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by 500 16 monarchies and republics known as the MAHAJANAPADAS - Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji (or Vriji), Malla, Chedi, Vatsa (or Vamsa), Kuru, Panchala, Machcha (or Matsya), Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara, Kamboja - stretch across the Indo-Gangetic plains from modern Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharastra. by 500 crHI, wikI
c.500 ANGA, Bengal conquered by BIMBISARA, raja of Magadha 543-491. 500 CHI 281, 315
c.500 BHAGALPUR, Bengal conquered by BIMBISARA, raja of Magadha 543-491. 500 CHI 315
c.500 KAPILA flourishes, founder of Sankhya Darshana, one of 6 classical systems of Hindu philosophy. 650 bk
500 ht
c.500 Water storage dams built. 500 ht
c. 500 TAMIL SANGAM age begins until 500CE.  Sage Agastya writes  Agattiyam , 1st known Tamil grammar.  Tolkappiyar writes  Tolkappiyam Purananuru , also on grammar, stating that he is recording thoughts of earlier grammarians.  Gives rules for absorbing Sanskrit words into Tamil.  Other works from the Sangam age are poetic collections:   Paripadal, Pattuppattu, Ettuthokai Purananuru, Akananuru, Aingurunuru, Padinenkilkanakku . Some refer to worship of Vishnu, Indra, Murugan and Supreme Siva. 500 ht
c.500 STEEL made in India by melting iron at 1,500 degrees Centigrade and adding less than 1% carbon. 1000 mxfld
500-491 TTS, TTT     400 pib
c.500 PAINTED GRAYWARE strata of west Ganges from 1000, ends. 500 B76 8-910
c.500 Vedic Civilization ends.  Began 1500.  Later Vedic period from 1000 ends.   Vedas  contain no caste system. 500 wikHVR, wikSI, wikTI 200 B76 VIII-874
c.500 NIRUKTA, oldest extant Vedic commentary, written by YASKA.  Dieties classified by position in sky, atmosphere, earth. 500 MoAR 6-15
c.500 UPANISHAD period ends.  Began 700 Upanishads  consist of 108 discourses by various teachers, saints, and sages with resulting philosophies of many men.  Λ REINCARNATION:  Transmigration of souls appears.  (See Pythagoras 520, Empedocles 444, Plato 386) 500 B76 8-910, EoΦ 4-1, mxfld, trpsgr
400 TAWH 16, bk
300 B76 13-950, LEWH 54
c.500  Mahabharata  begun in Sanskrit by Vyasa, who is also a character in it.  Epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War (dated 6000-500) and fates of the Kauravas and Pandavas.  Contains philosophical and devotional material, such as the 4 purusharthas "goals of life". Will reach final form (1,800,000 words) by 4th cen.CE. 500
MCAW 105 400 wikMbrt
c.500 GOLDEN RULE attested in Mahabharata.  "by self-control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself."    (See Thales 600, Egypt, Leviticus, China, Isocrates 390) 500 wikGR
c.500  Ramayana  composed by poet-sage Valmiki.  Story of hero Rama: his birth in Oudh, tutelage under Visvamitra, marriage to Sita, dau of king Janaka of Videha.  Svil king Ravana kidnaps Sita, and takes her to his kingdom Lanka. pre-500 MCAW 105, TToH, WNHI 39
300 B76 VIII-403
c.500 CLASSICAL SANSKRIT language begins in India until 1000CE.  Overlaps Vedic Sanskrit 1500-200. 1500
B76 VIII-873
c.500 Aryan SINHALESE reach Ceylon. 500 TAWH 17
c.495 Physician SUSHRUTA at Benares writes in Sanskrit a system of diagnosis and surgery.  Performs cataract operations.
