by 500 MINES at Mt. LAURION provide Athens with Lead, silver, zinc, and iron. by 500 LEWH 75 484 GHH
c.500 IRON is common in Greece and Aegean islands. 500 B76 18-30
c.500 THESSALIANS invade PHOCIS, and are defeated in 2 battles. 500 B76 8-345
c.500 Chalcidian helmet Chalcidian bronze helmet.  (Chalcis Euboea, not Chalcidice)  Also worn extensively in Greek southern parts of Italy in same period. photo: OTRS

500 wikCH
c.500 Corinthian helmet Corinthian bronze helmet from the tomb of Denda.  This model tips back over the head, and is depicted on more sculpture and paintings than any other helmet. photo: GNU FDL

500 wikCrH
c.500 CINEAS ends.  King of Thessaly from ?.  THORAX succeeds until 476. 500 rcSB2
c.500 THEATER in Greece, containing a partly religious function, has been free to the public.  Each Theater structure is built for each festival, and torn down afterward.  A roofed theater is so over-crowded that the wooden scaffolding falls in.  This provokes the building of permanent theatres.  Theater owners start charging 2 obols. 500
CDGRA 625, DGRA 1126, ScDGRA 317, 321
c.500 Theater of Dionysus begun with the orchestra circle on southeast slope of Acropolis at Athens, originally part of the sanctuary of Dionysus Eleuthereus.  Not finished until 338. 500 DGRG 1-257, 284, OCD 141     493 TToH
c.500 SATYR PLAY introduced to Athens by Pratinas of Phlios, 1st satyrical dramatist.  Baudy satire featuring choruses of satyrs, and based on Greek mythology, rife with mock drunkenness, ribald sexuality including phallic props, pranks, sight gags.  Tracable to ancient rural celebrations in honor of Dionysus. 500 CDGRA 638, TToH, wikPr, wikSP
c.500 Poet STOBAEOS play  Florilegium .
"Life is a theater in which the worst people often have the best seats."
MNDQ 687
It must have been fun to watch the front rows and see who didn't laugh. Cary
c.500 70th OLYMPIC GAMES adds a mule-cart race. 500 wikAOG
c.500 HERMOCREON, eponymous archon of Athens from 501, ends.  SMYROS succeeds until 499. 500 GHH, wikEA
c.500 EPIMENIDES, religious teacher of Crete, is active at Athens, according to Plato. 500
OCD 398
c.500 SLAVES constitute half the adult population of Athens. 500 TTT
c.500 PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE is biggest single force in Greek interstate affairs. by 500
B76 8-349
c.500 GREEK POTTERY:  Red figures on black ground from 530, begins its greatest period from now to 480. 500 B76 14-899
c. 500 Kylix cup KYLIX wine drinking cup used in Greece.  The near flat interior circle on the interior base of the cup, called the tondo, is painted in Black or Red-figure style.  The picture is revealed gradually as the wine is drained.  The bowl held roughly 8 oz/250ml.  The word comes from the Greek kylix "cup", which is cognate with Latin calix, the source of the English word "chalice". photo GNU FDL

500 wikKlx
c.500 Persian-Greek duel A Persian archer is overcome by a Greek hoplite.  Both use a kopis sword.  The picture is painted in a kylix. photo {{PD-US}}

500 wikKp
c.500 GREEK WRITING only now becomes consistently left to right. by 500 B76 1-623
c.500 FILTERS:  Hippocrates of Cos, physician, invents HIPPOCRATIC SLEEVE, a bag for filtering liquids. 500 bhwp, kcd, rndm, wikans
c.499 ARISTAGORAS, tyrant of Miletos, goes to Greece until 498, reverses policy, now tries to get Greeks to support Ionia against PersiansAristagoras visits Sparta, and is refused by Cleomenes-I of Sparta, but successful in Athens and Eretria. 500 DGRBM 1-792
499 CAH 4-218, CDCC 488, MCAW 104, OCD 109     499/8 B76 I-514
498 LEWH 67
c.499 ARISTAGORAS exhibits at Sparta a map on copper of the countries between Ionia and Susa. 500 DGRG 1-235
c.499 MILTIADES, Athenian tyrant of Chersonese 516-?, vassal of Persia from 513, joins Ionian Revolt 499
B76 12-203
c.499 SMYROS eponymous archon of Athens from 500, ends.  LACRATIDES succeeds until 498, after which the successor is unknown until 497. 499 wikEA
c.499 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 refuses to support Ionian Revolt.  Remains unaware of Persian threat until 491. 499 MCAW 104, OCD 250
c.499 AESCHYLUS, Athenian playwright age 26, produces his 1st play, competes in tragedy competition, but loses to Pratinas and Phrynichos. 499 CDGRA 638, DGRBM 1-40, Dur 2-383, GHH, MCAW 107, bk
c.498 AMYNTAS-I ends.  Argead king of Macedon from 547.  Son ALEXANDER-I succeeds until 454.  Alexander-I is the 1st Macedonian lover of Greek culture. 500 GHH     498 rcSB2, wikArg, wikAlx1, wikAmnt, wikLKM
495 MRDK, OCD 39, vrb
480 IDB 3-216
c.498 Athens sends 20 ships (Eretria sends 5.) to help Ionians against Persians.  Unsuccessful. 498 LEWH 67,
MCAW 104, OCD 140
c.498 PINDAR, lyric poet of Cynocephalae Thessaly, publishes  Pythian Ode #10 ,  his earliest surviving poem. 498 B76 14-466, MCAW 107, OCD 833, OHG
Macedonia Thrace
c.497 Athenians try and fail to conquer Eion and Ennea Hodoi (later called Amphipolis) on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice. 497 OCD 54, lvG
c.497 BYZANTIUM, under Persia from 512, joins Ionian Revolt until 494. 497 rcT
496 B76 9-1069
c.497 ARISTAGORAS of Miletos flees from Medo-Persians to Ennea Hodoi, on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice, but is driven out, killed in battle by Thracians, his army massacred. 497 B76 I-514, CAH 4-224, DGRBM, DGRG 1-126, GHH, IDB 1-121, MCAW 107
c.497 ARCHIAS becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 496. 497 wikEA
c.497 Greeks and Cartaginians begin trading. 497 GHH
c.496 Scythians, consolidated after repelling the Persians, invade south of Danube as far as Thracian Chersonese. 496 CHEIA 101, vrb
c.496 MILTIADES, former tyrant of Chersonese, exiled from ?, restored to tyranny by Thracians until 490.  CHERSONESE under Miltiades until 493. 496 GRG 264, OCD 687
c.496 ARCHIAS eponymous archon of Athens from 495, ends.  HIPPARCHOS, Pisistratid anti-Ionian, elected until 495. 496 CAH 4-196, LEWH 66, wikEA
c.495 HIPPARCHOS, Pisistratid anti-Ionian eponymous archon of Athens from 496, ends.  PHILIPPOS succeeds until 494. 495 wikEA
