Syria-Armenia Go to Anatolia Go to Asia Go to Parthia Go to Arabia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.1 C. CAESAR consul in Syria. 1 SORH
c.1 TIGRANES-IV dies.  King of Armenia from 2BC, under Rome from 1BCE, killed in war with barbarians fomented by Parthian faction.
ARMENIA comes under Romans until 34
1 CAH 10-276, bdrs, hystn, wikHA, wikTAH 1/2 lvArt
c.1 PHRAATES-V, king of Parthia 2BC-5CE, agrees to withdraw forces from Armenia, and recognize a de facto Roman protectorate over it. 1 MCAW, caisAD, eiArs, wikPr5, wikRPW
c.1 PHARSAMANES becomes king of Iberia/Colchis until 58 1 hifiGeo, wikΦ1
c.2 M. LOLLIUS, chief of staff to Caius Caesar, convicted of bribery. TAn III-48     1 CAH 10-276 2 OCD 618, 908
c.2 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS is sent from Rome to Syria, to be tutor to Caius Caesar until 4. . 2 IDB 3-976
c.2 Chief of staff to Caius Caesar, M. LOLLIUS dies of unknown causes, leaving much wealth.  P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS succeeds until 5. TAn III-48
1 CAH 10-276
2 OCD 618, 908 3 ENBD 1069
c.2 Median ARTAVASDES-III appointed king of Armenia until 6 by Augustus. 1 CAH 10-276, KHA 88
2 GHH, MCAW, hifi, rcCau
c.2 ARTAVASDES-III, Median king of Armenia, expelled by Parthian factionCaius Caesar goes to fix it. 2 CAH 10-276
c.2 ARMENIA, under Rome 1BC-34CE, given by Augustus to ARIOBARZANES-II king of Media Atropatene 20-4CECAIUS CAESAR, proconsul of Syria 1BC-4CE, makes ARIOBARZANES king of Armenia until 4.  2 bdrs, lvArt, wikA2A, wikLAK 3 CAH 10-276, DGRBM 1-365, SORH
c.2 CAIUS CAESAR moves east. 2 IDB 3-976
c.2 CAIUS CAESAR meets PHRAATES-V on an island in the EuphratesRome recognizes Parthia as a legitimate kingdom.  Phraates renounces right to interfere in Armenia.  The Euphrates is recognized as the boundary between them.  Phraates tells Caius that his chief of staff Lollius has been taking bribes from eastern rulers. 1 CAH 10-275, OCD 828
2 DGRBM 1-556, MCAW, OCD 191, SORH
c.2 CAIUS CAESAR proconsul of Syria 1BC-4CE, quells a rebellion, at Artagira in Armenia.  3 SORH
c.2 Sep 9 CAIUS CAESAR, proconsul of Syria 1BC-4CE, at siege of Artagira in Armenia, listens to ADON, commandant of fort Artagira, who promises info on hidden treasure.  Adon stabs him. 2 B76 II-434, CAH 10-277, DGRBM 1-556, OCD 191 3/4 HRE 53, 121
c.3 Vellius Paterculus is tribune in army of C. Caesar. 3 SORH
c.3 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS, in Syria 2-4, divorces wife CLAUDIA APPIA and marries AEMILIA LEPIDA, who had been set aside to marry Lucius Caesar, who died in 2. 2 ISBE 4-12
c.3/4 CAIUS CAESAR proconsul of Syria from 1BC, seriously injured, sails for Rome, stops at LyciaLegate L. Volusius SATURNINUS succeeds until 5. 4 FHBC 235, HRE 53, MCAW, SORH, rcS, wikRGS
c.4 Son of Mith-I of Media, ARIOBARZANES-II dies.  Artaxiad king of Media Atropatene from 20 BC, former king of Armenia 2CE, killed by accident.  Son ARTAVASDES succeeds until 5. 2 hifi     4 bdrs, genA1M, lvArt, wikA2A, wikArtD, wikAtr, wikLAK
