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c.500  Story of Ahikar , written earlier in Aramaic, a copy is buried at Elephantine, to be found in 1907.  Ahikar is chancellor to Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.  Having no child of his own, he adopts his nephew Nadab (Nadin), and raises him to be his successor.  Nadab ungratefully plots to have Ahikar murdered, and persuades Esarhaddon that Ahikar is treasonous.  Esarhaddon orders Ahikar executed.  Ahikar is imprisoned to await punishment.  Ahikar reminds the executioner that the executioner had been saved by Ahikar from a similar fate under Sennacherib, so the executioner kills a prisoner, and pretends that the body is of Ahikar.
The rest is missing.  Later versions V will have more of the story.  See Tobit 200.
500 ΨeuSA, wikSA
c.500 Λ GOLDEN RULE attested in a Late Period papyrus.  "That which you hate to be done to you, do not do to another."   (See Thales 600, Leviticus, China, Mahabharata, Isocrates 390) 664-323 wikGR
c.497 Darius-I in Egypt until 496. 497 CAH 4
c.497 CANAL from Nile to Red Sea, begun by Neco-II in 610, resumed by Darius-I in 510, completed.   See 280. 520 TAWH 17, TTPC
515 MCAW 101     500 PW 16, TTT     497 CAH 4, Shaw 375
c.486 Persian satrapy 525-404 rebels against Darius-I until 485.  Athens sends troops to help Egypt. 487 OHG     486 B76 6-481, 9-835, DGRBM, GHH, Grim 370, MCAW 108     485 CAH 4-23
486 late DARIUS-I HYSTASPES king of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 522, dies in Persepolis.  1st son XERXES-I succeeds to 465. 486 B76 9-835, 11-989, 17-447, CDCC 258, Dur 2-722, FLAP 195, GRG 299, Grim, HCC, IDB 1-769, 4-922, LEWH 51, 53, MNHK, OCD 4, 1144, OHG, RAH, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-136, Shaw, SOTS 244, 246, ae, frN
485 Dur 2-237, MCAW 108, RAI2, TToH
485 XERXES-I invades Egypt until 484. 485 B76 I-56, 9-835, CAH 5, OHG 484 DGRBM 1-8, 3-1304
c.485 Egyptian rebellion from 486 crushed by XERXES-I who appoints bro HAKHAMANISH (Achaemenes) satrap.  He ignores Egyptian customs and imposes Persian rule until 460. 485 B76 9-835, CAH 5, OHG
484 B76 I-56, DGRBM 1-8, GHH
c.484 XERXES-I ravages the Delta. 484 B76 19-1057
c.484 XERXES-I leaves bro Achaemenes, governor of Egypt, returns to Persia. 484 DGRBM 3-1304
c. 481/0 Phoenician fleets attached to Xerxes' army are commanded by their respective kings: Tetramnestus of Sidon, Mattan-IV of Tyre, Marbalus of Aradus. 481/0
CAH 6-322
c.480 HAKHAMANISH, satrap of Egypt 485-54, contributes 481 ships to Xerxes-I European campaign. 480 MCAW 108
200 ships: Grim 370
c.465 XERXES-I dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 486, murdered in Persepolis by Artabanus, captain of bodyguard.  1st son DARIUS succeeds.  Artabanus tells Xerxes 2nd son Artaxerxes that Darius murdered Xerxes.  Artabanus kills Darius and ARTABANUS usurps throne until 464. 465 B76 9-835, CAH 5, CDCC 957, Grim, IDB 4-922, MCAW 116, MNHK, OCD 4, 1144, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-187, Shaw, SOTS 246, TToH, WPOT, frN 326
464 HCC, OCD 126, OHG, RAH
c. 465/4 ARTABANUS dies.  Usurper of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 465, killed by Xerxes' 2nd son Artaxerxes, who recovers throne.  ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS succeeds until 424. 465 IDB 1-241, MRDK, Shaw, WPOT 327
464 B76 9-835, OCD 126, RAI2, RAI3, SOTS 246
c. 465/4 Egypt rebels against PersiaAthens again sends troops to help Egypt, but rebellion is crushed. 465 LEWH 53
464 MCAW 116
c.460 Egypt, under Persia from 485, rebels under Libyan prince INAROS, son of Psamtik-III, until 454, appeals to Athens for military help. 462 CAH 5, OHG     460 B76 I-549, BI+N 105, CDCC 88, DGRBM 2-572, GHH, IDB 1-241, ISBE 1-306, LEWH 69, SOTS 247     459 B76 9-835, OCD 140, 800     456 LEWH 53
c.460 HAKHAMANISH (Achaemenes), bro of Artaxerxes satrap of Egypt from 485, killed in battle against InarosARSAMES succeeds until ?. 460 B76 I-56
no date: DGRBM 1-8, 2-572, Grim 371
c.460 AMYRTAEUS of Sais joins Inaros revolt. 460 BI+N 114, DGRBM 1-156
c.459 Pericles sends 200 Athenian galleys to Egypt to help Libyan prince INAROS against the Persians.  They sail up to Memphis. 460 DGRBM 2-572, GHH, OCD 319     459 B76 4-618, CAH 5, Dur 2-437, MCAW 120, OCD 805
c.459 Athenians take MEMPHIS, except for the citadel which is held by Persians and besieged until 456. 459 MCAW 120
no date: LEWH 69, OCD 319
c.458 MEGABYZOS, satrap of Syria, launches land and sea attack on Egypt, defeats INAROS, Libyan rebel, who flees to Prosapitis Island in the Nile delta.  Greeks hold out until 454. 458 Sdl 5-188
456 CAH 5, 6-308, DGRBM 1-156, wikMg
