Asia Go to Balkans Go to Europe Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Urartu Go to Mesopotamia Go to Persia Go to India Go to East Asia
c.500 BRONZE AGE in Asia ends.  Began 3500.
IRON AGE begins until 600CE.
500 wikHA
c.500 The Ugrians remained in the old Kama-Ural sites with perhaps some movement towards the south.  This location of the Ugrians was decisive for the subsequent development of those elements among them which came to form the Hungarians.  The period of Ugric unity lasted some 1,500 years, ending about 500BC. 500 CHEIA 232
c.500 RICE, PEACHES, APRICOTS transmitted from Persia to western Asia. 500 TAWH 17
c.500 TURKMENISTAN, east of Caspian Sea, comes under Persia until 330. 500 rcCAW
c.500 Pushkalavati (Charsadda) and Takshashila (Taxila) both in north Indus valley become important trading cities in Gandara (Afghanistan).  Hellenistic influence passes thru them to India. 500 PW 16
c.500 OLBIA, Greek trading colony on north coast of Black Sea at mouth of Bug River, under Miletian tyrants from 650, becomes a republic until 200. 500 rcU
c.496 Scythians, consolidate after repelling Persian aggression, migrate west, to lands inhabited by Thracians. 496 vrb
c.480 BRANCHIDAE, priestly clan of the cult of Apollo at Didyma west Anatolia, move to Sogdiana. 480
OCD 340
c.480 ARCHAEANAX becomes king of Bosporus Kingdom at Panticapaeum uniting Greek settlements in eastern Crimea until ?.
ARCHAEANACTID Dynasty rules until 438.
480 B76 II-178, CDCC 143, DGRBM 1-260, GHH, MRDK, NEH, wikBsp
c.480 SOLDAIA, city on the south shore of Crimea, under the Tauri tribe (a fragment of Cimmeria) from 700, comes under Bosporus Kingdom until 375CE. 480 rcCrm
c.480 TMUTARAKAN, city on east shore of Kerch straits, comes under Bosporus Kingdom until 1st half of 4th cent.CE. 480 rcCrm
c.450 HERODOTUS of Halicarnasus, while getting info on Scythians, visits OLBIA, Greek trading colony on north coast of Black Sea. 450
T1H 70
c.438 SAGAURUS, king of Bosporus Kingdom at Panticapaeum in Crimea from ?, ends.
ARCHAEANACTID Dynasty ends.  Ruled Bosporus Kingdom at Panticapaeum in Crimea from 480.  SPARTOCUS-I becomes king until 433/2.
SPARTOCID Dynasty begins until 110.
438 B76 II-178, DGRBM 1-260, 3-891, GHH, MRDK, OCD 176, 1008, rcCrm, wikBsp, wikKCB, wikSpD
438/7 CDCC 143, frH
c.437 Hoping to relieve Athens from dependence on Sicily, PERICLES sails into BLACK SEA to thwart a Scythian / Thracian alliance and solidify commercial ties.  He establishes good relations with princes of Panticapaeum, from whom he needs grain exports. 437 LEWH 70, MCAW 128, RAH 232
436 B76 8-356
c.433/2 SPARTOCUS-I king of Panticapaeum Bosporus in Crimea from 438, ends.  SATYRUS-I succeed until 389/8. 433 MRDK, frH, rcCrm, wikKCB, wikSpD
433/2 OCD 1008
431 DGRBM 3-891, wikBsp
There is no SELEUCUS 433/2-389/8. That's an error in the manuscript of Diodorus for Satyrus himself. CAH 6-493
c.400 KOBAN (Kopban) Culture ends.  In northern and central Caucasus from 1100 ends.  Dwellings, cobble bridges, altars, iron objects, bones, clay and stone objects, sickles, stone grain grinders.  Grains include wheat, rye, and barley.  Cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys, pigs and horses were kept.  Shops for pottery, stone-casting, bone and stone carving.  Evidence of an advanced metallurgy.  Differentiation of professions organized within clans. 400 wikKC 300 wikKC
c.400 gold stagGold stag with eagle beak, and 10 more heads in the antlers.  From a Xiongnu tomb on the frontier. photo JesseW900

4th-3rd cen. wikXn
