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300 CONSULS:  M. Valerius Maximus CORVUS (5th) and Q. Appuleius PANSA 300 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-862, OCD 1105, atl4, csm, wikCon
c.300 Pleb P. Decius Mus supports Lex Ogulnia in opposition to patrician Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus. 300 DGRBM 2-1123
c.300  Lex Ogulnia de Auguribus et Pontificibus  by tribunes Q. and Cn. Ogulnius Gallus:  Increases number of pontifs from 4 to 8 (not including pontifex maximus) and augurs from 4 to 9.  4 of the pontifs and 5 of the augurs must be plebes.  The pontifex maximus, not included among the pontifs, remains a patrician until 254.   (see Licinian Laws 367) 300 CAH 7.2-173, 343, CDGRA 99, 496, DGRA 178, 695, 927, 940, DGRBM 1-862, 3-20, Dur 3-20, 24, EDRL 557, GHH, HRRP 1-292, LEWH 85, LdHR 1-246, LEWH 85, OCD 860, 927, SORH, atl4, invf, wikLRL
c.300 1st pleb AUGURS include:  C. Marcius, M. Minucius Fessus,  P. Aelius Paetus,  T. Publilius. 300 DGRBM 2-944, 1092, 3-84, 603
c.300  Lex Valeria de Provocatione  by consul M. Valerius Maximus Corvus:  Seemingly re-affirmed and strengthens the original Leges Valeriae of 509 and 449 that provided for right of appeal in capital sentences. 302 HRRP 1-294
300 CAH 7.2-220, 400, DGRA 701, DGRBM, Dur 3-20, GHH, OCD 927, 1105, SORH, atl4, invf, unrv
c.300 Montefortino helmetMontefortino helmet used from now until 1st cen. CE, found in a Celtic grave in Montefortino Italy.  Conical or round with a raised central knob, and protruding neck guard (front is left) as well as cheek plates (probably leather, because none have survived).  In the Republic, this was the first stage in the development of the galea, derived from Celtic designs.  Similar types are found in Spain, Gaul, and north Italy.  Later sub-types will be: Canosa, Rieti, Buggenum, Hagenau. photo:

300 wikMH
From 302 to 290, ten temples are built in Rome. HRRP 1-407
c.300 By the end of the century freedmen are so numerous and influential that their status is a major political issue. CAH 7.2-334
c.300 NEQUINUM (later Narnia) northeast of Falerii in Umbria besieged by consul Q. Appuleius Pansa until 299. 300 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-354, atl4
c.300 Consul M. Valerius Corvus defeats the AEQUI. 300 OCD 1105
c.300 Taras, still hassled by Lucanians, calls in AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, who arrives in 300 but accomplishes little. 300 CAH 7.1-406, 7.2 299 SORH
c.300 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, in unknown condition from 316, comes under tyrant Menedimos until 296/5. 300 rcSI
295 DGRBM 2-1037
c.300 RHEGIUM, under Rome from 358, comes under Syracuse until 280. 300 rcSI
c.300 LIQUOR:  After 300, Greek & Roman art & literature begin portraying gods and men of all classes drinking much wine. 300
B76 1-441
c.300 "LIQUAMEN":  A sauce made of vinegar, oil, pepper and dried anchovy paste, used to flavor meat. 300
EOET 401
c.299 Etruscans solicits Gauls for help in preparation for war with Romans. 299 SORH
299 CONSULS:  T.(3) Manlius TORQUATUS and M. Fulvius PAETINUS
Suffect:  M. Valerius Maximus CORVUS (5th)
299 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-862, 3-83, 1164, csm, wikCon
c.299 Λ CENSORS V patrician Publius Sulpicius Saverrio; pleb Publius Sempronius Sophus 299 DGRBM 3-729, wikLC
c.299 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS elected curule aedile. 299 DGRBM 1-584
c.299 CarseoliCARSEOLI, the colony objected to by the Marsi in 301, is founded in Aequi territory on the Via Valeria 65km from Rome.  4,000 men settled. 302-298 wikCrs
no date:
DGRG 1-526
c.299 Consul T.(3) Manlius TORQUATUS fights Etruscans, falls from his horse, and dies 3 days later.  He is replaced with M. Valerius Maximus CORVUS. 299 DGRBM 1-862, 3-1164, atl3
c.299 Consul M. Valerius CORVUS devastates Etruria.  Etruscans are afraid to fight him. 299 OCD 1105, HRRP 1-355-6
c.299 A new band of GAULS cross Alps into Po valley.  The Cisalpine Gauls push them on against the Romans, and join them in an expedition to the south. 299 DGRG 1-937, GHH
c.299 NEQUINUM Umbria, besieged by consul Appuleius from 300 falls, becomes Latin colony of NARNIA.  1852km, 2,500 adult male settlers. 299 CAH 7.2-376, 391, 405, CDCC 219, DGRBM, OCD 722, GHH, atl3
c.299 GAULS raid Etruria. 299 CAH 7.2-377, atl3
c.299 Sp. Carvilius Maximus is curule aedile. 299 DGRBM 2-987
c.299 Licinian Laws of 367 confirmed. 299 HRRP 1-294
c.299 AEDILES put in charge of Roman grain supply and most imports from Sardinia and Sicily. 299
OCD 66
c.299 Censors P. Sempronius Sophus and P. Sulpicius Saverrio complete census, and create 2 new tribes. 299 atl3
c.299 Roman TRIBES, 31 from 318, increased to 33 until 241 by addition of ANIENSIS and TERENTINA.  Aniensis is on land taken from the Aequi in the upper Anio valley, and Teretina in the Liris valley on land annexed from the Aurunci in 314. 299
CAH 7.2-377, 403, DGRA 1156, DGRBM, atl3
c.299 M. VALERIUS is elected consul to replace T.(3) Torquatus, invades Etruria, devastates land and villages, but fails to bring the enemy to action. 299 atl3
c.299 People of Picenum tell Romans that the Samnites had asked them to join in rebellion against Rome. 299 atl3
c.299 ASCULUM in Picenum, allies with Romans until 269. 299 prsAP
c.299 Food shortages at Rome. 299 CAH 7.2-409 , atl3
c.299 CURIES, who have the right to sanction elections, are required to sanction, prior to election, any election of magistrates by the comitia. 299 DGRA 1020
298 An interregnum without consuls, in which Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus is appointed interrex, and works for a purely patrician consulate, is followed by election of patrician L.(2) Cornelius Scipio BARBATUS and pleb Gn. FULVIUS MAXIMUS CENTUMALUS as consuls. 298 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-667, 768, 3-741, LdHR 1-239, OCD 961, SORH, atl3, csm, wikCon
Scipio genealogy
c.298 C. Fulvius Curvus is pleb aedile. 298 DGRBM 2-188
c.298 Consul L.(2) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus invades Etruria, defeats Etruscans near Volaterrae. 298 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-741, GHH, LdHR 1-239, SORH, atl3
c.298 Consul Gn. FULVIUS MAXIMUS CENTUMALUS enters country of the Pentrian Samnites. 298
LdHR 1-239
c.298 Consuls prepare to resist attack from Umbrians and Gauls to the north.  Samnites to the south in league with Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls choose this time to attack the Roman army in Lucania and Apulia. 298 DGRBM LdHR 1-238, wikLPM
c.298 LUCANIA allies with Rome. 298 B76 VI-369
c.298 3rd SAMNITE WAR with Rome begins until 290.  Samnites under Gellius Egnatius are joined by Etruscans, Gauls, Lucanians. 299 GHH, MCAW
298 B76 VIII-832, 15-1090, CAH 7.2-377, CDCC 456, DGRBM 2-5, Dur 3-20, GHH, LEWH 86, OHG, SORH, TToH, atl3, bk
c.298 LUCERA is the only colony in Apulia that holds out against Samnites. 298
LdHR 1-238
c.298 Samnites defeat consul L.(2) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus at Camerinum. 298 wikLRB
c.298 CARSEOLI, founded 299 in central Appennines, becomes a Latin colony.  2852km, 4,000 adult male settlers. 298 CAH 7.2-376, 391, 405, CDCC 219, GHH, atl3
c.298 Gauls back out of the Samnite coalition. 298 LdHR 1-238
c.298 AUFIDENA, in north Samnium, chief city of the Caraceni, taken by consul Gn. Fulvius Maximus Centumalus. 298 DGRG 1-337
