website source links
rcCE     rcI     rcIb     rcRm     vrb    wikBIA     wikPB     wikTpR

British Isles Go to Americas Go to Italy Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to west Mediterranean Go to east Mediterranean Go to North Africa Go to Asia Go to Anatolia
c.500 Celts of Gaul arrive in BRITAIN and gradually overrun it from now to 100. by 500 be
450 TTPC, bk
c.500 Λ LANGUAGE V:  Most inhabitants of western British Isles speak some form of Insular Celtic. by 500 wikPB
c.500 Λ WHEELED VEHICLES appear in Britain. 500 B76 5-970, SHT 1-211
c.500 Phoenician alphabet evidenced in Ireland. 500 GHH
c.500 IRON working is now common in Scandinavia and Germany. 500 TTT
c.500 Cornish TIN is traded internationally.  TIN deposits of south Brittany are worked, but later abandoned because of Spanish competition. 500 SHT 1-589
c.500 Influx of Celts into southwest Spain (Andalusia) causes the spoken Λ LANGUAGE to change from Phoenician to Celtic.   (See return 538) by 500 mxfld
c.500 Trade items from Massilia travel up the Rhone valley and are welcomed as prestige objects in north Europe. 500 eah
Vix krater
Peter Northover.
Vix Krater, an imported Greek wine-mixing vessel
Vix krater frieze
Wikimedia Commons
Vix Krater frieze of hoplites and 4-horse chariots on the rim
Vix gold torque
Vix 24k gold torque, ends adorned with winged horses
c. 500 VIX, Burgundy on Seine River:  Rich burial of the "Lady of Vix", who died age 30-35, contains jewelry, a dismantled wagon, Etruscan and Greek imports, including (left) this wine-mixing krater, the largest known metal vessel from Western classical antiquity.  Shows celtic wealth, esthetics, and love of luxury.  Grave contains no weapons. 520 MCAW 101
500 PW 16, wikVG
c.500 Vltava River valley (future Prague), Bohemia, inhabited by Celts until 200. 500 B76 14-944
c.500 4 wheeled wagons in Rhineland and Marne area replaced by carts and chariots. 500 PAE 238
c.500 GENEVA is now an Allobroge fortified settlement to defend against the Helveti. 500 B76 7-1011
c.500 NORICUM V becomes a steel producing area south of the Danube. 500 wikNrc
c.500 OLBIA (Borysthenes), Greek trading colony on north coast of Black Sea at mouth of Bug River, under Miletian tyrants from 650, becomes a republic until 200. 500 rcU
c.496 Scythians, consolidated after repelling the Persians, invade south of Danube into Thrace. 496 CHEIA 101, vrb
c.485 Scythian/Thracian war from 496 ends with treaty establishing Danube as boundary. 485 vrb
c.450 Punic discovery voyages into the Atlantic. 5th cen. wikTpR
c.450 BRITAIN (or at least Brittany) discovered by Carthaginian HAMILCO while looking for tin. 500 CDCC 107 460 GHH
450 WPOT 277
c. 450 Maiden CastleMAIDEN CASTLE, a hill fort in south Dorset from 600 covering 16 acres, expanded to 47 acres, making it the largest hill fort in Britain. 450 wikMC
350-41 TTS
c.450 Mass migration of Celtic-speakers of northern Europe southward. 450 eah
c.450 Λ 2nd CASTRO VILLAGE culture appears in Galicia and north Portugal.  Identified by walled villages and hill forts. 5th cen. wikTpR
c.450 Spain:  Celtic Calaicians or Gallaeci inhabit all the region above the Douro river (modern Galicia and northern Portugal). 5th cen. wikTpR
c.450 TAVIRA south Portugal, abandoned from 510, resettled by Tartesians until ?. 5th cen. wikTpR
c.450 1st COINS V minted in Spain. 5th cen. wikTpR
c.450 IRON AGE in Europe 900-?
HALLSTATT period from 900, 2nd half from 750 ends.