no date: CAH 10-277
c.6 Son of Ariobarzanes, ARTAVASDES dies.  Artaxiad king of Media Atropatene, and Armenia from 4, murdered.  ARTABANUS succeeds until 10. 6 bdrs, rcCau, wikArtD, wikAtr, wikLAK, wikT5A       11 hifi
no date: CAH 10-277, DGRBM 1-365
Tigranes-V succeeds until 14, with Erato until 12. rcCau, wikT5A,
c.6 L. Volusius SATURNINUS governor of Syria from 4, ends.  Legate P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS succeeds until 12.  1st time was 3-2BC. 5 FHBC 235, rcS, wikRGS     6 BAA 118, BBA 116, Dur 3-558, ENBD 1069, FHBC 236, GSNT 218, IDB 3-976, ISBE 4-12, Jud 13-1428, OCD 908, rcS
6 P. Sulpicious QUIRINIUS, proconsul of Syria leads legions X Fretensis, III Gallica, VI Ferrata, and XII Fulminata to Judea to hold a CENSUS, and deal with the property of Archelaus. Ant 18:1:1, 18:2:1     6 BAA 148, BI+N 199, CAH 10-193, FHBC 235, GSNT 218, Jud 5-955, MCAW, MUTC 41, wikXF
no date: Jud 13-1428
6 Son of Alexander & Glaphyra, TIGRANES-IV made client king of Armenia until 8 by Augustus. 6 CAH 10-277, bdrs, rcCau, wikLAK
6/7 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS governor of Syria 6-12, sends punitive expedition against mountains of Lebanon. 6/7 CAH 10-282
c.7 ABGAR-V Uchama, king of Osroene at Edessa from 4 BC, suspended until 13.  Son of Manu, MANU-V succeeds until 13. 7 OCD 760, wikOs, wikPsk
c.10 VONONES, 17th Arsacid king of Parthia 7/8-11, defeated in battle by ARTABANUS-III, king of Media Atropatene. Ant 18:2:4
10 ARTABANUS, king of Media Atropatene from 5, bids for Parthian throne.  Accepted by a Parthian faction. 9/10 B76 I-548
10 wikAtr
no date: CAH 10-278
11 Bro of Artabanus, VONONES-II becomes king of Media Atropatene until 51. 11 caisAD, wikAtr, wikVn2
c.12 TIGRANES-V, Artaxiad client king of Armenia from 6, deposed by Parthian faction.  Queen ERATO succeeds until 12. 11 hifi       12 rcCau, wikArtD, wikT5A
no date: CAH 10-277
c.12 VONONES-I, former king of Parthia until 11, goes from Seleucia to Armenia, now without a king. Ant 18:2:4
11/2 OCD 125
no date: CAH 10-278
c.12 ERATO, client queen of Armenia, expelled. 12 rcCau, wikLAK, wikT5A
14/5 hifi     no date: CAH 10-277
12 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS governor of Syria (2nd time) from 6, returns to Rome.  Remembered for business sense and avarice.  Creticus SILANUS succeeds until 17. Ant 2:2:4     7 BBA 116, FHBC 235     9 ENBD 1069, ISBE 4-12
12 Dur 3-558, rcS, wikRGS
12 Son of Phraates-IV, VONONES-I is accepted as Arsacid king of Armenia by some of the nobility, sends envoy to Augustus asking for crown, remains loyal contender until 16. 12 OCD 119, ada, rcCau, wheAD, wikAdA, wikLAK, wikVn1     15 hifi
no date: CAH 10-744
c.12 ARTAXIAD dynasty ends.  In Armenia from 190BCE, ends.  ARDACID dynasty resumes until 428. 1 wikHA, wikTAH
1/2 lvArt     12 ada, wikArtD     14 CDCC 80
c.13 MANU-V, king of Osroene at Edessa from 7, suspended.  ABGAR-V Uchama, reinstated until 50 CE. 13 OCD 760, rcT, wikOs, wikPsk
