for his armor bearer Vellocatus.  Venutius rebels.  Cartimandua is rescued by Romans, but Venutius rules the Brigantes until 72.  Cartimandua is ousted and killed. TAn 12:36, 40, THs 3:45     69 B76 2-600, CDCC 169, rcC
no date: OCD 209
69 M. TREBELLIUS MAXIMUS, governor of Britain from 63, flees from Britain to escape the fury of his troops.  Vitellian M. Vettius BOLANUS succeeds until 71. THs 2:65
69 DGRBM 1-498, OCD 172, wikGRB
69 Dec 20 VITELIUS dies.  VESPASIAN succeeds until 79.
70 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA sent from Rome by Vespasian to command Legion XX under Cerealis in Britain until 73. 69 CDCC 25
70 B76 I-144, DGRBM 1-76     71 OCD 28
by 70 DURNOVARIA (later Dorchester in Dorset) fortress built by Romans in Durotriges land on the River Frome. by 70 wikDD
70 DUROLIPONTE fortress (Cambridge) built on Castle Hill (see 47) by Romans.  Remains under military until 120. 70 wikCmb, wikDrl
70 Conquest of Wales begins until 80. 70 Dur 3-452
70 The Silures of Wales subdued by Gn. Julius Agricola. 70 GHH
70 Legion XIV Martia Victrix, in Britain from 68, is sent to Germany. 70 guess
c.71 Q. Petilius CEREALIS, governor of Lower Germany from 70, comes to Britain, as consular legate. 70 EBRB
71 DGRBM 1-673, wikGGI
71 M. Vettius BOLANUS, governor of Britain from 69, recalled.  Q. Petilius CEREALIS succeeds until 74. 71 CAH 11-171, OCD 172, 224, wikAgr, wikGRB     72 LEWH
c.71 Q. Petilius CEREALIS fights the Brigantes around Eboracum (York).  Cerealis map author: Creative Commons

no date: LEWH
c.71 VENUTIUS, king of Brigantes 43-72, defeated by Q. Petilius CEREALIS 70 EBRB 68 71 B76 II-269, 600
by 71 LINDUM (Lincoln), Roman fortress for legion IX Hispania from 50, becomes a colony.  by 71 B76 VI-232 post-86 wikLnd 90 MCAW
71 Legion IX Hispania, at Lindum from ?, moves to Eboracum (York).  LINDUM is garrisoned by Legion II Adiutrix until 77/8. 71 wikLnd
72 VENUTIUS, king of Brigantes from 43, dies.  72 rcC, rcCE
72 EBORACUM (York) founded on flat ground above the Ouse close to its confluence with the Foss by Q. Petilius Cerealis.  9th legion stationed there until 122 71 wikYr 71-73 OCD 368
c.73 CALEDONIA (Scotland) invaded by Romans under Cerealis. 71 wikSRE
73 Julius AGRICOLA under Cerealis in Britain from 70, returns to Rome until 74.Sextus Julius FRONTINUS succeeds, but still under Cerealis until 74. 73 B76 I-144, CDCC 367, OCD 28, wikAgr
74 Q. Petilius CEREALIS governor of Britain from 72, returns to Rome to be consul.  Sextus Julius FRONTINUS succeeds until 78.  He will build roads and forts, and help Britons become Romanized and self-governing. 74 B76 3-195, CAH 11-152, LEWH, MCAW, wikGRB     75 DGRBM 2-181
74 FrontinusSextus Julius FRONTINUS governor of Britain 74-8, continues subduing the Silures of Wales. map author: Creative Commons

74 SIMON the Zealot crucified in Britain. 74 FBM 18
This is one of many deaths, years, and places proposed for the end of Simon.  Foxe was an Anglican.  The idea that any Biblical character ever went to Britain is totally Anglican. wikSZ
75 CAERLEON fortress on the Usk River on south coast of Wales from 53, is rebuilt as ISCA AUGUSTA (aka Isca Silurum) by Frontinus for Legion II Augusta, which moves there from Isca Dumnoniorum, and remains until at least 300   See 90.
ISCA DUMNONIORUM, built 55, then becomes the tribal capital of the Dumnonii.