2nd Stage:  LA TENE (Gaulish) cultures emerge in west and central Europe and Switzerland until ?.  Celtic votive offerings, imports from classical world, including Etruscans.  Burials include chariots and weapons, but not as rich as Hallstatt Period.  Art shows curves and patterns, but no pictures.  LA TENE period lasts in Gaul until Roman conquest.
480 PW 16
450 B76 2-449, 615, CDCC 414, MCAW 126, TAWH 17, ooctA, rcCE, vrb, wikLT
c.450 AUSTRIA & BOHEMIA, under Hallstatt Celts from 600, occupied by La Tene Celts, Austria (Raetia, Vindelicia, and Noricum) until 15, Bohemia until 6BCE. 450 rcCE
c.450 TYROL (region in eastern Alps), occupied by Italics from 1250, occupied by La Tene Celts until 320. 450 rcCE
c.450 LA TENE Period-A begins until 390.  Celtic tradition first encounters Greco-Etruscan imports and ideas.  Designs characterized by S-shapes, spirals, and round patterns symetrically applied. 450-400 B76 VI-67
c.440 Λ SCANDINAVIA:  in Bronze Age from 1800, enters Λ Iron Age.   See 1 CE. 500 B76 16-304, TTT, wikIAS
400 B76 16-305, wikPRIA, wikSP
c.425 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Hallstatt Celts from 625, occupied by La Tene Celts until 10CE. 425 rcWB
c.410 Punic colonies in Iberia rebel. 410 wikAnCar
c.400 Early Iron Age in Britain ends.  Began 700(Parallel to Hallstatt C on continent)Middle Iron Age begins until 100. 400 wikBIA
c.400 BELIN king of Celts in Britain, rebuilds earth wall around a few dozen huts at confluence of Walbrook & Thames.  Builds small landing on south side of the wall with a gate to permit entry called Belin's Gate, later Billingsgate. 400 TTPC
c.400 La Tene migrations to Ireland begin. 400 wikB
c. 400 SPAIN:  Further development of strong Celtic influences and migrations in western Spain north of the Tagus river.
The Autrigones, Turmodigi and Belli, migrate from Gaul, overruning the area of Cantabria and Burgos, where they establish their first capital Autraca or Austraca, at the banks of the river Autra (Odra).  They also gain an outlet to the sea by seizing from the Caristii further east the coastal highland region between the rivers Ason and Nervion, in the Vizcaya and Alava Basque provinces.
The Belli settle along the lower Jalon river valley alongside their neighbors and clients, the Titii.
400 wikTpR
c.400 Iron working evidenced in Denmark. 400 B76 6-1062
c.400 Bronze FILES combining curved and flat surfaces used in Europe. 400 B76 8-619
c.400 MORAVIA, under Hallstatt Celts from 600, occupied by La Tene Celts until 20. 400 rcCE
c.400 SLOVAKIA (Carpathian mountains north of Hungary, east of Moravia and Czech Republic, west of Galitzia and Ukraine, and south of Poland) under Thracians from 700, occupied by La Tene Celts until 100. 400 rcCE
c.400 Celts move into eastern Alps, found the kingdom of Noricum. 400 B76 2-449
c.400 NORICUM, a steel producing area south of the Danube from 500, founded as a kingdom by Celts.  Capital Virnum.  Remains a kingdom until 101. 400 wikNrc
c.400 The BITURICES (Bituriges), largest tribe in Western Europe, divide into 2 groups which become the Bituriges Cubi and Biturices Vivisci.  The Cubi settle in central Gaul.  The Vivisci go to Burdigala (Bordeaux) and the coast. 400 hifiBtc
c.400 WHEEL-MADE VASES appear in Danube and upper Rhine basins. 400 SHT 1-203
c.390 LA TENE Period-A ends.  Began 450Period-B begins until 300.  Celtic unity is dissolved by migrations.  Popular items include long iron swords, lanceheads, heavy knives.  Burial by flat inhumation in coffins or covering with stone heaps. 400-390 B76 VI-67
c.390 Gauls resume expansion over Europe. 390 vrb
c.389 MASSILIA on south coast of Gaul, attacked by Gauls, allies with Rome. 389 CAH 7.2 388 GHH
c.375 CELTS, migrating eastward, arrive in northwest Transylvania, merge with early Dacians and assimilate many Hallstatt cultural traditions. 400-350 wikCiT
c.350 CIOMBAOTH becomes king of Ulster until 346. 350 rcI
c.350 Hill forts, in Britain from 1500, many go out of use and the remaining ones are reinforced. 350 wikPB
c.350 WALES, under Bronze Age Celto-Ligurians from 2100, comes under La Tene Gauls until 77CE. 350 rcW
c. 350 Witham ShieldWITHAM SHIELD lost in the Witham River near Lincoln, where it will be discovered in 1826.  Made of beaten bronze over wood (now gone), Celtic La Tène style with now barely detectable animal pictures - mainly a boar. Photo Garth

4-300 wikWtSh '  
c. 350 Falcata sword FALCATA type SWORD used by Spaniards.  The grip is typically hook-shaped, the end often stylized in the shape of a horse or a bird.  There is often a thin chain connecting the hooked butt of the Iberian with the hilt.  Usually single-edged, but double-edged falcatas have been found. photo

4th cen. wikFl
c.350 Spanish dagger SPANISH DAGGER used 4th-2nd centuries BCE.  photo

