bk    cpnt    hCyp    lvA
  rcAg    rcCrt     wikCp 

Aegean Sea Go to Europe Go to Italy Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to West Mediterranean Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Urartu Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Egypt Go to North Africa Go to North Africa
c.500 Carthaginians become main power in west Mediterranean until 241, but are 2nd to Greeks in east Mediterranean. by 500 SHWC 53
c.500 IMBROS Island west of Chersonese, colonized by Athenians. 500 CAH 3.3-161
c.500 NAXOS Island in Cyclades besieged by Aristagoras and Persians. 501 DGRBM
c.500 Comedian EPICHARMOS of Kos island flourishes. 500 GHH
c.500 CHERSIS EVELTHONIDES ends.  King of Salamis Cyprus from 511 ends.  GORGOS CHERSIDES succeeds until 493 500 wikAGhC
c.499 GORGOS CHERSIDES, king of Salamis Cyprus 500-493, refuses to join Ionian Revolt. 499 CAH 6-309
c.499 Phoenician CITIUM Cyprus joins Ionian Revolt. 499 CAH 6-311
c.499 CHIOS island, under Persia from 517, joins Ionian Revolt until 493. 499 DGRG 1-610
c.499 ARTAPHERNES satrap of Lydia, and ARISTAGORAS tyrant of Miletos, preparing for attack on Naxos, quarrel.  ARTAPHERNES takes revenge by warning Naxos.  Attack fails.  Naxos resists Persian aggression until 490. 500 CAH 4-101
499 B76 8-309, CDCC 610, OCD 109, 125, 480
no date: DGRBM 1-289
c.498 Athens sends 20 ships (Eretria sends 5.) to help Ionians against Persians.  Unsuccessful. 498 LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 140
c.498 Greek fleet tours Aegean as far north as Bosporus encouraging support for Ionian rebels. 498 CAH 4-222
c.498 King of Salamis Cyprus from 500, GORGOS CHERSIDES, deposed by bro ONESILOS, who succeeds until 492.
CYPRUS, under Persia 525-479/8, rebels under Onesilos, but Phoenician cities Citium and Amathus remain loyal to Persia.
499 GRG 325, cpnt, hCyp, wikCp
499/8 CAH 6-306, IDB 1-753
498 B76 5-406, OCD 306
493 wikAGhC
c.498 ARISTOCYPROS, king of Soli Cyprus from ?, killed in battle against Persians. 498 DGRBM 1-303
c.497 Persians from Cilicia attack Cyprus, besiege cities.  Onesilos tyrant of Salamis is unable to stop them. 498 hCyp
497 CAH 4-223
c.497 CYPRUS, under Persia 525-479/8, rebeling from 498, subdued by Persians.  Cypriot Greeks ask Ionia for help. 498 DGRBM, OCD 306, bk, wikCp
497 CAH 4-223     496 B76 8-309, CAH 4-169, MCAW 104
c.497 IONIANS defeat Phoenician fleet off Cyprus.  Phoenician fleet is out of commission 3 years. 497 CAH 4-223, OCD 804
c.496 HISTIAEUS, pirate based at Byzantium, raids Ionian coast. 496 DGRBM
c.496 BOSPORUS and HELLESPONT subdued by Persians. by 495 B76 8-309
c.494 353 Ionian & allied ships crushed by Phoenician fleet (600 ships acc. to Herodotus) under Persia off LADE Island near MiletosPersians now control the Aegean Sea.
353 Ionian ships at Lade:  100 from Chios, 80 from Miletos, 70 from Lesbos, 60 from Samos which desert the battle.
495 B76 8-309, GRG 324
494 CAH 4-96, 307, CDGRA 171, DGRBM, Dur 2-235, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 804, 949, OHG, RAH 193, bk, Φnc
494/3 CDCC 608
c.494 VOUNI PALACE built by Doxandrus on Cyprus. 494 TToH
c.494 SAMOS, loosely under Persia from 522, comes firmly under Persia until 479.  Former tyrant AEAKES is restored until ?. 494 DGRBM 1-22, OCD 904
c.494/3 HISTIAEUS, pirate based at Byzantium from 498, caught, crucified. 494/3 OCD 520
c.493 CHIOS Island, with Ionian Revolt from 499, taken and destroyed by Persians, under Persians until 490. 493 DGRBM, GHH
after Lade: OCD 230
c.493 Λ LESBOS Island taken by Persians, under Persians until 479. 493 DGRBM, GHH
c.493 TENEDOS Island, off the Troad, taken by Persians, under Persians until ?. 493 DGRBM GHH
c.492 King of Salamis Cyprus from 498, ONESILOS is killed fighting Persians.  Bro GORGOS CHERSIDES restored by Persians until 480. 498 DGRBM 2-286
492 wikAGhC
c.492 Persian fleet, intent on punishing Athens, wrecked by a storm off Mt. Athos in Chalcidice. 492 B76 8-349, BCoC 318, ISBE 1-868
c.491 THASOS Island, under Greeks of Paros Island from 650, comes under Persia until 480. 491 CAH 4, rcAg
c.490 DARIUS-I Hystaspes, king of Medo-Persia 522-486, sends 2nd punitive fleet from Cilicia to Samos: 25,000 men in 600 ships under Artaphernes and Datis, this time thru Aegean islands. 491 Dur 2-235
490 B76 8-310, 349, BCoC 318, LEWH 67, OCD 804, SHWC 63
c.490 Cyclades invaded and subdued by Persian fleet. 491 Dur 2-235 490 OCD 304
c.490 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, resisting Persian aggression from 499, sacked and destroyed by Persians, under Persia until 480. 490 B76 VII-231, CAH 4, CDCC 610, GRG 324, OCD 725, rcAg
c.490 MELOS Island in Cyclades holds out against Persians. 490 CDCC 570
c.490 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Ionians from ?, allies with Persians until 479. 490 B76 VII-768, rcAg
c.490 ANDROS Island in Cyclades submits to Persia until 478/7. 490 B76 I-365     490/89 OCD 64, rcAg
c.490 CHIOS Island under Persia and destroyed from 493, independent until 477. 490 rcAg
c.490 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Paros from ?, comes under Persia until 479. 490 rcAg
c.490 RHODES Island, comes under Persia until 477. 490 anhiR
c.490 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese submits to Persia until 478/7. 490 rcAg
490 2nd Persian punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eritrea led by ARTAPHERNES-II, son of the satrap of Sardis, and his uncle DATIS, a Mede.  Both sail to Euboea with 200,000 Medo-Persian troops. 491 DGRBM, Dur 2-235
490 BI+N 120, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 140, 804, OHG, SHWC 63, RAH 195, lvG
c.489 spring MILTIADES, Athenian former tyrant of Chersonese 496-90, leads 70 ships to punish all islands that had supported Persians.  Sails to Persian occupied PAROS Island in Cyclades, but fails to take it, and returns to Athens. 490 DGRBM 3-1286 489 B76 8-349, OCD 688, wikMltY
c.489 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, under Persians 490-80, resists attempt by Miltiades to conquer it. 489 DGRBM
c.480 After Salamis, the Greek fleet, still outnumbered by Persian fleet, chases it as far as Andros Island, then stops for fear of the Persians realizing the stupidity of their flight, and turning on them. 480 DGRBM 3-816