(MEDICINE:  See Homer 750, Alcmaeon 490, Hippo 450)
500 B76 8-910, TToH
500-491 TTS
c.491 BIMBISARA dies.  Raja of Magadha from 540 murdered by son Ajatasatru.  AJATASATRU succeeds until 459 and fortifies his capital. 493 HCIP 2-38, MCAW 104
491 B76 II-21, 9-349, CHI 312, LEWH 54, bk
490 WNHI 49     485 HCAI 35
c.485 SUGAR CANE grown along Indus River. 485 grddst
c.485 VIJAYA, Aryan prince of Sinhapura and 700 Aryan followers, banished by raja SINHABHU, sails from Gujarat with 700 followers.  Founds Singhalese kingdom in Ceylon. 500 TAWH 17     485 LEWH 55 483 CHI 606
475 ht     no date: B76 4-1
c.485 CEYLON, inhabited by Yaksas (demons), invaded by Aryan Sinhalese under VIJAYA, who rules until 445.  His dynasty lasts until 65 CE.  Sinhalese rule Ceylon until 432CE. 500 TAWH 17     485 LEWH 55
483 CHI 606, 641, vrb
no date: B76 4-1
c.484 GOSALA, rival of Mahavira, dies. 484 HCIP 2-26
c.483 1st BUDDHA from 524, SIDHARTHA GAUTAMA, dies ("attains parinibbana") age 80, of an undigestible meal in Kusinara. 487 KPHP 41, HCIP 2-86
486 TAWH 17     483 B76 II-342, CHI 640, CMoG3 221, LEWH 54, NLEM 348, WNHI 52, bk, ktkh, wikTB
480 B76 3-375, 404, CHI 156, MCAW 89, TToH     477 HCAI 24
c.480 1st BUDDHIST COUNCIL V meets under patronage of raja Ajatasatru, monk Mahakasyapa presiding, at Sattapanni caves at Rajagrha.  Objective: to preserve Buddha's sayings (suttas) and monastic discipline or rules (Vinaya).  50 monks attend.  They disagree on disciplinary rules.   Vinaya , book of monastic discipline, composed under monk Upali.   Dhamma , sutras, composed under monk Ananda.  Oral tradition established. 486-3 ktkh
B76 3-378, bk
400 wikBC
386-3 ktkh
no date:
B76 3-405
c.477 VARDHAMANA, pre-Buddhist reformer, dies. 477 TToH
c.475 PATALIPUTRA becomes capital of MAGADHA EMPIRE until 424. 475 B76 2-984
c.474 PANDUVASDEVA ends.  Regent of Upatissa Nuwara in Ceylon from 504, ends.  Son ABHAYA succeeds until 454. 474 wikAUN, wikLSLM, wikHV, wikPUN
c.468 MAHAVIRA adds MATH (See Hipasus 445), ASTRONOMY (See Oenopides 450, Naburimannu 450), and GEOMETRY (See Hypocrates 460) to Parsvanatha teachings.  Man can transcend material contamination by asceticism and non-violence to any living thing.
Proposes 5 great vows: abstension from killing, lying, greed, sex, covetousness.
B76 11-348
c.468 MAHAVIRA dies.  Credited founder of Jainism, "last of the 24 Tirthankaras (ford makers)", age 72, dies in the house of raja Hastipala's scribe in the little town of Pava in north Bihar.  SUDHARMAN succeeds to 448.  Jainism will have its 7th schism in 80 CE. 528 trad date CHI 155, TAWH 17
527 B76 VI-500, 11-348, ht, wikTJain
490-70 bk     485 CMoG2 218
468 CHI 156, 640, HCIP 2-26, LEWH 54, WNHI 52
c.459 Son of Bimiisara, AJATASATRU dies.  Raja of Magadha from 491.  Son UDAYIN succeeds until 443. 462 HCIP 2-38     460 bk
459 CHI 312, LEWH 54, WNHI 55
DARBHAKA succeeds until 432. 453 HCAI 35
c.454 ABHAYA, regent of Upatissa Nuwara in Ceylon from 474, ends.  Bro TISSA is appointed regent until 437 by 8 younger bros, but would only be consecrated raja after he had defeated his nephew Pandukabhaya. 454 wikAUN, wikHV, wikLSLM, wikTUN
394 CHI 698
c.450 MagadhaApproximate extent of the Magadha state in 5th century. 5th cen.: wikME
c.448 SUDHARMAN dies.  2nd guru of Jains from 468.  JAMBU succeeds to 404. 20 yrs after Mahavira: CHI 147