c.298 Consul L.(2) Scipio Barbatus penetrates to heart of Samnite country, defeats Samnites near Bovianum. 298 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-667, GHH, MCAW
c.298 BOVIANUM, Samnite capital, taken by consul Gn. Fulvius. 298 DGRG 1-425, HRRP 1-356, LEWH 86, atl3
297 CONSULS:  Q.(1) Fabius Maximus RULLIANUS (4th, supposedly against his own wishes) and P. DECIUS MUS (3rd)  both sent to Samnium, but by different routes. 297 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-992, 1123, OCD 316, 427, csm, wikCon
c.297 Samnites under Gellius Egnatius march into Etruria, despite Roman presence in Samnium.  Gellius rouses Etruscans to oppose Rome. 297 DGRBM 2-5 296 SORH
c.297 The APULI aid the Samnites.  P. DECIMUS MUS invades Apulia, defeats the Apuli at Malventum, then ravages Samnium. 297 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-1123, DGRG 1-166, SORH, atl3
c.297 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus RULLIANUS and his legate L.(2) Cornelius Scipio BARBATUS defeat Samnites under Gellius Egnatius at Tifernum Umbria, then spend 5 months ravaging Samnium. 297 CAH 7.2-378,
DGRBM 3-741, atl3, wikLRB
c.297 CIMETRA (location unknown) in Samnite territory taken by Romans.  2,900 captives enslaved. 297 CAH 7.2-389
c.297 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse sails from Sicily to south Italy until 289. implied 297 Agθ 213
c.297 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus RULLIANUS refuses to stand for re-election for 296, despite pressure for 2 patricians to be elected.  This is the last open patrician attempt to exclude plebs from consulship. 297 DGRA 353, atl3
c.297/6 Consul P. DECIUS MUS remains in Samnium as proconsul. 297/6 DGRBM 2-1123
296 CONSULS:  Ap.(6) CLAUDIUS CAECUS (2nd) and pleb L. VOLUMNIUS FLAMMA (2nd) 296 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-768, 2-168, LdHR 1-239, 253, OCD 246, csm, wikCon
c.296 Samnite general Gellius EGNATIUS leads his army into Etruria to establish coalition against Rome. 296
LdHR 1-253
c.296 Consul Ap.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus), is sent to Etruria. 296
LdHR 1-239
c.296 Consul L. VOLUMNIUS FLAMMA, is sent to Samnium. 296
LdHR 1-239
c.296 P. Aelius Paetus is pleb aedile. 296 DGRBM 3-84
c.296 Curule aediles Gn. and Q. Ogulnius exact fines from money-lenders and use money on public works. 296 DGRBM 3-20, LdHR 1- 465, atl3
c.296 Bronze Etruscan SHE-WOLF set up by aediles Gn. and Q. Ogulnius on Capitoline hill.  No twins are mentioned underneath.  The now existing version was radio carbon dated to the 13th century CE, with the twins added in the 15th. bronze she-wolf
480-70 evtwlf     5-400 anwr
296 CAH 7.2-57, 412, DGRA 1068, Dur 3-82, HRRP 1-543, LdHR 1-465, atl3
Date and origin are too controversial for meaningful speculation. wikCW
c.296 Romans fight Gauls in territory of the Camertes (Polybius) or at Clusium (Livy). 296
DGRG 1-489
c.296 Consul Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus), defeats a force of Etruscans and Samnites in a battle (in which he vows a temple to Bellona), but the result is indecisive. 296
CAH 7.2-378, DGRBM 1-768
c.296 MURGANTIA 32km west of Lucera in Samnium taken by proconsuls Decius Mus and Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus.  2,100 captives enslaved. 296 CAH 7.2-378, DGRG 2-376, atl3
c.296 ROMULEA on Samnium Apulia border taken by proconsuls Decius Mus and Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus.  6,000 captives enslaved. 296 CAH 7.2-378, 389
c.296 FERENTINUM, Hernician town in Samnium, taken by proconsuls Decius Mus and Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus. 296
CAH 7.2-378
c.296 Consuls Ap.(6) Claudius and Volumnius defeat a combined Etruscan and Samnite army in Etruria. 296 CAH 7.2, atl3
c.296 Consul Volumnius Flamma defeats a Samnite army which had invaded Campania, near river Volturnus. 296 CAH 7.2-378, atl3
c.296 Samnite, Gallic, Etruscan, Umbrian coalition under Samnite general Gellius EGNATIUS prepares to advance on Rome. 296 CAH 7.2, MCAW
c.296 LUCANIA:  Popular uprising against aristocracy.  Consul L. Volumnius Flamma intervenes for aristocracy. 296
CAH 7.2-378, bk
c.296 At the end of 296 consul Ap.(6) Claudius (later Caecus) tells the senate of a coalition in north Italy of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians and Gauls.  This alliance of convenience must have been several years in the making. 296 CAH 7.2-379
296/5 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, under tyrant Menedimos from 300, taken by Agathocles, who slaughters all males, comes under Syracuse until 277. 299 DGRG 1-710 296 rcSI
295 CAH 7.2, atl3
295 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus Rullianus is 1st choice for consul.  L. Volumnius Flamma is 2nd choice.  Fabius refuses to run unless he can have old colleague P. Decius Mus. 295 LdHR 1-240
295 CONSULS:  patrician Q.(1) Fabius Maximus RULLIANUS (5th) and pleb P. DECIMUS MUS (4th) 295 B76 IV-20, CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 2-1123, LdHR 1-240, OCD 427, csm, wikCon
295 L.(1) Manlius TORQUATUS is legate to propraetor Scipio. 295 DGRBM 3-1164
c.295 Λ PLAGUE V hits Rome.  Lasts until 293.  Many of Appius Claudius' troops are reportedly struck by lightning.  Λ Sibylline Books V  are consulted, and a temple to Venus is built near the Circus Maximus. 296 DGRBM 3-20
295 wikSB
c.295 Q.(2) Fabius Maximus Gurges "Glutton" is curule aedile.  He fines some noble matrons for disorderly life, and uses the money to build a temple to Venus, now a goddess of victory rather than love. 295 DGRBM 2-993
c.295 Rome has 6 legions representing about 25% of probable adult male population. 295 CAH 7.2-383
c.295 2 days of public PRAYERS prescribed by senate to avert evil omens. 295 HRRP 1-296
c.295 Virginia, a patrician woman marries former pleb consul L. Volumnius.  Ladies of the temple of patrician Chastity exclude her from their ceremonies.  Virginia builds a temple of plebean Chastity with the same rites.  It is reserved for women of acknowleged chastity who had been married only once. 295 HRRP 1-296
c.295 Consul Q.(1) Fabius Maximus RULLIANUS is assigned Etruria as his province, and enrols volunteers to join army there.  He reports troubles, and consul DECIMUS MUS is sent to join him. 295 atl3
c.295 Ap.(6) CLAUDIUS (later Caecus) praetor, fights in wars against Etruscans, Sabines, Samnites. 295 B76 II-976, CAH 7.2-377, OCD 246
c.295 Gallic SENONES invade Etruria. 295 DGRG 1-637
c.295 Consuls send a diversionary attack to Clusium Etruria, while they advance against Gauls and Samnites. 295 atl3
c.295 SENONES attack and destroy a legion at Clusium Etruria. 295 B76 7-960,
DGRG 1-637, atl3
c.295 Samnite general Gellius EGNATIUS, already allied with Etruscans, expands his coalition to include Gauls and Umbrians. 295
c.295 Praetor Gn. FULVIUS defeats armies of Clusium and Perusia at Clusium prior to Sentinum.  The Umbrians withdraw. 295 DGRBM 2-5, SORH, atl3
c.295 Praetor Gn. FULVIUS defeats Etruscans, who withdraw from the Samnite alliance.  So the Samnites and Gauls fall back behind the Appenines 295 DGRBM 1-667, 2-5
c. 295 Consuls RULLIANUS & DECIUS MUS with 4 legions plus a greater number of allies annihilate Samnite Gallic Etruscan, Umbrian coalition under Samnite general Gellius Egnatius at SENTINUM Umbria.