c.456 MEGABYZOS defeats Athenians at MEMPHIS, relieves the besieged citadel, besieges Athenians on Prosapitis Island. 456 LEWH 70
455 WPOT 327
c.456 AMYRTAEUS of Sais escapes to island of Elbo, holds out as king in marshes until 410. 456 DGRBM 1-156 455 GHH
c.455 All Egypt except the marshes conquered by Megabyzos. 455 DGRBM, GHH
c.454 MEGABYZOS diverts a stream and grounds Athenian shipsINAROS and Athenians on Prosapitis Island in the Nile delta, besieged by MEGABYZOS from 456, fall, and are killed by PersiansAn Athenian relief squadron is also annihilated near Memphis by MEGABYZOSAthenian army remnant flees into Sinai. 457 DGRBM 2-1006
454 B76 4-618, 8-311, CAH 5, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OCD 319, 805, Sdl 5-188, SHWC 66, TToH
c.454 INAROS dies.  Libyan rebel of Egypt from 460, defeated by Megabyzos and tortured to death by disputed means. 455 DGRBM 2-572     454 B76 I-549, 6-481, 8-311, LEWH 70, MCAW 120, OCD 319, Sdl 5-188
in Persia: Grim 371
c.454 Egypt, with Athenian support, resisting Persians from 459, no longer resists. 454 B76 9-835, BI+N 105, Dur 2-244, IDB 1-241, LEWH 53, OCD 126, 800, OHG
c.450 60 Athenian ships from Cimon try to revive Egyptian rebellion against Persians. 450 OCD 805
449 DGRBM 1-371
by c.450 Domestic CATS, sacred to goddess Bastet:  Killing one is punishable by death.   (Italy) by 450 aeCt
c.450 HERODOTUS visits Egypt.  Describes the battle field (456) of Prosapitis Island in the Nile delta.  Says one of the 3 Persian garrisons is at Elephantine. 450 B76 6-481, DGRBM 2-433, ISBE 2-45, WPOT 328
449 SHT 1-267     448 GHH
c.450 EMBALMING described by Herodotus.
"First they take a crooked piece of metal and with it draw out some of the brain thru the nostrils and then rinse out the rest with drugs.  Next they make a cut along the side of the body with a sharp stone and take out the whole contents of the abdomen.  After this they fill the cavity with myrrh, cassia and other spices and the body is placed in natron for 70 days."
5th cen: hls
c.449 AMYRTAEUS of Sais, holding out as king in marshes, is sent aid by Athenians. 449 DGRBM
c.445 Athens receives gift of FREE GRAIN from Egypt. 446/5 LEWH 70     445/4 CAH 5 444 DGRBM 3-197
c.424 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 464 murdered in Susa.  Son XERXES-II succeeds 45 days. 425 B76 9-835, IDB 1-241
424 OCD 4, OHG, IDB 4-922, MCAW 132, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-187, frN
423 HCC
c.424 XERXES-II king of Medo-Persia and Egypt 45 days killed in a drunken party by half-bro son of a concubine of Artaxerxes-I, SOGDIANUS, who succeeds 7 months. 424 B76 9-835, Grim, IDB 4-922, LEWH 53, MNHK, MRDK, OCD 313, RAI2, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, WPOT 327     423 HCC, OCD 4
c.423 SOGDIANUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Egypt murdered by bro, either Ochus or Darius.  A son of Artaxerxes-I and a Babylonian concubine, DARIUS-II NOTHUS succeeds to 404. 424 LEWH 53, OHG, Shaw     423 BNTH 1, IDB 1-770, OCD 4
c.420 Λ Story of Ahikar  (Ahiqar), a Mesopotamian story of 500, New Aramaic version written at Elephantine.  This version contains the oldest extant fragments. 500 wikAh
420 Sdl 5-169
420-00 AΨΨ 719
c.419 ELEPHANTINE Island in NileThe commander of Yeb, the Judean fortress-colony at Elephantine is directed by Darius-II thru governor Arsames to celebrate Feast of Unleavened Bread.  The  Passover letter , written by Hananiah from Jerusalem, gives detailed instructions for keeping Passover from Nisan 15 to 21. 419 BBP 46, DHJ 372, E2LM 9, IDB 2-84, ISBE 2-60, wikEP
c.410 Egypt, under Persia 525-404, tries to revolt against Persian satrap. 410 WPOT 328
c.410 AMYRTAEUS of Sais, holding out as king in marshes from 456, claims to be king of Lower Egypt until 404. 414 DGRBM 1-156 413 GHH
c.410 ELEPHANTINE Island:  Egyptian priests of Khnum bribe Persian commander Widrang to lead Egyptian troops to destroy Jewish temple.  Jews write to high priest at Jerusalem, asking him to use his influence to rectify it.  No response. 411 E2LM 39, Jud 6-605
410 B76 6-481, BBP 45, BI+N 113, DHJ 369, IDB 2-84, ISBE 2-59, Jud 5-1304, MCAW 141, WPOT 328
407 Grim 317
c.410 Egypt, under Persia from 525, becomes sorta independent. 410 OCD 313 413 GHH
c.407 Jews of Elephantine write to BAGOAS Persian satrap of Judah requesting assistance rebuilding the temple at Elephantine.
"Our forefathers built this temple in the fortress of Elephantine back in the days of the kingdom of Egypt, and when Cambyses came to Egypt he found it built.  They [Persians] knocked down all the temples of the gods of Egypt, but no one did any damage to this temple."