c.445 VIJAYA, son of Sinhabahu, Sinhalese raja of Ceylon from 485, dies.  Youngest son PANDU VASUDEVA succeeds to 414. 445 CHI 606, 641
c.443 Son of Ajatasatru, UDAYIN dies.  Raja of Magadha from 459, murdered.  ANURUDHA and MUNDA succeed to 435. 60 yrs after Mahavira dies: CHI 146
ruled 16 yrs: CHI 168
c.440 Hindu sage KHANDA (Kanada) writes VAISHESHIKA SUTRAS.  Contains concept of paramanu (atoms), an indestructible particle of matter. 440 stlc     400 bk
2nd cen.: wikKnd, wikVsh
c.437 TISSA, regent of Upatissa Nuwara in Ceylon from 454, deposed by neph PANDUKABHAYA who succeeds as raja until 377. 437 wikAK, wikHV, wikLSLM, wikPA, wikTUN
c.437 Anuradhapura in Ceylon, founded by raja Anuradha.  Home to the royal court until 1017CE, but not the capital until 380. 437 lanka
no date: srlnk
c.437 HOSPITAL built in Ceylon. 437 B76 8-1114
c.435 ANURUDHA and MUNDA end.  Rajas of Magadha from 443, end.  NAGADASAKA succeeds to 411. ruled 8 yrs: CHI 168
c.414 PANDU VASUDEVA, Sinhalese raja of Ceylon from 445, dies.  Son ABHAYA succeeds to 394. 414 CHI 607, 698
c.413 NAGADASAKA ends.  Raja of Magadha from 435, last of Haryanka dynasty, overthrown by popular revolt.  The son of a Licchavi raja of Vaishali, who is Nagadasakas viceroy of Varanasi, SUSUNAGA succeeds to 395.  Shishunaga dynasty begins until 345.  Capital at Rajagriha until ?. 413 wikSsn, wikSsD
Nag. ruled 24 yrs: CHI 168
c.407 JAIPUR annexed by Magadha. 407 wikSsn
by 405 Last of the 16 mahajanapadas subdued by Magadha. by 405 wikSsn
c.404 JAMBU dies.  3rd guru of Jains from 448. guru 44 yrs: CHI 147
c.400 Capital of Magadha, Rajagriha from 413, moved by Susunaga to Vaishali until ?. no date: wikSsn
 Mahabharata  begun in its present form by Vyasa and passed on orally until 200CE.
Story of the Bharata dynasty.  Mass of legendary and moral literature based around 2 rival families: KAURAVA and PANDAVA.
B76 VI-497, 17-134, bk
c. 400

c. 400
 Manusmtri, or Laws of Manu :  part of Dharmasastra textual tradition of Hinduism.  Treatise on statecraft.  Manu, progenitor of mankind, lectures a group of seers, or rishis, ask to know the "law of all the social classes".  18 Grounds for Litigation make up more than ⅕ of it, and deal with matters of the raja, state, and judicial procedure.  CASTE SYSTEM laid out:
  1. Division into 4 varnas (castes) based on birth, i.e. Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.  Enforced by raja.
  2. A Brahmin is treated as superior regardless of his age or ignorance.
  3. Duties & occupations assigned according to varna.
  4. Women (even Brahmin) are not entitled to upanayan and study of Vedas.  A husband, regardless of stupidity or immorality, is treated as a god by the wife.
  5. Unequal legal rights & punishments depending on varna.
  6. No inter-marriage between varnas.
  7. There is no 5th varna.  Children of mixed marriage belong to the lower varna.
  8. The varna system is divinely sanctioned.
Forbids use of poison and fire arrows in war, but advises poisoning food and water.
1500 brgn, abtHLib
1200 my
500 TAWH 17, abtHss
400 wikCW
200-100 erces
200BCE-100CE wikICS
200BCE-200CE wikMnsm
200CE hindu
c.400  Svetasvatara Upanishad :  #14 in Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads.  Contains 113 mantras or verses in 6 chapters.  Earliest textual exposition of Shaivism.
Λ THEOLOGY:  Elevates Rudra (aka Shiva) to status of supreme being.
