bk    hifiC    lvG    lvS    rcSI    wikDS 

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c.500 SARDINIA invaded by Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians. 500 TToH
c.500 SARDINIA annexed by Carthage, but its interior is not pacified.  under Carthage until 238. 500 OCD 952
c.500 Carthaginians become main power in west Mediterranean until 241, but are 2nd to Greeks in east Mediterranean. by 500 SHWC 53
c.500 Spartan colony at Mt. Eryx 510, overcome and destroyed by combined forces of Carthage, Segesta, and Phoenicia. no date: B76 8-346, MWΦ 196
c.500 Ionian Greeks of Miletos and Samos, oppressed by Persians, begin migrating to ZANCLE. 500 B76 VI-824
c.500 CATANA, on east coast of Sicily, under oligarchy from 729, no longer under oligarchy. 500 rcSI
c.498 Tyrant of Gela from 505, CLEANDROS murdered by a Gellan named Sabyllus.  Bro HIPPOCRATES succeeds until 491. 498 CAH 4, DGRBM 1-778, 2-480, DGRG 1-984, GRG 237, 326, OCD 518, lvG, rcSI
497 GHH
c.496 HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela, campaigns in east Sicily until 495. 496 CAH 4
c.495 CAMARINA, desolate from 553, refounded and colonized by Hippocrates of Gela, who obtained it by treaty with Syracuse.  Lasts until 484. 498 GHH
495 DGRG 1-486
c.495 SYRACUSE:  The gamoroi (land owning aristocrats) are overthrown by the demonata (alliance of plebs and enslaved Sicels) until 485. 497 GHH
495 Dur 2-172
495/4 Naxos, under Chalcidians from734, taken by HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela. 495/4 OCD 725
c.494 LEONTINI Sicily, Chalcidian city from 729, taken by HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela, under Gela until 466. 498 DGRG 2-158
495 rcSI
494 OCD 596
c.494 SYRACUSE, Corinthian city from 734, about to be destroyed by HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela, is rescued by Corinthians. 494
MCAW 104
c.494 DIONYSIUS of Phocaea attacks Etruscan and Carthaginian shipping from north Sicily. 494 CAH 7.2
c.494 Refugees from Samos & Miletos are invited by Greeks of Zancle to colonize Calacte on north coast of Sicily. 494 DGRBM 3-762, DGRG 1-475
c.494 Scythes engages in hostilities against the Sicels, and the Samians are persuaded by Anaxilas of Rhegium to take advantage of his absence, and occupy Zancle. 494 DGRBM 3-762
c.494 Refugees from Samos & Miletos arrive at Locri. 494 DGRBM 3-762
c.493 ZANCLE Sicily, under tyrant Cadmos from ?, siezed by Samian refugees.  SCYTHES becomes tyrant of Zancle until 490. 497 DGRBM 1-525
494 DGRBM 3-762
493 CAH 7.2     494-89 CAH 4
c.492 L. Geganius Macerinus, bro of consul Macerinus, is sent from Rome to Sicily to get grain. 492 DGRBM 2-884
492/1 SYRACUSE, under oligarchy 734-485, besieged by Hippocrates tyrant of Gela, who defeats Syracusans at Helorus river. 492 CAH 4 492/1 lvG
c.491 CAMERINA Sicily annexed by Hippocrates of Gela. 491 CAH 4
c.491 HIPPOCRATES tyrant of Gela from 498, killed besieging Sicel town of Hybla on south slope of Mt. Etna.  Sons Cleander and Eucleides succeed under regency of cavalry commander GELON until 490. 491 B76 8-352, CAH 4, DGRBM 2-480, DGRG 1-984, MCAW 104, OHG, rcSI     491/0 GRG 326, OCD 460, 518, lvG, lvS
c.491 The GAMOROI (conservative land owners) expelled from Syracuse, appeal to Gelon for help. 497 GHH
491 CAH 4
c.491 Corinth mediates between Gela and Syracuse. 491 OCD 290
c.491 ERGETIUM in the plain of Catana besieged. 491 CAH 4
c.491 GELON of Gela sends famine relief grain to Rome. 491 SORH
c.490 Massilia Gaul defeats Cathaginian fleet off Cape Nao. 490 CAH 7.2
c.490 ZANCLE Sicily, under Samian refugees from 493, siezed by ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium.  Samians in Zancle, having made a pact with Hippocrates of Gela, are expelled by Anaxilas, who replaces them with other Greek colonists, mainly Messenians.  Therefore its name is changed to Messene, which is corrupted to MESSANA.  Under Rhegium until 461. 490 rcSI
OCD 61, 675
489 CAH 4, 7.2
no date:
B76 VI-824
c.490 SCYTHES tyrant of Zancle from 493, flees to Himera, thence to Anatolia. 490 DGRG 1-1065
no date: DGRBM 3-763
c.490 GELON, regent of Gela 490, dispossesses Cleander and Eucleides, sons of Hippocrates, becomes master of Gela and its holdings, but not its tyrant until 485. 491 DGRBM 1-778, 2-236, wikG
490 OCD 460
c.490 GELON of Gela and Syracuse fights Carthaginians in Sicily until 486. 490 CAH 7.2
c.489 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium allies with Terillus of Himera. 489 CAH 7.2
c.488 ACRAGAS Sicily, under Aristocratic Republic from 510, comes under tyrant THERON-II until 472, under tyranny until 409. 489 CAH 4     488 B76 8-352, DGRG 1-75, Dur 2-66, LEWH 71, MCAW 108, OCD 1061, rcSI
c.485 SYRACUSE, under Corinthian oligarchy from 734, taken with little resistance by GELON of Gela, in behalf of the gamoroi (aristocrats exiled in 495).  Gelon becomes tyrant of Syracuse until 478. 491 bk, rcSI     485 ISBE 4-686, brit, DGRBM 2-236, GHH, TToH, wikG
c.485 GELON, regent of Gela from 491/0, becomes tyrant of Gela until 478. 485 CAH 5, DGRG 1-984, Dur 2-172, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 108
c.485 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78, leaves bro HIERON in charge of Gela, moves to Syracuse. 485 DGRBM 2-236, Dur 2-66 LEWH 71, MRDK, OCD 460
c.485 Comedian EPICHARMUS of Cos, in Megara from ?, moves to Syracuse. 485 Dur 2-420 483 GHH
c.485 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78, transfers inhabitants of Camarina to Syracuse. 485 DGRG 1-486
c.484 CAMARINA, under Gela from 495, destroyed until 461 by GELON tyrant of Syracuse and Gela. 484 DGRG 1-486, OCD 198
c.483 MEGARA Sicily, under Greeks from 728, destroyed by GELON tyrant of Gela and Syracuse. 483 CAH 7.2, OCD 665