408 BBP 45, E2LM 39, Jud 4-94
407 DHJ 369, ENBD 1139, IDB 4-210, ISBE 2-60, WPOT 328, sjud, wikEP
c.407 BAGOAS Persian satrap of Judea replies to Elephantine Jews in Aramaic. 407 DBANE 88, wikEP
c.407 Correspondence between Jewish community at Elephantine and Jerusalem ceases. 410 hifiI
c.405 AMYRTAEUS of Sais, claiming kingship of Lower Egypt 410-? revolts gainst Persian rule because Darius-II is sick, employs many Greek mercenaries. 405 B76 9-386,
DHJ 371, WPOT 329
404 Grim 371
c.404 DARIS-II NOTHUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 423 dies of illness in BabylonSon ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON succeeds to 359. 405 BNTH 1, Grim, MNHK, OCD 313, RAI3, Shaw, TToH, anan, frN
404 B76 9-835, CDCC 88, HCC, IDB 1-241, 770, Jud 3-647, LEWH 53, MCAW 143, OCD 4, 126, OHG, RAI2, Sdl 5-202, SOTS 247, WPOT 96, 329, bihi, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.404 Egypt, under Persians from 525, nominally from 410, is independent until 343.   AMYRTAEUS of Sais becomes only pharaoh of 28th dynasty until 399.  He is not yet in complete control of the country, for at Elephantine Artaxerxes-II is recognized until 401. 404 B76 I-549, 6-481, CAH 6-47, 337, E2LM 35, Grim, IDB 2-55, ISBE 2-45, LEWH 53, OCD 126, OHG 168, Shaw 377
402/1 IDB 1-241
401 Jud 3-647     401/0 CAH 5
c.401 TAMOS, an Egyptian of Memphis governing Ionia for Persians, having supported Cyrus, flees to Egypt with his fleet, where he is killed along with his kids by pharaoh Amyrtaeus, who confiscates his money and fleet. 401 DGRBM 3-973, MCAW 142 400 Shaw 381
c.400 Jewish community at ELEPHANTINE ends. 400 BNTH 136
c.399 AMYRTAEUS of Sais ends.  Only pharaoh of 28th dynasty from 404.  A Mendesian NEFAURUD-I succeeds until 393.
29th DYNASTY begins until 380.  It venerates god Khnub at Elephantine.
408 DGRBM 1-943     400 BI+N 115     399 B76 6-481, Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim, ISBE 2-59, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, Shaw, ae, ktut, nar, phou, resh, scar, tig, treg     398 Grim 371, lveg, wikP
c.396 Agesilaos of Sparta asks for alliance with Nefaurud-I. 396 CAH 6-347
c.396 NEFAURUD-I, pharaoh 399-93, refuses alliance with Agesilaos of Sparta, but sends him equipment for 100 triremes and 500,000 measures of grain. 396 CAH 6-347, Shaw 381
c.395 A grain fleet is sent by Nefarud-I for Sparta, but is captured near Rhodes 395 lvG
c.393 early NEFAURUD-I dies.  1st pharaoh of 29th dynasty at Mendes from 399.  PSAMMUTHIS succeeds for a few months and ends.  ACHORIS succeeds until 380. 393 Clay, DMoN, GEoP, Grim 373, JIAE, MRDK, Shaw, ae, ktut, nar, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP 392 lveg     389 GHH
c.392 PHARNABAZOS sent from Persia commanding expedition to Egypt. 392 OCD 810
c.388 ACHORIS makes alliance with Athens, allowing him to reorganize his forces against Artaxerxes-II. 389 Grim 374
388 spring CAH 6-116, 315
c.385 ACHORIS helps Evagoras of Cyprus with ships and money against Artaxerxes-II. 385 DGRBM 1-14
c.385 Athenian mercenary CHABRIAS hires out to Achoris. 385 Shaw 381
c.385 PHARNABAZOS-II, general under Artaxerxes-II, aided by Abrocomas and Tithraustes , tries to recover Egypt, but is resisted by Achoris and his Greek mercenaries until 383. 385 B76 I-549, VII-928, CAH 6-80, Grim 374, OCD 126, 810
c.383 PHARNABAZUS-II, trying to recover Egypt from 385, quits until 374. 383 B76 I-549, CAH 6-80, Grim 374, OCD 126, 810
c.381 ACHORIS, pharaoh 399-80, sends 50 triremes with food, money, and other resources to help EVAGORAS king of Salamis against Persians. 381
CAH 6-348, Shaw 382
c.380 EVAGORAS king of Salamis visits Egypt in person to persuade Achoris to prosecute the war against Persians more vigorously, but gets only more financial support. 380
CAH 6-348
c.380 ACHORIS dies.  2nd pharaoh of 29th dynasty at Mendes from 399.  Son NEFAURUD-II succeeds until later that year. 380 GEoP, Murn, JIAE, Clay, Grim, Shaw, MRDK, DMoN, ae, ktut, lveg, nar, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP     379/8 CAH 6
c.380 NEFAURUD-II ends.  3rd pharaoh of 29th dynasty from 380, deposed.
29th dynasty ends.  Began 399.  NECTANEBO succeeds until 362.  30th dynasty begins until 343.