4th cen. wikPg
c.350 New wave of Celts into Spain enter deep into Portuguese territory and settle in the Alentejo region (south Portugal), also penetrating into the Algarve region just south of it. 4th cen. wikTpR
c.350 Hjortspring BoatHJORTSPRING BOAT (43' x 6'), a clinker-built wooden boat designed as a large canoe, tapered at both ends, modeled after hide boats, on island of Als in southern Denmark.  Oldest find of a wooden plank ship in Scandinavia.  When found, it contains weapons and armor, including 131 Celtic shields, 33 crafted shield bosses, 138 spearheads of iron, 10 iron swords, and remains of several mailcoats.  Its sinking has been interpreted as a deliberate votive offering. photo

4-300 wikHjB
300 wikSwB
c.350 TURDULI and TURDETANI, probably descendants of the Tartessians, are established in the area of the Guadiana river, in south Portugal, but celtized. 4th cen. wikTpR
c.350 ALGARVE (region on south coast of Portugal), under Phoenician and Punic settlements from 950:  Cities such as Balsa (Tavira), Baesuris (Castro Marim), Ossonoba (Faro) and Cilpes (Silves), are inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes progressively mingled with Celtic populations.  The Lusitani (probably proto-Celt) inhabit the area between the Douro and Tagus rivers (and progressively penetrate the High Alentejo).  They are west of the Vettones (also probably proto-Celt). 4th cen. wikTpR
c.350 SARMATIANS enter Scythian territory, found Little Scythia in Dacia. 350 T1H 70
c.346 CIOMBAOTH, king of Ulster from 350, ends.  MACHAD the Red-Maned succeeds until 339. 346 rcI
c.339 MACHAD the Red-Maned, king of Ulster from 346, ends.  EOCHU-I the Sharp succeeds until 319. 339 rcI
c.335 La Tene CELTS invade Balkans, colonize the Tisa plain and Transylvanian Plateau. 335 wikCiT
c.335 ALEX-III crosses Danube, interviews some Celts near the Adriatic, defeats the Getae, re-establishes control over barbarians, recrosses Danube. 335 B76 1-469, 2-615, 8-373, spring CAH 6-795, DGRG 1-742, 927, MCAW 166, RAH 317, lvLx, wikLx
c.332 FERGUS-I founds Celtic monarchy of Scotland. 332 GHH
c.325 PYTHEAS of Massilia, sails around Brittany, records the Ostinioi (almost certainly the Osismii) who occupy Cape Kabaïon.  Describes Celtic and Germanic tribes that he finds - mostly Celts. 325 hifiCT, hifiTtn,
c.325 HelgolandPYTHEAS of Massilia, sails along coast of Flanders and Holland on his way to the amber island Helgoland.  He says that in these regions, more people die in the struggle against water than in the struggle against men. 334 DGRG 1-314
hifiCT, lvG
c.325 THULE (Norway?) and Britain identified by sailor Pytheas of Massilia. 330 TToH
325 OCD 957
c.325 AKRA LEUKE "White Summit" (now Alicante), Carthaginian settlement from ?, refounded by Phocaean Greeks, under them until 237. 325 B76 I-242, brtA
c.325 BEER (or possibly just mead) in Britain made from grain and honey, reported by Pytheas of Massilia.   (See Sophocles 450) 330-25 wikPθs 325 wikPθs
320 br+pb
c.320 Pytheas of Massilia publishes  Ocean  and  Periplus .  Describes tin mining in Cornwall, Goths collecting amber on the shores of the Baltic, Thule, astronomical observations determining latitude.  Says Britons are renowned wheat farmers.  Only fragments remain. 320
MCAW 175 no date: wikPB
c.320 TYROL (mountainous western corridor of Austria), occupied by La Tene Celts from 450, becomes frontier between Italics and Gauls until 250. 320 rcCE
c.319 EOCHU-I the Sharp, king of Ulster from 339, ends.  HUNAMUN succeeds until 318. 319 rcI
c.318 HUNAMUN, king of Ulster from 319, ends.  CONCHOBHAR-I succeeds until 288. 318 rcI
c.313 The GETAE ally with Callatis, Odessos, and other west Pontic Greek colonies against Lysimachus, who holds a fortress at Tirizis. 313 wikGt
c.310 Celts begin minting Λ COINS.  (See Rome 310) late 4th cen.: nmsm
400-100 stncr     300 PW 16
c.308 BRITAIN circumnavigated by Pytheas of Massilia, who places HIBERNIA (Ireland) correctly on his map.  He also discovers THULE (either Iceland or Norway). 310-06 OCD 514
300 CDCC 107, 337

Europe 300-201