c. 389/8 SATYRUS-I 3rd Spartocid king of Bosporus at Panticapaeum in Crimea from 393, killed besieging Theodosia.  Son LEUCON-I succeeds until 349/8.  GORGIPPOS-I becomes co-king at Gorgippa until 349. 393 DGRBM 2-774, 3-728, GHH 393/2 frH     389 rcCrm, wikKCB, wikSpD     389/8 CAH 6-495, OCD 1008, NEH 387 wikBsp
c.353 JEWS transplanted to Hyrcania east of Caspian Sea by Artaxerxes-III. from Jerome's Chronicle
353 BBA 56
350 BNTH 135
c.350 SARMATIANS east of Black Sea move northwest over Don River into Scythian land. 350
T1H 70
c.350 Scythians develop a monarchy. 350 vrb
c.350 Scythians living next to Greek Black Sea colonies expand into the Steppes. 350 vrb
c. 349 LEUCON-I, son of Satyrus-I, 4th Spartocid king of Panticapaeum Bosporus in Crimea from 389/8, ends.  Sons SPARTOCUS-II and PAERISADES-I succeed until 344/3. 353 DGRBM 2-774, 1029, DGRBM 3-891, GHH     349 DGRBM 3-83, MRDK, rcCrm, wikKCB, wikSpD     349/8 CAH 6-495, GHH, OCD 1008, frH, NEH 347 wikBsp
c.349 GORGIPPOS-I co-king with Leucon-I at Gorgippa from 389, ends. 349 wikSpD
c.346 SARMATIANS move west of Don River and continue westward.  346 T1H 28
c. 344/3 SPARTOCUS-II Spartocid co-king of Bosporus at Panticapaeum in Crimea from 349/8, ends.  Bro PAERISADES-I continues until 311. 344 MRDK, rcCrm, wikKCB
344/3 OCD 1008, frH
342 wikBsp, wikSpD
c.339 ATEAS, king of Scythians age 90, defeated and killed in Rumania by Philip-II. 339 B76 9-597, 16-249, 439, CAH 6-473, CHEIA 106, T1H 70, NES
c.331 ZOPYRION, Macedonian governor of Thrace, with 30,000 troops, attacks Scythian lands just to look busy, besieges Olbia unsuccessfully, retreats, attacked by Scythians, Getae, and Triballi.  Annihilated near Black Sea. 331 T1H 70, NEH, wikZop
325 OCD 968
no date: T1H 28
c.331 AZERBAIJAN east end of Caucasus Mountains, under Persia or Scythians from 550, comes under Macedonia until 301. 331 rcCau
c.330 TURKMENISTAN, area west of Caspian Sea, under Persia from 500, comes under Macedonia until 312. 330 rcCAW
c.330 BESSUS, safely home in Bactria, assumes kingship, and calls himself Artaxerxes. 330
CAH 6-819
c.330 BARZANES appointed satrap of the Parni by Bessus. 330 DGRBM 1-465
c.330 Macedonians at Susia know that Bessus is in Bactria, and the shortest route is the Silk Road thru Parthia to Margiana oasis and to Bactria.  This route is exposed to Bessus' mounted archers.  Therefore, Alex decides to go south thru Aria, Drangiana, and Arachosia. 330 lvLx
c.330 ARTACOANA (now Herat) capital of Aria, taken by Alex-III, refounded as Alexandria Ariorum.  Under Macedonians until 301. 330 B76 I-227, lvLx 329 rcCAS
c.330 Alex-III at Susia receives satrap and regicide, SATIBARZANES, and reconfirms him as satrap of Aria. 330 CAH 6-818, DGRBM 3-722
c.330 Alex-III, to prevent hostilities against the Arians by the Macedonian troops which are following from the west, gives Satibarzanes 40 horse-dartmen, under Anaxippus. 330 DGRBM 3-722
c.330 Once Alex-III is out of Aria SATIBARZANES, Persian satrap renounces allegiance and massacres the 40 horse-dartmen, under Anaxippus.  Satibarzanes incites the Arians to rebellion, and gathers his forces at Artacoana. 330 CAH 6-819, DGRBM 3-722
c.330 Alex-III, returns to Artacoana.  Satibarzanes Persian satrap of Aria escapes and takes refuge with BessusARSAMES, son of Artabazus, appointed satrap of Aria by Alex-III, who refounds Artacoana as Alexandria of the Arians (modern Herat).  Under Macedonians until 329. 330 B76 1-470, DGRBM 3-722, lvLx, TAWH 77
c.330 Several Macedonian soldiers conspire around Demetrius the bodyguard against Alex-III.  Philotas knows of it and doesn't report it. 330 lvG
c.330 Once Alex-III goes from Aria south to Drangiana, the realm of the other regicide, Barsaentes, who flees for India. 330 CAH 6-819