380 B76 VII-239, 6-481, CDCC 899, DMoN, Grim, MCAW 152, MRDK, Shaw, TToH, ktut, nar, phou, pic, resh, treg, wikP     379 MRDK
c.380 NECTANEBO gains effective control of Egypt. 380 Grim 375
c.380 NAUCRATIS, Greek city in Egypt, taxed by Nectanebo to support Saite goddess Neith. 380 MCAW 153
c.380 NECTANEBO, 1st pharaoh of 30th dynasty 380-62, puts his largely Greek army under Athenian general CHABRIAS. -
c.380 NECTANEBO, 1st pharaoh of 30th dynasty 380-62, builds many monuments and restores temples including temple of Thoth at Hermopolis. 380 MCAW 153
c.380 Athenian general CHABRIAS, in charge of Nectanebo's army, recalled to Greece by instigation of Pharnabazus. 380 CAH 6-93, MCAW 152 380/79 Grim 375
379 CAH 6-83
377 DGRBM 3-240
c.374 NECTANEBO, pharaoh of 30th dyn 380-62, strongly fortifies north coast and northeast Delta. 374/3 Shaw 380
c.374 PHARNABAZUS-II, general under Artaxerxes-II, with army of 200,000 barbarians and a Greek fleet with 20,000 mercenaries under Athenian IPHICRATES, making a combined fleet of 300 triremes and 200 triakontors, tries to recover Egypt again. 374 B76 I-549, OCD 126, 810
374/3 CAH 6-348
373 B76 6-481, Grim 376, MCAW 152
c.374 PHARNABAZUS-II and Athenian IPHICRATES arrive by sea, and are able to take Memphis, but Pharnabazus wants to wait for his land army, because he thinks Iphicrates wants to take Memphis for the Greeks and betray the Persians.  The Persian land army gets blocked by floods at Pelusium.  Iphicrates flees back to Athens.  No further Persian attacks until 344. 374 CAH 6, GHH, OCD 797
373 B76 VII-928, Grim 376
c.373 PHARNABAZUS loses initiative because of indecision, defeated by NECTANEBO near Mendes. 373 B76 VII-239, CAH 6, enot
c. 373/2 PHARNABAZUS, Persian commander in Egypt, is relieved, goes to Anatolia until death 372.  Replaced by DATAMES until 370. 373/2 CDCC 258 372 CAH 6-83
c.372 Ionian mercenary TIMOTHEOS of Miletus arrives in Egypt to help Datames. 373/2 CAH 6-84
c.370 DATAMES, Persian commander in Egypt from 372, rebels against Artaxerxes, takes his troops and sails back to Anatolia. 370 wikDt
c.370 EUDOXOS of Knidos, in Egypt for 16 months during reign of Nectanebo, writes  Oktaeteris  about a Λ CALENDAR based on an 8 year cycle perhaps from study of Venus.
(See Cleostratos 520, Chinese 444, Zoroastrian 441, Mayan 400, Babylonian 380, Roman 304)
B76 6-1021
after Athens visit: OCD 414
Temple of Isis on Philae
Ivan Marcialis
Temple of Isis on Philae
Mohammed Moussa
TEMPLE of ISIS on Philae Island (just south of Elephantine) built by Nectanebo. Since Philae was one of the buryal-places of Osiris, it was revered both by Egyptians and Nubians.  Only priests could dwell there. 380-62 wikΦl
c.365 NECTANEBO, pharaoh of 30th dyn 380-62, names son TEOS (Tachos) heir. 365 Grim 377
c.365 A new type of marriage contract appears, called the "maintenance document", which soon becomes common.  It creates favorable conditions for the wife, imposing crushing financial penalties on the husband in the event of divorce. 365
CAH 6-351
c.362 NECTANEBO dies.  1st pharaoh of 30th dyn from 380.  Son TEOS (Tachos) succeeds to 360. 363 B76 VII-239, 6-1021, GEoP, GHH
362 CDCC 899, Clay, DMoN, Grim, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, Shaw, ae, ktut, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP     361 nar     361/0 CAH 6     360 WERE, lveg
c.362 Persian general RHEOMITHRES joins Satraps' Revolt, and is sent to the new pharaoh Teos to ensure continued Egyptian aid. 362 DGRBM 3-649
c.361 Pharaoh TEOS hires Greek mercenaries under Agesilaos king of Sparta and Greek fleet under Athenian Chabrias, who is also given command of Egyptian fleet, 200 triremes in all. 361 DGRBM 1-70, GHH, Grim 377, lvG     361/60 Shaw 380
c.361 Pharaoh TEOS leaves bro Tjahapimu in charge of Egypt, with 200 warships under Chabrias, enters Phoenicia to help them rebel against Persians. 361 OCD 27
361/0 Shaw 382
360 Grim 377, livTeos
c.360 TEOS, 2nd pharaoh of 30th dyn from 362, dethroned by military revolt in Phoenicia, flees to Persia.  NECTANEBO-II, now in Phoenicia, succeeds until 343. 361 GEoP, GHH, pic
360 B76 VII-239, Clay, DMoN, Grim 377, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, Shaw, ae, ktut, phou, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP
359 nar, lveg, lvTeos     359/8 CAH 6
c.360 Prince of Mendes opposes Nectanebo-II as a usurper. 360 Grim 378-9
c.360 NECTANEBO-II, 3rd pharaoh of 30th dyn 360-43, and AGESILAOS and his Spartan mercenaries go to Egypt, suppress the Prince of Mendes. 360 Grim 379
c.352 BUBASTIS taken by Persians.  Walls torn down. 352 DGRG 1-453
c.351 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 sends army to recover Egypt 1st time.  It fails. 354 CAH 6-346 351 B76 I-549