P. DECIUS MUS sacrifices his life by the rite of devotio.  i.e. He buys victory from the gods by self-sacrifice.  (see 279)  Egnatius is also killed.  Sentinum is the largest battle in Italy to that time.  Etruscans, Gauls, and Umbrians are forced to make peace.  No trouble from Gauls until 285.
296 MCAW
295 B76 IV-20, 7-960, 15-1090, BCoC 483,
CAH 7.2-379, CDCC 780, DGRBM 2-5, DGRG 1-863, Dur 3-37, GHH, LEWH 86, OCD 2, 316, 373, 427, SORH, atl3, lvS, wikLRB, wikPDM
c.295 Via Appia VIA APPIA, connecting Rome to Capua from 309, extended to Malventum until 291. 295 avwnct
c.295 A smaller Samnite army is defeated in Campania. 295 SORH
c.295 UMBRIA absorbed by Rome. 295 Dur 3-37
c.295 AESERNIA northwest of Bovianum Samnium, comes under Rome. 295 wikIsr
c.295 Deaths by plague and lightning are regarded as omens. 295 atl3
c.295 Temple to VENUS near the Circus Maximus in Rome dedicated. 295 atl3
c.295 FULGINIAE, Umbrian city from 8th cen., comes under Rome until 395CE.  Only now named Fulginiae. 295 rcRm
c.295 CAMPANIA absorbed by Rome. 295 Dur 3-37
c.295 MINTURNAE on coast of Latium becomes a Latin colony with a Roman garrison and full suffrage. 296 CAH 7.2-365, DGRG 2-360, SORH     295 CAH 7.2-391, CDCC 219, atl3
c.295 SINUESSA, south of Minturnae, becomes a Latin colony with a Roman garrison and full suffrage. 296 CAH 7.2-365, SORH
295 CAH 7.2-391, DGRG 1-892, atl3
c.295 AGATHOCLES, in Italy 297-89, allies with Iapygians and Pecetians. 295 CAH 7.2
c.295 L. POSTUMIUS MEGELLUS, ineligible for consulship due to lex Genucia, is made propraetor and given a legion, stationed on ager Vaticanus, on the right side of the Tiber. 295 wikLPM
294 CONSULS:  L. POSTUMIUS MEGELLUS (2nd) and M. Atilius REGULUS, both assigned to Samnium, but Postumius is kept at Rome by ill health. 294 CAH 7.2-641, DGRA 1165, DGRBM 2-1009, 3-643, atl3, csm, wikCon
c.294 Λ CENSORS V patrician P. Cornelius Arvina; pleb C. Marcius Rutilius 294 DGRBM 1-378, 664, wikLC
c.294 INTERAMNA LIRENAS at confluence of Liris and Spalla Bassa rivers, Latin colony from 312, destroyed by Samnites, territory ravaged. 294 DGRG 2-55, wikIL
c.294 Samnite raiders are defeated at Interamna. 294 atl3
c.294 ETRUSCANS, in Samnite coalition from 298, make separate peace with Rome. 294 LEWH 86, SORH
c.294 Samnites attack camp of consul Atilius Regulus.  Consul L. Postumius Megellus joins Atilius Regulus in Samnium.  Samnites retreat before their united army. 294
c.294 Quaestor C. Opimus Pansa killed in his tent in a Samnite attack on the Roman camp. 294 DGRBM 3-33
c.294 RUSELLAE Etruria taken by consul L. Postumius Megellus.  More than 2,000 captives enslaved.  Romans then impose terms on Volsinii, Perusia and Arretium. 294 CAH 7.2-380, 389
Accounts of Megellus campaigning in Etruria in 294 are discounted by modern scholars. wikLPM
c.294 Etruscan cities ARRETIUM, CORTONA, VOLSINII, and PERUSIA, in 30 year truces with Rome from 310, now pay fines and make 40 year truces with Rome. 294 CAH 7.2-422, DGRBM, DGRG 1-222, GHH, SORH, atl3
c.294 FERENTINUM Samnium taken by consul L. Postumius Megellus. 294 DGRBM 2-1009, atl3
c.294 MILIONIA, somewhere in Marsi territory, taken by consul L. Postumius Megellus.  4,700 captives enslaved. 294 CAH 7.2-389,
DGRBM 2-1009, atl3
c.294 Consul Atilius Regulus suffers heavy losses against Samnites at Lucera.  But next day he defeats them. 294 DGRBM 3-643, SORH, atl3
c.294 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS captures several towns in Samnium, but in Apulia he is routed, wounded, and driven into Lucera with a few troops.  He returns to Rome to recover. 294 wikLPM
c.294 The Bruttii defeat a Syracusan garrison left behind by Agathocles. 294 atl3
c.294 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS, back in Rome, dedicates temple of Victoria. 294 atl3
c.294 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS demands a triumph.  He is opposed by the senate and 7 out of 10 tribunes, because he had left his province, by returning to Rome.  Megellus has a triumph anyway, earning him much enmity. 294 DGRA 1165, wikLPM
294/3 Λ CENSUS V by P. Cornelius and C. Marcius registers 262,321 adult males. 294/3 CAH 7.2-137,
CDCC 179, csun 293 GHH, atl3
272,300 293 GHH
c.293 L. Postumius MEGELLUS leaves consular office, and is immediately threatened with impeachment by pleb tribune M. Cantius.  But his military ability is desperately needed.  So he is appointed legatus to consul Carvilius Maximus, and his prosecution suspended until the end of the campaign season.  Prosection never happens. 293 DGRBM 1-596, wikLPM
293 CONSULS:  Sp. CARVILIUS MAXIMUS and L. PARIRIUS CURSOR (son of above)   Both are sent to Samnium. 293 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-617, OCD 210, 905, 2-987, LdHR 1-242, csm, wikCon
c.293 Λ PLAGUE and famine at Rome.   Λ Sibylline Books V  are consulted, and it is revealed that AESCULAPIUS must be brought to Rome. 293 GHH, MCAW, wikSB
c.293 Q. OGULNIUS heads an embassy to Epidauros in Peloponnese, to bring Aesculapius cult to Rome. 294 DGRBM 3-20
c.293 AESCULAPIUS, Greek god of medicine represented by a big snake, brought from Epidauros to Rome by Q. Ogulnius to cure a plague.  The Senate, busy with Samnite wars, orders only 1 day of public prayers to Aesculapius.  But a temple is ordered, and finished in 291. 294 Dur 3-62
293 B76 I-572, CDCC 94, 398, DGRBM 1-46, MCAW, atl3
c.293 Temple to Jupiter Victor in the Forum Boarium dedicated by Q. Fabius Maximus.  Location unknown. 295 wikJp
294 CAH 7.2     293 atl3
c.293 Temple of Fortune dedicated in Rome. 293 CDCC 359, MCAW
c.293 Samnite army calls up every available man at AQUILONIA.  Of the 36,000 assembled, 16,000 are chosen to form an elite force called "linen legion". 293 CAH 7.2-380, atl3
c.293 SAMNITES decisively defeated by consul L. PARIRIUS CURSOR and legate C. Caedicius at Aquilonia on Samnium / Apulia border. 293 CAH 7.2-380, DGRBM 1-532, SORH, TToH, atl3, wikLRB
c.293 BOVIANUM Samnium taken and sacked. 293 SORH
c.293 Territory of ATINA in Samnium ravaged by consuls, but no attack is made on the town. 293 DGRG 1-310
