British Isles Go to Americas Go to Italy Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to west Mediterranean Go to east Mediterranean Go to North Africa Go to Asia Go to Anatolia
c.300 LA TENE Period-B from 390 ends.  Period-C begins until 100 Cultural mixing between Period-B Celts and newcomers.  Designs include heart shapes.  Popular items include iron swords with decorated scabbards, iron chains as sword belts, broad heavy spearheads, wood shields with iron bosses and supporters, iron scissors and torques.  Silver coins based on Greek and Romans prototypes begin. 300 B76 VI-67
c.300 GLASTONBURY Lake Village in Wessex founded.   See 60. 300 wikGlb
c.300 Volcae Tectosages seize fertile areas of Germany close to the Hercynian Forest. 325-250 hifiTtn
c.300 Celts appear east of Tisza River in Dacia, advance into western Dacia. 300 B76 2-615
c.300 Silver and lead appear in Europe. 300 SHT 1-582
c.300 Southeast DACIA, occupied by late Cimmerian tribes from 670, comes under La Tene Celts until 200. 300 rcEB
c.300 West Ukraine, south flank of Carpathian Mountains, occupied by proto-Dacians from 680, no longer so. 300 rcU
c.300 Λ ARMOR:  Oldest known piece of mail appears in a Dacian chieftain's Celtic gravesite in Ciumesti Romania. 300 SHT modu
no date: wikMl
c. 300 tribes 300 SPAIN:  The Celtic Calaicians or Gallaeci inhabit all the region above Douro (Durius) river (modern Galicia and northern Portugal).
The Autrigones are driven out from southern Autrigonia (the western Burgos region) by the Turmodigi and the Vaccaei, who seize the Autrigones' early capital Autraca.
The Belli join the Celtiberian confederacy alongside the Arevaci, Lusones and Titii, with whom they develop close political and military ties.
The Turboletae settle in Teruel province.
300 wikTpR
c.300 NUMANTIA, on the upper Durius River in Spain, rebuilt by the Celtiberi. 300 B76 VII-439, OCD 741
c.299 A new tribe of GAULS cross Alps into the Po valley. 299 DGRG 1-937, GHH
c.288 CONCHOBHAR-I, king of Ulster from 318, ends.  FIACHNA-I succeeds until 272. 288 rcI
281/0 A wave of La Tene Celts, including 85,000 warriors, leaves Pannonia, splits into 3 groups, and moves south to Balkans. 280 vrb, wikCSE
north Europe Celts 280

map: Eliz & Nik
c.280 Area presently called MOLDAVIA, northwest of Black Sea, under Scythians from 700, comes under La Tene Celts until 200. 280 rcEB
c.279 SINGIDUN (Belgrade), a fortified outpost, occupied by Celts until 250. 279 wikBlg, wikSng
c.272 FIACHNA-I, king of Ulster from 288, ends.  DAIRE succeeds until 200. 272 rcI
c.256 ULISIPO (Lisbon) taken by Romans until 409CE. 256 B76 10-1029
c.250 HISPALIS, city in Andalusia, under Phoenicians from ?, taken by Carthaginians.  Under them until 216. 300-200 trspn
c.250 SARMATIANS, Scythian speaking Indo-Europeans of Ukraine, enter Europe. 250 vrb
c.250 La Tene Gauls migrate to Britain, particularly Yorkshire. 275 MCAW 190
250 TToH
c.250 LUTETIA founded by Parisi tribe of Gauls on an island in the Seine.  It will eventually be the core of Paris. 3rd cen.: drmpr, spsr 250-225 prs
c.250 TYROL (mountainous west corridor of Austria), frontier between Italics and Gauls from 320, comes under Romans until 27. 250 rcCE
c.250 bird helmetCeltic helmet being stolen by a bird, found at Ciumesti, Romania.  The wings articulate at the body so that they flap up and down as the wearer jogs. photo: Wolfgang Sauber

3rd cen. wikWH
c.250 SINGIDUN (Belgrade), occupied by Celts from 279, taken by the Scordisci until 75. 300-200 wikSng