14 Aug 19 AUGUSTUS dies.   TIBERIUS succeeds until 37.
15 IZATES-I becomes king of Adiabene until 31. 15 wikAdb, wikPsk
15 GORDYENE, under Parthians from 64 BC becomes independent kingdom until 116, inder IZATES until . 15 rcM
16 VONONES, son of Phraates-IV, flees from Parthia to Armenia where he is accepted as king. 15 B76 X-494
16 DGRBM 1-357, 3-1119, GHH, KHA 88
16 Governor of Syria, Creticus SILANUS is ordered by Tiberius to take VONONES, son of Phraates-IV, contender for Armenian throne, from Armenia to Antioch. 16 CAH 10-744
16 VONONES, son of Phraates-IV, contender for Armenian throne 12-18 flees from Armenia to Antioch, where Creticus Silanus allows him to stay until 18. Ant 18:2:4, TAn 2:12
15/6 OCD 119
16 DGRBM 1-357, 3-1119, OCD 828, hifi, wikLAK
16 ORODES appointed by dad Artabanus-III to be king of Armenia until 18, apparently w/o consent of Rome. Ant 18:2:4 17 rcCau
17 ANTIOCHUS-III dies.  King of Commagene from 12 BC. 17 CAH 10-731, CDCC 225, anan, wikA3C, wikRCmg
17 COMMAGENE, Roman client from 38 BC, annexed by Rome until 38 joined by Germanicus to province of Cappadocia until 38.  Capital remains Samosata. TAn 2:42     17 B76 III-36, CAH 10-729, 731, 745, CDCC 225, DGRBM 1-194, DGRG 1-651, Jud 5-760, LEWH, OCD 273, TTPC, rcT 18 wikCRP, wikGrm, wikRCmg
17/8 Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus SILANUS legate of Syria from 12, recalled to Rome by Tiberius, who replaces him with a harsh republican to advise and oppose Germanicus.  Gn. Calpurnius PISO succeeds until 19. TAn 2:43     17 DGRBM 3-819, OCD 837, rcS, wikRGS     18 CAH 10-620, MCAW
18 Gn. Calpurnius PISO sails from Rhodes to Syria, and becomes governor, possibly with secret orders to diminish power of Germanicus.  His wife Plancina accompanies. TAn 2:43     17 OCD 837 18 CAH 10-620, DGRBM 3-375, MCAW, wikGrm
c.18 GERMANICUS moves from Anatolia to Syria to Armenia. 18 DGRBM 1-357, MCAW     19 MCAW
c.18 GERMANICUS, on an island in the Euphrates, negotiates with ARTABANUS-III, king of Parthia, who asks that Vonones be removed from Antioch, and sent farther west.  Germanicus renews friendship treaty with Artabanus. TAn 2:58
18 CAH 10-621, DGRBM 1-357, wikVn1
c.18 Palmyrene ALEXANDROS sent by Germanicus to Messene, a Parthian vassal kingdom, to promote friendly relations with Parthia. 18 wikPlm
c.18 VONONES-I, exiled former king of Parthia, contender for Armenian throne from 12, in Antioch from ?, robbed of his treasure by Germanicus, sent to Pompeiopolis Ciliccia. 18 CAH 10-621, 744, 747, DGRBM 1-357, wikArt3, wikGrm, wikT5A
c.18 Popular son of Polemo-I of Pontus and Pythodoris, ZENO appointed client king of Armenia by Germanicus at Artaxata.  He reigns as ARTAXIAS-III until 34. TAn 2:56     18 CAH 10-621, 746, DGRBM 1-357, 362, 372, 3-1120, 1313, KHA 91, MCAW, OCD 119, 125, 465, hifi, rcCau, lvArt, wikAdA, wikArt3, wikLAK
c.18 COMMAGENE organized into a province by Q. Servaeus, legate of Germanicus.  It is put under a praetor and annexed to Syria until 38. TAn 2:56     18 CAH 10-620, 745, DGRBM 3-792, MCAW
c.18 GERMANICUS, having settled the east, returns from Armenia to Cyrrhus Syria, where he spends the rest of 18 with the 10th legion. TAn 2:58
18 CAH 10-621, wikGrm
c.18 GERMANICUS is lavishly entertained by Aretas-IV, king of Nabatea 4BC-40CE. 18 CHA 10-730
c.18 PISO visits GERMANICUS at Cyrrhus Syria.  Germanicus scolds Piso for failing to send troops to Armenia when ordered. 18 wikGrm
c.18 Artabanus sends an envoy to Germanicus asking that Vonones be moved farther from Armenia, so as to not incite trouble there. 18 wikGrm
c.19 Jan GERMANICUS, commander of the east, visits Egypt, disregarding an Augustan law forbidding men of senatorial rank to do so without permission of the emperor, which offends Tiberius. TAn 2:59     18 CAH 10-509, wikGrm     19 GHH, MCAW, wikGnCP
