Asia Go to West Asia Go to Syria - Armenia Go to Parthia Go to India Go to East Asia
c.1 HERAIOS becomes 1st known Kushan king until 30. 1 nweK, wikKsn
c.3 In a vain attempt to reconcile with China, a WUSUN chief is duped and killed. 3 wikWsn
10 Minor mutiny in Central Asia quickly suppressed by Han 10 CHC 231
c.10 XUZHILI dies.  King of Rear Jushi (Turfan), concerned by the cost of hosting Xin ambassadors, is so distressed that he considers abandoning his kingdom and fleeing to the XiongnuXin's Xiyu commissioner Dan Qin summons Xuzhili and executes him.  Xuzhili's bro Hulanzhi flees to the Xiongnu and attacks Dan Qin, inflicting severe casualties, before withdrawing. 10 wikWM
c.10 Last Indo-Greek king Strato is conquered by the Indo-Scythian ruler Rajuvula.  Indo-Greeks of Asia from 329 disappear as a political entity. 10 wikGB
c.13 Dual kingdom Wusun (which, under a system set up by Han, had 2 kings - the greater king is a descendant of a Han princess and her husband the king of Wusun, and the lesser king is a descendant of her bro-in-law) sends ambassadors to Chang'an to offer tribute.  Because Wang Mang knows that the people of Wusun prefer the lesser king, Wang Mang places the ambassador of the lesser king in a higher position than the ambassador of the greater king, which insults the greater king. 13 wikWM
c.13 The Xiyu kingdoms (aka Western region) join forces and rebel against Xin, attack the Xiyu commissioner Dan Qin, and kill him.  The Xiyu kingdoms, by that point, no longer pledge allegiance to Xin. 13 CHC 238, wikHH, wikWM
c.16 WANG MANG makes another attempt to intimidate the Xiyu kingdoms back into submission, but his armies are divided and cut off from each other.  One army is wiped out.  The other is forced to withdraw to Qiuci (Kucha) with its way back to Xin proper cut off.  The army settles there and is unable to return for the duration of Xin Dynasty. 16 wikWM
c.16 WANG MANG sends a force to retaliate against Karashahr.  It is ambushed but not annihilated.  It attacks Karashahr, massacres part of its population, quells their resistance, and ensures that the region remains under Xin control.  It then returns to China. 16 CHC 238, wikHH
c.19 LI YEH, a Shepherd of Yung Division, is sent by Wang Mang against the southwest barbarians. 19
HFHD99c 12
c.20 GONDOPHERNES (Gondophares), Parthian satrap of Sakastan, Drangiana and Arachosia, under Parthia from 20 BC, declares independence, becomes Pahlava king of Bactria until 50. 19 B76 IV-624, wikGnd, wikIPK 20 MRDK 394 21 HCIP 2-128, no date: wikVn1
c.20 INDO PARTHIAN Kingdom begins with Gondophernes.  Lasts until 226. 10 wikTI     19 wikIPK 21 wikSI
c.22 MAUES-II ends.  Chief of Sakas from 20 BC.  Son-in-law AZES-I continues 5 BC-30 CE, alone until 28. 22 HCIP 2-118, 127
c.28 AZES-I, chief of Sakas 22-30, makes son AZILISES co king. 28 HCIP 2-127
c.29 Emperor GUANGWU allies with warlord Dou Rong of the Hexi Corridor. 29 wikHH
c.29 Emperor GUANGWU, preoccupied with civil wars in China, grants king Kang of Yarkand an official title. 29 wikHH
c.30 GURGAMOYA becomes king of Khotan until 60. 30 wikKt
c.30 AZES-I dies.  Chief of Sakas from 22, dies.  Son AZILISES, co king from 28, continues until 40, alone until 35. 30 HCIP 2-117, 127
c.30 KUJULA KADPHISES dies.  Kushan ruler from 20 BCVIMA TAKTO succeeds until 80? 90?. 30 rcCAS     35 MRDK 394     75 CHEIA 163     80 wikKK, wikKsn
Data for KUSHAN rulers is contradictory.