c.494 BYZANTIUM, with Ionian Revolt from 497, back under Persia until 478. 494 rcT
c.494 PHILIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 495, ends.  PYTHOCRITOS succeeds until 493. 494 GHH, wikEA
c.494 ArgolisCLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 attacks ARGOS just to prove Spartan superiority.  Wipes out Argive force at Sepeia near Tiryns, but is repelled from the walls of ARGOS by its women rallied by poetess Telesila. 494 B76 II-989, CAH 4-164, CDCC 488, LEWH 65,
OCD 106, 250, OHG 40
494 ±2 At the 71st or 72nd Olympic games, boxer Kleomedes of Astypalia, using illegal tactics, kills his opponent Ikkos.  He is disqualified and heavily fined.  Kleomedes is so angry he returns to his home town, and pulls out a post supporting a school roof.  Many children are killed.  The people stoned him.  He runs into a temple and climbs into a chest.  When the people open it, he is gone.  The oracle orders the people to worship Kleomedes as a hero and a divinity. 496 or 92 wik
c.493 PYTHOCRITOS Archon of Athens from 494, ends.  Anti-Persian war-hawk THEMISTOCLES the lesser, elected until mid 492. 493 B76 18-269, Dur 2-66, CAH 4-170, LEWH 66, OCD 1053, OHG, RAH 193, lvG, rcSB3, wikEA
c.493 MILTIADES, tyrant of Chersonese from 496, vassal of DARIUS-I from 513 flees from Persians, returns to Athens.  CHERSONESE, under Miltiades family from 555, comes under Persia until 480. 493 CAH 4-170-1, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 229, 687, TToH, rcT     492 wikMltY
c.493 XANTHIPPOS brings MILTIADES to trial for becoming a vassal of Persians 513-499, though he is ostensibly tried for "tyranny". 493 CAH 4-170-1, OCD 229, 687, 1140
c.493 PHRYNICOS, tragic dramatist of Athens, produces  Fall of Miletos .  Reminds Athenians so vividly of Persian infamy and Greek shame that he is fined 1,000 drachmas. 494 DGRA 1144, MCAW 107 493 CAH 4-170, RAH 193, bk 492 OCD 829
no date: B76 VII-973
c. 493/2 THEMISTOCLES, archon 493/2, persuades Athenians to transfer their fleet from the closer but open bay of Phaleron to the closed bay at PIRAEUS promontory 4 miles southwest of Athens.  Fortifications are begun, but not finished until after the Persian wars.  Soon becomes a port town. 493 B76 VII-1026, Dur 2-237
493/2 B76 18-269, CDCC 684, 878, OCD 835, OHG 40
c.492 1st Persian punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eritrea led by MARDONIUS, who crosses Hellespont accompanied by a large fleet (mostly Phoenician) and remains in Europe until later that year.  PERSIAN WARS begin until 479, 1st until 490. 492 DGRBM, LEWH 67, RAH 194, lvG, Φnc
c.492 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Thracian tribes from 675, comes under Persians until 480. 493 rcEB
c.492 THRACE conquered by MARDONIUS.  Under Persians until 479. 496 GHH     492 B76 9-835, LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 804, lvG
c.492 MACEDONIA submits to MARDONIUS.  Under Persians until 479. 497 GHH
492 DGRBM 1-118, lvG
c.492 ALEXANDER-I king of Macedon 495-50, reluctant ally of Xerxes-I 492-?, is compelled to furnish troops to MARDONIUS. 492 LEWH 67, MCAW 104, OCD 39
c.492 Anti-Persian war-hawk THEMISTOCLES the lesser, eponymous archon of Athens from 493, ends.  DIOGNETOS succeeds until 491. 492 GHH, rcSB3, wikEA
c.492 MARDONIUS sends fleet to punish AthensFleet is destroyed in a storm off Mt. Athos in Chalcidice.  Mardonius withdraws from Thrace to Anatolia. 492 B76 8-349, CDCC 181, DGRG 1-309, GHH,
LEWH 67, OCD 143, Φnc
c.491 Mardonius tells Greeks that Darius-I demands earth and water (submission) from them. 492 TToH     491 CAH 4, DGRBM, GHH
c.491 CLEOMENES-I Agiad king of Sparta 519-490 tries to arrest pro-Persian party at Aegina island.  Thwarted by Eurypontid colleague DEMARATOS, who gets the Aeginetans to refuse to recognize Cleomenes' authority. 491 B76 II-989, DGRBM 1-958, OCD 250, 324
c.491 CLEOMENES-I persuades Delphic Oracle to declare Demaratos illegitimate. 491 OCD 250, 324
c.491 Son of Ariston, DEMARATOS ends.  15th Eurypontid king of Sparta from 515 (with Cleomenes-I), falsely charged with illegitimacy by Cleomenes-I, deposed, flees to Darius-I.  Son of Menares, LEOTYCHIDAS-II succeeds to 469. 491 B76 VI-157, DGRBM 2-761, Dur 2-722, GHH, OCD 324, 596, 1007, MRDK, bk, lvG, rcPl, wikKS
c.491 DIOGNETOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 492, ends.  HYBRILIDES succeeds until 490. 491 GHH, rcSB3, wikEA
c.491 CLEOMENES-I tries to unite the Arcadians against Sparta, and to get Arcadian leaders to swear to obey him.  He fails and returns to Sparta. 491 CAH 6-583
c.491 Athens and Sparta come closer together because of Persian threat, try to prevent ally Aegina from defecting to Persia, fail to plan unified defense. 491
B76 8-310
c.491 AEGINA Island, fearing loss of Pontic trade, allies with Medo-Persia, and is therefore attacked by Athens. 491 CAH 4, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 105, OCD 12
490 2nd Persian punitive expedition to punish Athens and Eritrea led by ARTAPHERNES-II, son of the satrap of Sardis, and his uncle DATIS, a Mede.  Both sail from Aegean to Euboea with 200,000 Medo-Persian troops.  Artaphernes besieges Eretria.
Hippias, X-tyrant of Athens, is with them, hoping to be restored.
491 DGRBM,
Dur 2-235
490 BI+N 120, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 140, 804, OHG, SHWC 63, RAH 195, lvG
490 ERETRIA Euboea besieged by Atraphernes until later 490. 490 B76 8-349, DGRG 1-847, OCD 412, LEWH 67, lvG
490 CARYSTOS Euboea taken by Persians until ?. 490 B76 III-985
490 ChalcidiceACANTHOS Chalcidice comes under Persia until 479. 490 rcSB2
490 In Aegina / Athens war, Athenian SOPHANES kills Argive Eurybates in single combat. 490 DGRBM 3-865
490 Aegina island defeats Athenians at sea. 490 CAH 4
490 Temple of Aphaea on Aegina Island. 490 Dur 2-66
490 Aug.

490 Aug.
MarathonTraitors in ERETRIA Euboea open gates.  Aug 3, ERETRIA Euboea falls to ARTAPHERNES, and is destroyed, inhabitants enslaved and deported to Elam.