19 mid GERMANICUS leaves Egypt for Syria, learns enroute that all his directives had been reversed by Piso. TAn 2:69     19 CAH 10-622, DGRBM 2-261, 3-375, MCAW, wikGrm, wikGnCP
c.19 GERMANICUS, commander of the east, quarrels with Gn. Calpurnius PISO governor of Syria. 19 MCAW
c.19 Gn. Calpurnius PISO legate of Syria 17/8-19, ignores order by Germanicus, sabotages Germanicus' work in Syria. 18 CAH 10-622, 746
19 fall In Antioch GERMANICUS gets sick.  He is convinced that Piso had poisoned him, and orders Piso out of Syria, and appoints C. Sentius SATURNINUS successor. TAn 2:69     19 DGRBM 3-375, 725, wikGrm, wikGnCP
19 Oct Gn. Calpurnius PISO governor of Syria 17/8-19, leaves Antioch for Seleucia Pieria, but takes his time in case Germanicus dies then sails from Syria to Cos island in the Dodecanese. TAn 2:69-70     18 CAH 10-622, 746     19 CAH 10-622-3, DGRBM 3-375, MCAW, wikRGS, wikGnCP
19 Oct General C. Sentius SATURNINUS elected governor of Syria by ranking people present until 21. TAn 2: 74
19 wikAE, wikRGS
19 Oct GERMANICUS, sick at Antioch, is convinced that PISO had poisoned him.  He asks wife Agrippina to avenge his murder. TAn 2:71 19 CAH 10-622, accla
19 Oct 9/10 Son of Drusus Claudius Nero & Antonia, neph & adopted son of Tiberius, commander of the east from ?, GERMANICUS dies of poison, age 34 at Epidaphne near Antioch.  Informers charge some nobles with conspiracy.  Tiberius is implicated. TAn 2:72,83     18 anhiTi     19 B76 III-877, IV-499, CAH 10-622, CDCC 888, DGRBM 2-261, 3-1120, Dur 3-210, 262, GHH, HRRP 4.1-310, MCAW, TTPC, accla, reTi, wikAE, wikCal, wikGrm
19 Oct Gn. Calpurnius PISO governor of Syria 17/8-19, on Cos island, learns of Germanicus' death, returns to Antioch and resumes command. 19 CAH 10-622-3, DGRBM 3-375, MCAW, wikGnCP, wikRGS
19 Oct Vibius MARSUS is sent from Rome by Tiberius to summon Piso to Rome. 19 DGRBM 2-962
19 Gn. Calpurnius PISO, governor of Syria from 17/8, either recalled by Tiberius, or driven out by C. Sentius, returns for Rome stops at Cilicia. TAn 2:69-70     18 CAH 10-622, 746     19 CAH 10-622-3, DGRBM 3-375, MCAW, rcS, wikRGS
19 MARTINA, notorious for poisonings, friend of Plancina, siezed by C. Sentius SATURNINUS, charged with murder of Germanicus, sent to Rome. TAn 2: 74
19/20 AGRIPPINA the Elder takes ashes of her husband Germanicus, sails with 6 kids for Rome despite winter. 19 CAH 10-622, wikAE, wikCal     20 GHH
19/20 Agent of Piso, DOMITIUS, sails from Cos island to Syria to solicit for Piso.  C. Sentius SATURNINUS sends letter of rebuff to Piso, and prepares for battle. TAn 2:79
c.20 MONOBAZ-I becomes co-king of Adiabene until 30. 20 wikAdb, wikPsk
c.21 General C. Sentius SATURNINUS, governor of Syria from 19, ends.  L. Aelius LAMIA succeeds until 32. 21 wikRGS
c.30 MONOBAZ-I, co-king of Adiabene from 20, ends, but doesn't die until 36.  Widow HELEN is queen until death 58, ruling alone until 34.. 30 rcM, wikAdb, wikPsk
c.31 IZATES-I dies.  King of Adiabene from 15.  HELEN is queen until 58, ruling alone until 34. 30 wikAdb 31 wikI2
c.32 Aelius LAMIA, governor of Syria from 21, returns to Rome.  L. Pomponius FLACCUS succeeds until 35 TAn 6:27     32 Jud 3-443, rcS, wikRGS
32 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I, market overseer of Tiberias, goes to Syria, stays with legate Flaccus until 36, accumulates debts. 32 Jud 3-443 32/3 ISBE 2-696
c.32 L. Pomponius FLACCUS, governor of Syria, entertains Agrippa-I when a boundary dispute between Sidon & Damascus is brought before him.  Agrippa-I takes a bribe from Damascenes to support their cause.  Bribe is exposed by Aristobulus, son of A-3 & Berenice.  Flaccus is forced to break friendship with Agrippa-I 32 Jud 3-443
c.32 Temple of Bel in Palmyra completed and dedicated. 32 wikPlm