c.480 DelosAfter Salamis, the Greeks dedicate 3 Phoenician triremes to Apollo at Delos.  The common practice was to dedicate only the prows or stern ornaments of captured vessels. 480
TAG 389
c.480 THASOS Island, under Persia from 491, comes under Athens until 465. 480 rcAg
c.480 SANDOCES, viceroy of Cume in Aeolis, commands 15 ships, which are detained behind when the main body left Sepias.  They sail southward, and are captured by Greeks off Artemisium Euboea. 480 DGRBM 3-704
c.480 7 citizens of Chios conspire against Strattis tyrant of Chios, but the plot is revealed by one of them, and the remaining 6 flee. 480 DGRBM 3-926
c.480 IOS Island in Cyclades under Persia from 510, comes under Athens until 404. 480 rcAg
c.480 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, under Persians from 490, comes under admiral Democritos until 479. 480 rcAg
c.480 TIMOCREON of Rhodes, Greek lyric poet, flourishes.  Composes convivial verses for drinking parties.  Remembered for clashes with Themistocles and Simonides over his medizing (siding with Persian invaders), for which he is banished. 480 wikTm 471 GHH
c.480 GORGOS CHERSIDES, king of Salamis Cyprus, under Medo-Persia 525-333, forced to supply 150 ships to XERXES-I, and command them. 480 B76 5-406, CAH 6-307, 309, cpnt, hCyp, wikCp, wikHC
c.480 GORGOS CHERSIDES, king of Salamis Cyprus from 492 ends.  PHILAON succeeds until 465 480 wikAGhC
c.479 THEMISTOCLES Athenian fleet commander from 480, succeeded by XANTHIPPOS son of Ariphron until ?. 479 DGRBM 3-1286
479 mid Spartan admiral LEOTYCHIDAS sent with small fleet to guard Cyclades against PersiansGreeks of Samos and Chios ask him to attack Persians at SamosPersians pull their ships onto land at MYCALE Ionia near Samos, and join large support army.  Leotychidas storms their position.  Persians burn their ships to prevent Greeks from getting them.   Same day as battle of Plataea. 479 B76 8-311, 350, 9-835, CAH 4, 5, CDCC 129, DGRBM 3-1028, Dur 2-242, GHH, GRG 281, IDB 3-379, 4-197, 922, LEWH 53, 68, MCAW 112, OCD 596, 687, 805, 1140, OHG, RAH, bk
c.479 Persian generals ARTAYNTES and ITHAMITRES flee from Mycale into Anatolia. 479 DGRBM 1-373
c.479 6 attempted assassins of Strattis tyrant of Chios 480, try and fail to get aid from Sparta, then proceed to the Greek fleet, under Leotychides, at Aegina.  They appeal for independence of Ionia from Persians without success. 479 DGRBM 3-926
c.479 XANTHIPPOS Athenian fleet commander, sails to Hellespont. 479 DGRBM 1-372, OCD 1140
c.479 LEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, commands Greek fleet at Aegina. 478 DGRBM 2-761
c.479 IONIANS, Samos, Lesbos, and Chios, inspired by Leotychidas' victory, rebel again against Persians, join LEOTYCHIDAS and Greek fleet. 479 LEWH 68, OCD 596
c.479 LEOTYCHIDAS and Greek fleet, besieges Persians in SESTOS in Thracian Chersonese. 479 CAH 4, LEWH 68, OCD 596
c.479 MYTILENE Lesbos, under Persians from ?, comes under Greeks until 332, comes under Athens until 428. 479
IDB 3-406
c.479 SAMOS Island, under Persia from 494, rebels, becomes oligarchic republic until 441. 479 rcAg
c.479 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, under admiral Democritos from 480, joins Delian League until 338. 479 rcAg
477 CDCC 610
c.479 PAROS Island in Cyclades, ally of Persia from 490, comes under Athens until 338. 479 rcAg
c.479 LESBOS Island, under Persia from 493, joins Delian League until 405, but rebels 428. 480 rcAg
479 B76 VI-164, rcAg
no date: B76 VI-164, OCD 319
c.479 HYDRA Island off coast of Argolis, under Argos from ?, comes under Athens until 431. 479 rcAg
c.479 DelosDELOS Island in Cyclades comes under Athens until 404. 479 rcAg
c.479 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades,under Persia from 490, comes under Athens until 338. 479 rcAg
479 fall LEOTYCHIDAS, Spartan fleet commander, turns over fleet to PAUSANIAS, returns home. 479 LEWH 68
c.478 PAUSANIAS, Spartan admiral aided by 30 ships under Aristides, sail to Byzantium. 478
B76 I-514, bk
c.478 PAUSANIAS, Spartan admiral, with 100 allied ships including 30 under Aristides, reduces Cyprus, starts a Greek rebellion. 479 LEWH 68     478 B76 I-514, CAH 6-308, CDCC 654, OCD 805, RAH 214, bk, lvG
c.478 CYPRUS, under Medo-Persians from 526/5, mostly conquered by Spartan PAUSANIAS, mostly under Greeks until 464. 479 LEWH 68
478 B76 8-351, CAH 5, OCD 319, 805
c.478 Belligerence of Spartan PAUSANIAS provokes islands to turn to Athens. 477 DGRBM
478 /7 DelosReps of Greek states meet on Delos.  DELIAN LEAGUE formed as defense against Persians.  Includes most Aegean islands and Greek cities of Thrace and Ionia.  Its general assembly is on DELOS.  Aristides fixes quota for each contributory state.  Allies are autonomous at first.  Each member gets an equal vote.  Treasury is on Delos until 454Sparta, unwilling to commit itself overseas, abstains. 478 B76 I-514, III-447, ISBE 1-916, OHG 40, PW 16, SHWC 64, TAWH 17, TToH
478/7 BCoC 330, CAH 5, CDCC 76, LEWH 69, OCD 319, 495
spring 477 OCD 110, 140
477 CDGRA 343, DGRG 1-759, Dur 2-244, RAH
478/7 ALONNISOS island in the Sporades enters Delian League until 404. 478 rcAg
478/7 CYCLADES Islands, free of Persians from 479, join Delian League. 478/7 OCD 304
478/7 SAMOTHRACE Island, under Persia from 513, joins Delian League until 405. 478 rcAg
478/7 SAMOS, under independent oligarchy 479-41, joins Delian League, contributing ships, but no money until 440. 478/7 insul
478/7 ANDROS V Island in Cyclades, under Persia from 490, enters Delian League until 410. 478 rcAg
478/7 COS Island enters Delian League until 404. 478 rcAg
478/7 HALKI Island in Dodecanese enters Delian League until 414. 478 rcAg
478/7 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese, under Persia from 490, enters Delian League until 404. 478 rcAg
c.477 CHIOS, independent from 490, joins Delian League until 412. no date: OCD 319
c.477 LEMNOS Island under Persia from 512, joins Delian League until 404. 477 B76 VI-137, rcAg
c.477 MELOS Island in Cyclades does not join Delian League.  See 416. no date: CDCC 570