c.293 AMITERNUM, under either Sabines or Samnites, taken by consul Cavilius Maximus.  4,270 captives enslaved. 293 CAH 7.2-389, DGRBM 2-987, DGRG 1-123
c.293 Consul Cavilius Maximus proceeds from Amiternum to besiege Cominium (location unknown), take it, and burn it. 293 DGRBM 2-987, DGRG 1-651
c.293 Samnite cities Aquilonia, Cominium, Duronia, Herculaneum, Palumbinum, Saepinum, and Velia taken by consuls.  Except for Saepinum (Sepino) these towns are unknown.  Captives enslaved: Aquilonia 3,870, Cominium 1,400, Duronia: fewer than 4,270, Saepinum: fewer than 5,000, Velia, Palumbinum, Herculaneum: 5,000. 293 CAH 7.2-380, 389, DGRBM 1-905, atl3
c.293 Sp. Nautius Rutilus, officer under consul L. Papirius Cursor distinguishes himself in battle against the Samnites, and is rewarded by Cursor. 293 DGRBM 3-682
c.293 SAMNITES defeated by consul Sp. CARVILIUS MAXIMUS at Cominium (location unknown). 293 DGRBM 2-987, OCD 210, atl3
c.293 SAMNIUM ravaged by consuls. 293 atl3
c.293 Consul Sp. CARVILIUS MAXIMUS proceeds from Cominium to attack and conquer Palumbinum and Herculaneum. 293 DGRBM 2-987
c.293 Consul Sp. CARVILIUS MAXIMUS proceeds from Herculaneum to Etruria. 293 DGRBM 2-987
c.293 FALISCANS of Falerii, at peace with Rome from 356, join Etruscan rebellion. 293 DGRBM 2-987, DGRG 1-891, SORH, atl3
c.293 Consul Carvilius defeats Etruscans, and forces Faliscans to sue for peace. 293 SORH, atl3
c.293 FALISCANS of Falerii Etruria pay 1 year's army pay plus 100,000 lbs copper for 50 year truce with Rome. 293 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-360
A 1 year truce which leads to a permanent peace. DGRG 1-891
c.293 AGATHOCLES, in Italy 297-89, with 30,000 inf and 3,000 cav, attacks the Bruttii. 293 CAH 7.1-407, 7.2, atl3
c.293 HIPPONIUM, under the Bruttii from ?, taken by Agathocles.  Used as a port or naval station until 289. 294 DGRG 1-1071 293 CAH 7.1-407, 7.2, atl3
c.293 STILPO, admiral of Agathocles, plunders Bruttian coast, but loses most of his fleet in a storm. 293
CAH 7.1-407
c.293 Bronze JUPITER STATUE made of Samnite armor, erected on Capitoline hill and dedicated by consul Carvilius Maximus.  Big enough to be seen 20 miles away. 293 Dur 382, LdHR 1-465, OCD 210
292 atl3
c.293 New tribunes resign because of irregularities in their election. 293 atl3
c.293 12 HOUR DAY, adopted in Greece from ?, adopted in Rome. 293 CDGRA 235
c.293 TEMPLE of QUIRINUS (deified form of Romulus) built on west half of Quirinal Hill by consul L. Papirius Cursor.  Dedicated 292. 293 esh, wikTQ
c.293 1st Egyptian embassy to Rome. 293 atl3
Livy's tenth book ends with 293.  Succeeding books do not survive.  From now until 218, virtually no information survives on Rome's domestic history. CAH 7.2-380, 391
292 CONSULS:  Q.(2) Fabius MAXIMUS GURGES (Glutton) and D.(2) Junius BRUTUS SCAEVA 292 CAH 7.2-641, DGRBM 1-508, 2-993, csm, wikCon
c.292 Temple to QUIRINUS (deified form of Romulus) on west half of Quirinal Hill from 293, dedicated by L. Papirius Cursor.  Lasts until 48. 293 CAH 7.2
292 CAH 7.2-641, csm, wikCon
c.292 Roman campaigns in Etruria. 292 CAH 7.2
c.292 FALISCANS of Falerii Etruria, in 50 year truce with Rome from 293, resume war. 292 SORH
c.292 FALISCANS conquered by D.(2) Junius BRUTUS SCAEVA. 292 DGRBM 1-508
c.292 Consul Q.(2) FABIUS MAXIMUS GURGES is defeated by Pentrian Samnites under Gavius PONTIUS.  The Papirian and Appian parties have a feeding frenzy, but Q.F.M. Rullianus saves his son's consulate by offering to serve as his lieutenant for the rest of the war. 292 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-993, GHH, atl3
c.292 FABIUS GURGES defeats Samnites in 2nd battle, with help of his father Rullianus.  Gavius Pontius is captured. 292 DGRBM 2-993, GHH, SORH, atl3     291 CAH 7.2
c.292 Samnium is overrun by Romans until 290, but Samnites continue resistance. 292 CAH 7.2-380
c.292 Samnite chief Gavius Pontius is executed in triumph of Fabius Gurges. 292 atl3 291 GHH
c.292 L. Postumius MEGELLUS is appointed Interrex to convene the Comitia Curiata and hold consular elections.  He nominates himself, thereby breaking the law prohibiting men serving as consul again until 10 years had elapsed. late 292 wikLPM     292/1 DGRBM 2-1009
292/1 Consul Q.(2) Fabius Maximus Gurges becomes proconsul in Samnium. 292/1 DGRBM 2-993
c.291 Temple to AESCULAPIUS, begun 293 on the Tiber island dedicated. 291 CAH 7.2-418, atl3
291 CONSULS:  L. Postumius MEGELLUS (2nd) and C. Junius BRUTUS BUBULCUS 291 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-516, 2-1009, csm, wikCon
c.291 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS doesn't wait to be assigned a province.  He claims Samnium.  Legal veto of consul Junius Brutus is ignored.  Megellus marches to Samnium. 291 DGRBM 2-1009, wikLPM
c.291 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS uses 2,000 troops to begin clearing Samnite land, which he had them do for some considerable time, before moving to join Gurges. 291 wikLPM
c.291 Samnite COMINIUM (location unknown), taken by Rome 293, has to be retaken.  Proconsul Q.(2) Fabius Maximus Gurges besieges it, but is so little esteemed that consul L. Postumius Megellus takes over his army and province, and sends Gurges back to Rome.  Cominiun quickly falls to Megellus 291 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-993, 1009, GHH
c.291 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS is charged with misuse of his troops and ordered by the senate to return from his province.  Megellus tells the envoys that, as long as he was consul of Rome, it was up to him to command the Senate, not for the Senate to dictate to him. 291 atl3, wikLPM
c.291 MELFI, near Venusia, comes under Rome until 396CE. 291 rcSI
c.291 C. Fabricius Luscinus supports his personal enemy P. Cornelius Rufinus, as candidate for consul 290. 291 atl3
c.291 VENUSIA Apulia, on the common borders of the southernmost Samnites, the friendly states of northern Apulia, and the Lucanian tribes, captured by L. Postumius Megellus, refounded as a Latin colony.  8002km, 6,000 adult male settlers. 291 B76 X-390, CAH 6-402, 7.2-380, 391, 405, CDCC 219, GHH, SORH, atl3, lvS, wikLPM