by 250 BASTARNAE of Ukraine (ethnicity uncertain) reach the Balkans. by 250 hifiTtn
c.237 To re-establish control of Spain, HAMILCAR BARCA, Punic commander 247-29, with son Hannibal, age 9, son-in-law Hasdrubal, and a small army, goes from Africa to Gadir, in Spain until 229. 238 DGRBM 2-354, Dur 3-20, 46, GHH, LdHR 1-329, TToH, bk     237 B76 17-402, CAH 7.2, 8-23, DGRG 1-1079, Dur 3-20, GHH, IDB 4-104, MCAW, MWΦ 129, 235, OHG, TTPC, rcIb     236 LEWH 99, SORH, wikTRH
c.237 AKRA LEUKE Spain, Phocaean city from 325, refounded by Hamilcar Barca, under Carthage until 201. 237 CAH 8
c.23? HASDRUBAL son-in-law of Hamilcar Barca recalled to Africa to deal with a Numidian rebellion.  He quells the rebellion, and returns to Spain before 229. no date: DGRBM 2-354
c.231 ENVOYS sent from Rome to Hamilcar Barca in Spain. 231 CAH 7.2, 8-24
c.231 HAMILCAR BARCA, Punic commander in Spain 237-29, assures Roman envoys that he is only seeking a means to pay the indemnity imposed by Rome. 231
B76 15-1091, CAH 8-27
c.229 HAMILCAR BARCA, Punic commander in Spain 237-29, leaves relatives behind in camp: sons HANNIBAL, HASDRUBAL, MAGO, son-in-law HASDRUBAL, while he departs on campaign. 229
Dur 3-47, GHH
c.229 HAMILCAR BARCA dies in battle.  Punic commander in Spain from 238, leading a charge against a the Vetiones tribe at Akra Leuke Spain, drowns crossing a river.  Son-in-law HASDRUBAL succeeds until 221. 229 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, 8-27, 44, DGRBM 2-333, DGRG 1-1079, Dur 3-47, GHH, LdHR 1-329, MCAW, MWΦ 129, bk, rcIb     229/8 B76 IV-871, 8-625     228 LEWH 99, MWΦ 235, SORH, TTPC, wikBr, wikTRH
c.228 HASDRUBAL advances to the upper Guadiana river. 228 CAH 8
c.228 CARTAGENA (Carthago Nova) founded near silver mines on site of Mastia by Hasdrubal.  Under Carthaginians until 209. 229 GHH, MCAW     228 CAH 7.2, 8, OCD 209, SORH, TToH
no date: MWΦ 235
c.226 Greek merchants of Massilia Gaul, frightened of Punic success in Spain, appeal to Rome. 226 MCAW
c.226 ROME / HASDRUBAL  Treaty Carthaginians in Spain agree to stay south of Ebro River.  This treaty is never ratified by Carthage. 228 DGRBM, GHH, SORH
227 HRRP 1-528     227/6 CAH 8-27     226 B76 15-1091, CAH 7.2, 8-25, 28, Dur 3-47, MCAW, MWΦ 235, bk, wikTRH
c.226 ROME allies with semi-Greek towns SAGUNTUM and EMPORIAS (Ampurias) in Spain. 228 SORH     227 CAH 8     226 Dur 3-47, MCAW, OHG
c.225 The TAURISCI (Norici) of the upper Save, led by Gaesatae kings Concolitanus and AneroŽstes, are defeated by C. Albinus REGULUS and L. Aemilius PAPUS at Telamon. 225 wikBT, wikTrs
c.221 HASDRUBAL dies.  Head of Punic army in Spain from 229, murdered by a Gaul slave whose master Hasdrubal had killed.  1st son, age 26, HANNIBAL is appointed successor by the army in Spain until 218.  This is soon unanimously ratified by the govt. at Carthage. 221 B76 IV-938, 8-625, 15-278, 1091, CDCC 414, CAH 8-28, 32, DGRBM 2-333, 354, DGRG 1-1079, Dur 3-47, GHH, LdHR 1-329, LEWH 99, MCAW, MWΦ 129, 235, OHG, SORH, TTPC, bk, rcIb, wikTRH     220 GHH
c.221 HANNIBAL attacks and defeats the Olcades around the upper Guadiana river and captures their chief city, Althaea. 221 CAH 8-32, DGRBM 2-333, HRRP 1-572
c.221 SAGUNTUM, an Iberian city of the Arsetani, invites Roman arbitration in internal dispute. 221 CAH 8
c.221 Envoys from Rome warn HANNIBAL off Saguntum. 221 CAH 7.2, 8-34
221/0 HANNIBAL winters in Cartagena. 221/0 CAH 8-32, DGRBM 2-333