c.34 Son of Polemo-I & Pythodoris, Zeno ARTAXIAS-III dies., client king of Armenia from 18Artabanus-III of Parthia tries to put son ARSACES-I ARTAXES? on Armenian throne until 35, tells Tiberius to get bent. TAn 2:56, 6:31     34 CAH 10-621, 747, GHH, OCD 119, 125, RPar 237, hifi, rcCau, lvArt, wikArt3     34/5 B76 I-548, KHA 91     35 DGRBM 1-372, wikLAK     36 wikAdA
c.34 ARMENIA, under Rome from 1 BC, comes under Parthia until 35. 34 35 wikLAK
c.34 HELEN, queen of Adiabene 30-58, makes son IZATES-II bar Monobaz co-ruler. 34 wikPsk
c.35 Pharasmanes king of Iberia/Colchis is ordered by Tiberius to recover Armenia.  Pharasmanes sends his bro MITHRIDATES to do so. TAn 6:31-2     35 CAH 10-748, CDCC 450, DGRG 2-9, hifiGeo no date: OCD 1078
c.35 Son of Artabanus-III, ARSACES ARTAXES? dies without heir.  King of Armenia from 34, poisoned by hirelings employed by Mithridates, bro of the king of Iberia/Colchis. 35 CAH 10-748, DGRBM 1-362, GHH, caisAD, hifi, hifiGeo, rcCau, wikArs1, wikLAK     36 OCD 119, lvArt
c.35 MITHRIDATES of Iberia/Colchis is made king of Armenia by Tiberius until 37. 35 DGRBM 1-362, 3-239, bdrs, caisAD, hifi, hifiGeo, rcCau     36 lvArt
c.35 Son of P-4 of Parthia, PHRAATES dies.  Hostage in Rome from 10/9BC, released by Tiberius, sails to Syria, gets sick, dies TAn 6:31     35 CAH 10-748, DGRBM 1-358, caisAD
no date: OCD 1078
c.35 MITHRIDATES of Iberia, king of Armenia 35-7 takes Artaxata. 35 DGRBM 1-362
c.35 Parsman I (Farsman, Pharasmanes) of Iberia, an ally of the Romans, defeated the Parthian king of Armenia and placed his bro Mithradates (AD35-51) on the throne. 35 cnfl
c.35 L. Pomponius FLACCUS dies.  Governor of Syria from 32.  L. VITELLIUS succeeds until 39, with authority to help Tiridates usurp Parthian throne. TAn 2:32, 6:27     34 DGRBM 2-156     35 BNTH 38, CAH 10-748, DGRBM 3-1122, Jud 3-443, rcS, wikRGS
c.35 Son of Artabanus-III, ORODES invades Armenia. 35 DGRBM 1-358
c.35 PHARSAMANES, king of Iberia 1-58, prepares to defend Armenia from Parthians under Orodes, allies with Albania, hires Sarmatian mercenaries, sends them into Armenia. TAn 6:33
c.35 PHARSAMANES, king of Iberia 1-58, taunts Orodes to fight.  His allies defeat the Parthians.  Pharsamanes personally wounds Orodes in the head. TAn 6:34
35 DGRBM 1-358
c.35 ARTABANUS-III, king of Parthia 12-38, leads his whole army to Armenia to avenge defeat of Orodes. TAn 6:36
c.35 L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-9, assembles legions, spreads rumor that he plans to invade Mesopotamia, now under Parthia. TAn 6:36
c.35 ARTABANUS-III, king of Parthia 12-38, withdraws army from Armenia to defend Mesopotamia, loses face with his nobles.  Many defect to Tiridates. TAn 6:36
c.35 Son of Phraates-4, TIRIDATES is sent by Tiberius from Rome as a rival of Artabanus-III, king of Parthia.  He is escorted by L. Vitellius and legions into Parthia. TAn 6:37     35 B76 I-548, X-2, CAH 10-749, DGRBM 1-358, OCD 1078, caisAD     36 GHH
c.36 MONOBAZ dies.  Former king of Adiabene 20-30. 36 wikAdb
36 TIRIDATES, client king of Parthia from 35, loses face with Parthians because of tactical withdrawal into Mesopotamia.  loses Parthia to Artabanus-III until 38, flees to Syria. TAn 6:45    36 DGRBM 1-358, lvArs, icsPE, wikLPK, wikP
36 Herod Julius AGRIPPA-I with Flaccus in Syria from 33, leaves unpaid debts in Syria, borrows some money, sails to Rome, intending to accuse Antipas to Tiberius. Wars 2:9:5     35/6 ISBE 2-696     36 B76 V-3, BAA 242, CAH 10-642, ENBD 523, IDB 2-591, Jud, jeHA1
36 SAMARITAN embassy to Syria, complains to L. Vitellius about Pilate  Vitellius sends Marcellus to Judea to remove Pilate Ant 18:4:2 36 JZ 80
c.36 TIGRANES-V dies.  Former king of Armenia, now in Rome, accused of something, and executed. 36 DGRBM 3-1122, wikT5A
c.36 ARTABANUS-III, king of Parthia 12-38, marches north to fight Iberians and recover Armenia. 36 RPar 240
c.36 L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-9, is ordered by Tiberius to punish Aretas-IV for attacking AntipasMarches south toward Ptolemais. 37 Jud 3-76