74/5 B76 II-433, wikIA     75 wikCr, wik2Ag, wikXtr
74/5 4 legions are now in Britain out of a total of @30 legions in the Empire, making Britain one of the most heavily militarised provinces due to its frontier status and hostile neighbors. 74/5 wikIA
75 SEGONTIUM fortress built by Romans on a low hill southeast of Caernarfon. 75 B76 II-433
c.75 CARMARTHEN fortress built on a low hill by the Tywi river on Demetae land in south Wales over their capital MORIDUNUM by Romans. 46 x 27m, possibly replacing the hillfort on Merlin's Hill.  Lasts until c.120. 75 wikCrm, wikMrd
c.75 CAERWENT (Venta Silurum) built by Romans on the Roman road between Caerleon and Glevum as a market town for the defeated Silures tribe.  Has a forum and basilica. 75 wikCrw, wikVS
c.75 Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester), occupied by Romans from 45, an amphitheater is added outside the city walls. 70-80 wikCA
c.75 NIDUM fortress built by Romans at the lowest possible crossing of the Neath river to protect their road from fort Glevum to Moridunum.  Occupied until 125. 74 wikNd 75 B76 VII-236
75 Temple to Neptune and Minerva built by king Cunobelin to prove his Romanization. 75 MCAW
c.75 CAERDYF hillfort in Wales from c.55, rebuilt as a small fort by Romans and called Cardiff. 75 B76 II-558
c.75 Romans at Burrium fortress on the Usk River from 55, moves south to Caerleon, leaving only a small auxiliary fort and civilian settlement at Usk. 75 wikUs
75 Temple to Neptune and Minerva built by king Cunobelinus to prove his Romanization. 75 MCAW
c.75 LUENTINUM fort and mining settlement in Wales is built by Frontinus.  Has an earthen rampart and double ditch.  Occupied until 125. 75 wikLnt     78 wikDGM
75 COGIDUBNUS, client king of the Atrebates from 43, ends. 75 OCD 258 80 wikTCC
75 Palace at Fishbourne near Chichester (Noviomagus Reginorum), begun until 80, probably by Cogidubnus king of the Regni.  4 residential wings with at least 60 rooms surround a formal courtyard garden of 250ft x 320ft.  Includes 50 mosaic floors with under-floor central heating and an integral bathhouse.  Gardens contain elaborate plantings of shaped beds for hedges and trees with water supplies for fountains, all surrounded by colonnades in the form of a peristyle. 75 MCAW, wikFRP
76±2 DEVA VICTRIX (Chester) at the mouth of the Dee, occupied from 50, becomes a legionary fort with wood wall until 100, used by legions II and XX. 71 B76 II-812 74-8 OCD 333 79 wikCst
76 Britain subjected to the authority of Rome. 76 GHH
c.77 Britons are "a fierce and savage people running thru the woods" according to Agricola. 77 TTPC
77/8 South WALES, under Silures, invaded by Romans from 48, conquered by Julius Frontinus governor of Britain. 77 LEWH 122 78 B76 3-195
77/8 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, in Rome from 76 returns to Britain until 84. 77 LEWH, wikAgr, wikDt
c. 77/8 Sextus Julius FRONTINUS governor of Britain from 74, returns to Rome.  Gn. Julius AGRICOLA succeeds until 84, begins new campaign.  Starts with the Ordovices of north Wales. 77 B76 I-144, CDCC 146, 367, Dur 3-452, LEWH 122, TTPC, wikFrwikGJA, 77/8 CAH 11, MCAW     78 B76 3-195, 19-96, CDCC 25, DGRBM 2-181, 3-1248, GHH, HRRP 4.2-708, MCAW, OCD 181, 448, britVs, unrvDt, wikGRB, wikRGGB, wikVs, wikSRE
77/8 Legion II Adiutrix, at Lindum from 71, moves to Chester. 77/8 wikLnd
77/8 SEGONTIUM fortress founded in north Wales by Agricola to hold about 1,000 auxiliary infantry. 77/8 wikSg
c.78 North WALES, under Silures and Ordovices, invaded by Romans from 48, conquered by Agricola governor of Britain.  Wales is now completely conquered. 78 B76 3-195, DGRBM 1-76, 3-1248, MCAW, wikGJA, wikRB   79 LEWH 179
80 Dur 3-452
c.78 Legion XX Valeria Victrix under Agricola campaigns in north Britannia and Caledonia until 84. 78 wik20VV
c.78 MONA (Anglesey) island north of Wales, subdued from 61, brought into Roman Empire by Agricola.  Notable for copper mining. 78 DGRBM 1-76, 3-1248, DGRG 2-368, wikAng
c.78 Dolaucothi gold mine in Wales is taken over and worked by Romans stationed at Luentinum. 75 wikRB     78 wikDGM
c.78 AGRICOLA governor of Britain, attacks the Brigantes, begins conquest of north until 142. 78 LEWH
c.79 BRIGANTES conquered by Agricola, who then builds Isurium Brigantum (Aldborough). 70 EBRB     79 B76 3-105, wikIB