c.220 HELMANTICA (Salamanca), under the Vaccaei from ?, surrenders to Hannibal on terms that all free citizens should leave, wearing only one garment apiece.  The women smuggle out some arms and pass them to their men, who fight their way to freedom.  They are ultimately rounded up, but Hannibal, impressed by the courage of the women, restores Helmantica to its inhabitants. 220
CAH 8-32, DGRBM 2-333, wikTRH
c.220 HANNIBAL reaches the Douro river, defeats the Vaccaei, besieges and takes Vaccaei city ARBACALA, leaves the Celtiberi and the Lusitani still unconquered. 220 CAH 8-32, DGRBM 2-333, HRRP 1-572
c.220 HANNIBAL, head of Punic army in Spain 229-18, turns south, taking a more easterly route than on his approach.  Attacked by the Carpetani with remaining forces of Olcades and Vaccaei.  Defeats them at the Tagus River region near Toletum.  The Lusitani and tribes of Galicia continue free. 221 B76 8-625 220 CAH 8-32, DGRBM 2-333, HRRP 1-572
220 BASTARNAE take part in siege of Olbia. 220 hifiTtn
220/19 All Spain south of Ebro and Douro rivers is under or allied to Carthaginians except Saguntum. 220/19 LdHR 1-331
220/19 HANNIBAL winters in Cartagena. 220/19 DGRBM 2-333
220/19 Envoys from Rome meet Hannibal at winter quarters at Cartagena. 220/19 CAH 8
c.219 HANNIBAL defeats a combined force of Vaccaei, Olcades and Carpetani, thus completing his conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro except Saguntum. 219 wikTRH
c.219 SAGUNTUM, incited by Roman agents, overthrows local government and sets up one hostile to Carthage. 220 CAH 8-34 219 Dur 3-48
c.219 SAGUNTINES, hassle local tribes friendly to Hannibal, who orders them to stop.  Saguntines refuse.  Hannibal besieges Saguntum. 219 B76 8-625, 15-278, 17-402, spring CAH 8-26, 45, CDCC 777, spring DGRBM 2-333, Dur 3-48, MCAW,     218 TTPC
c.219 Q. Baebius Tamphilus and P. Valerius Flaccus, are sent by the senate to Hannibal at Saguntum.  Hannibal is uncooperative.  Baebius and Flaccus sail to Carthage. 219 DGRBM 3-973
c.219 Rome sends 5 senatorial ligati under M. Fabius Buteo to Carthage, to protest Hannibal besieging Saguntum.  Carthage says Saguntum is south of the Ebro, so Rome had no right to make a treaty with it.  Hannibal continues besieging Saguntum. 219 B76 8-626, CAH 8-38, CDCC 415, Dur 3-48, MCAW
c.219 HANNIBAL, head of Punic army in Spain 229-18, while besieging Saguntum, leaves to suppress the Oretani and Carpetani who, annoyed at his severe levying of troops, had seized his recruiting officers. 219 CAH 8-36
c.219 SAGUNTUM, besieged 8 months by Hannibal, falls.  All adult men killed.  Under Carthaginians until 212. 219 DGRBM, GHH, OHG, fall CAH 8-36, bk
218 DGRG 2-874, Dur 3-48, wikTRH
219 /18 HANNIBAL winters in Cartagena, issues much silver coinage to pay his troops, sends some of his Spanish troops home on leave, visits Gadir to pay vows to Heracles-Melkart.  He exchanges some troops between Spain and Africa thereby separating soldiers from their families.  This shows that Africa is within his command. 219/18
B76 8-626, CAH 8-39, DGRBM
c.218 2nd PUNIC WAR with Rome begins at Saguntum Spain until 201. 219 Dur 3-20, TToH, lvG
218 CAH 7.1, 8, CHJ 2, DGRG 1-547, GHH, MWΦ 235, SHWC 108, SORH, TTPC, bk, hifiC, lvG, lvS, wikHR, wikTRH
c.218 HANNIBAL communicates with Gallic tribes in the Alps and Cisalpine Gaul, learns that they are willing to co-operate against Rome.  He marches from Cartagena in spring.  He leaves Hanno in charge of Spain with 50 quinqueremes (though 18 lack crews), 2 quadriremes and 5 triremes. 218 CAH 8-40-41, 47, DGRBM 2-344
