Americas Go to East Asia Go to Pacific Go to Europe Go to North Africa Go to Africa
Woodland culture continues 200BCE-200CE spreading from Ohio to eastern plains from Oklahoma to North Dakota.
MANASOTA culture continues 550BCE-800CE in Florida.  Each settlement contains a few related families.  Dead are buried near their home or in nearby cemeteries.  No grave goods or indication of differential treatment in death.
OHIO HOPEWELL tradition continues 200BCE-500CE along rivers in the northeast and midwest US.  They are connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell Exchange System, which at its greatest extent, runs from southeast US to the southeast Canadian shores of Lake Ontario.  Most items traded are exotic materials received by people in major trading and manufacturing areas, converted into products and exported thru exchange networks.
Goodall FocusGOODALL FOCUS continues 200BCE-500CE.  A Hopewellian culture from Middle Woodland period peoples of Michigan and northern Indiana begins.  Extensive trade networks.  Ceramics contain expanding and contracting stemmed projectile points and obsidian flakes. map: Heironymous Rowe
Point PeninsulaPoint Peninsula Complex continues 600BCE-700CE:  An indigenous Hopewell culture in Ontario and New York.  Influenced by the Hopewell traditions of the Ohio River valley until 250CE, its ceramics are first introduced in Canada.  Thinner and more decorated than existing ceramics, this new pottery has superior clay modeling, is better fired, and contains finer grit temper. map: Heironymous Rowe
TCHEFUNCTE culture continues 1000BCE-200CE.  Hunter-gatherers who lived in small hamlets in the Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf Coast.  They live in coastal areas and lowlands, usually near slow-moving streams.  Food includes clams, alligators, fish but surprisingly not crabs or crawfish which were likely to have been abundant.  They also hunt deer, raccoons, and some migratory birds.
Havana Hopewell culture continues 200BCE-400CE in Illinois River and Mississippi River valleys in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri.  More a system of trading networks among societies than as a single society or culture.
Ancestral PuebloANCESTRAL PUEBLO culture continues 1200BCE-1300CE in Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico.  They live in a range of structures including small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, and cliff-dwellings.   They are called Anasazi "ancestors of enemies" by the Navajo. map Yuchitown
Deptford cultureDEPTFORD CULTURE continues 800BCE-200CE near Savannah, Georgia.  Elaborate ceremonial complexes, increasing social and political complexity, mound burial, permanent settlements, population growth, increasing reliance on cultigens. at peak: 500BC-200CE
(changed): Donald Albury
MOGOLLON culture continues in southeast Arizona mountains 200BCE-1200CE.
c.1 North Pacific coast shows complex cultures emerge, having woof & bark craftsmanship. 1 PW 17
c.1 Hopewellian ARMSTRONG culture begins in Big Sandy River Valley of northeast Kentucky and Western West Virginia, peacefully mingling with local Adena people.  Lasts until 500.  Clay pottery glazed yellow-orange, focused on long distance trade rather than mass building.  Villages of small round houses scattered over a large area.  Cremated dead, built small burial mounds.  Small flaked knives and corner notched points from Vanport chert.  Agriculture similar to previous Adena peoples, most emphasis on vining crops like climbing string bean, pumpkins, and earlier summer squashes.  Grew native cereal grasses, tubers, bulbs and gourds. 1 wikArm, wikH, wikPWV
c.1 Hopewellian OAK MOUNDS begin outside Clarksburg, in Harrison County, West Virginia.  Lasts until 1000. 1 wikLH, wikOM
c.1 Hopewellian WILHELM culture begins in North Panhandle of West Virginia.  Pottery like Armstrong, but not as well made.  Built small mounds over individual stone-lined graves, then fused graves together into a single large mound.  Lasts until 500. 1 wikH, wikPWV
c.1 Miller culture PHARR MOUNDS begin near Tupelo in parts of Itawamba and Prentiss County, Mississippi, a complex of 8 dome shaped burial mounds, 2-18 feet high, built over 90 acres.  In use until 200. 1 wikLH, wikPrM
c.1 BASKET MAKER-II Period begins in south & west of North America.  Villages with up to 11 circular houses. 1 PW 17
c.1 COPENA CULTURE of Middle Woodland period begins in northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee until 500.  A Southern form of Hopewell Culture in Ohio River Valley spreading along the western edge of the Appalachians. 1 wikAP
c.1 Ancient Pueblo Peoples (Anasazi) begin in southwest North America until 1300. 1 wikAP
MESO-AMERICA:  PRE-CLASSIC Age continues 2000BCE-200CE.  Manufacture of ceramics is widespread, cultivation of maize and other vegetables becomes well-established, society starts to become socially stratified.  Capacha culture civilizes Mesoamerica, and its pottery spreads widely.  Heavy concentration of pottery on Pacific Coast.  Maise and pottery in Panama.  Unknown culture in La Blanca and Ujuxte, Monte Alto culture, Mokaya culture
NAZCA civilization continues 200BCE-800CE on south coast of Peru in river valleys of Rio Grande de Nazca and Ica Valley.  Known for textiles, and geoglyphs.
c.1 MOCHE (Mochica, Early Chimu) Period begins on north coast of Peru until 700.  A loose confederacy, agriculturally based, with a network of irrigation canals.  Artifacts show scenes of hunting, fishing, fighting, sacrifice, sexual encounters (often kinky) and elaborate ceremonies.  Noted for elaborately painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions (huacas) and irrigation systems.  Early Moche begins until 300. 200BC B76 VI-957 1CE PW 17, ancMC, wikPCe
1st cen.CE brit 100CE wikMC
c.50 Early Basketmaker-II Era ends. Began 1500.  Began with maize cultivation, though not dependent on agriculture until c.500.  They live in a range of structures including small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, and cliff-dwellings.  Projectile points, "2 rod and bundle" basketry style, and other similarities exist between Basketmaker-II and the San Pedro stage of the Cochise tradition.  They are called Anasazi "ancestors of enemies" by the Navajo.
Late Basketmaker-II Era beginss until 750
50 wikAEBE, wikAP, wikAP
Teotihuacan:  Avenue of the Dead and Pyramid of the Sun, from Pyramid of the Moon           Photo BrCG2007
c.50 TEOTIHUACAN, Rectangular grid pattern, PYRAMID of the SUN built, biggest structure in Americas. 50 PW 17
c.100 Middle Woodland period SWIFT CREEK culture begins in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, and Tennessee until 700.  Mound-builders, but generally non-sedentary.  Hunters, gatherers/collectors, and fishers.  Earthenware pottery with complicated stamped designs, mostly curvilinear elements. 100 wikH, wikSCC 250 wikLH
c.100 Late Formative Period of Meso-America from 300BC ends.  Early Classic Period begins until 600.  Proto-Classic Stage begins until 300. 100 B76 11-938,39,40
c.100 MOCHE (Mochica, Early Chimu) on north coast of Peru begin cultural expansion. 100 TTT