c.477 RHODES Island, under Persia from 490, joins Delian League until 412. 477 IDB 4-77 475 rcAg
c.475 SKYROS Island in Sporadese taken by Athens until ?. 475 B76 IX-263
c.475 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Persia from 530s, comes under Athens until 404. 475 rcAg
c.475 NAXOS Island, in Delian League 479-338, is 1st city-state to rebel, and is blockaded by Athenians until 468. 476 wikNx     475 CDCC 610 471 B76 VII-231
c.474 SCYROS Island in Sporades taken and cleared of Dolopian pirates by Athenian admiral Cimon, who finds a large skeleton on Scyros island, assumes they are the bones of Theseus, and takes them back to Athens.  Scyros doesn't come under Athens until 468. 476 DGRBM 1-750, GHH     475 CAH 5
474 MCAW 112, 113 469 DGRBM 3-1100
c.473 Athenian operations against Naxos Island until 469. 473 OCD 240
c. 471 THEMISTOCLES flees to Corcyra.  Corcyrans fear that keeping Themistocles will get them the hostility of Athens and Sparta.  They take Themistocles to the mainland.  Being followed by his pursuers, he flees to the house of Admetus, king of the Molossi.  Admetus sends him to Pydna, where Themistocles boards a merchant ship bound for Ionia.  The ship is carried by weather to the Athenian fleet blockading Naxos island.  Themistocles tells the captain that if he did not carry Themistocles off safely, Themistocles would tell the Athenians that the captain was helping him escape for money.  The captain sails him to Ephesus.  Themistocles remains in Anatolia until death 460. 466 DGRBM 3-1029, GHH
c.468 NAXOS Island, rebelling against Delian League from 475, subdued by Cimon, forced by Athens to destroy its walls, surrender its fleet, and pay tribute, causing resentment in all Greece. 470 CDCC 610, lvG
469 MCAW 116
468 RAH 215
467 LEWH 69, OCD 319
c.468 SCYROS Island in Sporades, cleared of pirates 474, receives an Athenian colony, comes under Athens until 332. 468 rcAg
c.467 Athenian CIMON sails to Cyprus, mostly under Greeks 478-64, conquers part of it. 468 OCD 805, 811 467 OCD 805
c.467 CIMON defeats a Persian army and destroys 350 Persian ships, and captures 200 at the EURYMEDON River in Pamphilia, south coast of Anatolia, but does not follow up. 468 OCD 240     467 OCD 140, 805     466 DGRBM 1-750, LEWH 69
c.467 PHASELIS on east coast of Lycia joins Delian League until ?. after Cimon campaign: OCD 811
c.466 NAXOS Island, in Delian League 479-338 rebels briefly, and is subdued. 466 DGRBM
c.466 DIAGORAS of Melos, atheist philosopher, flourishes. 466 GHH
c.465 EPHIALTES, Athenian admiral, leads expedition beyond Phaselis Anatolia. 465
OCD 387
c.465 Athens begins policies aimed at converting the voluntary Delian League into an empire dominated by Athens. 465 SHWC 66
c.465 Athenian fleet threatens Persian controled Cyprus.  Phoenician fleet protects Cyprus until 390. 465 Φnc
c.465 PHILAON, king of Salamis Cyprus from 480, ends.  NICODEMOS succeeds until 450 465 wikAGhC
c.465 THASOS island, in Delian League from 480, secedes because of disputed ownership of a gold mine, and Athenians interfered with Thasos' trade with mainland.  CIMON defeats Thasos' fleet and besieges it until 463. 465 B76 8-352, CAH 5, CDCC 864, DGRBM 1-750, GHH, LEWH 69, MCAW 116, OCD 240, 319, 1051, OHG, bk, rcAg
c.464 CYPRUS, mostly under Greeks from 478, is now mostly under Persians until 390, contested with Persians until 333. 470 CAH 5
c.463 THASOS island, independent and besieged by CIMON from 465, conquered, forfeits mainland mines, surrenders fleet, pays indemnity and annual tribute.  Back in Delian League until 411. 465 lvG,     463 B76 III-447, 4-617, 8-352, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-750, GHH, LEWH 69,
OCD 240, 775, 1051, rcAg
462 OCD 319
c.460 Athens sends 200 ships to CyprusINAROS of Libya intercepts them and offers a better deal helping him against the Persian satrap.  They sail to Egypt. 463 Sdl 5-187     460 B76 8-354, LEWH 69, OCD 319, WPOT 327     459 CAH 5
458 B76 4-618
c.458 300 Persian ships are prepared under command of Megabyzos. 458
Sdl 5-188
c.457 Athenian fleet under LEOCRATES defeats Spartan fleet off Aegina island, take 70 Spartan shipsLeocrates lands and besieges Aegina city. 457 DGRBM 2-750
c.457 THASOS Island, in Delian League 463-11, is assessed 30 talents per year. 457
MCAW 121
c.456 HERODOTUS, touring Egypt, Libya, Asia, from ?, returns to Samos. 456 GHH
c.454 DelosTreasury of Delian League, on Delos from 478/7, is moved to Athens by Pericles because of Persian victory in Egypt. 461 DGRBM 3-196 455 bk     454 B76 III-447, 14-67, CAH 5, CDCC 100, Dur 2-244, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OCD 321, 495, 230, OHG
c.454 ASTYPALAEA Island in west Dodecanese joins Delian League until 424. 454 rcAg
c.451 CYPRUS:  Persian fleet arrives to restore order. 451 MCAW 120
c.450 IMBROS Island west of Chersonese, receives Athenian cleruchy until 404. 450 OCD 252     447 CDCC 209
c.450 LEMNOS Island receives Athenian cleruchy until 404. 450 OCD 252, 594
447 CDCC 209
c.450 ANDROS island in Cyclades, in Delian League 478/7-410, forced by Pericles to accept new Athenian colonists and a cleruchy until 410, but gets its tribute to Delian League cut in half as compensation. 450 OCD 252, 320
449 OCD 64
c.450 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, in Delian League 479-338, receives an Athenian cleruchy until 404, under Athenians until 338. 453 rcAg
450 OCD 252, 725
448 CDCC 610
c. 450 HIPPOCRATES of Chios Island, mathematician, astronomer, flourishes.

GEOMETRY:  1st to write a systematically organized geometry textbook: "Stoicheia Elements".  Contributes to squaring the circle, i.e. to calculate the area of the circle, or to construct a square with the same area as a circle.
Discovered the LUNE:
The lune is the red crescent.  It has the same area as the red triangle.
Shows that the problem of doubling the cube reduces to finding 2 mean proportionals between a line segment and its double.
(See Hypocrates 460Hippasus 445 Delian Problem 430Bryson 425,  Hippias 420)
470-10 wikHC 460 B76 III-448, DGRBM 2-481 450 Dur 2-244 440 aleph
CONFUSION ALERT!  NOT physician Hippocrates of COS.  d.377
c. 450 HIPPO of Samos, follower of Thales, flourishes.