c.350 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 sends army to recover Egypt 2nd time.  BAGOAS and Mentor of Rhodes command ⅓ of the Greek mercenaries. 352 CAH 6, Jud 3-647
351 B76 I-549, 9-836, CAH 6-346, Grim 379, OCD 126     351/0 CAH 6-329     350 DGRBM 1-453, GHH
c.350 BAGOAS is sent to take Pelusium, now under Theban Lacrates, who negotiates a surrender.  Artaxerxes-III then allows Bagoas' troops to loot Pelusium, in violation of the terms of surrender. 350 DGRBM 1-453
c.350 Theban general LACRATES with 1,000 heavy-armed troops, helps Artaxerxes-III in Egypt. 350 DGRBM 2-701
c.350 Persian army in Egypt from 351, fails and leaves until 344. 350 B76 6-481, 9-836, Jud 3-647
c.350 NECTANEBO-II pharaoh 361-43, sends 4,000 Greek mercenaries to help Sidon against Persians. 346 Grim 380
c.344 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 gathers Greek mercenaries, personally leads his 2nd invasion of Egypt. 344 B76 9-836, Grim 380, Jud 3-647
343 CAH 6, Grim 376, MCAW 162     343/2 CAH 6-349
c.343 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 defeats Greek garrison at Pelusium.  NECTANEBO-II (having 20,000 mercenaries) doesn't even try to relieve them, retreats to Memphis. 343 B76 I-550, 6-481, 9-836
343/2 Shaw 380
c.343 PELUSIUM resists Artaxerxes-II and is taken. 343 MCAW 162, OCD 797
c.343 NECTANEBO-II ends.  3rd pharaoh of 30th dyn from 361, with family and partisans, flees from Memphis to Nubia.  Maintains an independent kingdom30th DYNASTY ends.  Began 380. 345 WPOT 330     343 B76 VII-239, 6-481, 9-836, CAH 6-93, Clay, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MCAW 162, MRDK, Murn, Shaw, TToH, ae, ktut, phou, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP     342 DMoN, nar
341 WERE, lveg
c.343 EGYPT, independent from 404, recovered by ARTAXERXES-III, helped by Rhodian mercenary MentorUnder Medo-Persia until 332. 343 B76 9-836, CAH 6-47, CDCC 88, Grim, OCD 126, 672, Shaw 377, WPOT 96, htc     343/2 CAH 6-330, 347, 774
c.343 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 destroys the sacred bull of Apis and so many religious monuments that he is hated nearly as much as Cambyses. 343
MCAW 163
c.343 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS king of Medo-Persia 359-38 withdraws from Egypt loaded with loot. 343 B76 9-836, MCAW 162
c.341 Egypt is in Persian hands. 341 CAH 6-349
c.337 Nubian prince KHABABASH, Persian satrap of Egypt from ?, rebels until 336. 339/8 Shaw 382
337 B76 9-836, Grim 381
c.336 KHABABASH, satrap of Egypt, rebeling from 337, suppressed by Darius-III. 336 B76 9-836, Grim 381
335 B76 6-481
c.333 AMYNTAS son of Antiochus, Macedonian enemy of Alex-III, welcomed in Egypt to assist in destroying Persian garrisons. 333 CAH 6-344, Shaw 382
c.332 ALEX-III goes from Gaza to PELUSIUM, which surrenders to him.  He leaves a garrison at Pelusium.  Macedonian forces move by land and water to Memphis.  Persian satrap Mazaces, having no troops, surrenders the city and its treasury, 800 talents, and all royal stores, hands over all Egypt.  Alex remains in Egypt until 331 333 OCD 797
332 B76 1-470, 6-481, 8-374, CAH 6-810, CDCC 303, CHJ 2-116, DGRBM 2-1003, ISBE 2-46, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, OHG, RAH 332, lvLx, wikAlx     331 hmLx
c.332 EGYPT, under Persia from 343, comes under Alex-III until 323. 332 B76 6-481, CHJ 2, GHH, Shaw, lvG     332/1 CAH 6     331 lvG
c.332 CLEOMENES of Naucratis appointed financial manager and tax collector of Egypt and administrator of eastern Delta by Alex-III until 331.  Charged with completion of Alexandria. 332
OCD 250
332/1 ALEX-III marches south to Heliopolis, accepted as pharaoh by priests at temple of Ra. 332 B76 1-470, NLEM 32
332/1 MCAW 167
spring 331 CDCC 43, hmLx
332/1 ALEX-III, now officially pharaoh, returns to Memphis, sacrifices to sacred bull Apis, and is given the crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. 332 B76 1-470, 8-374 332/1 B76 1-470, 8-374 MCAW 167     331 lvLx
332/1 ALEXANDRIA founded at mouth of west branch of the Nile. 333 OCD 43     332 B76 1-470, 479, BAA 351, Dur 2-458, GHH, TToH     331 B76 8-374, BBA 57, BI+N 121, BNTH 136, April CAH 6, CDCC 35, DGRBM 1-120, IDB 1-79, MCAW 167, OHG, lvLx     no date: LEWH 79
332/1 ALEX-III from Alexandria marches west along the coast to Amunia (called Praetonium by Romans), then southwest to Siwah to visit the temple of Ammon on the Libya border, gets confirmed as son of Ammon, which makes him semi-divine.  After this visit, Alex starts to worship Ammon. 332 B76 1-470, GHH, NLEM 32
332/1 DGRBM,
MCAW 167
spring 331 CDCC 43, hmLx, lvLx, lvPt1
c.331 ARRHYBAS, bodyguard of Alex-III, dies of illness.  Leonatos succeeds. 331 DGRBM 2-753