c.330 Cavalry commander PHILOTAS, son of Parmenio, at Phradra in Drangiana, accused of conspiracy by Craterus, found guilty by army, tortured, executed by javelin volleyHEPHAESTION and veteran general CLEITUS the Black are appointed to succeed Philotas.  Demetrius the bodyguard is replaced by Ptolemy son of Lagus. 330 B76 1-470, CAH 6-819, CDCC 895, DGRBM 1-409, 2-383, 3-581, Dur 2-740, 742, LEWH 79, OCD 825, hmLx, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 Brothers Attalos, Amyntas, and Simmias are accused in conspiracy of Philotas and arrested.  Brother Polemo flees the camp, adding to their suspected guilt.  Polemo is caught and tortured.  Amyntas' competent defense causes all to be acquitted. 330 DGRBM 1-155, 409, 3-433, 827, wikAtl
c.330 ALEX-III at Phradra in Drangiana sends Polydamos with secret message to CLEANDER, 2nd in command to Parmenio at Ecbatana, orders execution of Parmenio. 330 B76 1-470, DGRBM 1-778, lvLx
c.330 Alex-III goes from Persia to Asia. implied
c.330 ARACHOSIA, under Persia from 550, receives a Macedonian governor, comes under Macedonians until 312. 330 hmLx, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 Reinforcements from Antipater under Clitus, join Alex in Arachosia. Sep. 330 lvG     Dec. 330 lvLx
Feb. 329 lvLx
c.330 HEPHAESTION and CLITUS are appointed to succeed Philotas as cavalry commanders. 330 B76 1-470, CDCC 895, Dur 2-740, 742, LEWH 79, OCD 825, hmLx, lvG, lvLx, lxtl
c.330 ARTABAZUS, son of Pharnabazus, with Persians from 345, deserts from Bessus to Alex-III. no date: OCD 125
c.330 ALEX-III from Phradra goes up Helmand River thru Arachosia.  After conquering Persia in 6 months, he spends the next 3 years conquering Gandara and Bactria. late 330
B76 1-470
c.330 MUNDIGAK, capital of Arachosia, under Persia from ?, conquered by Alex-III, renamed KANDAHAR, under Macedonia until 312. 330 rcCAS wikKnd
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandara.
c.330 ALEXANDRIA ARACHOSIA founded. 330/29 B76 I-227
c.330 MARKANDA, under Persia from 530, comes under Bessus of Bactria until 329. 330 rcCAW
c.330 Satibarzanes with 2000 cavalry, supplied by Bessus, returns to Aria and incites former subjects to rebell.  Alex sends 6,000 men under Caranus and Persian officers Artabazus, Caranus, and Erigyius back to Aria.  They quell the rebellion.  Aria remains unquiet, and requires Alex' attention until 329. late 330 B76 1-470, DGRBM 1-120, 609, 3-722, lvLx
330/29 lvA, lvG, TAWH 77
c.330 ARSAMES, son of Artabazus, satrap of Aria under Alex-III from 330, rebels until 329. 330 B76 1-470, DGRBM 3-722, lvLx, TAWH 77
330/29 SATIBARZANES is killed in single combat with Erigyius. 330 DGRBM 1-609, lvLx
330/29 DGRBM 2-49, lvA, lvG mid 329 CAH 6-820
c.329 STASANOR of Soli appointed governor of Aria and Drangiana by Alex-III until ?. 329
CAH 6-332
c.329 ALEX-III crosses Hindu Kush Mts. over Khawak Pass to Drapsaca. 329 B76 1-470, DGRBM 1-120, LEWH 79, OCD 40, lvLx, lxtl
c.329 ALEX-III from Drapsaca west to Bactra (aka Zariaspa). 329 B76 1-470, Dur 2-458, LEWH 79, OHG     329/8 MCAW 170
c.329 BACTRIA, (including capital Bactra) under Persia from 520, taken by ALEX-III, comes under Macedonians until 306.  INDO-GREEKS of Asia begin until 10 CE. 330 rcCAS
329 CAH 6, CDCC 34
327 CDCC 457, HCIP 2-43
c.329 Artabazus & Erigyius rejoin Alex-III at Bactra. 329 lvG
c.329 Ptolemaeos and a band of Thracian mercenaries rejoin Alex-III at Bactria. 329 DGRBM 3-565
c.329 GANDAHAR, city and district in GANDARA (Peshawar), under Persia from 535, conquered by Alex-III, under Macedonia until 312. 329 lvGan, lvLx, rcCAS 327 B76 9-350, 13-255, wikG     326 lvG
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandara.