COSMOGONY:  Water was first.  Fire came from water.  These opposing forces produced the physical cosmos.
(See Anaximander 550, Anaximenes 545, Anaxagoras 450, Empedocles 444)

THEOGONY:  Gods are great men canonized by popular tradition.
(See Hesiod 700)

ANATOMY V:  Brain is the seat of the soul (See Diogenes 440).
(See Alcmaeon 490, Empedocles 444)

MEDICINE V:  Disease and death are caused by body moisture drying up.
(See Sushruta 495, Alcmaeon 490, Philolaus 400)
B76 V-56, KPHP 7, OCD 519
c.450 CITIUM, strongest Phoenician city on Cyprus, annexes Idalion with Persian help. 450 hCyp, wikCp
c.450 Athenian CIMON is sent with 200 ships to liberate CYPRUS from Persians. 451/0 B76 8-354     450 CAH 5, CDCC 249, LEWH 70, OCD 805, cpnt
450/49 CAH 6-308     449 DGRBM 1-751, TToH, bk     440 Dur 2-719
c.450 Persian admiral ARTABAZOS arrives at Cyprus to oppose CIMON. 450 DGRBM 1-368
c.450 Athenian CIMON dispatches 60 of his 200 ships to help Egypt against Persians. 451/0 B76 8-354
450 LEWH 53, 70, OCD 805
c.450 CIMON with 140 ships defeats Artabazos' fleet off Salamis Cyprus, and takes 100 ships.  Cypriot contingents fought with Persians, not with Athenians. 450 GHH, LEWH 53, 70, OCD 805
449 CAH 6-311, DGRBM
c.450 CITIUM, strongest Phoenician city on Cyprus, besieged by Athenian CIMON. 450 B76 8-354, LEWH 70, OCD 240, Sdl 5-188
c.450 NICODEMOS, king of Salamis Cyprus from 465, ends.  LACHARIDAS succeeds and ends.  EVERGETIS succeeds and ends.  Teucrid dynasty of Salamis from ?, displaced by a Phoenician exile, who becomes tyrant. 450 hCyp, wikAGhC     445 wikAGhC
c.450 Athenian CIMON dies besieging Citium Cyprus.  Successor abandons siege and goes home.  Cyprus remains under Persians. 450 B76 8-354, DGRBM, LEWH 70, MCAW 124, OCD 240, OHG     449 TToH, bk
World of Herodotus
The world according to Herodotus     Pub Dom
c.450 Gortyn Law Code  Gortyn Law Code  inscribed on a wall in Crete.  Deals mainly with family relations and property, inheritance, and slaves. left {{PD-US}}
right GNU FDL

450 IDB 2-441
c.441 SAMOS attacks MILETOS for control of Priene Ionia east of Samos.  Miletos appeals to Athens, which orders the Samians to stop.  Samians refuse, so Athenians replace the 479 oligarchy at the city of Samos with a democracy until 440. 441 B76 8-346, LEWH 70, OCD 949 440 DGRBM, wikSW
c.441 MELISSOS, commander of fleet of Samos, defeats Athenian fleet. 441 OCD 667
441/0 B76 VI-771
c.440 City of SAMOS under an Athenian imposed democracy from 441, gets Persian support, trashes the democracy, returns to oligarchy.  But Corinth and Sparta refuse to support the rebels.  City is besieged by Athenian Pericles until 439Corinth proposes Peloponnesian intervention. 441 B76 VII-961, OCD 949     441/0 CAH 5     440 B76 8-346, 356, 14-68, CAH 6-490, DGRG 1-657, Dur 2-392, LEWH 70, OCD 290, 320, 800, OHG, lvG, wikSW     439 B76 9-835
c.440 PISSUTHNES satrap of Lydia tries to recover Samos, which had rebelled against Athens. 440
CAH 5, lvA
c.440 BATTERING RAM, invented by Artemones, 1st used by Pericles at siege of Samos. 441 GHH
c.440 MELISSOS of SAMOS, last important Eleatic philosopher, flourishes.  Reality is changeless, single, infinite, without void.  Past and future exist.  "BEING cannot have originated, for that would mean there was non-being before there was being; and from non-being BEING cannot come."   Originated DIALECTICS:  "disputation having for its end not victory but the discovery and transmission of truth" 445 GHH
no date: KPHP 11-12, OCD 667
c.440 Phormio and Athenian poet SOPHOCLES are among the generals sent to subdue Samos. 440 B76 VII-961, 16-1001 MCAW 129, RAH 232
c.440 Athenian Pericles has sea battle at Tragia island.  Then goes to Caria. 440 DGRG 1-576
c.440 PRODICOS of Ceos, sophist philosopher, goes to Athens as ambassador of Ceos. 465-30 wikPrd
440/39 Athenians Thucydides, Hagnon, and Phormio bring 40 ships to reinforce Pericles blockading Samos. 440 DGRBM 2-325, 3-345, 1111     440/39 lvG
c.439 City of SAMOS besieged by Athenian Pericles for 9 months from 440, falls.  Forfeits its fleet, walls, and autonomy.  Agrees to pay indemnity over next 26 years.  SAMOS Island independent from 440, back under Athens until 425 440 DGRBM 3-1111, Dur 2-439, GHH, OCD 987, TToH
439 CAH 5, 6-490, LEWH 70, OCD 800, bk, rcAg, wikSW
no date: OCD 320
Chios and Lesbos are now the only autonomous allies in the Athenian League.