(See Heraclitos 500, Republic 370,  Plato Timaeos 358,  Plato Laws 350)
B76 8-894 4-200 wikSU
c.400  Later Upanishads  shift from prose back to verse. 400 B76 17-133
c.400 BADARYANA writes  Vedantra Sutra  trying to systematize the Upanisads in a consistent whole.  It investigates Upanisad teachings about God, world, soul; removes contradictions in doctrines, binds them systematically together. 400 ooct 350 bk
c.400 KATAYANA, Sanskrit grammarian, mathematician, Vedic priest, flourishes.  Writes  Varttika , an elaboration on Panini grammar, Mahabhasya of Patanjali, this text becomes a core part of the Vyakarana (grammar) canon. 400-300 wikKty
c.400 PANINI gives in his Sutra the earliest extant Sanskrit grammar the  Ashtadhyayi , with illustrations.  Augmented by the VARTTIKAS or supplementary rules of Katyayana. 400
LEWH 54, ht
c.400 SANSKRIT Formative Period from 1200 ends.  Writing is for religious/magical purposes, mostly hymns to various gods.  Structure: Evoke a god, flatter him, ask for something. 400 B76 17-133
c.395 SUSUNAGA, raja of Magadha from 411, ends.  Son KALASOKA succeeds to 365. 395 wikSsn
ruled 18 yrs: CHI 168
c.394 ABHAYA, Sinhalese raja of Ceylon from 414 in Upatissagama, deposed.  Interregnum until 377. 394 CHI 607
c.380 Λ 2nd BUDDHIST COUNCIL convened by raja Kalasoka meets at Vaisali to adjudicate on 10 points on minor infringements of the Vinaya, such as handling money and eating after midday.  Controversy breaks out between a monk named Yasa and monks of Vajji. 4th cen. wikBC 386-3 ktkh
383 wikTB
no date: B76 3-406, wik2BC
c.380 Anuradhapura main city in Ceylon from 437, made capital by raja Pandukhabaya. 380 lanka
c.377 CEYLON, in interregnum from 394, A bastard of Chitta by her cousin Digha-Gamani, PANDUKABHAYA becomes raja of Upatissa Nuwara until 367.  He moves the capital to ANURADHAGAMA.  Upatissa Nuwara kingdom from 505 ends.  The ANURADHAPURA Kingdom begins until 1017CE.  It extends thruout the island, though several independent areas emerge from time to time. 377 CHI 607, 641, wikAK, wikHV, wikLSLM
c.367 PANDUKABHAYA dies.  Raja of Anuradhapura in Ceylon from 377.  Son MUTASIVA succeeds until 307. 367 wikAK, wikHV, wikLSLM, wikMA, wikPA     307 CHI 698
c.365 KALASOKA, raja of Magadha from 393, ends.  His 10 sons rule until 343. ruled 28 yrs: CHI 168
c.364 NANDA DYNASTY begins in Magadha, but doesnt take over until 345. 424 wikSI     370 MCAW 154-5 364 NCIP 2-37
c.357 Acharya Bhadrabahu, Jain monk, teacher of Chandragupta Maurya, dies. 357 wikTJain
c.350 Rainfall measured by Indian scientists. 350 ht
c.350 1st schism of the SANGHA:  The Mahasanghika school splits from the Sthaviras or Theras (elders), founders of Therevada Buddhism.  Sthaviras remain intact until 280. 350 ktkh     340 CSHB 28
c.350 ALPHABET:  Λ BRAHMI SCRIPT may have developed without outside influences in 4th cen. 4-300 wikBS
c.345 16 Maha Janapadas (Great Kingdoms) from 600 end. 345 wikMJ
c.345 SHISHUNAGA, dynasty of Magadha ends.  Began 413.  Overthrown by a son of Mahanandin, a Kshatriya king of the Shishunaga dynasty and a Shudra mother, MAHAPADMA NANDA, who rules until 329.  NANDA dynasty succeeds until 321.  Capital at Pataliputra.  Taxes efficiently, creates large army, builds canals. 345 wikMN, wikNE, wikSsD

India 330-301