c.483 Depopulation of Gela, Camarina, Megara Hyblaea. 483 CAH 4
c.483 TERILLUS tyrant of Himera from ?, expelled by THERON tyrant of Acragas (ally of Syracuse).  HIMERA comes under Acragas until 461. 483 CAH 4, 7.2, CDCC 426, LEWH 71, OCD 1061     482 DGRBM 3-1098     481 DGRG 1-537
no date: OCD 515-6
c.481 Athenian envoys ask GELON tyrant of Syracuse for aid in upcoming war against Persians.  Gelon promises 28,000 men and 200 ships if he is appointed commander of either the Greek navy or army.  Athenians refuse. 481
CAH 4, wikG
c.480 TERILLUS, tyrant of Himera Sicily, asks Carthage for help. 480 LEWH 71, OCD 1061
c.480 HAMILCAR-I, 3rd Magonid ruler of Carthage 510-480, with 300,000 (disputed) men including many mercenaries with the professed object of restoring Terillus, sails to counter Greek coalition on Sicily.  Loses ships carrying horses and chariots to a storm.  Sends some ships to Sardinia to get grain. 480 DGRBM 2-326, 3-1098, DGRG 1-1066, MCAW 113, MWΦ 120, 209, OHG, RAH 213, hifiC     479 HAG
c.480 300,000 (disputed) Carthaginians under HAMILCAR land at Panormus with mercenaries from Phoenicia, Libya, Iberia, Liguria, Sardinia and Corsica, marches toward Himera. 480 CAH 7.2-494, DGRBM 2-326, DGRG 1-537, HRRP 1.1-198, MWΦ 120, wikG
c.480 SELINUS Sicily, alligns with Carthage. 480 OCD 972
c.480 Theron, terrified at the magnitude of the Carthaginian army, shuts himself up in Himera, and sends to Gelon for help. 480 DGRBM 3-1098
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78 sends a treasure ship under Cadmos to Delphi, with orders to give the treasure to the Persians if they win, and bring it back if the Greeks win.  Cadmos obeys completely. 480 DGRBM 1-524
c.480 Underground drainage channels cut by Phaeax to drain Acragas.  Still extant. 480 CDGRA 272
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78 leads 50,000 inf + 5,000 cav to Himera. 480 wikG
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78 defeats Punic/Etruscan fleet. 480 LdHR 1-19
c.480 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium 493-76 supports Carthaginian HAMILCAR against GELON of Gela and Syracuse. 480 OCD 61
c.480 HAMILCAR-I is defeated and killed by GELON and THERON at HIMERA, leaving sons Himilco, Hanno, & Gisco.  GISCO flees to Selinus.  Carthaginian ships are burnt, troops killed or enslaved.  Carthage is forced to pay 2,000 talents indemnity.  Greeks dominate Mediterranean until ?. 480 B76 I-146, IV-871, 8-353, 13-147, 17-918, CAH 4, 5, 6-373, 7.2-506, DGRBM 1-959, 2-237, 268, Dur 2-241, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 113, MWΦ 120, OCD 6, 208, 486, 516, 985, 1061, OHG, RAH 213, SHWC 64, TToH, bk, hifiC, lvG     479 HAG
Temple Athena Syracuse plan
Temple Athena Syracuse recon
Temple Athena Syracuse duomo
Giovanni Dall'Orto
ruins of duomo
c.479 Temple of Athena built at Syracuse by Gelon after his victory over Hamilcar at the Battle of Himera 480.  A hexastyle Doric temple surrounded by a portico with columns, 6 on the short sides and 14 on the long sides. 500 ISBE 4-686     5-400 wikTAS
c.478 Tyrant of Gela and Syracuse from 485, GELON dies of dropsy, leaving an infant son, but handing an effective government to bro HIERON-I, who succeeds to 467/6.  Gelon bequeaths his widow Demarete, dau of Theron, in marriage to Polyzelus along with command of the army. 478 B76 V-32, 8-353, CAH 4, 5, DGRBM 2-237, 454, 3-472, Dur 2-438, CDCC 914, GHH, GRG 237, ISBE 4-686, LEWH 71, MCAW 115, OCD 460, 514, OHG, MRDK, bk, lvG, lvS, rcSI, wikG
c.478 HIERON-I, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 478-66, invites poets Aeschylus, Pindar, and Bacchylides to Syracuse. 478 TToH
c.478 Disputes between Hieron and his bro Polyzelus, who had married Demarete widow of Gelon, cause a rupture between Hieron and Theron.  Acragas and Syracuse war until 477. 478 CAH 5,
DGRBM 3-1098
c.477 HIERON-I, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 478-66, invades south Italy. 477 OCD 514 476 CAH 7.2
c.476 Greek poet BACCHYLIDES of Ceos, in Greece from ?, goes to Sicily at invitation of Hieron. 477 GHH
476 CAH 4, OCD 158
c.476 At invitation of Hieron-I, playwrite AESCHYLUS goes from Greece to Sicily until ?. 478 GHH
476 CAH 5, Dur 2-383
c.476 Playwrite AESCHYLUS performs  Aetnaeae  at Etna. 476 CAH 5
c.476 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos, in Athens from 490, goes to Syracuse at invitation of Hieron-I, in Sicily until death 468. 476 B76 8-351,
CAH 4, GHH, OCD 158, 991
c.476 Carthaginians defeat Etruscans at sea. 476 GHH
c.476 PINDAR of Thebes, lyric poet of Cynoscephalae, at invitation of Hieron-I of Syracuse, moves to Sicily until 475.  Welcomed by Theron of Acragas and Hieron. 477 GHH     476 B76 14-466, CAH 4, OCD 833, wikPnd     473 DGRBM 3-368
c.476 PINDAR:   Olympian Odes 2 & 3  in honor of Theron. 476 CAH 4, 5
c.476 Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse tries to Doricize NAXOS, a Chalcidian city under Gela from 495/4. 476 OCD 725
c.476 HIMERA resettled. 476 CAH 5
c.476 GELA, under Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse, put under governor Polyxelos until 466. 476 rcSI
476/5 CATANA on east coast of Sicily, under Greeks of Naxos from ?, population removed to Leontini by Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse, who replaces it with 10,000 Dorian mercenaries.  Under Syracuse and renamed ETNA until 461. 476 B76 VI-153, CAH 5, DGRG 1-567 2-158, OCD 17
475 OCD 214, 515, rcSI
c.475 ΛMt. ETNA V Sicily errupts. 475 CAH 5, OCD 20
479 or 475 DGRG 1-61
c.475 Theron tyrant of Acragas begins a new row of temples along the south wall of Acragas.  Building continues after his death. 475 MCAW 115
c.475 TEMPLE of OLYMPIAN ZEUS   Model left,  Ruins right.