c.437 AMORGOS Island joins Athenian League until 404. 437 rcAg
c.431 HYDRA Island off coast of Argolis, under Athens from 479, comes under Argos until 395. 431 rcAg
c.431 CHIOS Island, in Delian League 477-12, inhabited by 30,000 freemen and 100,000 slaves. 431 Dur 2-150
c. 430 DelosPLAGUE on DELOS.  A seer says the only way to get rid of it is to double the volume of the cubic altar (which Hippocrates of Chios attempted c.450).  Unfortunately this cannot be done with measurement, straight-edge, and compass (a fact not recognized until the 19th century).  Fortunately the plague ends anyway.  But doubling the cube is suddenly popularized as the "Delian Problem". 430 B76 III-448
429 Cretan reinforcements sent to help Athenian admiral PHORMIO on west of Greece, detours on orders of Nicias to attack Cydonia Crete. 429 DGRBM 2-1185
c.428 LESBOS, in Athenian League from 479, all except Methymna, promised aid from Sparta, rebels against Athens until 427. 428 B76 14-22, LEWH 72, OCD 320, RAH 244, lvG, rcAg
c.428 MYTILENE Lesbos, in Athenian League from 479, rebels until 427. 428 B76 III-447, 14-22, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 132, OCD 719, OHG, RAH 244, bk
c.428 MYTILENE Lesbos, rebelling from Athenian League, besieged. 428 DGRBM GHH
c.428 Athenian CLEIPPIDES sent with troops to Lesbos.  They entrench themselves in 2 forts near Mytilene. 428 DGRBM 3-76
c.428 Athenian Lysicles sent with 12 ships to collect money from allies. 428 DGRBM 2-866
c.428 Athens sends 1,000 hoplites in 40 ships under PACHES to reinforce the troops under Cleippides against Lesbos.  Peloponnesian fleet does nothing.  Lesbos is crushed. 428 B76 14-22, DGRBM 3-76, LEWH 72, OCD 320, 796
c.427 Sparta appoints SALAETHIOS to go to Mytilene Lesbos, to promise aid.  He makes his way into the city thru Athenian lines. 427 DGRBM 3-693
c.427 Sparta appoints ALCIDAS to command 42 ships to help Lesbos, but he delays too long. 427 DGRBM 3-76, 1015
c.427 MYTILENE Lesbos, besieged by Athenians under Paches, has internal conflict between commoners and aristocrats, who surrender to Paches. 427 DGRBM 3-76, 1015
c.427 MYTILENE Lesbos, rebeling from 428, falls to Paches.  All men killed, women and children enslaved, receives Athenian cleruchy until 404. 428/7 B76 VI-164
427 GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132,3, OCD 252, OHG, RAH 244, TTPC, bk
c.427 ALCIDAS, Spartan admiral with 42 ships, arrives at Embaton near Erythrae Anatolia, learns of surrender of Mytilene Lesbos, makes a quick raid on Ionia, sees 2 Athenian warships, flees home. 427 B76 14-22, DGRBM 3-76, TTPC
c.427 Athenian NICIAS takes Minoa island off Megara. 427 DGRBM 2-1185
c.427 All LESBOS rebeling from 428, suppressed and back under Athens until 412. 427 lvG
c.426 DelosTo commemorate the end of plague at Athens, DELOS is "purified": all tombs removed, it is declared unlawful for anything to be born or die within it.  Every pregnant woman should be carried to Rheneia island to deliver.  Becomes a shrine for worship alone. 426 CDGRA 230, DGRG 1-759, GHH, OHG 150 426-3 MCAW 133
424 OCD 321
422 DGRBM 3-241
c.426 MELOS Island, neutral in Peloponnesian War, attacked by 60 Athenian triremes and 2,000 men under Nicias.  Ravages the island, but the town holds out.  Nicias sails to Locris. 426 B76 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-1185, OCD 668, lvG
c.425 SAMOS Island under Athens from 439 rebels.  Contests with Athenians for independence until 405. 425 lvG
c.425 HELLANICUS, historian of Lesbos, flourishes. 425 OHG
c.424 ASTYPALAEA Island in west Dodecanese, in Delian League from 454, independent until 411. 424 rcAg
c.424 THUCYDIDES (the historian) is elected stategos and sent with 7 ships to Thasos Island in north Aegean. 424 DGRBM 3-1112, EoΦ 8-123, θuc
c.424 KYTHERA Island (south of Peloponnese), under Sparta from 546, taken by Nicias, under Athens until 404. 424 B76 8-357, DGRG 1-738, GHH, rcAg
c.420 DelosTemple of Apollo on Delos built. 420 B76 I-66
c.416 MELOS island, which refused to join Delian or Athenian League, is besieged and taken by Athenians Cleomedes and others.  Men killed, women and children enslaved, repopulated with 500 Athenians, cleruchy established until 404. 416 B76 8-358, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 570, DGRBM 1-791, 3-30, Dur 2-406, 443, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 252, 796, OHG, bk     415 OCD 320
c.415 ????, Phoenician king of Salamis, murdered by Phoenician Abdemon.  ABDEMON succeeds until 411.  Evagoras, a descendant of the former Teucrid dynasty, is threatened with arrest and flees to Soli in Cilicia until 411. 415
CAH 6-312
c.415 ANDOCIDES, expelled from Athens, goes to Cyprus. 415 GHH
c.414 HALKI  Island in Dodecanese, in Athenian League from 477/8, drops out, allies with knidos until ?. 414 rcAg
c.413 PHARNABAZOS-II satrap of Dascylium 413-392, supports Spartan operations in the Hellespont. 413
B76 VII-928
c.412 ALCIBIADES, working for Sparta 415-11, commands a small squadron to the Aegean and Ionian coast, causes many allies of Athens to rebel. 412 DGRBM 1-678, LEWH 74, OCD 37
c.412 Spartan admiral Clearchos with 27 ships is sent to help Pharnabazos-II, if it appears beneficial to Sparta. 412 DGRBM 3-239
c.412 Spartan squadron under ANTISTHENES sent to patrol Ionian coast. 412 DGRBM 1-209
c.412 MELANCRIDAS, Spartan high admiral from ?, ends.  ASTYOCHOS succeeds until 412/11. 412 DGRBM 1-390
c.412 ASTYOCHOS, Spartan high admiral 412, with 4 ships, arrives at Chios island.  Pedaritos accompanies. 412 DGRBM 1-390, 3-163
c.412 Athenian/Argive fleet of 40 ships under Onomacles, Phrynichos, and Scironides blockades Miletos, camps near Miletos, defeats the Milesians, prepares to besiege Miletos, but is forced to withdraw by Peloponnesian/Sicilian fleetAthenian/Argive fleet sails to Samos. 412 DGRBM 3-29, 3-359, 753,
c.412 Scironides is one of the Athenian generals left at Samos, while Strombichides, with 2 colleagues, acts against Chios. 412 DGRBM 3-753
c.412 Athenian captains Leon and Diomedon after their attack on Rhodes, where Peloponnesian ships are hauled up, retire to Chalce island as a more convenient place than Cos from which to watch the the enemy fleet. 412 DGRBM 2-734, DGRG 1-597
c.412 ASTYOCHOS, Spartan high admiral 412, with 4 ships, arrives at Chios island. 412 DGRBM 1-390
c.412 CHIOS Island, in Delian League from 477, rebels, joins Spartans, conquered by Athens, comes under Athens until 404. 413 OCD 230