c.329 BESSUS Persian usurper flees across Oxus River to Sogdiana. 329 B76 1-470, lxtl
329/8 MCAW 170
c.329 BESSUS Persian usurper in Sogdiana, betrayed by Persian Dataphernes, overthrown by Sogdian warlord Spitamenes. 329 B76 1-470, DGRBM 1-944, wikLx
c.329 ALEX-III crosses Oxus River into Sogdiana, sends Ptolemy to chase down Bessus. 329 B76 1-470, DGRBM 3-581, GHH, OHG, lvG, lvLx
c.329 BESSUS, Persian usurper, in Sogdiana captured by Ptolemy, sent to Bactra. 329 B76 1-470, 15-180, lvLx, lxtl
c.329 BESSUS has his nose and ears cut off in accordance with Persian custom for rebels and regicides.  Accounts of his execution are contradictory.  ARTABAZUS is appointed satrap of Bactria until 328 329 B76 I-1026, 1-470, CDCC 34, GHH, hifiB, lxtl 329/8 MCAW 170
c.329 SOGDIANA is contested by Macedonians until 327. 330 hifiK
c.329 MARKANDA, under Bessus of Bactria from 330, comes under Macedonia until 301. 329 rcCAW
c.329 SPITAMENES, leader of Persian remnant in Sogdiana, gets help from the Massagetai, raises rebellion thruout Sogdiana.  The Sacae, Massagetes and Dahae (all mounted archers) joined the rebellion. 329 lvLx, lxtl
B76 1-470-1
c.329 ALEX-III reaches the Jaxartes river assumes its the end of Asia, destroys 7 towns on it. 329 CAH 6-823, DGRBM, DGRG 2-6
c.329 Craterus, Erigyius, Hephaestion, and Aristander the soothsayer try to disuade Alex-III from crossing the Jaxartes river. 329
DGRBM 2-49
c.329 KAPISA refounded as ALEXANDRIA ESCHATE by Alex-III, as a garrison against the Sacae nomads north of the JaxartesAlex then learns of the Sogdian rebellion.  Macedonian Companion cavalry needs to be reorganized to deal with mounted archers, so Alex uses Iranian horsemen. 329 B76 I-227, DGRBM, GHH, lvGan,
July lvLx
c.329 Alex captures 7 Sogdian forts (men killed, women sold).  Meanwhile Spitamenes' horsemen besiege the Macedonian garrison at Marcanda. 329 lvLx
c.329 Pharnuches sent by Alex-III against Spitamenes. 329 DGRBM 3-242
c.329 Macedonian soldiers march back south.  Sacae attack their rear.  Alex returns north, sending Greek mercenaries (2,000 inf. 300 cav.) under Pharnaces to Marcanda.  Spitamenes annihilates the Greek mercenaries. 329 lvLx
c.329 ALEX-III crosses north over Jaxartes River, defeats SACAE decisively, goes south again, covers 290km in 3 days with his cavalry, takes MARCANDA, capital of Sogdiana.  Spitamenes escapes. 329 B76 VIII-829, 1-470, KoP, lvLx, lxtl, wikP
329/8 B76 1-470
328 CAH 6     327 LEWH 57
c.329 SPITAMENES attacks Bactra, repulsed with difficulty by Artabazus satrap of Bactria. 329 wikSpit
c.329/8 ALEX-III winters at Bactra (Zariaspa). 329/8 DGRBM 1-121, lvLx, lxtl
c.328 ARSAMES, satrap of Aria under Alex-III from 330, rebelling from 329, overthrown by Stasanor and Phrataphernes, working for Alex-III, STASANOR succeeds until ?. 328 DGRBM 3-899
c.328 ASANDER and NEARCHOS, with Greek mercenaries, join Alex-III at Bactra (Zariaspa). 328 DGRBM 1-379
c.328 Pharsmanes, chief of Chorasmian Scythians, goes to Bactra, offers to help Alex-III against tribes between Black and Caspian Seas.  Favorably received. 328 DGRBM 3-239
c.328 ERIGYIUS of Mytilene killed in battle by Bactrian fugitives. 328 LEWH 79
c.328 ASCLEPIODOROS, with reinforcements from Syria, joins Alex-III. 328 DGRBM 1-383
c.328 GORGIAS and others left in Bactria to finish off Bactrian insurgents. 328 DGRBM 2-283
c.328 ALEX-III marches from Bactra eastward, follows the Oxus, probably as far as the confluence with the Kokcha.  Here he divides his forces, 4 phalanx commanders are left to garrison Bactria while his main army, divided into 5 columns, subjugates land between the Oxus and the Hissar range. spring 328 CAH 6-824, DGRBM 1-121
c.328 Macedonian surprise attack on people along Upper Oxus River. spring 328 lvLx     328 wikAtls