CARYSTOS, after slight resistance, is also captured.

Artaphernes and Datis, guided by Hippias, land unopposed in Attica at Bay of Marathon Aug 7.
B76 III-985, 8-130, 349, DGRBM, DGRG 1-556, 847, 872, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 140, 412, OHG, RAH 195
490 Aug. 3rd Temple of APOLLO DAPHNEPHOROS at Eretria Euboea from 725 destroyed by Persians, but inscriptions indicate that the site remains a cult center. 490 CDCC 332, prs
490 Aug PHIDIPPIDES, (later corrupted to Philippides) Athenian courier at Marathon, runs 150 miles in 2 days to solicit Spartan help against Persians at Marathon. 490 B76 8-349, MCAW 108, OCD 811
490 CALLIMACHOS Athenian commander, and strategos ARISTIDES both accept Miltiades' plan to meet the Persians in the field rather than sit and wait for them to attack. 490 OCD 110, 194, 688
490 Aug. BATTLE of MARATHON:  Athenians under CALLIMACHOS and strategos ARISTIDES, aided by Plataeans, outnumbered more than 2 to 1, defeat Persians under DATIS.   DETAILS 490 B76 8-310, 349, 9-835, CAH 4, CDCC 550, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG 281, ISBE 1-868, LEWH 67, MCAW 108, OCD 194, 480, 688, OHG, RAH, TToH, bk, vrb
Herodotus says 192 Greeks and 6,400 Persians are killed.
490 Athens has no cavalry V at Marathon. 490 CDGRA 285
490 Aug. Athenian polemarch CALLIMACHOS, commander of the right wing at Marathon, killed in battle. 490 DGRBM 1-571, OCD 194
490 Aug PHIDIPPIDES, Athenian courier at Marathon, runs 26 miles to Athens:
  1.  before the battle to ask for Spartan aid.
  2.  after the battle to inform them of victory.
In either case, he dies of exhaustion.
490 DGRBM 3-255, TTPC 15
490 Aug. Artaphernes and army retreat to fleet, sail around to attack Athens. 490 B76 8-310, MCAW 108
490 Aug. Athenian army returns soon enough to prevent the pro-Pisistratid Alcmaeonids from surrendering Athens to Artaphernes.  Persians sail away to Ionia.   1st PERSIAN WAR from 492 ends. 490 LEWH 67, MCAW 108
490 Aug. SPARTANS, after waiting for a full moon in accordance with religious observances, arrive at Athens too late to be of any use. 490 B76 8-310, 349, MCAW 109
c. 490 Athenian CYNAEGEIRUS does some heroics at Marathon that expand with time.  Herodotus says he siezed a Persian ship, but gets his right hand cut off before being killed.  The next version says he then grabbed the Persian ship with his left hand before being killed.  Justin will say after losing both hands, he clung on with his teeth. 490 DGRBM 1-911
c.490 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos Island, in Thessaly from 514, returns to Athens until 476. 490 OCD 991
c.490 ALCMAEONID family of Athens suspected of collusion with Persians. 490 OCD 38
c.490 HIPPIAS, former tyrant of Athens 527-10, dies at Lemnos enroute to Anatolia. 490 B76 V-55, Dur 2-730, MCAW 111
c.490 Son of Alaxandridas, CLEOMENES-I dies.  15th Agiad king of Sparta from 520 (with Leotychidas-II from 491), dies mysteriously.  Suicide in a fit of insanity according to Herodotus.  Half bro LEONIDAS succeeds to 480. 491 DGRBM 2-750
490 B76 II-989, VI-152, 8-348, CDCC 486, Dur 2-719, OCD 250, 1007, OHG, rcPl, wikKS
489 MCAW 111, MRDK
488 lvG
c.490 Power of EPHORS at Sparta peaks. 490 GHH
c.490 Helots of Messenia, under Sparta from ?, rebel, hold up in fortress on Mt. Ithome. 490
B76 VI-822
c.490 HYBRILIDES, eponymous archon from 491, ends.  PHOENIPPOS succeeds until 489. 491 GHH 490 wikEA
c.489 MILTIADES (hero of Marathon) advocates and leads a 70 ship expedition to conquer the islands which had submitted to Persia, starts with PAROS Island.  Fails miserably.  Loses popularity. 490 DGRBM 3-1286, LEWH 67, OCD 1053     490/89 OCD 1140 489 B76 8-349, 12-204, Dur 2-66, MCAW 108, OCD 240, 688, RAH 199, bk, wikMltY
c.489 MILTIADES (hero of Marathon) prosecuted for failure at Paros by Xanthippos, sentenced to death, commuted to a fine of 50 talents.  He can't pay it, and is imprisoned. 490 DGRBM 3-1286
489 B76 8-349, 12-204, Dur 2-66, MCAW 108, OCD 240, 688, RAH 199, bk, wikMltY     488 GHH
c.489 PHOENIPPOS, eponymous archon from 490, ends.  ARISTIDES the Just, strategos from 490, succeeds until 488. 489 CAH 4, CDCC 76, Dur 2-66, OCD 110, OHG 40, wikEA
c.489 Athenians gather much spoils from Marathon and deposit it in Delphi. 489 MCAW 109
c.489 Athens dominant in Aegean. 489 GHH
c. 489 MILTIADES the elder dies in disgrace of wounds received at Paros Island.  Son CIMON, in order to obtain the corpse for burial, takes his place in prison until the 50 talent fine imposed on Miltiades is paid by Callias on his marriage to Cimon's sister.  CIMON, now a role model for piety, is poised to enter Athenian politics. 489 B76 18-270, DGRBM 1-750, OCD 240, 687, bk, lvG
488 Dur 2-736, TToH
c.488 Athenian CONSTITUTION REFORM begins until 487. 488 LEWH 67
c.488 ARISTIDES the Just, eponymous archon from 489, ends.  ANCHISES succeeds until 487. 488 wikEA
c.488 COMEDY brought to Attica.  Comic poet Chiones (Chionides) produces 1st play. 488 DGRA 343 487 GHH
c.487 Provision of COMEDY V at the Athenian City Dionysia (until now performed by volunteers) is made an official part of the Dionysia and the responsibility of a particular city magistrate.  The CHOREGIA for comedy begins.   (See comedy 560) 488 OCD 269
488/7 OHG 180
487 OHG     486 B76 10-1092, CDCC 222, OCD 230, MCAW 109
c.487 Athenian comic poet Chionides first exhibits. 487 DGRBM
c.487 MEGACLES, archon from 490, ends.  THEMISTOCLES succeeds until 476. 487 rcSB3
c.487 ANCHISES, eponymous archon from 488, ends.  TELESINOS succeeds until 486. 487 wikEA
c.487 AEGINA Island has undecisive war with Athens until 483. 489 LEWH 67
487 MCAW 108, OHG, bk
c. 487 Athenian CONSTITUTION REFORM inspired by Themistocles:  The 9 ARCHONSV, elected by Assembly from 713, are henceforth chosen by LOT (i.e. luck) from 500 candidates elected by the Demes, later from a body of 100.  Thereby their political importance ends until 458.  No important politicians become archons afterward.