Temple of Olympian ZeusBegun at Acragas, largest Doric temple ever built - but never finished.  112.7m x 56.3m at the stylobate, by 20m tall, made of small stone blocks.  Front has 7 semi-columns, an archaic feature that precluded the addition of a central door.  The long sides have 14 semi-columns.  Between the columns are atlases, stone figures 7.5m tall.
left Clemensfranz
right Josť Luiz

no date: wikTOZA
c.475 Theron tyrant of Acragas and Hieron-I of Syracuse, at odds from ?, make peace thru mediation of Simonides. 475 Dur 2-130
c.474 Campanian Greeks, with aid from HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse 478-66 and ARISTODEMUS of Cumae, destroys Etruscan fleet off CUMAE Italy. 475 vrb     474 B76 V-32, 1-148, 8-350, 15-1087, BCoC 480, CAH 5, 7.2, DGRBM 2-454, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 112, OCD 199, 204, 301, 410, 515, 856, OHG, bk, lvS, rcSI
c.474 PITHECUSAE on island of Ischia west of Cumae founded by HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse as a port for his galleys. 474 lvS
c.472 Tyrant of ACRAGAS from 488, THERON-II overthrown & killed.  Son THRASYDAEUS succeeds to 470.  He immediately gets in a war with HIERON-I of Syracuse until 471. 474 DGRBM     472 B76 8-353, CAH 4, 5, DGRBM 2-454, DGRG 1-75, 1066, Dur 2-66, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 115, OCD 515, 1061, rcSI
c.471 THRASYDAEUS and HIERON-I, at war from 472.  Hieron wins. 471 CAH 5
no date: LEWH 71
c.471 Mercenaries begin warring in territory of Gela and Acragas. 471 CAH 5
c.470 AESCHYLUS goes from Greece to Sicily 2nd time at invitation of Hieron-I. 470 Dur 2-383
c.470 THRASYDAEUS tyrant of Acragas from 472 expelled by people of Acragas and Himera, who are persuaded by philosopher Empedocles to set up a democracy at Acragas, which lasts until 406. 472 OCD 382
471 CAH 5
470 B76 I-146, bk, rcSI
no date: LEWH 71
c.468 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos, perfecter of the elegy and epigram, in Sicily from 476, at court of Hieron-I, dies age 89, buried at Acragas. 469 Dur 2-129     468 CAH 5, CDCC 826, LEWH 76, OCD 158, 991, TToH, wikSm     467 DGRBM 3-835
c.467 2 sons of Anaxilas of Rhegium visit Syracuse on invitation of Hieron-I, who persuades them to oust Micthyos and rule Rhegium.  They return to Rhegium. 467 DGRBM 2-1084
467/6 Himera sends a force to help Syracuse overthrow Thrasybulus. 466 DGRG 1-1066
467/6 Tyrant of Gela and Syracuse from 478, HIERON-I dies at Etna.  Youngest bro THRASYBULUS succeeds for a year, but is incompetent. 467 B76 8-353, CDCC 914, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, ISBE 4-686, MCAW 119, bk, lvG, lvS     467/6 CAH 5, GRG 237, OCD 515     466 B76 V-32, LEWH 71, MRDK, OHG
c.466 THRASYBULUS, cruel and incompetent tyrant of Syracuse from 467/6, expelled.  Anarchy until 465. 467/6 OCD 515, lvS     466 B76 17-918, DGRBM, DGRG 1-984, 2-158, GHH, ISBE 4-686, LEWH 71, MRDK, RAH 286     465 rcSI
c.466 Civil war begins at Syracuse until 461. 466 CAH 5
c.466 FAMILY of Gelon d.478 expelled from Syracuse. 466 DGRBM 1-1090
c.466 CORAX of Syracuse treatise  The Art of Words  to guide citizens wanting to address an assembly or jury. 466 Dur 2-430
c.466 GELA, under tyrants from 505, under Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse, and governor Polyxelos from 476, comes under democracy until 405. 466 rcSI
c.466 LEONTINI Sicily, under Gela from 494, independent under democracy until 422. 466 DGRG 2-158, rcSI
c.466/5 DUCETIUS, a Hellenized Sicel, unites the Sicels of central Sicily into one state. 466/5 DGRBM 1-1090
c.465 SYRACUSE, in anarchy from 466, comes under democratic republic until 405. 465 TToH, rcSI 463 CAH 5
c.465 Festival of Liberty at Syracuse. 463 CAH 5
c.465 Battle of Crastus (location unknown):  Acragas vs. inhabitants of the town of Crastus and their allies from Himera and Gela.  Results unknown. 471 CAH 5
465 hwbc, wikhst
c.461 MESSANA Sicily under Rhegium from 490, expells sons of Anaxilas, sets up independent democracy until 396. 461 CAH 5, rcSI
c.461 ETNA (Catana), Syracusan colony on east coast under Dorian mercenaries from 476/5, mercenaries expelled.  Original name CATANA restored.  Refugees go and found city of INESSA (also called Etna). 461 CAH 5, DGRG 1-567, OCD 20, 214, rcSI
c.461 Civil war at Syracuse from 466 ends. 461 CAH 5
c.461 DUCETIUS leads some Sicels against CATANA until 460. 461 CDCC 292
c.461 NAXOS city, under Syracuse from 476, restored. 461 CAH 5
c.461 NAXOS city opposes Syracuse until 403. 461 OCD 725
c.461 HIMERA Sicily, under Acragas from 483, independent until 409. 461 OCD 516
c.461 DUCETIUS, a Hellenized Sicel, helps Syracuse overthrow the mercenaries of their X-tyrants, organizes a territorial state. 461 CAH 5, OCD 366, lvS
after 461 OCD 725
460 B76 III-688
c.461 CAMARINA Sicily, destroyed from 484, refounded by Gela. 461 CAH 5, DGRG 1-486, GHH, OCD 198, 459
c.460 HIMILCO-I of Carthage rules the Carthaginian settlement in Sicily until 410. 460 hifiC
c.460 PANORMUS Sicily, under Phoenicians from 8th cen., comes under Carthage until 254. 460 rcSI
c.460 RHETORIC first becomes formally studied in Sicily by Corax and his pupils Tisias and Gorgias. 460 B76 10-1093
459/8 Ducetius' home village of Menai is enlarged to create a new city called MENAINON. 459/8 CAH 5, CDCC 292, howD
459/8 MORGANTINA, under Sicels from ?, taken by Ducetius. 459/8 CAH 5, CDCC 292, howD
459/8 SICELS unite under DUCETIUS.  Sicel movement begins until 450. 459/8 CAH 5, LEWH 71
453 CDCC 292
458/7 SEGESTA and HALICYAE Sicily ally with Athens. 458/7 CAH 5, 7.2     458/7 or 454/3 OCD 970     453 LEWH 70, 71
458/7 AESCHYLUS, Athenian religious aristocrat and playwright, sails from Greece to Sicily 3rd time until death 456. 458 wikAe
457 DGRBM 1-42
c.456 AESCHYLUS, in Sicily from 457, dies age 69 of an accident at Gela.