c.328 Asander and Nearchus lead a number of Greek mercenaries from Anatolia to Alex-III, then staying at Bactra (Zariaspa). 329 DGRBM 2-1146 328 wikAsn
c.328 Stasanor, satrap of Aria, bringing with him Arsames as a captive, as well as Barzanes, who had been appointed satrap of Parthia by Bessus, rejoins Alex-III at Bactra (Zariaspa).  Stasanor is confirmed as satrap of Aria, which is soon exchanged for Drangiana. 328 DGRBM 3-899
c.328 ARTABAZUS, satrap of Bactria under Alex-III from 329, resigns because of age.  CLEITUS the Black succeeds until later 328.  Hephaestion is now sole commander of the elite cavalry. 329 hifiB
328 DGRBM 1-785, OCD 125     327 lvA
c.328 Lycian PHARNUCHES, with subordinates Andromachus, Caranus, and Menedemus, is sent by Alex-III from 329 against Spitamenes at Marcanda. 329 DGRBM 1-609
c.328 As summer ends the various army groups converge on Maracanda, where Alex-III rests and receives a visit from Pharasmanes, king of the independent land of Chorasmia. mid 328 CAH 6-824
c.328 SPITAMENES, leader of Persian remnant, besieging Maracanda from ?, forced to abandon siege by Macedonians, but then, with help of Scythian cavalry, defeats Macedonians, and forces them back to Polytimetus river. 328 DGRBM 1-609
c.328 CARANUS leads cavalry across Polytimetus river against Spitamenes, and is wiped out. 328 DGRBM 1-609
c.328 SPITAMENES, leader of Persian remnant, rebelling against Alex-III from 329, suppressed by Coenus after much difficulty at Gabae Persia, and killed by his own allies (or his wife), who send his head to the Macedonians. 328 B76 1-471, CAH 6-825, LEWH 79, lvLx, lxtl, wikSpit
c.328 CLEITUS the Black, friend of Alex-III, satrap of Bactria, reproaches Alex, and is killed by him in a drunken fury at Marcanda.  Alex displays such annoying remorse over it that the army convicts Cleitus of treason posthumously. 329 B76 II-983
328 B76 1-471, CAH 6-824, GHH, LEWH 79, lvG, lxtl
328/7 OCD 249, lvLx
327 Dur 2-458, MCAW 170
c.328 Alex returns west and divides army.  Two thirds to defend Bactria; rest to go north and build garrison towns.  Artabazus and Coenus command an army in north Sogdia, deterring the Sacae.  Polyperchon, Attalos, and other officers remain in Bactria. 328 DGRBM 1-409, lvLx, wikAtls
c.328 ALEX-III moves south to Nautaca, where local ruler, Sisimithres, is blockaded in his citadel and submits to Macedonian siege engineering. 328
CAH 6-824
c.328 OXYARTES, Sogdian baron in hills of Paraetacene, overcome by Alex-III, becomes an ally. 328
B76 1-471
c.328 ALEX-III at a victory celebration in Marcanda notices ROXANA, dau of Sogdian baron Oxyartes. 328 CAH 6-825 327 B76 8-375
c.328 Craterus oversees construction of military settlements in Margiana, securing north border of Alex-III's empire. 328 lvG
c.328 ALEX-III adopts Persian dress and court etiquette. 328 LEWH 79
c.328 ALEX-III trains 30,000 natives in Macedonian tactics. 328 LEWH 79
c.328 ALEX-III encourages belief that he is a god.  It causes enough problems in his army that he drops it temporarily. 328 LEWH 79
c.328 AMYNTAS NIKOLAOS and SCYTHAEUS both succeed as satrap of Khorasan (Bactria & Sogdiana) until 321. 328 CAH 6-825, hifiB
c.328/7 ALEX-III winters at Nautaca. 328/7 DGRBM 1-121, 3-358
328/7 PHRATRAPHERNES, satrap of Parthia, sent by Alex-III to subdue Autophradates, rebellious satrap of the Mardi and Tapuri.  He succeeds.  Autophradates is captured, brought back to Alex-III, and executed. 328/7 DGRBM 3-358
c.327 ROXANA, dau of Sogdian baron Oxyartes, marries ALEX-III. 329 GHH     328 LEWH 79
327 CAH 6-825, DGRBM 3-663, MCAW 170, OCD 937, OHG, lxtl
c.327 Rock of Ariamazes (Sogdian Rock), fortress in Sogdiana, captured by Alex-III. 327 lvLx, lxtl, wikSog
c.327 Persian TYRIASPES appointed satrap of the Paropamisadae west of river Cophen by Alex-III. 327 DGRBM 3-1196