412 Brit, DGRBM 3-926, rcAg     411 CDCC 188
c.412 After Chios rebellion, Athenian STROMBICHIDES is sent with 8 ships to Samos.  On arrival at Samos he adds a Samian trireme to his squadron, and sails to Teos to check the spirit of rebellion there.  He is soon forced to flee back to Samos by a superior Peloponnesian fleet, under Chalcideos and Alcibiades.  Teos forthwith rebels against Athens. 412 DGRBM 3-926
c.412 Spartan THERAMENES sent to conduct to Astyochus (Spartan admiral on the coast of Anatolia) a reinforcement of 55 ships from the Peloponnesians and Sicilians. 412 DGRBM 3-1095
c.412 SAMOS:  Radicals sieze government, rebel against Athens, execute 200 aristocrats, banish 400 more, divide their property among themselves. 412 CAH 6-533, Dur 2-284, bk
c.412 100 Athenian ships at Samos receive reinforcements under Charminos, and sends 30 ships to blockade CHIOS.  The rest remain to watch the Spartan fleet under Astyochos at Miletos. 412 DGRBM 1-689, LEWH 74, MCAW 136
c. 412 Athenian STROMBICHIDES returns to Athens.  Later 412 he is one of 3 commanders sent to reinforce the Athenians with 35 ships at Samos, which brings their whole force to 104.  They retain most of it at Samos to command the sea, and continue the war against MiletosStrombichides and 2 others with 30 triremes are sent to Chios.  Enroute they lose 3 ships in a storm.  With the rest they proceed to Lesbos, and prepare to besiege Chios.  They sail to Chios, fortify a strong post named Delphinium, and oppress the Chians. 412 DGRBM 3-926
c.412 MYTILENE Lesbos, in Athenian League from ?, rebels, sides with Sparta.  Alcamenes is appointed harmost by Agis-II. 412 DGRBM 1-96, OCD 719
c.412 LESBOS, back under Athens from 427, rebels, and is recovered by Athenian fleet until 405, and CLAZOMENAE on Ionian coast until 404. 412 LEWH 74
c.412 late Peloponnesian fleet, wintering at Caunus, can't get pay from Tissaphernes, takes RHODES, in Athenian League 477-12, gets supplies and money. 412 LEWH 74
412/11OCD 923
c.412 RHODES Island, in Athenian League from 477, rebels.  Under Sparta until 396. 412 OCD 719, bk 404 rcAg
412 /11 ASTYOCHOS, Spartan high admiral from 412 at Chios island, called to join a fleet from Sparta bringing agents to investigate accusations about his dealing with Persians. winter 412/11 DGRBM 1-390-1
c.411 MINDAROS replaces Astyochos as Spartan high admiral until ?. winter 411 DGRBM 1-391, 2-1089, GHH
c.411 Peisander induces Athenians to recall Phrynichos and Scironides from Samos, and to transfer command at Samos to Leon and Dioraedon. 412 DGRBM 3-753
c.411 The Athenian army at Samos recalls Alcibiades from exile and appoints him one of their generals. 411 DGRBM, GHH
c.411 ALCIBIADES, now a free agent on Samos, promises to get Persian help for Athens if Athens will establish an oligarchy. mid 412 OCD 447
411 DGRBM 3-359, LEWH 74
c.411 Spartan DOREIOS son of Diagoras is sent by admiral Mindaros with 13 ships to crush the democratic movement on Rhodes. 411 DGRBM 1-1067
c.411 Spartan admiral MINDAROS, gets message from Philippos, fed up with Tissaphernes, accepts invitation of Pharnabazus, transfers main Peloponnesian fleet from Miletos to the Hellespont, where Pharnabazus can support him better. 411 DGRBM 1-1067, 2-1089, OCD 689
c.411 Athenian admirals THRASYBULOS and ALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-?, aware of Mindaros' intentions, sail from Samos to Lesbos, so as to block Mindaros. 411 DGRBM 2-1089, 3-1108
c.411 Spartan admiral MINDAROS, surprises an Athenian squadron at Sestos Chersonese, destroys 4 ships. 411 DGRBM 2-1089
c.411 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS, escapes with difficulty from Sestos to Elaeos Chersonese. 411 DGRG 1-809
c. 411 ChersoneseAthenian admirals THRASYBULOS and THERAMENES (or ALCIBIADES?, working for Athens 411-?), follow a superior Spartan fleet under Mindaros north from Lesbos, defeat it in the Hellespont off CYNOSSEMA promontory in ChersoneseMindaros' fleet is pursued to its base at ABYDOS in the Hellespont and defeated again. 411 B76 1-437, 14-23, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-1089, GHH, LEWH 74, MCAW 136, OCD 1, 689, TTPC, bk, lvA, wikAby, wikCyn
c.411 Athenian STROMBICHIDES, after recovering Lampsacus, tries and fails to recover Abydos Mysia, crosses over to Sestos, and there establishes a garrison to command the Hellespont. 411 DGRBM 3-927
c.411 After Cynossema, Spartans HIPPOCRATES and EPICLES are sent to Euboea to take Hegesandridas and his fleet to Hellespont. 411 DGRBM 2-481
c.411 After Cynossema, Spartan DOREIOS son of Diagoras sails his now 14 ships to the Hellespont, to join Mindaros20 Athenian ships force him aground near Rhoeteon in the Troad. after Cynossema: DGRBM 1-993, OCD 332
c.411 Spartan DERCYLLIDAS is sent to get Abydos and Lampsacus, both on the Troad side of the Hellespont, to rebel against Athens.  He succeeds, but Lampsacus is quickly recovered by Athens. 411 DGRBM 1-993, OCD 332
c.411 Athenian army and fleet at SAMOS island remains loyal to democracy, despite its overthrow at Athens, refuses to recognize the COMMITTEE of 400 at Athens.  They form a democratic state and elect Athenian admirals THRASYBULOS and Thrasyllos leaders. 411 CAH 5, LEWH 74, OCD 1066
c.411 HYPERBOLUS, Athenian demagogue, on Samos from 417, murdered by oligarchic revolutionaries.  Body put in a sack, and thrown into the sea. 411 DGRBM 2-538, Dur 2-731, OCD 534, wikHyp
c.411 ASTYPALAEA Island in west Dodecanese, independent from 424, comes under Sparta until 378. 411 rcAg
c.411 THASOS Island, in Athenian League from 463, rebels, joins Spartans until 410.  ETIONICOS becomes harmost.  Thasos under oligarchy until 407. 411 CDCC 874, DGRBM 2-53, rcAg
c. 411 CYPRUS, contested between locals & Persia 464-333, specifically Phoenicians from 450:  Phoenician king ABDEMON of Salamis from 415 deposed by Evagoras.  EVAGORAS-I recovers throne of Salamis until 374, and organizes a rebellious philhellenic movement. 411 CAH 6-311-12, CDCC 249, IDB 1-753, ISBE 1-843, OCD 306, cpnt, hCyp, wikAGhC, wikCp
410 B76 III-1008, 5-406
c.410 All Athenian commanders: Alcibiades, Theramenes, Thrasybulos, and Thrasyllos gather in the Hellespont. early 410
B76 IX-943, lvG
c.410 Athenian fleet crews at Samos refuse to recognize the new oligarchic government at Athens.  They declare themselves the legitimate extension of the defunct democracy and elect new generals, notably THRASSYBULOS and THRASSYLOS.  They refuse to allow oligarchs of either Athens or Samos any power in Samos. 411