Produced 80 known titles, won 52 prizes.
456 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-42, DGRG 1-985, Dur 2-383, 710, GHH, GRG 238, LEWH 76, MCAW 99, 123, OCD 17, OHG, RAH 219, SHWC 77, TAWH, TToH 17, wikAe
456/5 B76 1-149, CDCC 16
c.454 MENAENUM founded by DUCETIUS, who helps somebody establish a capital there.  Under Sicels until 396. 459 bril
454 OCD 366
454/3 SEGESTA and LILYBAEUM begin war. 454/3 CAH 5
c.453 SEGESTA and HALICYAE Sicily begin war with SELINUS. 453 LEWH 71
c.453 DUCETIUS, ruler of Sicels, founds a capital at PALICE until 450. 459/8 LEWH 71     453 CDCC 292 453/2 CAH 5, howD
c.453 ILVA (Aethalia, Elba) island, a nest of Etruscan pirates off coast of Etruria, ravaged by Syracusan fleet under Phaylus. 453 DGRBM 3-243, DGRG 2-40
c.453 In response to Etruscan piracy, Syracusan fleet under Phaylus ravages coasts of Etruria and Corsica (now under Etruscans). 453 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-861
c.453 Phaylus bought off by pirates, returns to Syracuse, condemned, exiled. 453 DGRBM 3-243
453/2 DUCETIUS tyrant of Palice unites almost all of interior Sicily in a new federation. 453/2 lvG
c.451 INESSA (Etna), Syracusan city from 461, taken by DUCETIUS, Hellenized ruler of Sicels. 451 OCD 20
c.451 MOTYCA taken by DUCETIUS, Hellenized ruler of Sicels, who defeats Syracusans at Motyca same year. 451 CDCC 292 451/0 CAH 5
c.451 Syracuse and Acragas ally against Ducetius, and are defeated by him. 451 lvG
451/0 CAH 5
c.450 DUCETIUS tyrant of Palice defeated by Syracuse and Acragas at Nomae, exiled to Corinth until 446.  Sicel unity collapses. 450 B76 III-688, CDCC 292, LEWH 71, bk, lvG
450/49 CAH 5
c.450 1st AMPHITHEATER at Syracuse built by architect Damokopos Myrilla.  Still stands, but ruins reflect later renovation c.230. 500-400 wikGTS
c.450 MIME introduced as a dramatic form by Sophron at Syracuse. 450 TToH
c.450 EPICHARMUS dies.  Comic poet of Cos, in Syracuse from 485.  He wrote comedies, in which philosophical views were occasionally satirised; but some of the alleged quotations are obvious forgeries. 450 Dur 2-725 443 GHH
440 B76 III-920
no date: sctx
World of Herodotus
The world according to Herodotus     Pub Dom
c.446 DUCETIUS, exiled to Corinth from 450, returns to Sicily, restores SICEL federation until 440/39, founds Cale Acte. 448/7 lvG
446 B76 III-688, CAH 5, CDCC 292, LEWH 71, 366
c.446 ACRAGAS defeated by Syracusans at Himera river. 446 DGRG 1-1068, GHH
c.446 ACRAGAS defeated by DUCETIUS at Himera river. 446 DGRG 1-75
CONFUSION ALERT!  The ancients appear to call 2 rivers Himera, and even assert that they joined in the middle of the island !   DGRG 1-1068
c.445 Syracuse and Acragas fight over spoils from their victory over Sicels in 450.  Syracuse wins. 446 CAH 5 445 LEWH 71
c. 444

c. 444

c. 444
EMPEDOCLES of Acragas, Pythagorean philosopher, statesman poet, physiologist, healer, miracle man, claimer of divinity, father of rhetoric, flourishes.

METAPHYSICS:  The "all" is a sphere composed of 4 elements:  Earth, air, fire, water.
All is DUALITY (contradicting Parmenides 460):  Love and strife interact to bring together and separate the 4 elements.
Accepts Eleatic contention that "being" is permanent.  e.g. Matter cannot be created or destroyed.  All things are transformed depending on the ratio of the 4 elements.
(See Heraclitos 500, Xenophanes 480, Anaxagoras 450, Leucippos 440, Diogenes 440, Democritos 400)

(See atomic theory 450, Leucippos 440, Democritos 400)

COSMOGONY begins with separation of the 4 elements beginning with air & fire.
(See Anaxagoras 450, Hippo 450)
LIFE originated with trees.  Sexes became distinguishable only after strife entered.  When love was ascendant, separate limbs arose, heads without necks, arms without shoulders.

COSMOLOGY V:  2 hemispheres:  Fixed stars are embedded in one of them.  Bright and dark revolve around a SPHERICAL EARTH V.  The sun is the rays of the bright hemisphere focused back from Earth.
(See Anaxagoras 450, Diogenes 440, Phaedo 370)

ANATOMY:  Bodies contain 4 HUMORS:  blood, bile, black bile, phlegm.  HEART is the seat of intelligence.  Blood is the seat of thought and innate heat.
(See Alcmaeon 490, Hippo 450, Diogenes 440)

Λ REINCARNATION:  Those who sin suffer 30,000 reincarnations.  Escape requires purification, including vegetarianism.