To guard against tyranny, OSTRACISM, an uninforced law from 508, is introduced:  No less than 6,000 votes are cast for the title of least popular man in Athens.  The "winner" must leave Athens for 10 years.  He remains a citizen, and keeps his property.  Ostracism repealed 452.
487 B76 8-340, 352, CAH 4-51, CDGRA 65, Dur 2-263, LEWH 67, MCAW 109, OCD 101, 762, OHG 39, RAH 199
487/6 CAH 4
c.487 DEMOCRACY, in Athens from 508, is compromized by oligarchic powers until 462/1. guess
c.487 HIPPARCHOS son of Charmos is the 1st man ostracized from Athens. 488/7 lvG     487 CAH 4-152, bk
OCD 762, OHG     487/6 LEWH 68
c.486 Alcmaeonid MEGACLES, son of Hippocrates, and neph of Cleisthenes, is the 2nd man ostracized from Athens. 487/6 lvG     486 CAH 4-153, OCD 38, 762     486/5 LEWH 68
c.486 TELESINOS, eponymous archon from 487, ends.  Successor unknown until 485. 486 wikEA
c.486 Athens sends troops to help Egypt against Persians. 487 OHG     486 B76 9-835, MCAW 108     485 CAH 4-23
c.485 Callias "the Mede", a partisan of Hippias is the 3rd man ostracized from Athens. 485 OCD 762
c.485 Athens and Aegina island renew hostilities. 485 CAH 4     484 GHH
c.485 PHILOCRATES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 484. 485 wikEA
c.485 Scythian / Thracian war from 496 ends with treaty establishing the Danube as boundary. 485 vrb
c.485 SCYTHIANS, occupying lands south of the Danube from 496, make treaties with Thracians and others, and withdraw to north of Danube. 486/5 lvG 485 vrb
c.485 ANACREON, poet of Teos Ionia, in Thessaly from 514, dies. 495 TToH     485 bk 475 Dur 2-711
500-475 SHIELD PATTERNS by Luke Sarson.
c.484 Alcmaeonid XANTHIPPOS, son of Ariphron, father of Pericles, and husband of Megacles" sis Agariste, ally of the Alcmaeonids, is the 4th man ostracized from Athens, but he receives amnesty in 480. 485/4 lvG
484 CAH 4, OCD 38, 762, 1140, bk 484/3 LEWH 68
c.484 PHILOCRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 485, ends.  LEOSTRATOS succeeds until 483. 484 wikEA
c.484 HALIARTOS Boeotia resists Persians, and is destroyed.  Soon rebuilt. 484 DGRG 1-1026
c.484 Temple of Demeter at Eleusis Attica burnt by Persians.  Not restored until time of Pericles. 484 DGRG 1-813
c.484 AESCHYLUS, Athenian playwright, wins 1st victory at the City Dionysia, but the play is now lost. 484 B76 1-148, CDCC 16, CDGRA 638, DGRBM 1-40, 3-869, Dur 2-383, GHH, MCAW 109, OCD 17, OHG, TToH, TTPC
c.484/3 Callixenos, son of Aristonymos, is the 5th man ostracized from Athens. 484/3 lvG
c.484/3 Anti-Persian party (nobles led by ARISTIDES, commons led by THEMISTOCLES) gains power in Athens. no date: LEWH 67
c.483 ChalcidicePersians in Chalcidice, to avoid repeating the naval disaster of 492, begin a canal across ATHOS, the east promontory of Chalcidice, until 481. 483
OCD 143
c.483 LEOSTRATOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 484, ends.  NICODEMOS succeeds until 482. 483 wikEA
c.483 SILVER strike at mines at Mt. Laurion rescues Athenian treasury with 100 extra talents. 484 GHH     483 CDCC 608, Dur 2-270, OCD 1053     483/2 lvG     482 OHG 40
c.483 THEMISTOCLES persuades Athenians to use silver from mines at Mt. Laurion to build navy from 70 to 200 triremes.  ARISTIDES would rather distribute the money among the citizens. 483 B76 18-270, CDCC 878, CGS 578, MCAW 109, OCD 1053, TToH 483/2 CAH 4     482 Dur 2-237, OHG 40, bk     no date: LEWH 67
c.483 Athens / Aegina Island war, intermittent from 487, ends indecisively.  Peace treaty in 481. 483 LEWH 67, OHG
c.482 ABDERA Thrace, under Greeks of Teos from 541, comes under Persia until 479. 482 rcSB2
Macedonia Thrace
c.482 ARISTIDES "the Just" is 6th man ostracised from Athens because of opposition to Themistocles' plan to use silver from Laurion to build a fleet.  Aristides receives amnesty in 480. 483 DGRBM 3-1026, GHH
483/2 CAH 4, DGRBM 1-294, lvG 482 B76 I-515, 8-350, CAH 4, CDCC 76, Dur 2-237, OCD 110, 762, RAH 199, TToH, bk
c.482 NICODEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 483, ends.  Successor unknown until 481. 482 wikEA
c.481 Persian canal across ATHOS, the east promontory of Chalcidice, begun 483, completed.  1½ miles long, 65-100 feet deep, 20 feet wide. 481 OCD 143 480 CDCC 160, 181
c.481 HYPSICHIDES becomes eponymous archon of Athens until 480. 481 wikEA
c.481 Themistocles is eponymous archon. 481 DGRBM 3-1026
481 fall Pan-Hellenic congress assembles at Isthmus of Corinth.  Some are not prepared for active resistance against PersiaPeloponnesian League follows Sparta.  Argos remains stubbornly neutral until 479. 481 B76 8-350, CAH 4, OCD 805, RAH 200, lvG 480 OCD 106, OHG 41
c.481 Spartan EURYBIADES becomes 1st admiral of Peloponnesian League until 480. 481 OCD 422
480 early XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65, now at Sardis, demands earth and water (submission) from all Greek states.  Most refuse. 480 LEWH 68
c.480 Athenians Cimon, Xanthippos, and Myronides sent to Sparta. 480 OCD 716
480 spring XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 with 180,000 troops crosses to Europe on pontoon bridges from Abydos.  Advances slowly.   2nd PERSIAN WAR begins until 479. 480 B76 8-310, 9-835, BI+N 120, CDCC 938, IDB 4-922, ISBE 3-778, MCAW 113, OCD 1, 140, 595, 1144, OHG, SHWC 63, lvG, vrb
c.480 WINCH:  Wooden winches used by Persians to tighten cables for a pontoon bridge. 480 wikWn
480 ±20 Zeus ZEUS the QUARTERBACK.