c.218 P. Valerius Flaccus and Q. Baebius Tamphilus sent as ambassadors to negotiate with Hannibal. mid 218 DGRBM 2-157
c.218 HANNIBAL (with 50,000 inf, 9,000 cav, mostly Spaniards & Libyans), 37 elephants, crosses north over Ebro River in violation of Hasdrubal's 226 treaty with Rome (which Carthage never agreed to).  He campaigns in north Spain to deceive the Romans. 218
B76 8-626, CAH 8,
Dur 3-48
c.218 EMPORIA, Phocaean trading port in Spain, allows Hannibal to pass without resistance. 218 MCAW
c.218 HANNIBAL reaches the Pyrenees. mid 218 CAH 8-40
c.218 HASDRUBAL, 2nd son of Barca, after Hannibal leaves commands in Spain until 211. 218 B76 IV-938
c.218 INDIBILIS, chief of the Ilergetes, commands Iberian auxiliaries north of the Ebro under HANNO. 218 DGRBM 2-572
c.218 Consul P. Cornelius SCIPIO with legate Gn. Scipio Calvus & 2 legions sails from Italy to Emporia Spain, too late to confront Hannibal.  But most of the coastal chiefs join them, preferring P. Cornelius's affability, over the harshness of the Carthaginians. 218 B76 17-402, CAH 8, DGRBM 3-742 & 3, MCAW
c.218 Consul P. Cornelius SCIPIO with a superior force defeats and captures HANNO at Cissa south of Tarraco Spain.  (This is the last mention of this particular Hanno.)  Scipio gains control of territory north of Ebro River. 218 CAH 8-56, DGRBM 2-344, 3-742, wikLRB, wikTRH
c.218 TARRACO taken by Consul P. Cornelius SCIPIO. 218 B76 IX-830, wikTRH
c.218 Consul P. Cornelius SCIPIO with legate Gn. Scipio Calvus & 2 legions, sails to Massilia Gaul. 218 CAH 8-33, SORH, wikRCH
c.218 HANNIBAL reaches Rhone RiverP. Cornelius SCIPIO arrives by sea at the mouth of the Rhone at the same time, but Hannibal is far inland.  Scipio sends 300 cavalry inland for recon.  Hannibal sees them and sends 500 Numidian cavalry to investigate.  They skirmish.  The Romans get the better. 218 Sep CAH 8-47, wikRCH
c.218 HANNIBAL crosses Rhone River without loss. 218 CAH 8-37
c.218 Consul P. Cornelius SCIPIO finds Hannibal's deserted camp west of Rhone 3 days after Hannibal had left for Alps, determines that he is after Italy instead of Gaul.  P. C. SCIPIO sends most of his forces to Spain under his bro Gn. Scipio Calvus, while P. C. returns to Pisa Italy. 218
CAH 8-36-7, 47, LdHR 1-361, SORH, wikRCH
c.218 HANNIBAL reaches Alps.  (Some sources say spring, some say fall.)  His route is also disputed. 218 BCoC 501,
CAH 8-47, CDCC 414
c.218 The Lusitani are 1st mentioned in Roman records by Livy for fighting Carthaginians. 218 wikLst
c.218 Gn. Scipio Calvus lands at Emporion, brings all coastal peoples north of the Ebro to the Roman side. 218 wikRCH
c.218 HANNIBAL and bro Mago-II, with half his men (20,000 inf, 6,000 cav) because he delayed too long, cross Alps, enters Italy, Hannibal until 205, Mago-II until 216. 218 B76 15-278, 1091, CAH 8-38, DGRBM 2-903, Dur 3-20,
GHH, IDB 4-104, MCAW, OHG, bk
c.218 HASDRUBAL, 2nd son of Barca, advances by rapid marches from the north of Spain to retrieve the Punic cause in the north, but arrives too late in the year to accomplish anything important, and recrosses the Ebro, after burning part of the Roman fleet. 218 DGRBM 3-742
c.218 HASDRUBAL launches naval and land expeditions north of the Ebro. 218 DGRBM 3-742 217 wikTRH
c.218 Gn. SCIPIO CALVUS devastates territory of the Ilergetes drives them to their capital, Athanagia, besieges it, subdues the Ilergetes, takes hostages and money.  He then attacks the Ausetani (Carthaginian allies), near the Ebro, and ambushes the Lacetani who were helping them, killing 12,000.  The siege of Athanagia lasted 30 snowy days.  When their chief flees to Hasbrubal it surrenders. 218 GHH, wikRCH