(See Upanishads 500 Meno 386)
Dur 2-244
CDGRA 486, GHH, OHG, bk
MCAW 125
LEWH 76, OCD 382
no date:
B76 III-879, KPHP 14-15, OCD 58
431 TTPC
c.443 RHEGIUM, and LEONTINI, (possibly also Catana and Naxos) fearing the power of Syracuse, ally with Athens. 443 CAH 5, LEWH 71
c.440 DUCETIUS dies.  Back in Sicily and leader of Sicel federation at Palice from 446, gets sick during attempt to unite northern Sicily, dies.  Sicel federation collapses.  Syracuse then destroys Palice and dominates the Sicels. 440 B76 III-688, CAH 5, CDCC 292, DGRBM 1-1090, GHH, MCAW 131, OCD 66, lvG
440/39 LEWH 71
c.435 TEMPLE of CONCORDIA   Floorplan left,  Ruins right.
Temple of ConcordiaBuilt at Acragas, largest and best-preserved Doric temple in Sicily.  Base is 39.42m ◊ 16.92m, with 6 x 13 columns, 6m tall, tapering at tops and swelling around middles.  .  .  .
left Bjs
right Berthold Werner

440-430 wikTOCA
c.433/2 LEONTINI Sicily renews 443 alliance with Pericles of Athens. 433 TTPC
433/2 CAH 5, OCD 596
c.430 EMPEDOCLES of Acragas dies.  Legend says he jumped into the volcano of Mt. Etna to convince followers of his divinity. post-444 EoΦ 2-496     440-31 TTS 436 CAH 5     435 CDΦ 224
433 OCD 382     430 B76 III-879, Dur 2-724, RAH 285, TToH
dies in Greece 430 KPHP 14
c.427 SICILY:  General war breaks out until 424.  Ionian LEONTINI leads Naxos, Catana, Rhegium, Camarina, and most Sicels ally against Dorian SYRACUSE supported by Gela, Messana, Himera, Lipara Islands, and Locri. 427 Dur 2-446, 486, LEWH 71, OCD 198, 459, 675, 725
c.427 Camarina supports Syracuse (contradicts above) until 424. 427 OCD 459
c.427 Sophist orator GORGIAS of Leontini Sicily sails to Athens for aid, which is granted. 427 CAH 5, Dur 2-360,
LEWH 76, OCD 596, wikGrg
no date: LEWH 71
c.427 20 Athenian ships under Laches and Charoeades sent to help Leontini.  They arrive at Rhegium, which is their base for fighting Syracuse until 424.  Charoeades is soon killed.  Laches is general until 426.  He takes Messana and gets control of Strait of Messana. 427 B76 VI-153, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 819, DGRBM 2-700, DGRG 2-158, IDB 4-75, OCD 985, 1030, OHG
c.426 ETNA, under Syracuse, repels attack by Athenians under Laches. 426 DGRG 1-60
c.426 Laches, Athenian commander in Sicily from 427, recalled to Athens on a corruption charge.  Pythodoros succeeds until ?. 426 DGRBM 2-700
c.425 Λ Mt. ETNA V erupts.  3rd eruption since the Greeks first appeared. 425 DGRBM DGRG 1-61
c.425 40 more Athenian ships arrive in Sicily to join the 20 ships already there. 425 B76 14-22, HAG
c.424 CONFERENCE at GELA called by Hermocrates of Syracuse.  Hermocrates persuades all Sicily to make peace and oppose Athenian intervention. 424 B76 IV-1050, 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-417, LEWH 71, OCD 504, OHG, TTPC, bk, lvG no date: LEWH 71
c.424 SICILY:  After indecisive fighting, the general war from 427 ends. 424 CDCC 819, LEWH 71, 73, OCD 675
c.424 Athenian fleet, at Sicily from 427, returns to Athens. 424 B76 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 819, LEWH 73, OCD 985, 1030
c.423  History  of Antiochus of Syracuse ends here. 424 OCD 73     423 GHH     422 DGRBM 1-195
c.422 LEONTINI Sicily:  Commoners expel oligarchs, but are soon themselves expelled. 422 DGRG 2-158, Dur 2-284
c.422 Oligarchs of Leontini move to Syracuse. 422 CAH 6-124
c.422 LEONTINI Sicily, independent under democracy from 466, comes under Syracuse ruled by local tyrants until 238. 422 DGRG 2-158, rcSI
c.422 PHAEAX, Athenian ambassador to Italy and Sicily, tries to rouse people to help Leontini against Syracuse, makes alliances with the native population and towns like Acragas and Camarina. 422 CAH 5, DGRBM 3-229, OCD 808, lvG
c.420 Theater at Syracuse designed by architect Democopus Myrilla. 420 DGRBM 1-974
c.420 ANTIOCHUS of Syracuse, historian, flourishes.  Wrote a  History  of Italy and of Sicily to 423. 420 Dur 2-712
no date: OCD 73
c.417 Democrats of LEONTINI receive help from Athens. 417 GHH
c.416 SELINUS Sicily attacks SEGESTA, which asks for aid from Athens in accordance with the 453 treaty, and promises to pay for an expedition. 416 CDCC 819, Dur 2-446, LEWH 71, 73, MCAW 136, RAH 251, bk
415 B76 8-358, CAH 5
c.415 Athenians NICIAS, ALCIBIADES, and LAMACHUS with 140 triremes carrying 4,000 hoplites sail from Greece invade Sicily until 413.  Nicias refuses proposal by Lamachus to immediately attack Syracuse.  They win over cities NAXOS and CATANA, which they use as a base, but accomplish nothing more. 415 B76 IV-1050, VI-153, CAH 5, CDCC 104, 819, Dur 2-244, GHH, HAG, IDB 4-75, LEWH 71, 73, OCD 214, 796, 972, 985, 1030, OHG, TToH, bk, lvG, lvS
c.415 ALCIBIADES, in Sicily 415, recalled to Athens to stand charges for statue mutilation.  Sails away. 415 CDCC 33, GHH, HAG, MCAW 136, RAH 253
c.415 Democrats of LEONTINI expelled by Syracuse-supported oligarchs. 415 B76 VI-153
c.415 HERMOCRATES of Syracuse organizes resistance to Athenians, convinces fellow Syracusans to extend their fortifications. 415 B76 IV-1050, OCD 504, lvG
c.415 Syracuse besieged by Athenians until 413. 415 B76 17-918, CAH 5, Dur 2-357, GHH, OCD 198, 459, 675, TToH     414 lvG
c.415 Cities NAXOS and CATANA ally with Athens against Syracuse.  Catana becomes an Athenian naval base until 413. 415 GHH, OCD 214, 425, 725     no date: OCD 425
c.415 CAMARINA, GELA, and MESSANA support Syracuse until 413. 415 OCD 198, 459, 675
c.415 HIMERA supports Syracuse against Athenians. 415 DGRG 1-1066
c.415 DASCON in the harbor of Syracuse taken by Athenians until 413, but is of little use. 415 TTPC