c.291 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS distributes the loot of the campaign among his soldiers, to prevent the Treasury of Rome getting any.  He disbands his armies before his successor arrives to relieve him. 291 wikLPM
c.291 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS returns to Rome, demands another triumph, which the Senate refuses.  He petitions the people to support him, but receives lukewarm support.  He then turns to the pleb tribunes.  3 support him; 7 veto his request for a triumph.  Senate votes a triumph for the man he ousted, Q.(2) Fabius Maximus Gurges, allowing him to claim credit for taking Cominium (which was taken by Megellus). 291 wikLPM
c.291 Via AppiaVIA APPIA, connecting Rome to Malventum from 295, extended to Venusia and Taras until 272. 291 SORH, avwnct
290 Consul L. Postumius MEGELLUS goes out of office.  He is prosecuted by 2 tribunes, condemned by all 33 tribes, and fined 500,000 asses, the highest amount ever imposed to that time. 290 DGRBM 2-1009, wikLPM
290 CONSULS:  Manius Curius DENATUS and P. Cornelius RUFINUS, both sent to Samnium. 290 B76 III-471, CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-992, 3-665,
OCD 332, csm, wikCon
c.290 Military tribune, C. Laetorius condemned to death for assaulting a tent-mate. 290 atl3
c.290 SAMNITES defeated by consuls DENATUS and RUFINUS, forced to become allies of Rome, pacified until 90. 290 B76 III-471, CAH 7.2-380, DGRBM 3-665, GHH, LdHR 1-243, OCD 332, SORH, atl3, rcSI
c.290 3rd SAMNITE WAR with Rome from 298 ends with  peace treaty  (terms unknown).  Rome completes conquest of central Italy.  Samnites are subdued, and recognized as autonomous allies without vote. 291 MCAW     290 B76 VIII-832, CAH 7.2-346, CDCC 456, 775, DGRBM 3-665, Dur 3-20, HRRP 1-362, LEWH 86, OCD 297, OHG, SORH, TAWH 17, TToH, atl3, bk
c.290 SABINES, conquered by consul M'. Curius DENATUS.  Some are enslaved.  The last of the Sabine territory is confiscated by Rome. 290 CAH 7.2-380, Dur 3-35, LdHR 1-255, OCD 332, 942, atl3
c.290 REATE, a Sabine village in north Samnium, becomes a strategic point in the road network, dominating the "salt" track (Via Salaria) that links Rome to the Adriatic thru the Apennines. 290 wikRt
c.290 SABINES are granted Roman citizenship, without suffrage until 268. 290 CAH 7.2-380, SORH, atl3
c.290 PRAETUTTII tribe of south Picenum conquered by M' Curius DENATUS, granted Roman citizenship, without suffrage.  Some of their land is distributed to Roman settlers. 290 CAH 7.2-380
c.290 M' Curius Denatus distributes allotments of land to Roman citizens. 290 CAH 7.2, atl3
c.290 SOLARIUM aka HOROLOGIUM (sundial V) captured from Samnites, brought to Rome by L. Papirius Cursor and put near the temple of Quirinius, but its purpose is not understood. 293 DGRBM, GHH, LdHR 1-467     292 atl3     291 DGRA 409 290 B76 4-743
c.290 Q.(1) Fabius Maximus RULLIANUS dies. 290 atl3
c.290 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, in Italy 297-89, sends his son to Greece to arrange alliance with DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes. 290 CAH 7.1 289 atl3
289 CONSULS:  M. Valerius Maximus CORVINUS (2nd) and Q. Caedicius NOCTUA 289 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-531, 862, 2-1001, csm, wikCon
From 289 to 255 the 70 consulships are shared among 65 men.  There is little iteration. CAH 7.2-346
c.289 Λ CENSORS V patrician Q.(2) Fabius Maximus Gurges (?); pleb Sp. Carvilius Maximus (?) 289 wikLC
c.289 A census is completed. 289 atl3
c.289 TRIUMVIRI CAPITALES, proposed by L. Papirius, instituted.  A mixture of police superintendents and justices of the peace who investigate capital crimes, oversee prisons and executions (strangulation for patricians and women, crucifixion for slaves).  They are nominated and supervised by the praetor urbanus.  They patrol the streets at night, sieze and punish disorderly persons, generally as assistants to praetors.  They must go immediately to any fire. 292 DGRA 1167 290
289 B76 X-133, DGRBM, GHH, SORH
290-87 wikTrm
c.289 Boundaries of Rome: north: Ciminian Forest; east: the Abruzzi; south: Capua, with outposts Lucera and Venusia. 289 SORH
c.289 CASTRUM NOVUM on Adriatic coast of Picenum founded as a maritime colony. 289 GHH, invf
c.289 THURII, under Lucani 390-282, attacked by native Lucanians, asks Roman protection. M Cuirus Denatus defeats Lucani, who are no longer necessary to Rome. 289 SORH
c.289 LUCANI raise anti-Roman coalition. 289 SORH
c.289 HADRIA in Picenum on Adriatic coast dominating the coastal road between north and south and helped to control the tribes of Picenum, becomes a Latin colony.  3802km, 4,000 adult male settlers. 289 AI 291, DGRBM, GHH, SORH, atl3
290-86 CAH 7.2-380, 391, 405, 421, CDCC 219
CONFUSION ALERT!  HADRIA, ATRIA, ATRI are all names of 2 cities on Adriatic Coast, one at Po river, and the other in central Italy.
c.289 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, in Italy from 297, is forced by ill health to withdraw to Syracuse. 289 atl3
c.289 HIPPONIUM, a port or naval station under Agathocles from 293, Syracusans are murdered by the Brutii, who recover it until 275. no date:
DGRG 1-1071
288 CONSULS:  P. Cornelius ARVINA (2nd) and Q. Marcius TREMULUS (2nd) 288 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-378, 3-1172, csm, wikCon
c.288  Lex Maenia  probably proposed by tribune Maenius:  Like Leges Publiliae 339 regarding approval of centuriate legislation.  Requires any imperium granted to any pleb elected by the centuries to be approved by the senate or patrician assembly. 288 invf, unrv
287 CDGRA 97, DGRA 694
post 293 wikLRL
236 DGRA 960
c.288 HUMAN SACRIFICE:  Vestal virgins executed because the danger to the state seems to prove that they had been unchaste. 288 CAH 7.2-322
287 CONSULS:  M. Claudius MARCELLUS and C. Nautius RUTILUS 287 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-927, 3-682, csm, wikCon