c.327 SOGDIANA, contested by Macedonians from 330, comes under Macedonia until 301. 327 DGRBM
c.327 PHILIP appointed by Alex-III satrap of Sogdiana until 321. 327 DGRBM 3-270
c.327 ALEX-III from Sogdiana returns to Bactra (Zariaspa).  Imposes Persian court customs, demands prostration of Macedonian soldiers before him.  CALLISTHENES of Olynthus opposes this rule.  Macedonian soldiers laugh.  Alex abandons it. 327 B76 1-471, CAH 6-825, OCD 196
c.327 In Bactra CALLISTHENES of Olynthus debates ANAXARCHUS of Abdera, who advises worship of Alex-III as a god even during his lifetime. 327 wikAnx
c.327 On a hunting expedition, page Hermolaos son of Sopolis kills a boar without waiting for Alex-III the honor of the kill.  Alex-III orders him whipped and deprived of his horse.  Hermolaos and friend Sostratos plot to kill Alex-III. 327 DGRBM 2-422
c.327 PAGES' CONSPIRACY in Bactra:  Ringleader Hermolaos, son of Sopolis, recruits 7 co-conspirators to assassinate Alex-III while they guard his bedchamber.  The plan is betrayed.  All conspirators are arrested, admit guilt under torture and are stoned to death. 328 GHH
327 CAH 6-825, DGRBM 1-121, 2-422
c.327 CALLISTHENES of Olynthos, neph of Aristotle, historian, quarrels with Alex-III by opposing the introduction of Alex-worship. 327
OCD 196
c.327 CALLISTHENES, historian, suspected of complicity in Pages' Conspiracy, executed or dies in prison. 328 B76 II-464, CAH 6, DGRBM 1-576, GHH
327 B76 1-471, CAH 6-825, Dur 2-458, OHG, lvG, lvLx, lxtl
c.327 From Bactria ALEX-III recrosses Hindu Kush Mts. but turns east before entering Arachosia.  Divides his troops.  Puts half under Hephaestion and Perdiccas, and sends them thru the Khyber Pass, while Alex goes thru the hills to the north. 327 B76 1-471, CAH 6-826, DGRBM 2-383, MCAW 170, OCD 40, 9-350, RAH 341 326 lvG
c.327 ALEX-III has Phoenician merchants with him to establish trade routes and agreements. 327
MCAW 171
327/6 ALEX-III with Craterus and Coenus marches east on north road.
Hephaestion and Perdiccas advance on south road thru Khyber Pass, defeat Ashtakaraja king of Pushkalavati in north Indus valley.
327/6 CHI 318 326 lvLx
327/6 AORNOS, mountain stronghold between Swat and Indus Rivers and north of Taxila, blocking the route to India, besieged by Alex-III. 327
B76 I-436
327/6 AORNOS taken by Alex-III, who then takes Massaga, Bazira, and Ora, then crosses Shang-La pass. 327 lxtl     327/6 B76 1-471, OCD 78, wikLx     326 lvLx
c.326 Alex-III returns to Gandara, appoints NICANOR satrap of Gandara, before crossing Indus. 326 lvGan, lvLx
c.326 ASSACENIANS, under Alex-III from ? rebel.  Alex-III appoints Philip and Persian Tyriaspes to subdue them. 326 DGRBM 3-1196
c.326 PHILIP, satrap of Sogdiana 327-21, given Bactria also until 321. 326 BHS 1-277 323 hifiK
c.326 ALEX-III begins Indian campaign until 325, crosses INDUS River near Ohind. 327 CAH 6, CDCC 457, DGRBM 1-121, Dur 2-546, KIH 63, MCAW 170, OHG, TToH, hmLx, hwD
327/6 lvG     326 B76 1-471, CAH 6-829, CDCC 34, LEWH 55, RAH 340-1, WNHI 55, lvLx
c.325 Rebellion in Bactria:  3,000 mercenaries loose in Asia. 325 CAH 7.1-30, lxtl
c. 325 States north of Alex-III rebel, inspired by Brahmans in town of Harmatelia.  Craterus is sent to suppress them.  Macedonians kill many rebels.  Brahmans are hanged.  Musicanus, who had supported the revolt, is crucified.  King Sambus escapes.  Brahman rebellion spreads north; NICANOR, satrap of Gandara from 326 is killed, but eventually, the Macedonian garrison pacifies the area. 325 CAH 7.1-30, lvLx
c.325 CRATERUS, after suppressing rebels, with a third of the army, continues west, thru Bolan pass to Carmania and Persis. 325 lvG, lvLx