c.30 HERAIOS, 1st known Kushan king from 1 CE, ends.  KUJULA KADPHISES succeeds until 80. 30 nweK, wikKsn
c.33 XIAN becomes king of Yarkand until 61. 33 CHEIA 146
c.33 Emperor Guangwu seizes Gansu warlord Wei Ao's domain. 33 wikHH
c.34 Gansu is pacified by Han 34 CHC 254
c.35 AZILISES, chief of Sakas 30-40, makes son AZES-II, co-chief. 35 HCIP 2-127
c.40 AZILISES dies.  Chief of Sakas from 30.  Son AZES-II continues 35-79 CE. 30 HCIP 2-127
c.41 XIAN, successor of king Kang of Yarkand, made a Protector General by Guangwu. 41 wikHH
c.44 COTYS, ½ bro of Mithridates, client king of Bosporus 38-45, goes to Rome to obfuscate Claudius about Mithridates' misbehavior.  Instead, he tells the truth, and is appointed king of Bosporus. 44 CAH 10-753
44/5 MITHRIDATES, former client king of Bosporus 38-44/5 defeated and captured by A. Didius Gallus, governor of Moesia, taken prisoner to Rome, tells Claudius, 'No man brought me here.  I came of my own will.  If you doubt it, let me return, and see if you can find me.'  He is freed, to keep Cotys in line. 49 HRRP 4.1-430 no date: OCD 176
c.45 18 Western Region states - including Jushi (Turfan and Jimasa), Shanshan (around Lobnor), and Yanqi (Karashahr) - send hostages and valuables to the Han court asking for military protection from Yarkand's oppression. They bluntly tell Emperor Guangwu that if China could not protect them from annexation by Yarkand their only alternative was to turn to the Xiongnu. Being powerless to deal with the situation, Emperor Guangwu must let these states go to the Xiongnu. 45 CHEIA 146
c.46 A delegation from 16 states of the Western Regions petition Emperor Guangwu to reestablish the Western Han post of governor of Xiyu.  Emperor Guangwu declines, stating that his empire is too weak to protect Xiyu kingdoms. 45 CHC 268, wikKsg 46 wikEGH
c.46 The Xiyu kingdoms (aka Western region), deserted by Han, submit to the Xiongnu. 46 wikEGH
50 Indo-Parthian SANABARES becomes rebel king of Parthia at Merv in Margiana until 56. 50 icsPE, lvArs, wikSnb
c.50 GONDOPHERNES (Gondophares) ends.  Pahlava king of Bactria from 20PACORUS succeeds until ?. 45 B76 IV-624
46 wikGnd, wikIPK
50 MRDK 394, HCIP 2-128
c.50 KABUL Valley, under Sakas and Pahlavas from 25, taken by Wima Kadphises.  Under Kushans until ?. 50 CHI 645-6, PW 17
50 Legend says apostle THOMAS goes east from Judea to Gandhara, now under Saka king Gondophernes until 52. 40 wikGnd 50 MCAW
52 Legend says apostle THOMAS in Gandhara from 50, goes to Malabar south India. 52 B76 9-355, wikTom
56 Xian, powerful and prosperous king of Yarkand, attacks and annexes Khotan until 61. He transfers Yulin, its king, to become king of Ligui, and sets up his younger bro, Weishi, as king of Khotan. 56 wikKt
56 SANABARES, rebel king of Parthia at Merv in Margiana from 50, ends. 56 icsPE, lvArs 65 wikSnb
c.60 GURGAMOYA ends.  King of Khotan from 30.  Xiumo Ba, a Khotanese general, rebells against Suoju (Yarkand), and makes himself king of Khotan, then dies.  Son of his elder bro, GUANGDE succeeds until ?. 60 wikKt
c.61 XIAN dies.  king of Yarkand from 33.  The states he controlled then fight each other. 61 CHEIA 146 62 wikKsg
61 KHOTAN, under Yarkand from 56, goes independent. 61 wikKt
c.61 GUANGDE, king of Khotan, conquers Yarkand, yet this leads to war among the kingdoms to decide which would be hegemon.  The North Xiongnu take advantage of the infighting, conquer the Tarim Basin. 61 wikHH, wikHXW, wikKt
c.63 TARIM BASIN, in anarchy from reign of Wang Mang, conquered by the North Xiongnu, and used as a base to invade Han's Hexi Corridor in Gansu. 63 wikHD, wikHH
c.63 HEXI corridor conquered by DOU JUNG for emperor Guangwu. 62 HFHD 195
c.64 Son of Wima Takto, WIMA KADPHISES dies.  King of Kushans from ?. 64 WNHI 74 100 wikVK
c.68 YUEZHI, a loose confederacy from 650, is united by Kujula Kadphises into the KUSHAN EMPIRE, stretching from Persia to Transoxiana to Upper Indus. 50 oxus 60 wikSI 68 wikTI