Bronze statuette from Dodona.
I pirated the pic.   Sorry.   Couldn't resist.
early 5th cen B76 X-877
Macedonia Thrace
c.480 BOGES, king of Eion Thrace, submits to Xerxes-I, continues in office until 475. 480 DGRBM 1-498
c.480 TIMOXENOS commander of the troops of Scione Chalcidice, tries to betray Potidaea to Xerxes-I, but his treachery is discovered. 480 DGRBM 3-1151
c.480 ALEXANDER-I king of Macedon 498-52 becomes ally of Xerxes-I. 480 lvG
c.480 Delphic oracle advises Athenians to trust in "wooden walls" to defend against the Persians.  Priests interpret it as advice to stay in the city.  Themistocles says the oracle refers to ships. 480 OHG 312
c.480 Themistocles persuades Athenians to build 200 ships. 481 DGRBM, GHH
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela 490-78, Syracuse 485-78 sends a treasure ship under Cadmos to Delphi, with orders to give the treasure to the Persians if they win, and bring it back if the Greeks win.  Cadmos obeys completely. 480 DGRBM 1-524
c.480 DEMARATOS, former Eurypontid king of Sparta 515-491 assists Xerxes-I against Greece. 480
OCD 324
c.480 ALFALFA, used by Persians as horse fodder, introduced to Greece.  Greeks begin growing it 470. no date: TTPC
480 GENERAL AMNESTY granted to ostracized Athenians because of approach of Xerxes-I.  Enemies of Themistocles return. 481 OCD 1053, bk 480 OCD 110
480 ARISTIDES ostracised from 482 recalled from Aegina to Athens, becomes strategos until at least 478. 480 B76 I-515, CDCC 76, DGRBM 1-294, GHH, OCD 110
480 All 30 Greek states hold a congress, form alliance under LEONIDAS Agiad king of Sparta 490-80. 481 OHG 41 480 B76 8-310
480 ThessalyTHEMISTOCLES, sent to hold the pass at Tempe Thessaly, withdraws at sight of Persian army. 480 CDCC 878, LEWH 68
480 Greek strategy:  Hold back the Persians at Thermopylae, while the Greek fleet at the Gulf of Artemisium defeats the Persian fleet and compells a Persian retreat. 480 CAH 5, LEWH 68
480 LEONIDAS Agiad king of Sparta 490-80, with a guard of 300 troops, marches toward Thermopylae, picks up volunteers enroute, secures the pass with 7,000 hoplites. 480 B76 8-311, 348, OCD 250, 595, 1007, OHG     489 MRDK
480 XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 (with 1,700,000 troops according to Herodotus) dispatches 200 ships around Euboea to close the channel.  Greeks don't see them. 480 B76 8-311
480 EURYBIADES, admiral of Sparta 490-80, commands 271 ships stationed at Artemisium Cape in north Euboea.  They are forced to withdraw by the Persian fleet. 480 B76 8-311, CAH 4, OCD 805, OHG
480 Battle of THERMOPYLAE begins.  XERXES-I attacks Thermopylae with best infantry, suffers heavy losses. 480 B76 8-311, CAH 4, GHH
480 ThermopylaeGreek traitor EPHIALTES informs Persians of a mountain pass by which troops can get behind Leonidas and his Greeks.
Persians, guided by Ephialtes, send top Persian infantry around Thermopylae, rout a small Phocian guard.
480 B76 8-311, LEWH 68
480 Greeks at Thermopylae outflanked by Persians.  Rear guard is destroyed. 480 OCD 805
480 LEONIDAS learns of defeat of rear guard.  Retains 300 Spartans, 700 Thespians, and some Thebans.  Sends the rest home. 480 B76 8-311, LEWH 68, MRDK, OCD 1007
480 STORM prevents admiral Eurybiades from sailing from Artemisium Cape in north Euboea to face Persian fleet at southeast end of channel.  Same storm wrecks the 200 Persian ships south of Euboea. 480 B76 8-311
480 ARISTIDES, with some troops from Salamis, lands on Psyttaleia (a small island between Salamis and Piraeus), kills some Persian troops. 480 DGRBM 3-1028
480 XERXES-I attacks Thermopylae again, unsuccessful. 480 B76 8-311
480 Thebans at Thermopylae surrender to Persians. 480 B76 8-311, LEWH 68, TTPC
480 Prior to the battle, 2 Spartans ARISTODEMOS and EURYTOS, are absent for disputed reasons.  Eurytos returns to Thermopylae, and is killed.  Aristodemos returns to Sparta.  The Spartans declare him "atimos".  "no man gave him light for his fire, no man spoke to him.  He was called Aristodemos the coward." 480 DGRBM 1-304
480 Leonidas Son of Alaxandridas, LEONIDAS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from 490, with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, killed.  Battle of THERMOPYLAE ends.  Bro CLEOMBROTOS succeeds to October.
This bust of a Spartan hoplite, created 480-70, is often called Leonidas.