c.415/4 EUPHEMOS sent by Athenian commanders at Syracuse to negotiate alliance with Camarina. winter 415/4 DGRBM 2-97
c.414 HERMOCRATES is elected to command the defense of Syracuse.  He is unsuccessful. 414 LEWH 73, OCD 504
c.414 EUCLES, son of Hippon, is 1 of 3 new commanders of Syracuse. 414 DGRBM 2-75
c.414 CENTURIPA, southwest of Mt. Etna, forced to make treaty with Athenians. 414 DGRG 1-586
c.414 ETRUSCANS help Athenians in a 2nd attack on Syracuse. 414 DGRBM, DGRG 1-861
c.414 Athenians try to block land approaches to Syracuse with a wall. 414 Dur 2-244, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 733, RAH 253, TTPC
c.414 Spartan general GYLIPPOS arrives with a small force to help Syracuse.  He blocks Athenian ships in Syracuse harbor, siezes the heights of Epipolae north of Syracuse, preventing the Athenians from completing their wall around Syracuse. 414 CAH 5, CDCC 819, DGRBM, Dur 2-448, GHH, HAG, LEWH 73, OCD 484, RAH 253, TTPC, lvG
c.414 Athenian general LAMACHUS is killed in a skirmish during the wall building, leaving NICIAS (who had opposed the expedition) in charge. 414 CAH 5, OCD 516, RAH 253, TTPC, lvG
c.414 fall NICIAS sends a report to the Assembly at Athens asking that the expedition be recalled. fall 414 RAH 253
c.414 Athenian general EUTHYDEMOS is sent to help Nicias. 414 DGRBM 2-123
c.414 Supplies from Athens arrive at Catana. 414 DGRBM 2-1186
c.413 NICIAS uses fresh supplies to sieze Epipolae plateau. 413 DGRBM 2-1186
414/3 Athenian general EURYMEDON, with supplies sails from Corcyra to Sicily. 414 GHH     414/3 CAH 5
413 Athenian general EURYMEDON defeated and killed before reaching land. 413 wikErm
413 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES arrives with 73 ships, 15,000 troops to reinforce NICIAS at Syracuse. 413 B76 VII-329, 14-23, CAH 5, DGRBM, LEWH 73, OCD 329, 733, RAH 253, TTPC, lvG
413 Syracusan AGATHARCHUS sent with 12 ships to visit allies and harass Athenians. 413 DGRBM 1-61
413 July Athenian Naval base at Catana from 415 is lost to Spartans. July 413 B76 14-23
413 Aug Athenian DEMOSTHENES attacks Spartan position by night at Epipolae unsuccessfully. 413 DGRBM 3-810, LEWH 73, OCD 329
413 Aug Syracusan general SICANUS son of Execestus sent with 13 ships to Acragas, to get help, but, before he could reach the city, the pro-Syracusan party there is defeated and driven out. 413 DGRBM 3-810
413 Aug 27 LUNAR ECLIPSE seen in Sicily.
"All was at last ready, and they were on the point of sailing away, when an eclipse of the moon, which was then full, took place.  Most of the Athenians, deeply impressed by this occurrence, now urged the generals to wait;  and Nicias, who was somewhat over-addicted to divination and practices of that kind, refused from that moment even to take the question of departure into consideration, until they had waited the thrice nine days prescribed by the soothsayers."
(Thucidides: History of the Peloponessian war 7-50)
413 Aug. 27
B76 VII-329, 14-23, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 137, TTPC, lvG, hbar, nasaS
413 Aug DEMOSTHENES advocates abandoning Sicily, but is prevented by NICIAS, who believes a soothsayer, who says the eclipse is an omen, and he should stay 27 days more. 413 B76 14-23, LEWH 73, OCD 329, TTPC
413 Sep Athenians, in Sicily 415-13, are defeated twice at sea by Syracuse. 413 B76 8-369, 14-23, 17-918, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, TTPC
413 Sep Athenian troops hit by plague.  NICIAS and DEMOSTHENES withdraw by land.  Rear guard under Demosthenes is attacked and defeated.  The van under NICIAS is crushed at the Asinarus River by Hermocrates.  Athenian Callistratos fights his way thru and leads his men to Catana.  DEMOSTHENES and NICIAS are executed.  Prisoners are worked at stone quarries then sold into slavery.  Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 ends, having lost over 200 ships, 35,000 crew, 4,000 soldiers. 414 HAG     413 B76 VII-329, 8-369, 14-23, 17-918, BCoC 373, CAH 5, CDCC 104, 819, DGRBM 1-577, Dur 2-244, GHH, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 71, 73, MCAW 136, OCD 329, 733, 796, 985, 1030, OHG, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG, lvS
c.412 Athenian CALLISTRATOS son of Empedos leads his men from Catana to attack Syracusans plundering the Athenian camp.  Callistratos is killed. 412 DGRBM 1-577
c.412 Coins struck at Syracuse commemorating its deliverance from Athenians. 412 MCAW 137
c.412 HERMOCRATES leads 20 Syracusan and 2 Selinuntine ships to help finish off Athenian fleet. mid 412
CAH 6-126
c.412 A law of Diocles forbids people to bear weapons in the agora under pain of death. This law is popular, and spreads to other city-states in Sicily. 412 wikDS
c.412 HERMOCRATES commands Syracusan squadron sent to help Sparta.  DIOCLES rules a democracy in Syracuse. 412 B76 IV-1050, OCD 504, lvG
c.412 DIOCLES democratic boss of Syracuse, institutes democratic reforms: new law code, privileges for lower classes, elective offices. 412 DGRBM 1-1010, GHH, LEWH 71, OCD 1030, wikDS
c.411 Anyone in south Italy and Sicily suspected of Athenian sympathies is persecuted. 411 DGRBM 2-865
c.410 HIMILCO-I ruler of Punic settlement in Sicily from 460, ends as ruler, but doesn't die until 406. 410 hifiC
c.410 DIOCLES, democratic ruler of Syracuse, has many oligarchs, including HERMOCRATES, banished.  Diocles is now undisputed boss of Syracuse. 410 DGRBM 1-1010, LEWH 71, 80, wikDS
c.410 QUADRIREMES V built by Carthaginians to attack Syracuse.