c.73 Han general DOU GU and his army depart from Jiuquan on punitive expedition against the North XiongnuBan Chao is an assistant major. 73 wikBC, wikHXW
c.73 King GUANGDE of Khotan submits to Han 73 wikKt
c.73 JIAN, king of Qiuci (Kucha), attacks and kills Cheng, king of Kashgar.  Then Jian appoints the Kucha Marquis of the Left, DOUTI, King of Kashgar. 73 wikKsg
c.73 Northwest ProvincesWith support of the Western Regions, the North Xiongnu occasionally raid beyond the northwest frontiers of Han.  The 4 frontier provinces in the Hexi region (in Gansu) - Dunhuang, Jiuquan, Zhangyi, and Wuwei - became so unsafe that the gates of all major cities had to be closed even during the day. 73 CHEIA 146
c.73 Han general DOU GU and his army depart north from Jiuquan towards the North XiongnuBan Chao is an assistant major. 73 CHEIA 147, wikBC, wikHXW
c.73 Han General Dou Gu sends Major Ban Chao to the Western Regions as envoy, to win over the North Xiongnu's allies in the Western Regions.  By unconventional strategems, Ban Chao separates the North Xiongnu from several leading states there, including Loulan (Shanshan), Khotan (Yiitien), and Kashgar (Sule). 73 CHEIA 147, wikKsg
c.73 Han general DOU GU (d.88) defeats the North Xiongnu army under the Hu-yen King at the Battle of Yiwulu in Barkol dawan (an eastern portion of the Tien shan), evicting them from Turfan and chasing them as far as Lake Barkol before establishing an agricultural garrison on the north silk route to the Turfan oasis at Hami, and tun-tien settlements around Hami until 77. 71 wikHD 73 CHC 269, CHEIA 147, wikHD, wikHXW
c.73 King Guangde of Khotan submits to Han.  Khotan has relations with the Xiongnu, who during the reign of Emperor Ming of Han (57-75) invaded Khotan and forced the Khotanese to pay high tribute. 73 wikKt
c.74 Major Ban Chao captures King Douti of Kashgar and replaces him with King Yule, who is named Zhong. 74 wikHXW
c.74 North Xiongnu invade the Bogda Mountains. 74 wikHH, wikHXW
c.74 Han generals Dou Gu and Geng Bing lead a major military expedition against a major remaining ally of North Xiongnu, Jushi (Cheshi, Turfan). 74 CHEIA 147, wikEMH
c.74 Han general Dou Gu evicts the Xiongnu from Turfan, and retakes Turfan. 74 wikHH, wikHXW
c.74 The King of Jushi submits to Han forces under General Dou Gu as the Xiongnu were unable to engage Han forces.  Meanwhile, General Ban Chao captures King Douti of Kashgar, who is a puppet of Kucha and a firm ally of the Xiongnu.  Later in 74, the kingdoms of Karasahr and Kucha are forced to surrender to Han. 74 wikEMH, wikHXW
c.74 The Wusun send tribute to Han military commanders in Jushi (Turfan and Jimasa). 74 wikWsn
c.74 KASHGAR comes under Han until 107. 74 wikBC, wikKsg 78 rcCAE
c.74 At Dou's suggestion, the Han office of Protector General of the Western Regions (Xiyu) is revived.  CHEN MU is appointed Protector General until 75.  This proves premature.  The Western Regions are no longer able or eager to return to Han. 74 CHC 269, CHEIA 147, wikEMH, wikHH
c.75 Han Protector General of the Western Regions from 73, CHEN MU is killed by allies of the Xiongnu in Karashahr and Kucha.  No Protector General until 91. 75 CHC 269, wikCM, wikHD, wikHH
c.75 GANDHARA (Kabul), under Kushans from 20 BC, but obstinate, comes under control of Kujula Kadphises.  Kushan rule resumes 20BC - 230CE. 75 wheIT
c.76 One of the Han generals in Xiyu (aka Western region), BAN CHAO, seeing the importance of maintaining Han presence in Xiyu, refuses to withdraw.  Emperor Zhang eventually relents and puts Ban in charge of Han's operations in Xiyu. 76 wikEZH
c.77 Han garrison at Hami from 73 is withdrawn until 91. 75 wikHD     77 CHC 269, wikHH, wikHXW
78 Kingdom of KHOTAN subdued by BAN CHAO, comes under Han until 105. 74 wikBC
78 rcCAE, wikKt
c.78 KASHMIR, under a Yuezhi vassal of Parthia from 60 BC, refounded as Kushan kingdom of KASHMIR until 125 by Kanishka, who is king until 103. 77 MCAW     78 B76 16-780, HCIP 2-144