c.287 5th and final Λ PLEB SECESSION.  Debt is the main complaint.  Plebs go to the JANICULUM, a hill on the western edge of Rome. 287 CAH 7.2, Dur 3-20, SORH, atl3     287/6 CAH 7.2-216     286 DGRA 927, DGRBM, HRRP 1-306
c.287 Q. Hortensius, an otherwise unknown pleb, is appointed dictator to deal with the pleb secession. 287 bk, wikLRD 289-86 CAH 7.2-400 286 DGRBM 2-525
c. 287  Lex Hortensia  by pleb dictator Q. Hortensius:  Re-enacts Lex Valeria-Horatia 449, and Lex Publilia 339.  Effectively ends the "struggle of the orders".  PLEBISCITES passed in tribal assembly are given force of law and applied to all citizens, including patricians without consent of senate.  Distinction between patrician and pleb magistrates disappears. 289 MCAW     287 B76 III-36, 15-1055, 1097, CAH 7.2-342, 9-41, CDGRA 97, 200, 403, CDCC 907, DGRA 337, Dur 3-20, 24, LEWH 86, OCD 272, 927, 1105, SORH, TToH, atl3, bk, unrv, wikLRL
286 CAH 7.2-223, DGRA 928, DGRBM, EDRL 553, GHH, HRRP 1-294
c.287  Lex Aquilia  by tribune Aquilius, about unlawful damage, provides compensation to owners of property (including slaves) damaged by fault rather than accident. 287 CAH 9-544, atl3
286 CAH 7.2-116, wikLRL
c.287 The hereditary and official PATRICIAN vs. PLEB distinction now becomes virtually irrelevant.  OPTIMATE vs. POPULARE become the new unofficial labels for the same fact. 287 wikCO
286 CONSULS:  M.(5) Valerius Maximus (Corvinus or Potitus) and C. Aelius PAETUS 286 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-1002, 3-84, 515, csm, wikCon
c.286 Maenius (identity disputed) proposes a law requiring patres to sanction election of magistrates before elections, i.e. to confer or agree to confer imperium on the person whom the comitia elects. 286 DGRBM 2-897
c.286 Q. Hortensius is dictator. 286 DGRBM
285 CONSULS:  M.(1) Aemilius LEPIDUS (2nd) and C. Claudius CANINA 285 CAH 7.2-642,
DGRBM 2-762, wikCon
c.285 GAULS, inactive from 295, penetrate into Etruria. 285 CAH 7.2-381
c.285 THURII, under Lucani 390-282, pressed by native Lucanians, asks Roman protection.  Senate hesitates. 285 lvS
c.285 Romans fight against Volsinii in the north and Lucanians in south. 285 atl3
285/4 C. Fabricius Luscinus is ambassador to Taras and other allied states to disuade them from making war on Rome.  He is siezed by them, while they send embassies to Etruscans, Umbrians, and Gauls to form a coalition. 285 B76 IV-22 285/4 DGRBM 2-841
284 CONSULS:  C. Servilius TUCCA and L.(1) Caecilius METELLUS
Suffete: Manius Curius DENATUS
284 CAH 7.2-642,
DGRBM 1-526, 993, 3-1181, OCD 332, csm, wikCon
c.284 Tribune Aelius proposes war against Lucanians.  People vote for it. 284 LdHR 1-263
c.284 Senone Gauls attack north Italy. 284 GHH
283 CONSULS:  P. Cornelius DOLABELLA and Gn. Domitius CALVINUS MAXIMUS 283 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-584, 1058, csm, wikCon
c.283 Λ CENSORS V patrician ???; pleb Q. Caedicius Noctua is elected censor, but later resigns. 283 DGRBM atl3, wikLC
c.283 Etruscans of Volsinii ally with other states of north Etruria and Senones to jointly attack Arretium. 283 LdHR 1-263-4
c.283 ARRETIUM Etruria, under the Cilni, besieged by Senones, does not fall, though a relief army under praetor L.(1) Caecilius Metellus is defeated. 283 DGRBM, DGRG 1-223, 937
c.283 Praetor L. Caecilius DENTER killed by Senone Gauls at ArretiumHis army annihilated.  Manius Curius DENATUS relieves him, sends ambassadors to Senones to exchange prisoners.  Senones kill the ambassadors. 285 CAH 7.2-381, GHH, wikLRB     284 B76 7-960, DGRBM 1-584, 993, GHH, OCD 243, SORH, atl3
284/3 CAH 7.2     283 DGRBM 1-992, 1058, TToH, wikMCD
Some sources have Denter as a Metellus and a praetor after his consulship. wikLCMD
c.283 SENONE GAULS under Britomaris, in Picenum from ?, defeated and driven north by Manius Curius DENATUS. 284 B76 III-471, OCD 332, atl3 283 CAH 7.2-421, DGRBM, GHH, OCD 977, SORH, bk, hifiBo, hifiCT, wikMCD
c.283 SENONE GAULS under Britomaris defeated by P. Cornelius DOLABELLA, expelled from Italy.  Senones disappear from history. 283 B76 IX-58, DGRBM 1-1058, GHH, OCD 977, bk
c.283 Lake Vadimo BOII GAULS fear the same fate as the Senones.  They join the ETRUSCANS, march against Rome, and are defeated at 2nd Battle of LAKE VADIMO (partly dry lake near Etruscan town of Orte) by P. Cornelius DOLABELLA (Some say Calvinus.).  Etruscans lose over half of their men, while hardly any Boii escape alive.  Sign  45 year truce .  No trouble with Gauls until 238. 283 B76 7-960, CAH 7.2-381, DGRBM 1-584, DGRG 1-416, 863, GHH, LdHR 1-326, MCAW, OCD 927, SORH, atl3, wikBLV, wikLRB, , wikRGG
283/2 CAH 7.2
282 GHH, OCD 171
c.283 FAESULAE in Tuscia taken by Romans. 283 B76 IV-129
c.283 Romans occupy most of Greek Italy, drive Gauls beyond Po River, re-subdue Etruria. 283 B76 7-960, Dur 3-20, 37, GHH
c.283 ETRURIA subdued by Rome.  Etruscan state ends, but hostilities continue until 280. 283 GHH, SORH
c.283 SENA GALLICA, former capital of the Senones, at the mouth of the Misa river on the Adriatic coast of Umbria, founded as colony by Romans. 289 AI 291     284 CAH 7.2
283 CAH 7.2-391,
CDCC 219, SORH, atl3
282 CONSULS:  Q. Aemilius PAPUS and C. Fabricius LUSCINUS 282 B76 IV-22, CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-841, 3-120, csm, wikCon
c.282 BOII again attack Romans, and are defeated by consul Q. Aemilius Papus, who punishes them so severely that they make treaty and abide by it until 238. 282 DGRBM 3-120, DGRG 1-416, 938, GHH, HRRP 1-367, SORH, atl3
282/1 CAH 7.2
c.282 THURII, under Lucani 390-282, pressed by Taras, again asks Roman protection.  Senate hesitates.  Plebian Assembly votes to help Thurii.  Rome sends consul C. Fabricius Luscinus. 282 CAH 7.2, DGRBM, MCAW, OCD 927, lvS, rcSI
c.282 Consul C. Fabricius LUSCINUS goes south to fight Samnites, Lucanii, and Brutii. 282 B76 IV-22, DGRBM 2-841, 3-120
c.282 ATRIA on north Adriatic coast, founded 385 as a Syracusan colony, refounded by Romans. 282 DGRG 1-26
CONFUSION ALERT!  HADRIA, ATRIA, ATRI are all names of 2 cities on Adriatic Coast, one at Po river, and the other in central Italy.