c.218/7 Gn. SCIPIO CALVUS winters at Tarraco. 218/7 DGRBM 3-742
c.217 HASDRUBAL launches more naval and land expeditions north of the Ebro, but is defeated after a surprise attack by Roman ships, which completely annihilate the Punic naval contingent. 217 CAH 8-57, wikTRH
c.217 After the Ebro battle, HASDRUBAL dismiss the Iberian crews, sparking a rebellion of the Trudetani. 217 wikTRH
c.217 INDIBILIS, chief of the Ilergetes, is now allied with Gn. Scipio Calvus. 217 DGRBM 2-572
c.217 Gn. SCIPIO CALVUS, proconsul of Spain, helped by a Massiliote contingent, defeats 40 ships under Admiral Himilco off Ebro river, takes 25 ships, lands, establishes a firm footing, and waits for bro P. Cornelius SCIPIO. 217 CAH 8-57, DGRBM 2-475, 3-742, OCD 961, bk, wikLRB
c.217 Gn. SCIPIO CALVUS begins raiding down Spanish coast, sails south of Cartagena, and to Ebusus on Ibiza island in the Balearics. 218 CAH 8-57, LEWH 100 217 CAH 8, OCD 961
c.217 P. Cornelius SCIPIO, arrives with 20 ships and 8,000 infantry, joins his bro Gn. Cornelius Scipio Calvus, and takes supreme command. 217 CAH 8-57, DGRBM 2-475, 3-742, OCD 961, bk, wikLRB
c.217 The Ilergetes north of the Ebro rebel against Carthaginians.  Hasdrubal recrosses the Ebro but is diverted by an invasion of Celtiberi, who are now allied with Scipio. 217 rcIb
c.217 INDIBILIS, chief of the Ilergetes, and bro Mandonius, attack tribes allied to Romans.  They are repulsed by the Scipio bros, and remain quiet. 217 DGRBM 2-572
c.217 HASDRUBAL retreats to southwest Spain, waits for reinforcements. 217 CAH 8-57 216 HRRP 1-621
c.216 SCIPIO bros are successful south of the Ebro. 216 CAH 8, GHH, SORH
c.216 HASDRUBAL receives 4,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry from Africa. 216 wikRCH
c.216 HASDRUBAL defeated by SCIPIO bros. 216 SORH
c.216 SCIPIO bros raid Barcid possessions in Spain and Balearic Islands and recruit auxiliary troops from Iberian tribes, consolidate their hold north of the Ebro. 216 wikTRH
c.216 SCIPIO bros, supported by the Celtiberi, command the passes, the coast, and the sea. 216 SORH
c.216 HASDRUBAL deals with a rebellion among the Tartessii.  After Cannae he is ordered by Carthage to go to Italy as soon as possible.  This becomes known thruout Spain, and a feeling in favor of Rome results.  Hasdrubal informs Carthage of this and says Spain will fall to the Romans before he crosses the EbroHasdrubal adds that a new commander and army should be sent to Spain.  Scipios' task is to keep Hasdrubal in Spain. 216 CAH 8-57, DGRBM 2-355, wikRCH
c.216 HISPALIS, in Andalusia, under Carthaginians from 250 destroyed until 206. 216 wg
c.216 HIMILCO sent by ephors from Carthage to Spain to replace Hasdrubal.  In Spain until 215. 217 rcIb     216 CAH 8-57, DGRBM 2-355, wikRCH
c.215 Propraetor M. Pomponius Matho is sent to ager Gallicus until 214. 215 wikRGG
c.215 Scipios have to pay their troops by levies extorted from Spanish peoples. 215 CAH 8-75
c.215 IBERA, small but rich Iberian town allied to Carthage, besieged by Scipios. 216/5 wikRCH, 215 wikTRH
c.215 HASDRUBAL Barca, bro of Hannibal, marches north to the Ebro, but stops to besiege Dertosa, a town allied with the Romans. 215 wikTRH
c.215 HASDRUBAL Barca, bro of Hannibal, badly defeated near Dertosa on the Ebro by P. Cornelius SCIPIO and bro Gn. Scipio Calvus.  Causes defection of many Iberian tribes to Romans. 215 CAH 8, Dur 3-52, wikTRH