c.331 Hector, youngest son of Parmenio, accidentally drowns in the Nile. 331 DGRBM 3-126
c.331 ALEX-III returns to Memphis again. 331 lvLx
c.331 Pantaleon appointed governor of Memphis. 331 DGRBM 3-113
c.331 ALEX-III, in Egypt from 332, in Memphis, informed that Samaria had revolted, leaves Egypt under divided administration:  2 garrison commanders (at Memphis & Pelusium), 2 commanders for border districts, 2 Greek mercenary commanders:  Cleomenes & ???, 2 Macedonian officers who control the mercenary commanders.  Polemon son of Theramenes is appointed admiral with 30 triremes to guard the Nile and coast.  All military are under generals Balacrus and Peucestas son of Macaratus, Egyptians under Doloaspis and Petesis.  Alex returns to Levant. 331
B76 1-470, 6-481, 8-374, CHJ 2-117, DGRBM 1-120, 3-228, 433, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, lvLx, wikLx
c.331 CLEOMENES of Naucratis, financial manager of Egypt and administrator of eastern Delta from 332, makes himself satrap of all Egypt without permission from Alex-III. 331 or soon after: OCD 250
no date: OCD 250
c.330 Timotheus Papyrus Timotheus Papyrus :  One of the oldest Greek papyri.  Contains part of a play called  The Persians , buried in a wooden coffin in a tomb at Abusir.  Poet, musician, writer Timotheus of Miletus (446-357) was famous and controversial in his own time as an exponent of "New Music" with the invention of the 11 string kithara and with a taste for epic themes such as the Persian defeat at Salamis.  At the end of his story stand an appeal to the god and a blessing for cities in which his poem is declaimed. photo: {{PD-US}}

4th cen. egmsb     330 CGS 706
c.323 PTOLEMY-I, age 44, arrives in Egypt, becomes satrap until 305 to rule jointly with CLEOMENES of Naucratis until 322. 323 B76 8-376, 15-180, BAA 85, CDCC 732, CHJ 2, Dur 2-555, ISBE 3-1048, Jud 13-1347, Murn, OCD 896, Sdl 5-233, frN, lveg, treg, wikPt1
322 CHJ 2-45, OCD 250
c.323 SERAPIS, a Greek god with Egyptian trappings, is introduced by Ptolemy-I to unify his Greeks with native Egyptians.  Serapis (Osiris + Apis > Oserapis > Sarapis) combines iconography from many cults, signifying abundance and resurrection.   Temple 230. 323 wikSr
284 GHH
c.323 CLEOMENES of Naucratis receives a letter from Alex-III at Babylon ordering him to build at Alexandria a monument to Hephaestion, and promising to ignore Cleomenes' past misconduct if he does a good job of it. 323 DGRBM 1-796
c.323 PTOLEMY-I, at request of a faction of Cyrenean oligarchs, sends a large force under Ophellas, to rescue them from Thibron. no date: wikθb
c.323 Historian THEOPOMPOS on Chios from 333, again forced to flee because of pro-Macedonian sympathies, goes to Egypt, but Ptolemy-I refuses to receive him.  Remains until death (date unknown). 323 lvG, wikθp 321 atl4
305 DGRBM 3-1093
c.323 EGYPT, under Alex-III from 332, comes under Ptolemies until 30.
c.322 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 goes to Damascus, siezes body of Alex-III enroute to Macedonia, diverts it to Memphis.  It eventually ends up in a gold coffin in a tomb in Alexandria, where it remains until 118. 322 MCAW 172
Dec 322 lvLx
321 atl4     no date: B76 8-376, wikLx
c.322 CLEOMENES of Naucratis, technically equal to Ptolemy-I from 323, subordinated under Ptolemy with title of hyparchos until 321. 322
OCD 250
c.321 CLEOMENES of Naucratis, hyparchos of Egypt under Ptolemy-I from 322, executed by Ptolemy. 321 OCD 250
no date: OCD 896
c.321 ANTI-PERDICCAS ALLIANCE is cemented by marriages:
Antipater gives daughters:  Phila-I to Craterus until later 321, Eurydice to Ptolemy, Nicaea, who had once been promised to Perdiccas, marries Lysimachus, governor of Thrace until 301.
322 atl4
321 OCD 325, lvG, lvLx, lvPt1, wikNM
no date: hwD
c.321 ATTALUS son of Andromenes and bro-in-law of Perdiccas, commands fleet of Perdiccas to Egypt. 321 wikAtls
c.321 PERDICCAS, with large army, continues unopposed as far as Pelusium. 321 DGRBM 3-187
c.321 PERDICCAS, Grand vizir of Asia from 323, usurper of imperial title from 322, departs from Anatolia, invades Egypt, tries twice to cross the Nile near Pelusium, but is stopped both times by Ptolemy.  He tries again near Heliopolis, but his men are carried away by the waters.  His troops revolt.  321 B76 8-377, CAH 7.1-129, GHH, MCAW 172, Shaw 389, atl4, wikNpt, wikPt1
320 lvPt1
c.321 Perdiccas is accompanied by king Philip-III Arrhidaeos and wife Euridice, and Roxana with infant Alex-IV. 321 DGRBM 3-187, 664, GHH
c.321 PERDICCAS dies.  Grand vizir of Asia and contender for regency of Macedonia from 323 holds conference in his tent with officers, Peithon, Antigenes, and Seleucus, and is murdered by them.
1st War of the Diadochi from 322 ends.