c. 325 ALEX-III arrives at mouth of Indus River, divides army into 3 parts.  Craterus, now in bad health, with ⅓ of Alex-IIIs army, with elephants, siege train, sick and wounded, is sent north to Quetta.  Alex marches thru desert of GedrosiaNearchus sails Indian Ocean toward Persian Gulf. 326 DGRBM 1-121
325 B76 1-471, 8-375, CAH 6-835, CDCC 34, DGRBM 2-1146, Dur 2-458, 502, GHH, KIH 76, LEWH 55, 79, MCAW 170, OHG, RAH 345, hmLx, lvG, lxtl
c.325 After Indian campaign, Macedonian officer SIBYRTIUS appointed governor of Carmania province until ?. 326 DGRBM 3-815
c.325 Thousands of Macedonian troops die in 60 day march thru desert of Gedrosia. 325 hmLx
c.325 PEUCESTAS, Macedonian noble, saves ALEX-III's life, promoted to Alex's bodyguard, becomes satrap of Persis until 324. 325
OCD 808
c.325 Scythian pectoralGold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Tolstaya Mogila, Ordzhonikidze, Ukraine. photo AeroSSC

350-00 wikSct
c.325/4 ALEX-III and army enter Carmania. 325 DGRBM 1-778, GHH
325/4 CAH 6-838     324 CAH 6
c. 325/4 STASANOR, satrap of Drangiana 328-?, with a much needed supply of camels and other beasts of burden, joins Alex-III in Carmania.  When Alex-III proceeds to Persia, Stasanor returns to Drangiana. 325 DGRBM 1-778
no date:
DGRBM 3-899
c.325/4 CLEANDER, with generals from Media and their troops, joins Alex-III in Carmania. 325 DGRBM 1-778
c. 325/4 ALEX-III at Carmanian capital, holds an athletic and musical festival during which he hears of the safe arrival of Nearchus' fleet at Harmozea, the main sea-port of Carmania. 325/4
CAH 6-838
c.325/4 Alex-III from Carmania to Pasargadae, the old capital of Persis. 325/4 CAH 6-839
c.324 ALEX-III orders satraps to dismiss mercenaries. 324 CAH 6
c.323 BACTRIA hears of death of Alex-IIIGreek auxiliaries mutiny, and are quickly crushed by Perdiccas.  Under Perdiccas until 321. 323 CAH 7.1-30 no date: LEWH 96
c.323 ARACHOSIA and GEDROSIA come under Sibyrtius satrap of Arachosia. 323 DGRBM 2-1008
c.322 SAMARA ruler of Kartli (Georgia, east of Black Sea) from ?, ends.  AZON installed by Macedonians until 302. 322 rcCau
no date: wikAI
c.321 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus given command of the royal army in Asia by Antipater. 321 OCD 69
c.321 Treaty of TRIPARADISUS in North Syria appoints satraps, in effort to hold the empire together.
c.321 AMYNTAS NIKOLAOS and SCYTHAEUS both satraps of Khorasan (Bactria & Sogdiana) from 328, under Perdiccas from 323 end.  STASANOR of Soli succeeds until 312. 321 BHS 1-277, CAH 6-332, hifiB, hifiK
c.321 PHILIP satrap of Sogdiana from 327, transferred by Triparadisus to Parthia until 318. 321 DGRBM 3-270, hifiK
c.321 BACTRIA, under STASANOR the Solian 321-12, comes under Antipater until 319. 321
c.320 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus campaigns successfully against rebel EUMENES. 320
OCD 69
c.320 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus campaigns successfully against rebel ALCETAS. 320 OCD 69
c.319 BACTRIA under Antipater from 321, under Eumenes until 316. 319 LEWH 96
c.318 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus again campaigns successfully against rebel EUMENES until 316. 318
OCD 69
c.317 Pithon son of Agenor, satrap of Media supports Antigonus-I. 317 BHS 1-294
c.317 Eastern satraps unite under Eumenes against Pithon son of Agenor, satrap of Media and drive him out. 317 atl4, wikPthn
c.317 EUDEMOS, former commander of the Punjab, having fled west with an army, joins united satraps under Eumenes until 316. 317
BHS 1-294
c.316 SIBYRTIUOS, former satrap of Arachosia, having opposed Eumenes, is restored by Antigonus-I.  He gets not only Arachosia, but Gedrosia south of it to the sea. 316
BHS 1-271
c.316 OXYARTES, satrap of Paropamisadae, former supporter of Eumenes, submits to Antigonus-I, and is allowed to keep his province. 316 BHS 1-274, wikOx