c.78 VIMA KADPHISES, ruler of Kushans 35-80, makes KANISHKA-I co-king until 103.  KANISHKA-I founds 2nd dynasty. 78 B76 V-689, 3-408, 9-353, LEWH 146, MRDK 394, oxus
c.79 AZES-II dies.  Chief of Sakas from 35, alone from 40. 79 HCIP 2-127
c.80 Han general BAN CHAO asks for help from the Wusun against city-state Qiuci (Kucha) in the Tarim Basin.  The Wusun comply, and are rewarded with silks, and resumed diplomatic exchanges. 80 wikWsn
c.80 BAN CHAO crushes fresh rebellions in Kashgar 80 wikBC
80 ANTHRAX sweeps the Roman empire, killing thousands of people and animals, clear to the Chinese border. 80 TTPC
c.80 KUJULA KADPHISES ends.  Kushan ruler from 30VIMA TAKTO succeeds until 90?. 80 wikKK wikKsn, wikVT
84 A Yuezhi chief is allied to Sogdiana by marriage. 84 LEWH 141
c.84 King Zhong of Kashgar turns against Dou Xian and enlists aid of Sogdiana.  Ban Chao allies with the Kushan Empire (of North India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan), which pressures Sogdiana to back down. 84 wikHH
c.84 A Yuezhi chief is allied to Sogdiana by marriage. 84 LEWH 141
c.84 Han general BAN CHAO again gets military help of the Kushan Empire in repelling the Kangju who were trying to support the rebellion of Zhong king of Kashgar. 84 CHEIA 160
c.84 General BAN CHAO sends an envoy with much colorful silk to the king of the Yuezhi so that the Kangju king, with whom the Yuezhi were were allied by marriage, could be persuaded to withdraw his troops, which were supporting Zhong king of Kashgar. The Yuezhi also help Han attack Jushi (in Turfan). 84 wikBC
84 The Kushans help Han general Ban Chao against the Sogdians. 84 wikKsn
c.85 North Xiongnu are defeated by South Xiongnu. 85 LEWH 146
c.85 BAN CHAO gets military help of the Kushan Empire in his attack on Turfan, in the east Tarim Basin. 85 wikBC, wikKsn
85 The Kushans ask for a Han princess, but are denied. 85 wikKsn
c.85 coinCopper coin minted by Kushan emperor Vima Takto immitating the Roman silver denarius. photo: Classical Numismatic Group

80-90 wikHH
86 Kushans with a force of 70,000, march on Han general Ban Chao with a smaller force but are defeated. 86 wikKsn
c.86 The Yuezhi offer as tribute precious stones, antelopes and lions.  They also use the occasion to ask for a Han princess.  But Ban Chao stops their envoy and sends him back.  From that moment the Yuezhi resent the Han. 86 CHEIA 160
c.87 North ProvincesThe Sien Pi Mongols are a rising power in Inner Asia.  In 87 they alone defeat the North Xiongnu.  They kill the North chanyu (Yu-liu) in battle and flay his body.  This is the largest single North Xiongnu surrender, in which some 58 tribes, consisting of 200,000 civilians and 8,000 soldiers, seek Han protection in 4 Han frontier provinces:  Shuofang, Wuyuan, Yunzhong, and Beidi. 87 CHEIA 148, LEWH 146
c.87 General BAN CHAO crushes fresh rebellions in Kashgar. 87 wikBC
c.88 BAN CHAO crushes fresh rebellions in Yarkand, and makes the Wusun of the Ili valley his allies.  The Yuezhi now become more cautious. 87 CHEIA 161
88 wikBC
c.88 The Yuezhi in Gansu are attacked by the Qiang (Tibetans), and ask for protection of Han, which does not give it. 88 CHEIA 161
89 Han general Dou Xian sends Colonel Yan Pan with 2,000 light cavalry towards the North Xiongnu at Hami, capturing Yiwu and receiving the surrender of Jushi (Turfan and Jimasa). 89 wikDX, wikHXW
89 Yanran inscription Han general Dou Xian brings the main body of his troops north to the Khangai Mountains - North Xiongnu heartland.  Here he carves the cliff Inscriptions of Mount Yanran, composed by his client, historian Ban Gu to commemorate Dou's victory over the Xiongnu. photo: Badamsambu

89 wikBAM, wikHXW, wikIY
c.89 Han general DOU XIAN returns to China. 89 CHC 282, wikHXW
90 early As north and south Xiongnu embassies are still being exchanged, Han general Dou Xian attacks, captures his rival's seal and treasure and his wives and daus. 90 wikBAM