321 B76 8-377, BI+N 123, CAH 7.1-36, CDCC 847, GHH, ISBE 3-1048, MCAW 172, OCD 799, TAG 6, anan, atl4, hwD, wikArg, wikEur, wikLx     321/20 wikPrd     320 CHJ 2-45, OHG, lvG, lvLx, lvPt1, wikAnt, wikEum, wikPthn
c.321 No foreign army will penetrate Egypt again until 169. 321
CAH 7.1-165
c.321 PTOLEMY-I negotiates with Peithon, Antigenes, and SeleucusPtolemy is offered the regency, but refused to take the bait.  He wants to keep what he has, not risk it in a larger gamble.  Ptolemy therefore appoints Peithon and an officer named Arridaeus regents, two men who lacked prestige and would never be able to stop separatists like Ptolemy. 321
CAH 7.1-36, atl4
320 lvPt1
c.321 ATTALUS, son of Andromenes, bro-in-law of Perdiccas, fleet commander of Perdiccas, escapes with fleet to Tyre. 321 atl4, wikAtls
c.321 Treaty of TRIPARADISUS in North Syria appoints satraps, in effort to hold the empire together.
c. 320

c. 320
HEROPHILOS of Chalcedon, physician, flourishes mostly at Alexandria.  Co-founder of the Alexandrian medical school with younger Erasistratos.  Wrote over 9 works; all lost.

ANATOMY V:  Regognized brain as center of nervous system and seat of intelligence.
Distinguished arteries from veins, and found that they carry only blood (not also air & water, as was believed), but believed they also carry pneuma (spirit).  Noted that arteries pulse, which means he practiced vivisection - on criminals it is said.  1st to: disect a human body publicly (banned outside of Alexandria), propose standardized names for body parts, distinguish cerebrum from cerebellum, motor nerves from sensory nerves.  Brain, not heart, houses the intellect.  Described optic nerve and oculomotor nerve.  Discussed duration and phases pregnancy, and causes of difficult of childbirth.  Discovered the ovum.

Λ MEDICINE:  Introduced experimental method, but still bought into 4 humors theory.  "When health is absent, wisdom cannot reveal itself, art cannot manifest, strength cannot fight, wealth becomes useless, and intelligence cannot be applied."   (See Diocles 350)
320 TTS
300 OCD 59
no date: wikHrp
c.320 ANDROMACHOS (father of Achaeos and bro of Laodice, who married Seleucus Callinicus), imprisoned in Alexandria from ?, released due to intercession of Rhodians. 320 DGRBM 1-172
c.320 PRAXAGORAS of Cos, physician, of the logical or dogmatic school, flourishes (mostly in Alexandria).

Λ ANATOMY:  Proposes a variation of the 4 humors theory (blood, phlegm, yellow & black bile) that most physicians held.  He insists on 11 humors.  Agrees with other Greek physicians that health and disease were controlled by the balance or imbalance of humors.  Thought digestion to be a kind of putrefaction or decomposition, an idea held until the 19th century.  Distinguishes between veins & arteries, but thinks arteries carry air.   (See Hippocrates 400, Diocles 350)
CAH 7.1
no date: TTS, wikPrx
c.320 100,000 Jews deported to Egypt. 320 GHH
c.320 EUCLID, mathematician, begins work at Alexandria. 320 MCAW 175
c.320 NATRON production becomes an important state monopoly. 320 MCAW 175
c.319 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 hearing of death of Antipater, invades PhoeniciaPeithon, Antigenes, and Seleucus accompany. 320 TToH
319 B76 8-377
c.318 BERENICE-I, dau of Lagos and Antigone, sails to Egypt with her children as a lady-in-waiting for her mother's first cousin Eurydice, wife of Ptolemy-I. 318 wikBrn
c.317 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 marries 3rd wife, BERENICE-I, dau of Lagos and Antigone until 285.  Since she is not royal, a genealogy is fabricated making her his half sis. 317 B76 I-994, 15-181, OCD 165, wikBrn     316 atl4
c.316 SELEUCUS-I satrap of Babylonia from 321, loses satrapy, flees to Egypt, given refuge by Ptolemy. 316 B76 16-503, DGRBM 3-771, IDB 4-266, ISBE 3-1048, OCD 971, RAI2 346, RAI3 413     315 B76 8-377, CAH 7.1-46, CDCC 804, 857, atl4
c.315 SELEUCUS-I tries to organize a coalition against ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalamus. 315 atl4
c.315 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 sends Myrmidon, Polycleitus, Menelaos, and SELEUCUS-I to attack ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalamus in different areas. 315 atl4
c.315 MENELAOS, bro of Ptolemy-I sent with 100 ships under Polycleitos and 10,000 men to Cyprus. 315 CAH 6-334, DGRBM 2-1039, DGRBM 3-454
c.315 CASSANDER, LYSIMACHUS, and PTOLEMY ally against ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalamus. 315 LEWH 90
c.313 CAPITAL of Egypt:  Memphis from ?, moved to Alexandria until ?. 313 CAH 7.1
c.313 Ptolemy-I, occupied by a revolt of Cyrene and defection of several of the princes of Cyprus. 313 DGRBM 3-582, atl4
c.312 PTOLEMY-I, on advice of Seleucus, decides to attack Cilicia by land and sea, leads army to Gaza. 312 DGRBM 1-960, 3-583, 771, mid lvD, wikPt1
c.312 After Gaza SELEUCUS at his own request, is sent with only 800 inf and 200 cav by Ptolemy-I to recover Babylon, goes first to Levant. 312 BHS 1-53, DGRBM 3-583, 771