c.282 Romans defeat Etruscans at Populonia on west coast.  Etruscan resistance to Roman domination is crushed. 282 atl3, wikLRB 282/1 CAH 7.2
c.282 RHEGIUM, under Syracuse 300-280 asks Rome for help.  Rome obliges by installing a garrison of Mamertines (Campanian mercenaries) under Decius Jubellius. 282 lvS
282 or 80 CAH 7.2 281 DGRBM 1-948
This garrison is a legion of 4,000 men. 281 DGRA 493
c.282 South Italy (except for Taras) comes under Rome, which garrisons the cities. 282 lvS
no date: Dur 3-37
c.282 Consul C. Fabricius Luscinus defeats Lucanians and Brutti near Thurii, rescues Thurii, and leaves a garrison there.  THURII, under Lucani from 390, comes under Romans until 212, but destroyed later 282. 282 B76 IV-22, HRRP 1-368, LdHR 1-265, SORH, atl3
c.282 TARAS, Spartan city 706-271, angry about Roman garrison at Thurii, destroys a Roman fleet, which had passed the Lucanian Promontory in violation of the 304 treaty.  Some Roman citizens are captured. 282 CAH 7.2, DGRBM LEWH 91, MCAW, SORH, atl3, bk
281 atl3, wikLPM
c.282 L. Postumius MEGELLUS is sent as envoy to Taras to demand release of Roman prisoners, and delivery of those who had committed aggressive acts against Rome.  Megellus is mocked, pissed on, and expelled from Taras. 282 MCAW, wikLPM
281 atl3
c.282 BRUTII, LUCANII, and SAMNITES unite against Romans. 282 DGRG 1-449
c.282 Roman garrison at Thurii 282 forced to withdraw by Taras. 282 CAH 7.2
no date: LEWH 91
c.282 Consul C. Fabricius Luscinus returns to Rome, deposits 400 talents into the treasury, pays large gratuties to his troops, restores to Romans what they had paid in military tax that year. 282 HRRP 1-368
c.282 THURII, under a Roman garrison 282 taken and sacked by men of Taras. 282 DGRG 1-1193, SORH
c.282 ROME / TARAS WAR begins until 272. 282 DGRG 1-1193, GHH, MCAW, TToH     281 SORH, atl3
c.282/1 Taras gives naval aid to Pyrrhus for recovery of Corcyra. 282/1 CAH 7.2
281 CONSULS:  L. Aemilius BARBULA and Q.(1) Marcius PHILIPPUS 281 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-461, 3-285, csm, wikCon
c.281 Consul Marcius PHILIPPUS celebrates triumph for defeating the Etruscans in general. 281 DGRBM 3-285, DGRG 1-863
c.281 MONEY:  Silver drachma, 2nd issue. 281 CAH 7.2
c.281 silver drachmaFirst Roman silver coin, a drachma.  Left: Bearded head of Mars with Corinthian helmet; right: horse head with grain ear behind.  Minted and used mostly in Magna Graecia and Campania. photo: Curtius

281 wikRRC
c.281 Volsinii and Vulci are the only Etruscan cities to protract the now hopeless resistance to Rome until 280. 281 DGRG 1-863
c.281 The Lucani besiege a town which is allied to Rome. 281 vrb
c.281 L. Aemilius BARBULA defeats Taras in the field, ravages their land, and takes several of their towns. 281 DGRBM 1-461-2, SORH
c.281 TARAS, Spartan city 706-271, pressed by Rome, asks military aid from Pyrrhus of Epirus.  Taras promises 350,000 inf and 20,000 cav. 281 B76 VIII-326, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-611, HRRP 1-374, RAH 384, SORH, wikPyr     280 B76 8-382
c.281 TARAS, impressed with honorable treatment of prisoners by L. Aemilius BARBULA, appoints Agis, a pro-Roman, general with unlimited powers. no date:
DGRBM 1-462
c.281 Philosopher CINEAS, sent by Pyrrhus to help Taras. 280 GHH, atl3
c.281 Taras, now impressed by Cineas, voids appointment of pro-Roman Agis. no date:
DGRBM 1-462
c.281 Epirote general MILO, with 3,000 men, lands at Taras, attacks L. Aemilius BARBULA on a road near the coast.  Taras' fleet is ready to hurl missiles at Romans, who then put Tarentine prisoners between them and the fleet.  Barbula's army passes safely. 281 GHH, SORH
no date:
DGRBM 1-462, 3-612
c.280 L. Aemilius BARBULA, consulship expires, continues in south Italy as proconsul. 280 DGRBM 1-462
280 CONSULS:  pleb Ti. CORUNCANIUS and P. Valerius LAEVINUS 280 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-857, 2-709, OCD 213, csm, wikCon
c.280 Pleb Gn. Domitius Calvinus Maximus is dictator, resigns office within the year to become censor. 280 DGRBM 1-584, wikLRD
c.280 Λ CENSORS V patrician L.(2) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus; pleb Gn. Domitius Calvinus Maximus 280 DGRBM 1-584, SORH, wikLC
c.280 Etruscan towns VULCI and VOLSINII defeated by consul Tiberius CORUNCANIUS. 280 CAH 7.2-381, OCD 293, SORH
c.280 LUSTRUM, administered by only patrician censors from 443, opened to pleb censors.  See 214. 280 DGRA 261
c.280 Proconsul L. Aemilius BARBULA has victories over Samnites, Sallentii, Etruscans in Quinctilia. 280 DGRBM 1-462
c.280 Consul Ti. CORUNCANIUS begins 1st known instruction in Roman law.  Lawyers begin to replace priests as authority figures. 280
Dur 3-32
c.280 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72, with blessing of oracle of Delphi, sails from Epirus to Taras with 3,000 cavalry, 2,000 archers, 500 slingers, 20,000 infantry and 20 elephants (loaned by Ptolemy-II).  He impatiently sails before the end of the stormy season, and loses most of his force.  Young son Helenos is with him in Italy until 278. 281 DGRBM, LdHR 1-277
280 CAH 7.1, 7.2-381, CDCC 736, DGRBM 2-372, 3-566, 612, GHH, OCD 927, OHG, atl3, bk, wikPyr
c.280 PYRRHUS arrives at Taras, closes the baths and theaters, forces citizens to drill like recruits.  Many Tarentines flee. 280 HRRP 1-375
c.280 Consul P. Valerius LAEVINUS is sent to deal with PyrrhusC. Fabricius is legate. 280 DGRBM 2-841
c.280 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72, defeats consul Laevinus at PANDOSIA at the Siris river, near Heraclea Lucania, then mourns the cost of his victory.  1st encounter between a Greek phalanx and a Roman legion. 280 B76 IV-22, 1035, VIII-326, 8-382, BCoC 484, CAH 7.2, CDCC 130, DGRBM, DGRG 1-1047, Dur 3-37, GHH, IDB 4-73, MCAW, OCD 923, 927, SORH, TToH, atl3, wikLRB, wikPyr
c.280 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72 gets rescued by Macedonian officer Leonnatos at Pandosia. 280 DGRBM 2-754
c.280 Cavalry commander OBSIDIUS at the Siris river gallantly charges the Epirotes and unhorses Pyrrhus, but is killed by the king's guards. 280
c.280 All south Italy:  Samnium, Lucania, Bruttii, Messapii, and Greek cities of Croton and Locri, join PYRRHUS king of Epirus against Romans. Magna Graecia Pic Maximix

280 CAH 7.2-381,
Dur 3-37, SORH, atl3, wikPyr

Magna Graecia c.280. 280 wikMG
c.280 METAPONTUM joins PYRRHUS king of Epirus against Romans until 272. 280
CDCC 577
c.280 C. FABRICIUS LUSCINUS is sent to negotiate with PYRRHUS king of Epirus.  He impresses Pyrrhus by refusing a bribe. 280 B76 IV-22, atl3
c.280 Philosopher CINEAS sent by PYRRHUS king of Epirus as envoy to Rome to negotiate.  Very impressed by the senate.  He demands that Rome stop aggressing Greeks of south Italy, and restore land taken from the Brutii, Apulii, and Samnites.  Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus persuades senate to refuse.  Cineas then tries bribery unsuccessfully. 280 B76 II-940
Dur 3-28, SORH, atl3
c.280 AP.(6) CLAUDIUS CAECUS, old, blind, retired, & lame, has himself carried to the senate.  Makes an eloquent speech persuading them that Rome should never accept a foreign army on Italian soil.  This is the 1st example of Latin oratory to be preserved for future generations. 280 B76 II-976
Dur 3-37, atl3
c.280 Censor L.(2) Cornelius Scipio Barbatus dies.  His tomb will not be finished until c.150. 280 wikLCSB
c.280 PYRRHUS of Epirus releases 2,000 Roman P.O.W.s on their word that they will return and surrender if Rome chooses war. 280 Dur 3-37, atl3
c.280 SENATE votes for war with PyrrhusSends back the 2,000 Roman P.O.W.s! 280 Dur 3-37
This honorable behavior will be sharply contrasted to their disgracefull behavior in Spain 152-140.