Diodorus Siculus says they were first thought of by Dionysius-I in 399.
410 DGRG 1-537, TTT
c.409 SEGESTA Sicily, warring with SELINUS (both Greek cities), ask Carthage for aid, comes under Punic domination until 307. 410 B76 13-147, CAH 6-128, OCD 970
410/9 CAH 7.2     409 LEWH 80, MWΦ 124, OCD 985     400 rcSI
c.409 100,000 Carthaginians under HANNIBAL-I MAGO, with Libyan, Iberian, Campanian, and Greek mercenaries sails from Africa to Lilybaeum.  Wars in Sicily until 405. 409 B76 III-560, 8-350, 369, CAH 5, 6-127, DGRBM 2-331, Dur 2-438, GHH, HAG, LEWH 80, OCD 970, MCAW 140, MWΦ 124, OHG, RAH 306, wikMag     408 lvG, lvS
c.409 SELINUS, Greek city from 648, besieged 9 days with siege towers, falls to HANNIBAL until 407.  Inhabitants butchered, over opposition of Syracuse. 410/9 CAH 7.2     409 B76 8-350, CAH 5, 6, CDCC 821, DGRA 1175, DGRBM 2-331, Dur 2-171, GHH, GRG 248, HAG, LEWH 80, MWΦ 124, OCD 970, 972, 985, OHG, RAH 306, bk
408 LEWH 80, lvG, lvS
c.409 DIOCLES boss of Syracuse, is named head of an army of 4000 to relieve Himera. 409
c.409 DIOCLES concentrates 4,000 men in Himera to defend against Carthaginians, but worries that they might sail against unprotected Syracuse, Diocles decides to evacuate Himera.  He moves so fast as to abandon unburied Syracusan bodies, but not fast enough to get his ships back to evacuate the population of Himera before it falls. 409 CAH 6-129
c.409 HIMERA Sicily, independent from 461, falls to Carthaginian HANNIBAL, who "sacrifices" 3,000 POWs where his grandfather Hamilcar had fallen.  Sacked, obliterated, and abandoned.  Refugees settle 7 miles west. 410/9 CAH 7.2     409 B76 8-350, CAH 5, 6-129, 366, CDCC 426, HAG, MCAW 140, OCD 208, 516, 985, OHG, bk     408 DGRG 1-1066, LEWH 80, RAH 306, lvG
c.409 ACRAGAS, under tyranny from 488, falls to Carthaginian HANNIBAL, sacked.  Under democracy until 406. 409 B76 8-350, GHH
c.409 HANNIBAL-I MAGO, with Iberian, Campanian, and even Greek mercenaries, moves north thru Sicily, joined by 20,000 native Sicels and Sicans, evidently eager to shake off Greek dominance. 409 CAH 6-129, 495
c.408 HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries in Aegean from 410, returns to Sicily, picks up 1,000 Himerans, establishes himself at Selinus, builds his force up to 6,000, raids Carthaginian territory. 408 CAH 6-130, OCD 504, wikDS
407 CAH 6
c.408 SELINUS, under Carthaginian Hannibal from 409, recovered by Hermocrates of Syracuse. 408 CAH 6-130 407 B76 8-369
c.408 PANORMUS Sicily, under Carthaginians, ravaged by HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries. 408 CAH 6-130, 7.2
c.408 MOTYA Sicily, under Carthaginians, ravaged by HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries. 408 CAH 6-130, 7.2
408/7 HERMOCRATES collects unburied Syracusan bones left at Himera by Diocles in 409, and sends them to Syracuse to discredit Diocles.  DIOCLES is exiled, and drops out of history, but Hermocrates is not recalled, because some Syracusans fear a tyranny. 408 DGRBM 1-1010, wikDS 408/7 CAH 6-130 407 DGRBM 2-418
408/7 THERMAE HIMERAE founded by Carthaginians where the refugees had settled 7 miles west of former Himera. 408/7 OCD 516
c.407 Son of Hermon, HERMOCRATES dies.  Tries to recover Syracuse, killed in a street fight.  His partisans, including Dionysius and Philistus, are exiled. 408/7 B76 IV-1050
407 B76 8-369, OCD 504, lvG
c.407/6 Carthage, represented by Himilco, makes agreement with Athens. 407/6 OCD 516
c.407/6 HIMILCO son of Hanno and HANNIBAL son of Gisco sent from Carthage to Sicily. 406 DGRBM 2-473
c.406 HIMILCO son of Hanno besieges Acragas. 406 DGRBM 1-938, bk
c.406 HANNIBAL MAGO dies.  5th Magonid king of Carthage from 440, goes to Sicily, joins HIMILCO at siege of Acragas.  Dies of plague.  HIMILCO-II succeeds to 396. 406 B76 8-369,
CAH 5, 6, DGRBM 2-332, MCAW 140, MWΦ 197
c.406 Λ QUADRIREMES built by Dionysius-I. 406 TTS     400 DGRA 785
399 CGS 584
c.406 Historian PHILISTUS promotes interests of Dionysius-I. 406 GHH
c.406 Syracusan general DAPHNAEUS sent with Sicilian and Italian allies against Carthaginian HIMILCO at Acragas.  They defeat a Punic force, but fail to relieve the siege. 406 DGRBM 1-938
c.406 Spartan mercenary DEXIPPUS of Gela opposes Carthaginian Himilco at Acragas.  He is bought off. 406 DGRBM 1-995
c.406 Carthaginian HIMILCO-II buys off Greek generals at Syracuse and Acragas. 406 B76 8-369, LEWH 80, MWΦ 197, OCD 6, 350, 516
406/5 OCD 985
c.406 DIONYSIUS-I, helped by partisans of late Hermocrates, elected strategos with 9 colleagues, recalls exiles, marries a dau of Hermocrates, organizes a plebiscite.  DIONYSIUS-I becomes tyrant of Syracuse until 367. 407 HAG     406 CDCC 276, DGRA 1182 DGRBM 1-1033, GHH, TToH     405 B76 III-560, 8-369, 17-918, CAH 5, 6, Dur 2-439, ISBE 4-686, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 80, MCAW 140, MRDK, OCD 480, 817, OHG, bk, lvS
c.406 ACRAGAS, under democracy from 409, after 8 month siege, sacked by Carthaginian HIMILCO-II.  Under Carthage until 392.  Himilco winters in Acragas. 407 HAG     406 B76 I-146, 8-369, CAH 5, 6-132, 7.2, DGRG 1-75, GHH, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 80, MWΦ 197, OCD 6, 350, 516, lvS, rcSI     406/5 OCD 985     405 CAH 6-134
c.406 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse, at the time of his marriage, gives his sis in marriage to Syracusan noble Polyxenus. 407 DGRBM 3-472