c. 311 3rd War of the Diadochi from 315 ends with attempted treaty:  Cassander, Lysimachus, & PTOLEMY-I agree on status quo with Antigonus-I, except that Seleucus is not mentioned.  This allows ANTIGONUS-I to continue fighting SELEUCUS over Syria and Mesopotamia, CASSANDER to secure Macedonia until 306, and PTOLEMY to continue expanding in the AegeanGreek towns are recognized by all parties as free and autonomous (but Cassander keeps several garrisons in place).  Boy king Alexander, son of Alex-III & Roxane, would rule the entire empire when he comes of age, in 305 (fat chance).  Uneasy peace lasts until 307. 311 B76 1-990, 8-377, 16-503, CAH 7.1-50, ISBE 3-1048, LEWH 90, MCAW 174, OCD 69, OHG, TAG 7, anan, frH, hifi, hwD, lvD, lvG
c.311 PTOLEMY-I takes captives from Judea and Samaria to Egypt and settles them. Antiq 12:1:1
312 1&2BM 67 311 atl4
c.310 PTOLEMY-I satrap of Egypt 323-05 puts bro MENELAUS general in charge of Cyprus. 310 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-53
c.310  Cowley Aramaic Papyrus 81  records that there are 10 Jewish settlements between Migdol (south of Pelusium) and Elephantine.  Reveals commercial activities of Jewish merchant, Abihai, includes many Jewish and Greek names.  In one case only does a Jew have a Greek name. 310 CHJ 2-187
c.310 MONEY VPTOLEMY-I initiates first of 3 successive weight-reductions of silver currency. 310
CAH 7.1-278
c.310 Worship of Alex-III spreads from Alexandria to all Egypt. post-311 CAH 7.1-168
c.310 PHILO the Dialectician studies under DIODOROS CRONOS in Alexandria. 310 CHHΦ
c.310 PTOLEMY-I sails to Cyprus. 310 implied
c.309 PHILITAS of Cos, founder of Alexandrian poetry, appointed tutor of Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy-I. 309 OHG
c.308 PTOLEMY-I, satrap of Egypt 323-95, invades PELOPONNESE.  Captures Corinth, Sicyon, Megara, stays until 308. 309 rcPl     308 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1, DGRBM 1-620, 3-583, ISBE 3-1048, TAG 80, 371, atl4, hwD
c.308 Ptolemy-I, in Corinth 308, loses local support, comes to terms with Cassander, retires to Egypt. 308 B76 8-378, hwD, lvD
c.308 MAGAS, step-son of PTOLEMY, in Egypt from ?, appointed to command expedition to recover Cyrene after murder of Ophellas 308. 308 DGRBM 2-898
c.307 Athenian orator DEMETRIUS of Phalerum, in Boeotia 307, goes to Egypt until death 280. 307 DGRBM 1-970, Dur 2-586
post-297 wikDΦ
c.307 DEMETRIUS of Phalerum persuades Ptolemy-I to collect copies of all known books at Alexandria. 307 TTT
c.306 After conquest of Cyprus, Antigonus-I in Syria assumes royal title for himself (until 301) and his son DEMETRIUS-I.  Therefore the following do likewise:  PTOLEMY-I, SELEUCUS, LYSIMACHUS.
CASSANDER refrains temporarily.
307 LEWH 90     306 B76 8-378, CDCC 52, 266, 537, DGRBM 3-583, GHH, MCAW 178, OCD 69, 632, anan, hifi, hwD, rcSB2, wikAntg
c.306 LIBRARY of ALEXANDRIA begun by Ptolemy-I aided by Demetrius of Phalerum, who persuades Ptolemy to collect copies of all known books.  Gramarian ZENODOTUS of Ephesus is first librarian until 297. 307 TToH, TTT 306 MCAW 179
c.306 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, and ally Medios of Larissa, try to invade Egypt by land and sea, get as far as the Nile, fight Ptolemy-I until 305. 306 DGRBM 2-1004, GHH, OCD 69, Shaw 389, TAG 9, atl4, wikWD
c.306 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus troops start to desert, land attack is repelled by Ptolemy-I. 306 DGRBM 1-188, LEWH 90, atl4 306/5 ISBE 3-1048
c.305 PTOLEMY-I, satrap of Egypt from 323, declares himself king of Egypt until 285.
PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY begins until 30.
306 lvG, nar     305 B76 8-378, CAH 7.1-57, 480, CDCC 731, GEoP, IDB 2-55, 3-964, ISBE 3-1048, JIAE, Jud 13-1347, RAH, Shaw, ae, atl4, frN, ktut, resh, scar, wikP, phou
304 OCD 896, pic, tig
c.302 CASSANDER initiates a coalition against AntigonusLysimachus, Seleucus-I, and Ptolemy-I join. 303 ISBE 3-1048
302 DGRBM 2-868, 3-583, 771, atl4, wikPt1
c. 301

c. 301
RESULTS of IPSUS:  Kingdom of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus is split up.
LYSIMACHUS in Thrace receives eastern Aegean, north and central Anatolia.
Demetrius delivers his wife's bro PYRRHUS of Epirus as a hostage to Egypt.
PLEISTARCHUS, bro of Cassander, gets Lycia and Cilicia until 299.
SELEUCUS-I Nicator gets Syro-Palestine, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Persia as far as Sogdiana and Bactria.
CASSANDER is king of Macedonia, and is declared king of Greece, but DEMETRIUS Poliorcetes holds a fleet, Peloponnese, Aegean islands, Cyprus, Tyre, and some cities in Anatolia.
PTOLEMY gets Cyrenaica, Egypt, south Palestine, coastal Syria, and some parts of Lycia and Pisidia.
North Cappadocia goes to Ariarathes.
B76 8-378, MCAW 183, OCD 69, 632, 1031, MRDK,
RAH 378, anan, lvD, rcT
300 lvG
c.301 Over 30,000 Jews are taken from Judea to Egypt. 302 CHJ 2-187
301 atl4
by 301 PTOLEMY-I finishes his  History of Alexander . by 301 lvPt1
by 301 Cotton trade and manufacturing flourish in Egypt. by 301 GHH
Ptolemy-I family

Egypt 300-201