c.90 Han general Dou Xian camps in Wuwei, sends colonel Yan Pan with 2,000 light cavalry to strike down the final Xiongnu defenses in the Western Regions, capturing Yiwu and receiving surrender of Jushi. 90 wikHXW
c.90 70,000 Kushan troops sent by Vima Kadphises from Punjab India under HSIEH, viceroy of Yuezhi, to Wakhan corridor against Ban Chao.  Ban uses scorched earth tactics against Kushans, forcing them to request food supplies from Kucha.  When Kushan messengers are intercepted by Ban Chao, Hsieh is forced to withdraw. 90 CHEIA 161, 163, LEWH 141, 146, TAWH 70, wikBC, wikHH
c.90 HSIEH, viceroy of Yuezhi, begins sending annual tribute to Han. 90 LEWH 141, 146
c.90±10 KANISHKA, king of Kashmir 77-103, turns Buddhist. no date: B76 V-689
c.90±10 Kanishka supports Buddhist missionaries. 77 MCAW
c.90 ±10 4th Buddhist Council held by Kanishka near Jalandar, India.  Authorized commentaries on Buddhist canon are engraved on copper plates.  It is attended by Sarvastivadins and Sthaviravadins.  The Mahayana viewpoint is not represented.  Council is not recognized by Theravada sect in the south. 78-101 wikTB
no date: B76 V-689, 3-406
c.90 Kushan ruler from 30? 80?, VIMA TAKTO ends.  VIMA KADPHISES succeeds until 127. 80 rcCAS, wikHH     90 wikHD, wikHH, wikVK, wikVT
95 wikKsn     113 wikVK
90 Oct Han general Dou Xian sends Liang Feng and Ban Gu to help the north chanyu prepare for his planned travel, as he wants to submit to the Han court in person the following month. 90 wikDX, wikHXW
90 Nov? Dou Xian sends general Geng Kui and Shizi of the South Xiongnu with 8,000 light cavalry to attack the North Chanyu, camped at Heyuan (location unknown). 90 wikDX, wikHXW
90/1 Once Han forces arrive at Zhuoye Mountains (location unknown), they leave their heavy equipment behind to launch a swift pincer movement towards Heyuan.  Geng Kui attacks from the east via the Khangai Mountains and Ganwei River, Shizi attacks from the west via the Western LakeThe North Chanyu counter attacks, but is forced to flee.  He leaves his family and seal behind.  8,000 Xiongnu are killed and several thousands captured. 90 wikDX, wikHXW
91 Han general Geng Kui and Major Ren Shang with 800 light cavalry advance further via the Juyan Gol (Juyansai) into the Altai Mountains, where the North Chanyu had camped.  At the 2nd Battle of Altai Mountains, they massacre 5,000 Xiongnu men and pursue the North Chanyu until he escapes and is never heard of again. 91 wikHXW
c.91 North Chanyu is again defeated at Chin-wei Mountain and flees west to the Hi valley.  As a result of these defeats the North Xiongnu empire in Outer Mongolia and the Western Regions collapse. 91 CHEIA 147
c.91 Dou Xian has another major victory essentially wiping out the North Xiongnu as a political entity. 91 wikBAM, wikED, wikEHe
c.91 BAN CHAO finally pacifies the Western Regions. 91 wikBC
c.91 Han office of Protector General of the Western Regions, vacant from 75, is reinstated until 107.  BAN CHAO is appointed until 101, and stationed at Kucha.  He maintains absolute control over the Western Regions. 91 wikBC, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW
92 CHC 269
c.91 Han garrison at Hami, withdrawn from 77, re-established. 91 wikHH
c.91 When the North chanyu moved his court to the Hi Valley, the Xien-pi migrate into Outer Mongolia vacated by the North Xiongnu. 91 CHEIA 149
c.91 Han punitive campaign from 90 ends. 91 wikHXW
c.94 BAN CHAO invades Tarim Basin, re-establishes Han position. 94 B76 4-314-5, TAWH 81
c.94 BAN CHAO again attacks and defeats Yanqi [Karashahr].  Subsequently, more than 50 kingdoms present hostages, in submission to Han. 94 wikBC
c.100 Kanishka statueStatue of Kanishka.  A dedicatory inscription along the bottom of the coat says The Great King, King of Kings, Son of God, Kanishka. photo: Biswarup Ganguly

77 MCAW, no date: wikKn