c.316 BACTRIA under Eumenes from 319, comes under Antigonus-I until 312. 316 LEWH 96
c.316 STASANOR of Soli, satrap of Khorasan (Bactria & Sogdiana) under Macedonians 321-12, is forgiven for favoring Seleucus by Antigonus-I, and confirmed in his satrapy. 316 DGRBM 3-899
c.316 EUDEMOS, partisan of Eumenes from 317 executed by Antigonus-I. 316 BHS 1-294-5
c.316 PARTHIA / HYRCANIA, under PHILIP from 318, annexed to Bactria, under Stasanor of Soli until ?. 316 BHS 1-267-8
c.312 GANDAHAR, city and district in Gandara (Peshawar), under Macedonia from 329, under Seleucids until 260. 312 rcCAS
c.312 BACTRIA, under Antigonus-I from 316, comes under Seleucus until 306.  Under Seleucid satraps until 256. 312 hifiB
311 LEWH 96
c.312 ARACHOSIA, under Macedonians from 330, comes under Seleucus until 305. 312 guess
c.312 STASANOR of Soli, satrap of Khorasan (Bactria & Sogdiana) under Macedonians from 321, ends.  Parts of Sogdiana become independent, but much of it falls to kings of Bactria. 312 hifiB, hifiK
c.312 TURKMENISTAN, area west of Caspian Sea, under Macedonia from 330, comes under Seleucid satraps until 256. 312 rcCAW
c.311 PAERISADES-I, 6th Spartocid king of Bosporus at Panticapaeum in Crimea from 344/3, dies.  (a just ruler, and receives divine honors).  3 sons fight for succession: SATYRUS-II Spartocid king of Panticapaeum in Crimea until 309.  PRYTANIS succeeds until 309.  EUMELUS succeeds until 304/3. 316 OCD 1008
311 DGRBM 3-561, 728, atl4, rcCrm, wikKCB     311/0 frH
310 MRDK 271, wikBsp, wikSpD
c.310 AGARUS king of Scythians killed in battle.  Nothing is known of succeeding kings until 110. 310
B76 16-439
c.310 Civil war between Eumelus, youngest son of Paerisades, and Satyrus-II and Prytanis. 311/10
CAH 6-501
c. 310/9 SATYRUS-II Spartocid king of Bosporus at Panticapaeum in Crimea from 331/0, attacks Aripharnes, king of the Siraces, and is killed in battle near Gargaza.  PRYTANIS succeeds and is killed by order of Eumelus at Cepi.  EUMELUS continues 310-04/3.  A young son of Satyrus II, PAERISADES, escapes to find refuge with Scythian king Agarus. 310 DGRG 1-422, atl4, rcCrm, wikBsp, wikKCB, wikSpD     310/9 CAH 6-495, OCD 1008, frH
c.306 BACTRIA, under Macedonians from 329, Seleucus from 312, reconquered by Seleucus.  Under Seleucids until 256. 307 lvD     306 atl4, rcCAS     304 wikBct
c.305 ARACHOSIA, under Seleucus from 312, traded to Mauryan Empire in as part of an alliance.  Under Mauryans until 185. 305 wikArc
304/3 EUMELUS Spartocid king of Bosporus at Panticapaeum in Crimea from 310/9, falls under wheels of a carriage and dies.  Son SPARTOCUS-III succeeds until 284. 304 DGRG 1-422, GHH, MRDK, rcCrm, wikKCB, wikSpD
304/3 CAH 6-495, 501, OCD 1008, frH     303 atl4, wikBsp
c.303 SELEUCUS-I Nicator marches from Punjab west. 302 BHS 1-59
c.302 AZON ruler of Kartli (Georgia, east of Black Sea) from 322, killed in battle.  Descendant of previous dynasty, PARNAVAZ-I, age 27, succeeds until 237.  Kingdom of IBERIA begins until ?. 302 hifiGeo, rcCau, wikΦ1
c.301 COLCHIS / IBERIA, kingdom on east coast of Black Sea, comes under Sinope until 192. 301 rcCau
c.301 SOGDIANA, under Macedonia from 327, comes under Seleucids until 256. 301 rcCAW
c.301 HERAT, city and fertile region in northwest Afghanistan, comes under Seleucids until 256. 301 rcCAS
c.301 ALEXANDRIA ARIA (now Herat), under Macedonians from 330, comes under Seleucids until 256. 301 rcCAS
c.301 MARKANDA, under Macedonia from 329, comes under Seleucids until 256. 301 rcCAW
c.301 GANDARA, under Macedonia from 330, comes under Seleucids until 256. 301 rcCAS
c.301 AZERBAIJAN, east end of Caucasus Mountains, aside southwest coast of Caspian Sea, under Macedonians from 331, comes under Seleucids until mid 200s. 301 rcCau

Asia 300-201