OCD 447 410
c.410 Spartan general CLEARCHOS sent with 40 ships by Agis to Byzantium and Chalcedon to cut off grain supplies to Athens.  Only 10 ships arrive. 410 DGRBM 1-780, 3-239
c.410 Battle of CYZICUSALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-07, annihilates Peloponnesian fleet, Syracusan allies, and supporting land army. 410 B76 1-437, CAH 5,
spring CAH 6-126, CDCC 129, Dur 2-449, LEWH 71, 74, OCD 37, 309, 477, OHG 166, TTPC, anan, lvA, lvG
c.410 Spartan admiral MINDAROS defeated and slain by Alcibiades at CyzicusHippocrates, now in command, writes to Sparta, "Our good fortune is ended.  Mindaros is gone; the men are hungry, and what to do we know not."  CRATESIPPIDAS replaces Mindaros, and takes command of the fleet at ChiosHippocrates becomes harmost of Chalcedon. 410 DGRBM 1-885, 2-481
c.410 Athenian THERAMENES sent with a squadron to aid Archelaus, king of Macedonia, in reduction of Pydna; but, the siege lasting a long time, he sails to Thrace to join the fleet under Thrasybulos, and they then cruise about and levy money until they are called away by the Athenian navy at Cardia. 410 DGRBM 3-1095
c.410 PHARNABAZUS-II, satrap of Dascylium 413-392, finances the building of a new Peloponnesian fleet. 410
c.410 THASOS Island, under Spartans from 411, rebels.  Spartan harmost Eteonicos is expelled.  Tissaphernes is suspected of having promoted it.  Thasos remains under oligarchy until 407. 410 DGRBM 2-53, 3-133, 1154
c.410 ANDROS Island in Cyclades, in Delian League from 478/7, under Athenian cleruchy from 450, rebels, remains independent until 404. 411/10 B76 I-365 410 OCD 64
c.410 ALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-07, based at Chrysopolis upstream of Byzantium, exacts 10% tax on trade leaving the Black Sea. 410
CAH 6-493
c.410 Syracusan fleet in Aegean, now at Miletos, is taken over by an admiral sent by Diocles, successor of Hermocrates. late 410 CAH 6-126
c.410 Spartan general CLEARCHOS sent by Agis to Byzantium and Chalcedon to cut off grain supplies to Athens. 410 DGRBM 1-780
Lenormant Relief
c.410 Lenormant Relief (named for the Frenchman who found it) from the Acropolis at Athens depicts rowers of an aphract (Athenian trireme). 410 wikTr
photo Marsyas
c.409 Athenian fleet under THRASYBULOS tries and fails to take Ephesus from Spartans and Syracusan fleet.  (which sails home soon afterward) mid 409 CAH 6-126, LEWH 74
c.409 Athenian Thrasyllos sails to Samos, whence he proceeds to the coast of Anatolia and attacks the town of Pygela without success.  Within a few days, however, Colophon surrenders to him, and he then advances into Lydia. 409 DGRBM 3-1110
c.409 Spartan general CLEARCHOS holds command in Hellespont region until 403. 409
OCD 248
c.409 At Chios one group of exiles returns and expels 600 opponents. 409 CAH 6-533
c.409 Athenian Thrasyllos sails from Ephesus to Notium just northwest of it, where he buries his dead, then sails for Lesbos.  Here, while anchored at Methymna, he observes the Syracusan squadron sailing by, whereupon he attacks it, captures 4 ships with their crews, and chases the rest back to Ephesus. 409 DGRBM 3-1110
c.409 Athenian Thrasyllos sails from Ephesus to Sestos, where he joins the force under Alcibiades, and the whole fleet crosses over together to Lampsacus; but the troops of Alcibiades, who had not sustained any defeat, refuse to serve in the same ranks with those of Thrasyllos, conquered as they had been at Ephesus; nor was this feeling removed till their common success next winter against Pharnabazus-II near Abydos. 409 DGRBM 3-1110
c.408 Athenian generals regain control of the Bosphorus. 408 lvG
c.408 HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries in Aegean from 410, returns to Sicily. 408 CAH 6-130, OCD 504, wikDS
407 CAH 6
c.408 ALCIBIADES, working for Athens 411-?, returning from Hellespont, defeats a Spartan fleet near Andros Island. 409
Dur 2-449
c.408 Athenian Thrasyllos is with Alcibiades in the successful operations at Chalcedon, which induce Pharnabazus to accept terms of accommodation from the Athenians.  He probably shares also in the siege and reduction of Byzantium in the same year. 408 DGRBM 3-1110
408/7 CRATESIPPIDAS, Spartan fleet commander from 410, relieved.  LYSANDER succeeds, restores Peloponnesian fleet. 408 RAH 261
408/7 OCD 631
407 DGRBM 2-861, GHH
408/7 City of RHODES founded by joining 3 previous cities, Ialysus, Lindus, and Camirus on the northeast corner. 409 MCAW 141     408 BAA 384, BBA 397, CAH 5, Dur 2-437, IDB 4-77, ISBE 4-183
408/7 CDCC 754
c.407 THASOS Island, under oligarchy from 411, rebels with help of Athenian fleet under THRASYBULOS.  Joins Athenian League until 404. 407 LEWH 74, rcAg
c.407 LYSANDER Spartan admiral appointed commander of Aegean area, sent to east Aegean to disrupt trade from Black Sea to Athens. 406 CAH 6-30, RAH 262
c.407 EVAGORAS-I king of Salamis Cyprus 411-374 under Persia supports hard-pressed Athens with grain thru Andocides. 407
CAH 6-113
c.407 Athenian admiral CONON commands fleet operating in Hellespont area until 405. 407 OCD 278
c.407 ALCIBIADES, commander in chief of Athenian troops, leaves to rejoin fleet at Samos. 407 TTPC
c.407 Spartan LYSANDER arrives at Ephesus, builds a great fleet with help of Cyrus, refuses to be lured out to fight Alcibiades. 407 TTPC
c.407 Phanosthenes of Andros, working for Athens, sent with 4 ships to relieve Conon at Andros island.  Enroute he captures 2 Thurian galleys under Doreios. 407 DGRBM 3-238
c.407 ALCIBIADES, commander of Athenian troops, can't get Lysander to fight, runs out of supplies, leaves a squadron under Antiochus off Ephesus, with instructions not to fight LysanderAlcibiades sails north to plunder enemy coast towns. 407 DGRBM 1-193, TTPC
c.407 Athenian Thrasyllos leads home to Athens a portion of the triumphant armament. 407 DGRBM 3-1110
c.406 A squadron under ANTIOCHUS, a subordinate of ALCIBIADES, is defeated off NOTIUM by Spartan admiral LYSANDER15 Athenian ships lost. 407 CDCC 129, 536, DGRBM 1-265, 1027, GHH, MCAW 140, TTPC
406 B76 8-360, CAH 5, LEWH 74, OCD 37, OHG
c.406 Because of Notium, ALCIBIADES loses confidence of Athenians, possibly banished again by Athenian assembly.  In any case, he withdraws to the Hellespont until 405.  10 commanders replace him including Archestratos, Aristogenes, Leon, Lysias. 407 DGRBM 1-265, 2-734