c.79 Lowlands of Caledonia (Scotland) overcome by Agricola 79 GHH, MCAW
79 Agricola pushes armies to the estuary of the river Taus. 79 wikAgr
79 Corbred II of Caledonia resists Agricola. 79 GHH
79 Jun 24 VESPASIAN dies.  TITUS succeeds until 81.
79 EBORACUM (York), under legion IX 72-122, rebuilt by Agricola 79 OCD 368
79 PLANE used at Pompeii and Roman Britain, but is lost at fall of Rome until 13th cent. 79 SHT 2-393
80 TRIMONTIUM fort built where the Leader flows into the Tweed by Agricola.  It has a turf rampart on a cobble foundation with 2 ditches in front of it, overlapping each entrance.  On the west side is an annexe defended by a similar rampart and ditches arrangement.  See 90. 80 wikSRE, wikTrm
80 AGRICOLA builds a naval base from which to invade Ireland.  Invasion never materializes. 80 MCAW
79 - 82 south Scotland
Agricola campaign     map author: unstated
80 Legion XIV Gemina at Uriconium fortress from 53, taken north by Agricola on punitive expeditions against Picts in Caledonia.  Legion XX Valeria Victrix takes over Uriconium. 80 wikVC
80 CALEDONIA (Scotland) invaded by Agricola, but with insufficient forces to subdue the north. 80 B76 3-195, DGRBM 1-76, DGRG 1-436
80 CORBRED defeats Agricola. 80 GHH
80 Agricola builds a rampart or wall from the mouth of the Tyne to Solway Frith. 80 DGRBM 1-76, GHH
80 Spread of Roman civilization in Britain. 80 GHH
80 THEATER built at Durovernum Cantiacorum (Canterbury) by Romans. 80 wikDC
81 Campaign against the Novantae, Selgovae, and Damnii in Britain. 81 GHH
81±3 Roman fort built on Loudoun Hill. 79-84 B76 I-694
c.81 4th Clyde lineFORTH-CLYDE Line: a Roman boundary established by Agricola: a line of forts built from the Forth to the Clyde.  It is the base for the Antonine wall begun 142CE. 81 EBRB
81 Sep 13 TITUS dies.  DOMITIAN succeeds until 96.
82 AGRICOLA crosses an unidentified body of water and defeats peoples unknown to the Romans until then. 82 wikDt
82 AGRICOLA moves into central Caledonia (Scotland), camps on navigable rivers, uses fleet for supplies. 82 MCAW
82 AGRICOLA campaigns in southwest Caledonia, subdues tribes on promontory opposite Ireland, fortifies the coast facing Ireland. 82 DGRBM 1-76, GHH, wikDt
82/3 IX Hispana narrowly escaped destruction when the Caledonians beyond the Forth surprise attack their fort at night. 82/3 wik9Hs
c.83 Navigator DEMETRIUS of Tarsus explores west coast of Britain.  He will report to Plutarch that it was "a gloomy journey among uninhabited islands," but that he had visited one which was the retreat of holy men. 83 eupb, wikSRE
83 AGRICOLA raises a fleet and goes north of the Forth into Caledonia (Scotland) to aid the advance forces, explores coast of Fife and Forfar. 83 B76 I-144, EBRB, DGRBM 1-76, GHH, wikDt
c.83 AGRICOLA is opposed by Galgacus, who commands 30,000 Caledonians (Scots). 83 GHH, wikAgr
83 - 84 south Scotland
Agricola campaign     map author: unstated
c.83 7th campaign of AGRICOLA in Britain.  20,000 Romans defeat 30,000 Caledonians (Scots) under Calgacus at Mons Graupius (location unknown).  Casualties: 360 Romans vs. 10,000 Scots.  Agricola figures he has conquered Caledonia, but ⅔ of the Caledonian army escapes into marshes and Highlands, ultimately preventing Agricola from subduing all Britain. 82 B76 II-454     83 B76 I-144, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, unrvDt, wikAgr     84 GHH, wikDt, wikRB, wikSRE