c.406 HYERACLEA MINOA on south coast of Sicily comes under Carthaginianians until ?. 406 B76 IV-1035
c.406 Exiles from Acragas are allowed by Syracuse to move to Leontini. 406 DGRG 2-158
c.406 Syracusan fleet defeats Carthaginian fleet off Eryx in west Sicily. 406 DGRG 1-853
c.405 Himilco-II moves from Acragas to Gela and besieges.  Dionysius-I gets help from Italy, comes with 30,000 inf, 1,000 cav, & 50 ships, tries to cut off Carthaginian supplies.  After 20 days, Dionysius tries a 3-pronged attack which fails, and retreats to inside Gela. 405
CAH 6-134, DGRBM 2-474, GHH
c.405 GELA, ally of Syracuse from 427, under democracy from 466, defeated by Carthaginian HIMILCO-II, abandoned by Dionysius-I, evaccuated, sacked by Carthaginians, independent until 392.  Inhabitants go to Syracuse. 407 HAG
406 OCD 516 406/5 OCD 985
405 B76 8-369, CAH 6-134, 7.2, OCD 459, rcSI
c.405 A large statue of Apollo outside Gela is taken by Carthaginians and shipped to Tyre. 406 DGRG 1-985
c.405 MUTINY in cavalry of Dionysius-I. 405 GHH
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I returns from Gela to Syracuse, accuses the other 9 generals of corruption and treachery.  Appointed sole strategos until ?. 405 spring DGRBM 1-1033
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, hires a body guard. 405 GHH
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, marries Arete daughter of patriot Hermocrates. 405 GHH
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I decides to abandon Camarina also.  His troops are furious.  Some Cavalry rush home, plunder Dionysius's house and so abuse his new wife Arete that she suicides out.  With 100 loyal cav and 600 elite troops, Dionysius follows and suppresses the revolt.  What is left of the cavalry retires to Etna.  The main body of the army arrives next morning, but the Geloans and Camarinaeans are angry with Syracuse, and join the growing settlement at Leontini. 405
B76 8-369, CAH 6-134, GHH, rcSI
404 lvS
c.405 CAMARINA, ally of Syracuse from 415, abandoned by Dionysius-I, defeated by Carthaginian HIMILCO-II, sacked by Carthaginians.  Never fully recovers. 406 OCD 516
405 B76 8-369, CAH 6-134, DGRG 1-486, OCD 198, 459
c.405 HIMILCO-II is about to conquer Syracuse, but disease in his army forces him to make peace treaty with Dionysius-I.  Sicily is split down the middle:  West under Carthage, east under Greeks.  Acragas, Selinus, and Therme together with the Elymians and Sicans are all ceded to Carthage, Acragas, Gela, Himera, Selinus, and Camarina to be tributaries.  None of them can have walls.  Leontini, Messene and the Sicels are autonomous. 405 B76 8-369, CAH 5, 6-135, 7.2, DGRBM 1-1033, DGRG 1-1067, GHH, LEWH 80, MWΦ 125, OCD 516, OHG, bk
c.405 Exiles of Himera, Selinunte, and Acragas, are allowed by the treaty to return to their homes, but must pay tribute to Carthage and not restore their fortifications. 405 DGRG 1-1067
c.405 Exiles of Leontini return to their homes, and declare independence from Syracuse.  Leontini independent until 403. 405 DGRG 2-158
c.405 HIMILCO-II with a treaty and diseased troops, returns to Carthage. 405 DGRBM 2-474
c.405 PHILISTUS the historian, friend of Dionysius-I of Syracuse, made commander of the citadel until 386/5. 405
B76 VII-948
c.405 Sicily is nearly engulfed by Carthaginians. 405 OCD 480
405/4 ORTYGIA island off Syracuse fortified by Dionysius-I of Syracuse, becomes his residence.  None but relatives are allowed to live on it.  Becomes Dionysid residence until 343. 405/4 DGRBM 1-1033
c.404 SYRACUSE:  attempted revolt against Dionysius-I, who is helped by bro-in-law Polyxenus. 404 DGRBM 3-472
c.404 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, fortifies Syracuse, increases navy, extends the franchise, divides escheated lands among freemen, quells the revolt. 404 GHH
c.404 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, extends his rule northward until 402. 404 CDCC 277
c.404 A group of Campanians for which Dionysius-I had no further use does not return to Italy, but goes west and takes Elymian Entella, killing the men and marrying the women.  They remain under Carthaginian control, defying attempts by Dionysius to dislodge them. 404 CAH 6-153
c.404 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, under democracy from ?, comes under oligarchy until 373. 404 rcSB3
c.403 CATANA Sicily taken and sacked by Dionysius-I.  Under Syracuse until 352.  Citizens enslaved.  Repopulated with Campanian mercenaries until 396. 403 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-1034, DGRG 1-60, 567, LEWH 80, OCD 214, rcSI     400 bk
c.403 EPIPOLAE, cliff north of Syracuse, fortified. 403 GHH
c.403 LEONTINI, independent from 405, comes under Syracuse until 396.  Whole population transferred to Syracuse. 403 DGRG 2-158
c.403 HERBITA in central Sicily, under the Siculi from ?, besieged unsuccessfully by Dionysius-I.  Inhabitants conclude peace with Dionysius-I.  Arconide, tyrant of Herbita quits the city and founds HALAESA with citizens of Herbita, mercenaries, and other enemies of Dionysius-I. 403 DGRG 1-1052, wikHls
c.403 SYRACUSE:  final attempted revolt against Dionysius-I. 403 B76 8-369, bk
c.403 NAXOS city Sicily taken by Dionysius-I.  Destroyed. 403 CAH 7.2, OCD 725 400 LEWH 80, bk

West Mediterranean 400-301