406 B76 8-360, CAH 5, CDCC 492, DGRBM 1-306, 2-864, LEWH 74, OCD 37, 299
c.406 LYSANDER, Spartan fleet commander from 408/7, is technically relieved by CALLICRATIDAS.  But Cyrus prefers Lysander, so Lysander is kept on staff, and is defacto commander, while Callicratidas is the official commander. 406 LEWH 74, MCAW 140,
OCD 194, wikArg
c.406 Spartan admiral CALLICRATIDAS sails 140 triremes to Methymna, on Lesbos, which he besieges and storms. 406 wikArg
c.406 Athenian commander CONON at Samos, sails to the Hekatonnesi islands near Methymna. 406 wikArg
c.406 Spartan admiral CALLICRATIDAS, now with 170 ships attacks Conon, who flees to Mytilene Lesbos. 406 wikArg
c.406 Spartan admiral CALLICRATIDAS leaves ETEONICOS to blockade Conon at Mytilene Lesbos, while Callicratidas sails to meet Athenian reinforcements. 406 DGRBM 2-53
c.406 After capture of Methymna, Spartan admiral Callicratidas sends lieutenant THORAX to blockade to conduct the heavy-armed troops to Mytilene Lesbos. 405 DGRBM 3-1105
c.406 CONON, Athenian fleet commander of Aegean and Hellespont, defeated at Mytilene Lesbos by CallicratidasAthenian fleet crippled. 406
c.406 CALLICRATIDAS Spartan fleet commander leaves 50 ships blockading Athenian squadron under CONON at Mytilene, takes 120 ships to attack Athenian relief fleet (150 newly constructed ships manned by inexperienced crews under 8 generals). no date: OCD 194
c. 406 150 Athenian triremes under Conon and 7 other commanders barely defeat 120 ships of Spartan alliance under Calicratidas at ARGINUSAE, islands southeast of Lesbos.  Gathering storm prevents Athenian captains from rescuing shipwrecked sailorsCALLICRATIDAS drowns.  After the battle Athenian Thrasyllos proposes to leave 47 galleys behind to save the men from the wrecks, while the main body of the fleet sails against the enemy ships blockading Mytilene. 406 B76 III-88, CAH 5, CDCC 74, 129, DGRBM 1-306, 3-1110, Dur 2-450, GHH, LEWH 74, MCAW 140, OCD 376, 796, 1060, OHG, RAH 261, TTPC, lvA, lvG, wikArg
c.406 After Arginusae, Spartan ETEONICOS, draws land forces to Methymna on north coast of Lesbos, while he directs most of the fleet for Chios, where he will soon rejoin them. 406 DGRBM 2-53
c.405 Spartan LYSANDER, given 200 ships by Cyrus, enters Hellespont. 405 B76 14-32, lvG
c.405 Athenian admiral THRASYBULOS, at Elaeos Chersonese, just before Aegospotami, 180 Athenian triremes arrive in time to hear that Lysander is master of Lampsacus. no date: DGRG 1-809
c.405 Athenians Menander, Tydeos, and Cephisodotos appointed to join admirals Conon, Philocles, and Adeimantos before Aegospotami. 405 DGRBM 2-1030, 3-1195
c.405 Chersonese180 Athenian ships follow Lysander into Hellespont.  They draw up on shore at the AEGOSPOTAMI River in the Chersonese.  Gross carelessness of the leaders allows the fleet to be annihilated by the Spartan fleet under LYSANDER.  Spartans control the Aegean until 394. 406 IDB 2-493
405 B76 III-88, 14-23, CDCC 129, 537, Dur 2-276, LEWH 74-5, MCAW 140, OCD 186, 631, 796, OHG, RAH 262, lvA, lvG, wikAgs
404 CDCC 74
c.405 ADEMANTIOS, Athenian officer captured at Aegospotami, is the only Athenian officer not executed, because he had opposed a decree that any Spartan captured in battle should have his right hand cut off.  He is therefore hated by Athenians. 405 DGRBM 1-19
c.405 CONON, Athenian fleet commander of Aegean and Hellespont from 407, is the only Athenian admiral alert at AEGOSPOTAMIHe slips away with 8 triremes to Salamis island, sends a ship to inform Athens of the disaster, seeks refuge with Evagoras on Cyprus until 396. 405 CAH 6-313, DGRBM 1-825, 2-54, OCD 278, RAH 262, TTPC
c.405 SAMOS, contesting with Athenians for independence from 425, is given Athenian citizenship in gratitude for their service at Aegospotami.  Samos is loyal to Athenians until 386. 405
OCD 459
c.405 ALCIBIADES, held up in a castle in the Hellespont from 406, no longer safe from Spartans, flees to Phrygia until 404. 405
B76 1-437
c.405 SAMOTHRACE Island, in Athenian League from 478/7, comes under Sparta until 387. 405 rcAg
c.405 LESBOS Island under Athens from 412, comes under Sparta until 389. 405 B76 VI-164, rcAg
c.404 THASOS Island, in Athenian League from 407, rebels, under Sparta until 390s. 404 rcAg
after Aegosp. DGRG 2-1136
c.404 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, under democracy from ?, comes under oligarchy until 373. 404 rcSB3
c.404 ALONNISOS island in the Sporades, in Athenian League from 478, comes under under Sparta until 382. 404 rcAg
c.404 IMBROS Island, under Athens from 450, comes under Sparta until 393. 404 OCD 594
c.404 AMORGOS Island, in Athenian League from 437, comes under Sparta until 378. 404 rcAg
c.404 LEMNOS Island under Athens from 477, comes under Sparta until 393. 404 OCD 594, rcAg
c.404 CHOERILOS of Samos, epic poet, moves from Samos to court of Archelaus, king of Macedon until death 401. 404 wikCS
c.404 PATMOS Island in Dodecanese, under Athens from 475, comes under Sparta until 377. 404 rcAg
c.404 IKARIA Island at north end of Dodecanese, in Athenian League from 478/7, comes under Sparta until 334. 404 rcAg
c.404 ANDROS island in Cyclades, independent from 410, comes under Sparta until 378. 404 rcAg
c.404 IOS Island in Cyclades under Athens from 480, comes under Sparta until 378. 404 rcAg
c.404 DelosDELOS Island in Cyclades, under Athens from 479, semi-Independent, under Spartan influence until 393. 404 rcAg
c.404 MELOS island, in Cyclades under Athens from 416, restored to original inhabitants by Spartans. 404
CAH 6-563
c.404 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, under Athenian cleruchy from 450, no longer under cleruchy, but still under Athens until 338. 404
B76 VII-231
c.404 CHIOS Island, under Athens from 412, rebels, comes under Sparta until 386. 404 rcAg
c.404 COS Island, in Athenian League from 478/7, comes under Sparta until 375. 404 rcAg
c.404 Athenian partisans on THASOS island massacred by Spartan Lysander. 404 CDCC 874, OCD 1051
c.404 City of SAMOS, still loyal to Athens, taken by Spartan Lysander, who stays to rule it, and becomes its most popular ruler until 403. mid 404 CAH 6-29, MCAW 140, OCD 949
c.404 KYTHERA Island V (south of Peloponnese), under Athens from 424, back under Sparta until 310. 404 rcAg
c.403 Spartan LYSANDER, ruling Samos from 404, sent by king Agis-II to Athens. 403 CAH 4-160, mid 6, LEWH 75
c.401 Sparta helps Cyrus with a small fleet and a few hundred hoplites. 401 B76 8-362

East Mediterranean 400-301