c.280 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72, traverses Campania, but fails to take Capua or Neapolis. 280 DGRG 1-493
c.280 Consul Ti. Coruncanius leads an army against Etruscans. 280 atl3
c.280 PYRRHUS king of Epirus 298-72, advances north on Rome, as far as Anagnia in Latium. 280 CAH 7.2, SORH, atl3
c.280 FREGELLAE Latium on the east bank of the Liris siezed and ravaged by Pyrrhus. 280 SORH
279 DGRG 1-913
c.280 Consul Ti. Coruncanius, having finished with Etruscans, marches south to block Pyrrhus. 280 SORH
c.280 PYRRHUS retires to Campania for winter. 280 CAH 7.2, atl3
c.280 RHEGIUM, under Syracuse from 300 garrisoned by Mamertines (Campanian mercenaries) installed 282 by Rome, siezed by Mamertines, who kill or expel the men and keep the women.  Decius Jubellius becomes tyrant.  Under Mamertines until 277. 281 SORH     280 OCD 920, atl3     275 lvG
c.280 Gn. Domitius is appointed dictator, to hold elections for new consuls. 280 atl3
280/79 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 287,222 adult males. 280/79 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun
c. 280/79 Romans set up in the Forum bronze statues of Alcibiades and Pythagoras, respectively "the bravest and the wisest of the Greeks".  Apparently the wisdom of Socrates & Plato went unnoticed. 314 DGRA 1068     280/79 CAH 8-481
279 CONSULS:  P. DECIUS MUS (son of P.D.M. died 295) and P. SULPICIUS SAVERRIO both sent against Pyrrhus in Apulia. 279 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-1124, 3-613, 729, OCD 216, csm, wikCon
c.279 PYRRHUS of Epirus resumes hostilities, invades Apulia, defeats several cities, but the rest remain loyal to Rome. 279 DGRG 1-166, HRRP 1-378, wikPyr
c.279 ASCULUM SATRIANO in Apulia besieged by Pyrrhus. 279 GHH, HRRP 1-378
c.279 P. Cornelius Dolabella, Q. Aemilius, and C. Fabricius are sent to Pyrrhus to negotiate a prisoner exchange. 279 DGRG 1-1058
c.279 PYRRHUS of Epirus approaches Rome, realizes that he can't take it, offers peace terms.  Rome refuses.  At a parley with a consul, Phrrhus suddenly reveals an elephant from behind a screen.  The consul is unimpressed. 279 MCAW
c.279 It is rumored that P. DECIUS MUS will repeat the suicidal gambit of his father, d. 295Pyrrhus warns his troops, describes the costume Decius would wear, and tells them to take him alive.  He also tells the Roman generals that anybody who devotes himself to a god will be siezed after the battle and killed for practicing witchcraft - which is no fair in war. 279 HRRP 1-378
c.279 P. DECIUS MUS barely defeated by PYRRHUS of Epirus at ASCULUM (Ausculum) Satriano in Apulia.  Romans lose 6,000 men, Pyrrhus 3,500.  Pyrrhus comments, "Another such victory, and we are lost".  Hence "Pyrrhic victory".  He withdraws to Taras, and renews peace offers with Rome. 280 MCAW, TTPC
279 B76 VIII-326, 8-382,
CAH 7.2, CDCC 130, DGRBM 3-613, GHH, HRRP 1-380, MCAW, OCD 153, 316, 903, LEWH 98, SORH, TToH, wikLRB, wikAs, wikPyr
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is another Asculum in Picenum.
c.279 After Asculum, Mago sails 130 galleys to Ostia, and offers Rome his assistance against PyrrhusSenate declines.  Mago sails to south Italy and talks with Pyrrhus in effort to determine his intentions in Sicily. 279
DGRBM 2-902, DGRG 1-540
c.279/8 Senate, persuaded by Ap.(6) Claudius Caecus, rejects peace offer from PYRRHUS of Epirus. 279 CAH 7.2-399 279/8 OCD 246
c.279/8 Rome / Carthage Λ 4th treaty Romans to stay out of SicilyCarthaginians to stay out of Italy.  Renew alliance to oust PYRRHUS of Epirus from SicilyCarthage agrees to naval suport. 279 DGRG 1-540, HRRP 1-463, MWΦ 199
279/8 CAH 7.2
278 MWΦ 129, SORH
278 CONSULS:  Q. Aemilius PAPUS (2nd) and C. Fabricius LUSCINUS (2nd) 278 B76 IV-22, CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 2-842, 3-120, csm, wikCon
c.278 Physician of Pyrrhus approaches consul C. Fabricius Luscinus, offers to poison Pyrrhus for money.  Fabricius sends him back under guards, who tell Pyrrhus of his treachery.  He is executed, and his skin used as a seatcover. 278 DGRBM 2-1188, 3-613, HRRP 1-380
c.278 PYRRHUS of Epirus, in Italy 280-78, in gratitude for Fabricius' act, sends Cineas to Rome with all the Roman prisoners without ransom or conditions.  Cineas negotiates with inconclusive results. 278 B76 II-940, HRRP 1-380, wikPyr
c.278 PYRRHUS of Epirus, in Italy 280-78, receives 2 offers:  Greek cities in Sicily ask him to drive out the CarthaginiansThe Macedonians, whose King Ceraunus had been killed, ask Pyrrhus to take Macedon. 278 SORH, wikPyr
c.278 PYRRHUS of Epirus, in Italy from 280, disgusted with lazy Italian allies, leaves general Milo (Mylon) in charge of Taras, leaves his son Alexander with another garrison at Locri until 277, invades Sicily until 276. 279 Dur 2-555, GHH
278 B76 VIII-326, CAH 7.2, CDCC 737, DGRBM 2-1087, 3-613, DGRG 1-540, HRRP 1-380, LdHR 1-277, MWΦ 129, 199, SORH, lvS, wikPyr
c.278 MAGO admiral of Carthage arrives with fleet at Ostia on Tiber.  Welcomed by Roman senate. 278
MWΦ 200
c.278 Consul C. Fabricius Luscinus defeats the Bruttii, Lucanii, Salentini, and Taras. 278 CAH 7.2, HRRP 1-381
c.278 Milo of Epirus, in charge of Taras 278, deals with Romans, turns over Taras in excange for safe exit for his garrison. 278 DGRBM 2-1087
c.278 HERACLEA Lucania, compelled by Consul C. Fabricius Luscinus makes treaty on favorable terms with Rome. 278 B76 IV-1035, CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-1047, HRRP 1-381, SORH
277 CONSULS:  P. Cornelius RUFINUS (2nd) and C. Junius BRUTUS BUBULCUS (2nd) 277 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-516, 3-665, csm, wikCon
c.277 Consuls RUFINUS and BUBULCUS attack Samnites and are defeated at Mt. CranitaConsuls then quarrel and separate, Rufinus remains in Samnium; Bubulcus goes to Lucania. 277 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-516, SORH, wikBCH
c.277 SAMNITES are forced by Rufinus and Bubulcus to seek refuge in the forests and mountains. 277 HRRP 1-381
c.277 CROTON, on east coast of Bruttium Peninsula, under Syracuse from 296/5, taken by consul P. Cornelius Rufinus, under Rome until 396CE. 277 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-665, SORH, rcSI
c.277 LOCRI, under Alexander of Epirus from 278, taken by consul P. Cornelius Rufinus, under Rome until 276. 277 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-665, SORH, rcSI
c.277 RHEGIUM, under Mamertines from 280, comes under Epirus until 270.  But Mamertines under tyrant Decius Jubellius remain in charge under the Epirans. 277 rcSI
c.277-6 Romans campaign successfully against Brutii, Samnites and Lucani. 277-6 CAH 7.2
276 CONSULS:  Q.(2) Fabius Maximus GURGES (2nd) and C. Genucius CLEPSINA 276 CAH 7.2-642, DGRBM 1-804, 2-993, csm, wikCon
c.276 Consul Q.(2) Fabius Maximus GURGES defeats Samnites and Lucani. 276 SORH
c.276 PYRRHUS of Epirus, in Sicily from 278, crosses straits for Italy.  Carthaginians defeat his fleet and sieze his war chest.  He is in south Italy until 275. 278 MWΦ 129, 200     276 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-614, DGRG 1-540, HRRP 1-381, LdHR 1-278, SORH, lvS     275 GHH
c.276 PYRRHUS of Epirus encounters Mamertines, and has to fight thru them. 276 HRRP 1-381
c.276 LOCRI, under Rome from 277, recovered by Pyrrhus, under Epirus until ?.  Pyrrhus plunders Proserpina's temple to pay his mercenaries. 276 HRRP 1-381, SORH
c.276/5 Roman Λ CENSUS V registers 271,224 adult males. 276/5 CAH 7.2-137, CDCC 179, csun

Italy 275-221