photo David Holt

480 B76 VI-152, MCAW 112, MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG, rcPl
480 CLEOMBROTOS Agiad king of Sparta, tries to defend Greece at Corinth.  Orders a wall to be built across the isthmus. 480 lvP
c. 480 Temple of Apollo at DELPHI attacked by Persians.  Delphians seek safety on Mt. Parnassus, but are forbidden by Apollo to remove the treasures from his temple.  Only 60 Delphians remain behind.  When the Persians climb the rugged path leading to the shrine, and had already reached the temple of Athena Pronaea, thunder is heard, from the temple of Athena, and 2 huge crags roll down from the mountains, and crush many to death.  The Persians turn and flee, pursued by 2 warriors of superhuman size, whom the Delphians claim to be heroes Phylacus and Autonous, whose sanctuaries are near the spot. 480 DGRG 1-762, OCD 322
c.480 PLATAEA Boeotia sacked by Persians. 480 OCD 839
c.480 THEBES, under oligarchy, collaborates with Persians until 479. 480 OCD 1052
c.480 PHOCIS, west of Boeotia, destroyed by Persians. 480 CDCC 682
c.480 Boeotians, Phocians, and Locrians surrender to Persians. 480 LEWH 68, GHH
480 EURYBIADES, admiral of Sparta 490-80, learns of defeat at Thermopylae, withdraws his 271 ships from Gulf of Artemisium to Saronic Gulf between Athens and Salamis.  It is boxed in by the superior Persian fleet. 480 B76 8-311, 344, LEWH 68, OCD 66, 112
480 Bronze Statues of tyranicides Harmodios and Aristogiton by Antenor, in Athens from 509, are carried off by Xerxes-I.  They end up in Susa until 331, and are returned to Athens in 330.  Meanwhile they will be replaced in 477. 480 CAH 4, DGRBM 2-350, OCD 112
480 Sep ATHENS, including acropolis, burnt by Persians, who now occupy Attica. 480 B76 2-266, 19-1057, GHH, LEWH 68, MCAW 112, OHG, TToH 479 ISBE 2-564
480 Sep Themistocles "sacrifices" 3 Persian prisoners to Dionysus. 480 CDGRA 457
c.480 ELEATIC School of philosophy frouned by Parmenides. 500-460 wikEl
480 Persian fleet under HAKHAMANISH, bro of Xerxes-I, satrap of Egypt 485-?, attacks Greek fleet at noon.  Heavy losses both sides.  Greeks try to stay in narrow water. 480 B76 8-311
480 Sep. HAKHAMANISH gets false rumor that Greek fleet intends to withdraw from straits of Salamis to Gulf of Argolis, sends 200 ships to cut them off.  Greeks learn of it. 480 B76 8-311, WPOT 325
480 Sep. 21 BATTLE of SALAMISEURYBIADES, admiral of Sparta 490-80, heads out to sea in a feigned retreat from Salamis.  Persian admiral thinks the Greek fleet is trying to escape, sails into narrow water.  Greek fleet returns and defeats them.  Over 1,000 Persian ships are rammed and sunk by 400 Greek shipsRemaining Persians flee, still outnumbering Greeks. 480 B76 8-311, 19-1057, BI+N 120, CAH 4, CDCC 608, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG 281, LEWH 53, 68, MCAW 112, OCD 66, 112, 945, OHG, RAH 208, SHWC 64, TToH, TTPC, bk
479 CDCC 129
c.480 Greek fleet, still outnumbered by Persian fleet, chases it as far as Andros Island, then stops for fear of the Persians realizing the absurdity of their flight, and turning on them. 480 DGRBM 3-816
c.480 ARISTIDES, Athenian strategos, leads hoplites landing on islet of Psyttaleia (a small island between Salamis and Piraeus) against Persians, commands Athenian army at Plataea Boeotia, helps Themistocles rebuild walls of Athens. 480
CDCC 76, OCD 110
480 SALAMIS RESULTS:  Persians lose command of Aegean to Greeks.  Athenian general CIMON gains fame for valor. 480 OCD 945, TTPC
c.480 THEMISTOCLES made strategos autocrator, put in command of Athenian fleet until 479. 480 CAH 4-155, OCD 1053
c.480 CHERSONESE, under Persia from 493, comes under Athens until 479/8. 480 rcT
Oct. 2
SOLAR ECLIPSE V causes retreat of Cleombrotos from Piraeus.
"A prodigy had caused him [Cleombrotos] to bring his army home; for while he was offering sacrifice to know if he should march out against the Persian, the sun was suddenly darkened in mid sky."   (Herodotus: History 9-10)
480 Oct. 2
DGRBM 1-791, MCAW 113, hbar, nasaS
480 Oct. Son of Alaxandridas, CLEOMBROTOS dies.  Agiad king of Sparta from August, dies, probably of natural causes.  Neph, son of Leonidas, PLEISTARCHOS succeeds to 459, but he is young, so Cleombrotos' son PAUSANIAS is regent until 478. 480 B76 VII-809, CDCC 653, DGRBM 3-412, MRDK, OCD 1007, lvG
c. 480 GREEK ARCHAIC Period ends.  Began 750
MIDDLE ARCHAIC Period ends.  Began 535
CLASSICAL PERIOD begins until 323.
EARLY CLASSICAL begins until 450.
500 B76 I-486, 8-334, 19-288, 291
500 or 480 CDCC 193 480 PW 16, wikArG
c.480 ANAXAGORAS, philosopher of Clazomenae Ionia, age 20, probably came to Greece with Xerxes-I's army, settles in Athens 464. 480 B76 I-345, CDΦ 24, Dur 2-339, MCAW 113, OCD 61
480 or 456 EoΦ 1-115
c.480 ONOMACRITOS, compiler, collector, and forger of oracles, formerly at the court of Pisistratos, dies. 480 wikOn
c.480 HYPSICHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 481, ends.  CALLIADES succeeds until 479. 480 wikEA
c.480 Poet BACCHYLIDES of Ceos Island flourishes, probably in Greece. 480 LEWH 76,     485-50 OHG
467 Dur 2-244
c.480 Hoplite sacrificingA hoplite offers a sacrifice before an altar painted on a Greek kylix. photo G.dallorto

480 wikAl
Macedonia Thrace
480 late XERXES-I king of Medo-Persia 486-65 leaves ⅓ of his army under MARDONIUS in Boeotia, takes ⅔ to Thrace, leaves ⅓ under ARTABAZUS in Thrace, withdraws with the remaining third to Sardis. 480 B76 8-311, CAH 4, GHH, LEWH 68, OCD 805
c.480 ARTABANUS, Persian commander of Parthian and Chorasmian contingents, accompanies Xerxes as far as Hellespont, then returns to Pallene (west promontory of Chalcidice), where cities had rebelled against Persians. 480 DGRBM 1-368
c.480 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, besieged by Artabanus until 479. 480 DGRBM 1-368
c.480 DOBROGEA (land between north turning of Danube as it approaches Black Sea, and Black Sea itself), under Persians from 492, back under Thracians until 339. 480 rcEB
c.480 GREEK POTTERY:  Attic vase painting, at its peak from 500 to now, begins begins decline until 330.  The cramped surface prevents painters from keeping up with the advance of naturalism in the major arts.  Occasional attempts at perspective and depth detract from the shape of the vessel.  A saccharine sentimentality and triviality of subject matter and treatment increases. 480 B76 14-900
kylix kylix
DURIS (Douris) Athenian red figure vase painter, flourishes.  250-300 vases are ascribed to him.  Majority of these are kylixes.  Left: Peleus abducts Thetis, who shape-shifts into a lioness.  Right shows his signature "hook collarbone".