c.83 INCHTUTHIL fortress built by XX Valeria Victrix under Agricola, at the head of one of the main routes to the Scottish Highlands on a natural platform overlooking the north bank of River Tay southwest of Blairgowrie, Perth and Kinross.  Occupied by Legion XX Valeria Victrix until 85. 82/3 wik20VV, wikInc 83 wikDt
c.83 AGRICOLA reaches as far north as Romans will ever reach on land. 83 LEWH, TTPC
c.83 A detachment of Usipetes serves Romans in Britain. 83 DGRG 2-1328
84 Britain is proved to be an island - Agricola's fleet circumnavigates its entire coast. 83 EBRB     84 DGRBM 1-76, GHH, MCAW, OCD 428
84 Under the judicious, impartial, and conciliating policy of Agricola, crime disappears, and civilization spreads. 84 GHH
c.84 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA, governor of Britain from 77/8, recalled to Rome by DomitianSallustius LUCILLIUS? succeeds until 89. 83 CDCC 146     84 B76 I-144, CDCC 25, EBRB, DGRBM 1-76, 1062, Dur 3-210, 452, HRRP 4.2-709, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 360, TTPC, unrvDt, wikDt, wikGRB     84/5 CAH 11-25     85 GHH, OCD 181, wikAgr, wikDt, wikGJA
84 Roman army is withdrawn from North Britain to help in Germany. 84 GHH
85 VINDOLANDA in northeast Britain, wood fort built by Romans until 95, under Roman occupation until 370. 85 wikVnd
85 ORKNEY ISLANDS north of Scotland discovered by a Roman fleet, which is then recalled. 85 B76 VII-584
87/8 Legions in Britain mostly recalled by Domitian to help fight Dacians. 86/7 unrvDt 87/8 wikDt
87/8 INCHTUTHIL fortress, built 83, and occupied by XX Valeria Victrix, dismantled.  Valeria Victrix returns south to Castra Deva (Deva Victrix), where it remains for at least 2 centuries.  Caledonian forts and watchtowers abandoned, moving the Roman frontier 120km south. 86/7 unrvDt     87/8 wikDt     88 wik20VV
c.89 Sallustius LUCILLIUS?, governor of Britain from 84, ends.  No data until 96. 89 wikGRB
90 All Roman forts north of the Earn river are evaccuated. 90 B76 II-454
90 TRIMONTIUM fort where the Leader flows into the Tweed from 80, rebuilt stronger.  Occupied until 105. 90 wikTrm
90 BRITAIN is tranquil, steadily advances in cultivation of the useful arts, in literature, and in social comfort and refinement. 90 GHH
90 BRITAIN, under 4 legions from 43, reduced to 3 legions by Domitian. i.e. EBORACUM (York), DEVA VICTRIX (Chester), Legion II Augusta at CAERLEON. 90 B76 3-195-6
95 VINDOLANDA in northeast Britain, wood fort from 85 replaced by a larger wood fort built by the 9th Cohort of Batavians (@1,000 men) until 105. 95 wikVnd
c.96 P. Metilius NEPOS? becomes governor of Britain until 97. 96 wikGRB
96 Sep 18 DOMITIAN dies.  NERVA succeeds until 98.
c.96/7 GLEVUM (Gloucester), a fort from 48, becomes a Roman colony for retired legionaries. 96 MCAW     97 wikGl
c.97 P. Metilius NEPOS?, governor of Britain from 96, ends.  T. Avidius QUIETUS succeeds until 101. 97 wikGRB 98 OCD 156
98 Jan 26 NERVA dies.  TRAJAN succeeds until 117.
c.100 Vindolanda  Vindolanda Tablets  include an invitation to a birthday party, perhaps the oldest surviving document written in Latin by a woman. photo: Michel wal

100 wikVnT
c.100 DEVA VICTRIX (Chester) at the mouth of the Dee, legionary fort with wood wall from 76, gets a stone wall. 100 OCD 333
100 Cherry-trees first planted in Britain. 100 GHH