37 Mar 16 TIBERIUS dies.   CALIGULA succeeds until 41.
37 Apr L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-40, visits Jerusalem.  On the 4th day he learns of death of Tiberius, commands Jews to swear allegiance to Caligula, abandons expedition to Nabatea, returns to Antioch. Ant 18:4:3, 5:3
36 BAA 119, GHH 37 DGRBM 1-278, Jud 5-60, ISBE 2-696, JZ 82
c.37 L. VITELLIUS, governor of Syria 35-9, meets ARTABANUS-III king of Parthia on an island in the EuphratesAntipas the tetrarch is mediator.  Artabanus accepts Roman rule over Armenia. 36/7 RPar 245
37 B76 9-844, CAH 10-749, Jud 3-76, caisAD
c.37 GORDYENE (Corduene), under Rome from 65 BC, comes under Parthia until 47. 37 rcT, wikGrd
c.37 MITHRIDATES of Iberia/Colchis, client king of Armenia from 35, deposed, taken to Rome, and imprisoned by Caligula until 41. 37 bdrs, hifi, hifiGeo, rcCau, wikLAK, wikMtA 40 CAH 10-660, 750
37 ARMENIA, under Romans from 35, lapses to Parthia until 47, and under ORODES until 43. 37 hifi, rcCau, wikHA, wikLAK     40 CAH 10-660, 750
From Parthia to Romans. RPar 261
c.38 COMMAGENE & Capital Samosata, annexed to Syria from 17, becomes a client kingdom until 72. 37 CAH 10-750     38 B76 III-36, DGRBM 1-194, IDB 3-194, OCD 73, 273, rcT, wikRCmg
c.38 ANTIOCHUS-IV, boyhood friend of Caligula, set up by him, as client king of Commagene until 40. 37 CAH 10-750     38 B76 III-36, CDCC 225, IDB 3-194, OCD 73, 273, anan, wikRCmg
c.38 Former king of Atropatene 5-10, ARTABANUS dies. 38 wikAtr
c.39 L. VITELLIUS governor of Syria from 35, recalled by Caligula, returns to Rome.  P. PETRONIUS succeeds until 42. 37 OCD 1129     38 rcS
39 BNTH 38, 253, Jud 13-346, OCD 807, wikRGS
no date: CAH 10-664
c.39 ANTIOCHUS-IV, king of Commagene 41-72, goes to Gaul to help Caligula. 39 CAH 10-731
c.39 The Ctns are first called Christians at Antioch. Ax 11:20     39 Tacitus     40 GHH
43 gnwd     Others say 60CE.
c.40 Ctn Jews migrate to Antioch, and proliferate the Judaizer doctrine.  This alarms the Ctns at Jerusalem, who send Barnabas to set them straight. Ax 11:19-22
40 gnwd
41 CBCNT 129
40 ANTIOCHUS-IV, client king of Commagene from 38, deposed by Caligula until 41. 40 CAH 10-750
c.40 P. PETRONIUS governor of Syria 39-42, receives order from Caligula to make a big statue of him at Sidon, and take it to Jerusalem, with 2 legions and 1 Syrian legion to overcome resistance.  He marches south. Wars 2:10:1     39/40 JZ 85 40 BNTH 234, CAH 10-496, 662-3, DGRBM 3-310, Jud 2-415
40 P. PETRONIUS at Ptolemais is so impressed with the Jews determination to die rather than surrender that he withdraws the army from Judea to Antioch. Wars 2:10:5
41 Jan CALIGULA dies.  CLAUDIUS succeeds until 54.

Syria - Armenia 41-62