left Jastrow
right Jastrow

500-460 CGS 642, wikDVP
banquetBanquet in a vase painting by Duris.  The mistress of the house, helped by slaves, usually saw to buying provisions and food preparation.  When a man has no guests, his wife might dine with him, seated on a chair while he reclines on a couch. 500- 460 CGS 642
c.480 POTIDAEA Chalcidice besieged 3 months by Artabazus until 479 unsuccessfully. 480 OCD 870
no date: DGRBM 1-368
c.479 ChalcidiceOLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, taken by Artabanus.  Compels inhabitants to leave, then butchers them.  Gives the town to Chalcidians, under Persia until ? 479
B76 VII-528, OCD 751
no date:
DGRBM 1-368
479 MARDONIUS, Persian general, with Thessalian allies breaks up camp, moves south. 479 GHH
479 ATTAGINOS, a leader at Thebes, holds a banquet for Mardonius and 50 Persian officers before Plataea. 479 DGRBM 1-409
479 MARDONIUS, Persian general, with Thessalian allies in Boeotia, tries unsuccessfully to talk Athenians out of resisting, invades Attica. 479 LEWH 68, OCD 805
479 ATHENS, burnt 480, re-occupied by MARDONIUS. 479 DGRBM,
LEWH 68, OCD 805
c.479 CALLIADES, eponymous archon of Athens from 480, ends.  XANTHIPPOS succeeds until 478. 479 wikEA
479 Λ ARCHONSHIP and other state offices, restricted to certain families from 1068, opened to all Athenians by a law of Aristides. 479 CDGRA 65 478 GHH
479 spring MARDONIUS and Thessalian allies, raid as far as Isthmus of Corinth, camp near Thebes. 479 B76 8-311, 350
479 MARDONIUS, makes peace proposal to Athens.  Senator Lycidas advises Athenians to take him seriously, and is stoned to death with his wife and children. 479 DGRBM 2-844
479 While the Greeks wait for favorable signs from their sacrifices, CALLICRATES, handsomest of the Spartans, is killed by a Persian arrow. 479 DGRBM 1-569
479 PHOCIS joins Mardonius against Greeks. no date: wikΦcs
mid 479

mid 479
BoeotiaAt request of Athenians, Spartan general PAUSANIAS, with 35,000 hoplites and 50,000 support troops including Chalcidians advances north into foothills near PLATAEA Boeotia.  He then sees his position vulnerable to Persian cavalry and difficult to supply.  He orders a withdrawal, which is disoderly and scattered.  MARDONIUS attacks.  Pausanias halts on high ground near Plataea, charges down in tight formation toward Asopos river and overwhelms Persians.  MARDONIUS is defeated and killed by Spartan Aeimnestos.  Athenian commander Aristides is not mentioned as doing anything.  Persian army and Thessalian allies are routed.  Mardonius leaves Greece.
Same day as battle of Mycale.
479 B76 I-515, 712, VII-809, 8-311, 340, 350, BI+N 120, CAH 4, 5, CDCC 6, 129, 687, DGRA 888, DGRBM 1-27, 294, 3-157, 1028, DGRG 1-241, Dur 2-242, GHH, GRG 281, IDB 4-922, LEWH 53, 68, MCAW 112, OCD 647, 792, 805, 839, OHG, RAH 211, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG, wikPlat
479 ARISTODEMOS, the coward of Thermopylae, displays extravagant feats of valor at Plataea, redeeming his honor before being killed. 479 DGRBM 1-304, GHH
479 ARTABAZOS, with 40,000 Persians, flees from Plataea thru Phocis, Thessaly, Macedonia, and Thrace to Byzantium. 479 DGRBM 1-368, GHH
c.479 ABDERA Thrace, under Persia from 482, comes under Athens until ?. 479 rcSB2
c.479 ELEUTHERIA, feast of liberty, established by Greeks after Plataea to thank Zeus Eleutherios "deliverer".  To be held annually at Plataea. 479 DGRA 454
c.479 Strategos ARISTIDES commands Athenian troops at PLATAEA Boeotia. 479 B76 18-270 CDCC 76
c.479 ELIS allies with Sparta against Persia until 471. 479 B76 III-853
c.479 THEBES, having collaborated with Persians from 480, besieged by Greeks, who demand surrender of Attaginos and other Medizers.  Thebes refuses, and falls to Greeks 20 days later.  Attaginos escapes.  Thebes oligarchy is abolished and replaced by a democracy.  Under Athens until 4??.
BOEOTIAN LEAGUE, under Thebes from 520, dissolved until 457.
479 B76 8-345, DGRBM 1-409, LEWH 68, OCD 1052, rcSB3
c.479 PLATAEA Boeotia, allied to Athens from 519, independent until ?. 479 rcSB3
c.479 ALEXANDER-I king of Macedon 495-50, reluctant ally of Persia, gives military info to Athenians. no date: OCD 39
c.479 MACEDONIA under Persia from 492, independent. 479 GHH
c.479 XANTHIPPOS becomes Athenian general, sails to Hellespont. 479 DGRBM 1-372, OCD 1140
c.479 ChersoneseSESTOS, Persian HQs in Chersonese under governor Artayctes, besieged by Spartans under Athenian Xanthippos until spring 478. 479 DGRBM 1-372, RAH 211
c.479 Athenian statesman CIMON leads embassy to Sparta. 479 OCD 240
c.479 ChalcidiceARTABAZUS, besieging POTIDAEA Chalcidice from 480, gives up, withdraws to Thessaly, joins Mardonius. 479 OCD 870 no date: DGRBM 1-368
c.479 POTIDAEA Chalcidice under Persia from 490, joins Athenian League until 443. 479 OCD 870, rcSB2
c.479 ACANTHOS Chalcidice under Persia from 490, allies with Athens until 424. 479 rcSB2
c.479 PERSIAN WARS from 492 end.
2nd PERSIAN WAR from 480 ends.
479 CDCC 646, 938, OCD 140, RAI3, rcSB2
c.479 THRACE, under Persians from 492, independent until 341. 479 CDCC 885, GHH 475 Dur 2-245
c.479 LEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, commands Greek fleet at Aegina. 478 DGRBM 2-761
c.479 Congress at Plataea Boeotia. 479 OCD 590
c.479 Oath of Plataea:  Athens anti-Persian oath sworn by the Greek allies.  Medizers to be banished.  Displaced Ionians to be given land of banished Medizers. 479 CAH 4
c.479 THEMISTOCLES Athenian fleet commander from 480, succeeded by XANTHIPPOS son of Ariphron until ?. 479 DGRBM 3-1286
c.479 THEMISTOCLES, democratic leader of Athenian merchants, supported by Aristides, begins rebuilding walls of Athens and the Piraeus despite Spartan protest.  Finishes 478. 479 B76 8-351, LEWH 68
late 479 CDCC 878
c.479 Spartans besieging SESTOS in Thracian Chersonese leave Athenian XANTHIPPOS and Ionians in charge of the siege, return to Sparta. 479 LEWH 68 478 B76 8-350 477 OCD 1140
479/8 Themistocles visits Sparta to quell rumors that the Athenians were building new walls.  The Spartans believe him, not knowing that Themistocles is just stalling for time.  In the end, Themistocles admits it. 479/8 lvG
Macedonia Thrace
c.479/8 CHERSONESE, under Persians from 480, partly conquered by Athenian XANTHIPPOS.  Torn between Greeks and Persians until 467. no date: OCD 229
478 SESTOS, Persian HQs in Chersonese, under Persians from ?, taken by Athenian XANTHIPPOS and IoniansPersian governor Artayctes and family are executed by the will of the people, specifically for sacrilege during office.  Xanthippos returns to Athens. 479/8 IDB 2-596, OCD 981
478 DGRBM 1-372, 3-1286, 1307, GHH, LEWH 68, OCD 1140
c.478 MARONIA Thrace, colony of Chios island from 7th cen., allies with Athens until 404. 478 rcSB2
478 Herodotus'  History  ends with siege of Sestos. 478 DGRBM
c.478 BYZANTIUM, under Persians from 494, taken by Spartan admiral PAUSANIAS until 475. 479 CDCC 230, 654, LEWH 68
478 B76 VII-809, 8-352, 9-1069, CAH 5, OCD 186, 319, 792, 805, lvG, rcT     477/6 MCAW 112
c.478 Spartan admiral PAUSANIAS in Byzantium behaves arrogantly, provokes Ionian allies to mutiny, charged with collaborating with Artabazus satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, recalled to Sparta for trial. 478 B76 8-352, CAH 5, CDCC 654, OCD 792, lvG
c.478 Spartan PAUSANIAS, regent for Agiad king Pleistarchos from 480, acquitted of charges in Sparta, but loses regency.  Returns to Byzantium. 478 CDCC 654, lvG
no date: LEWH 68, OCD 792
c.478 XANTHIPPOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 479, ends.  TIMOSTHENES succeeds until 477. 478 wikEA
c.478 PHORMIS, comedy writer, flourishes.  1st to introduce actors with robes reaching to the ankles, and to ornament the stage with skins dyed purple. 478 wikΦr 470 GHH
c.478 ATHENS rebuilt and refortified larger than before despite Spartan opposition. 479 B76 2-266     478 GHH, MCAW 113, OHG, TToH
c.478 Charioteer Bronze CHARIOTEER set up at Delphi to commemorate victory of tyrant Polyzalos of Gela in Sicily and his chariot in the Pythian Games of 478 or 74.  The original included the chariot, at least 4 horses and possibly 2 grooms.  Some fragments of the horses were found with the statue. left RaminusFalcon
right Gunnar Bach

478 CAH 4
478 or 74 wikCD
c.478 PINDAR  Isthmian Ode 5  honors Aegina at Salamis. 478 CAH 4
c.478 ARISTIDES, Athenian strategos, helped by CIMON, given command of Athenian naval forces. 478 OCD 110, lvG
c.478 ARISTIDES, Athenian strategos, helped by CIMON, influences Greeks of Aegean and Ionia to side with Athens against Sparta. 478 OCD 110, 240
478/7 CDCC 76
c.478 Athenian naval supremacy begins until ?. 478 CDGRA 70
c.478 ARISTIDES, Athenian commander of allied Greeks, gets together with allies, including Cimon, and plans a new league, "persuades" Athens to lead it, invites all interested Greeks to attend a meeting on DELOS Island in Cyclades. 478 B76 4-617 477 B76 8-351
c. 478/7 DELIAN LEAGUE formed as defense against Persians.  Includes most Aegean islands and Greek cities of Thrace and Ionia.  Its general assembly is on DELOSAristides fixes quota for each contributory state.  Allies are autonomous at first.  Each member gets an equal vote.  Treasury is on Delos until 454.  Lasts until 386. 478 OHG 40, PW 16, TAWH 17, TToH, wikDL     478/7 BCoC 330, CAH 5, CDCC 76, LEWH 69, OCD 319, 495
spring 477 OCD 110, 140     477 DGRG 1-759, Dur 2-244, RAH
c.477 EUBOEA (except for Carystos 472) joins Delian League until 411. guess
c.477 CIMON Athenian admiral, takes Persian forts along coast of Thrace, except for Doriscos. 477
c.477 HELLENOTAMIAE, treasurers, appointed by Athenians to receive contributions from allied states because they can't trust Pausanias. 477
DGRA 590
c.477 TIMOSTHENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 478, ends.  ADIMANTOS succeeds until 476. 477 GHH, wikEA

ThessalyLEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, leads a combined Greek force against Persian sympathizing aristocracies in Thessaly.  Takes Pagasae and Pherae, but fails to take Larissa. 478 CAH 5 477 OCD 596 476
B76 VI-157
c.477 KRITIOS (Critias), Athenian sculptor, probably a pupil of Antenor, teacher of Myron, flourishes. early 5th wikKrt
c.477 A new set of bronze statues of tyranicides Harmodios and Aristogiton are designed by Kritios and Nesiotes in Athens to replace those taken by Xerxes-I in 480.  Only Roman copies survive. 478 MCAW 113
477 DGRA 1063, DGRBM 2-350, OCD 112, 299
c.476 THORAX ends.  King of Thessaly from 500.  ECHECRADIDAS-II succeeds until 460. 476 rcSB2
c.476 Olympic games now include victors from Massilia Gaul to Sinope on Black Sea. 476 Dur 2-213
c.476 ADIMANTOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 477, ends.  PHAEDON succeeds until 475. 476 GHH, wikEA
c.476 LEOTYCHIDAS, Eurypontid king of Sparta 491-69, charged with bribery at Sparta, convicted.  Escapes condemnation, banished to Tegea Arcadia.  Grandson ARCHIDAMOS-II succeeds until 427. 477 lvG     477/6 lvG
476 OCD 596
475 lvG
c.476 THEMISTOCLES, archon from 487, ends.  CIMON succeeds until 462. 476 rcSB3
c.476 CIMON made commander of Athenian forces. 476 BCoC 327
c.476 At invitation of Hieron-I, playwrite AESCHYLUS goes to Sicily until ?. 478 GHH
476 CAH 5, Dur 2-383
c.476 PHRYNICHOS tragic dramatist of Athens, wins his last 1st prize.   Phoenissae  wins City Dionysia.  About victory over Persians at Salamis. 476 B76 VII-973, CDGRA 638, DGRBM 3-359     476/5 CAH 4-172
c.476 Bacchylides  Ode 5  celebrating Hieron's first victory at Olympian Games. 476 CAH 4, 5, wikBc
c.476 PINDAR  Olympian Ode 1  celebrating Hieron's first victory at Olympian Games, but advises the tyrant of need for moderation in personal conduct. 476 CAH 4, 5, wikBc
c.476 PINDAR  Olympian Odes 2 & 3  in honor of Theron. 476 CAH 4, 5
c.476 PINDAR writes  Pythian Ode 2,  Nemean Ode 1  476 CAH 5
c.476 Pindar & Bacchylides rivalry peaks. 476 wikBc
c.476 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos Island, in Athens from 490, goes to Syracuse, in Sicily until death 468. 476 OCD 991
c.476 CIMON Athenian admiral, begins Thracian campaign until 475, besieges EION on coast of Thrace, thru the winter. 476 CAH 5, LEWH 69, lvG
c.476 HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse wins a chariot race at Olympia, noteworthy only because he made such a big deal of it, commissioning artists to commemorate it. 476 CAH 5, OHG 120
c.476 Greek poet BACCHYLIDES of Ceos, in Greece from ?, goes to Sicily at invitation of Hieron-I. 476
OCD 158
c.476 Simonides gains the prize in the dithyrambic chorus. 476 DGRBM 3

Balkan Peninsula 475-441