c.215 HIMILCO, Carthaginian in Spain from 217, ends. 215 rcIb
c.215 MAGO-II Barca, youngest bro of Hannibal in Carthage from 216, with 12,000 inf, 1,500 cav, and 20 elephants, arrives in Spain until 206, plans to go to Italy. 215 DGRBM 2-355, 903, OCD 640, wikRCH
c.215 ILLITURGI (Intibili) on south bank of the Baetis, besieged by bros HASDRUBAL and MAGO-II with 60,000 CarthaginiansSCIPIO bros with 16,000 Romans arrive and defeat them, and take their camp.  Carthaginians lose 16,000 men and 7 elephants; 3,000 men and 1,000 horses are captured.  Carthaginians attack nearby town of Intibili and recruit men from the area to make up for their losses.  In a 2nd battle the Carthaginians lose 13,000 men;  2,000 men and 9 elephants are captured.  Nearly all Spain goes over to Rome. 215 DGRBM 2-355, 903, 3-742, SORH, wikRCH
c.214 HASDRUBAL son of Gisco and an army from Carthage arrives in Spain until 206, but changes little.  Roman accounts speak of 2 victories by Gn. Scipio, but followed by no results. 214 B76 IV-938, DGRBM 2-355, 357, 3-742, wikRCH
c.214 HASDRUBAL and MAGO rout a large Hispanic force. 214 wikRCH
c. 214 P. Scipio camps at Castrum Album, whose citadel had been fortified and stocked with grain.  The area is filled with enemy and a Roman column is attacked.  The Romans move to a quieter area and camp at Victory Mountain (location unknown).  Gn. Scipio arrives with all his troops.  Hasdrubal son of Gisco also arrives.  Carthaginians now have 3 commanders and a full army camped across a river opposite the Roman camp.  P. Scipio with light cavalry goes to recon, but is spotted, wounded and seizes a hill nearby.  He is surrounded, but his bro Gn. rescues him.  Castulo (a powerful ally of Carthage) defects to RomeCarthaginians set out to seize the Roman garrison at Iliturgi.  Gn. Scipio goes to its aid with a legion, fights his way between the 2 Punic camps, inflicts heavy losses on the besiegers, and enters Iliturgi.  The next day Gn. sorties, and the Carthaginians lose over 12,000 men; more than 1,000 are captured.  The Carthaginians leave and besiege Bigerra in the upper valley of the Baetis (Guadalquivir)Gn. Scipio raises the siege without a fight.  Romans pursue and win another battle. 214 wikRCH
c.213 Scipios learn of Syphax defection in Numidia, send 3 officers under centurion Q. Statorius to ally with Syphax. 213 wikRCH
c.213 HASDRUBAL, bro of Hannibal, in Spain from 229, recalled to Africa until 212 to deal with Syphax rebellion. 214 DGRBM 3-742 213 DGRBM 2-355 212 MCAW
c.213 20,000 Celtiberi mercenaries hire out to Scipios until 212. 214 HRRP 1-677     213 DGRBM 3-742 212 wikRCH,
c.212 T. FONTEIUS becomes legate to P. Cornelius Scipio. 212 DGRBM 2-179
c.212 SAGUNTUM, under Carthaginians from 218, taken by SCIPIO bros.  Under Rome until ?. 214/3 wikRCH
212 CAH 8-57, CDCC 777, wikTRH
c.212 CASTULO, under Carthaginians from ?, taken by SCIPIO brothers until 211.  Becomes P. Scipio's headquarters. 213 DGRG 1-565 212 CAH 8
c.212 HASDRUBAL, bro of Hannibal, returns from Carthage to Spain. no date: DGRBM 2-355, DGRBM 3-742
c.212 Romans and their Edetani allies invade Turboletania, seize capital Turba, and destroy it, enslave residents. 212 wikTRH
c.212 MASINISSA, son of Gala king of western Numidia, takes cavalry to Spain to help Carthaginians until 211. 213 B76 13-150
212 DGRBM 2-967
c.212 INDIBILIS, chief of the Ilergetes, with 7,500 men, joins Hasdrubal son of Gisco. 212 DGRBM 2-572, wikRCH
c.212 SCIPIO bros, threatened by Hasdrubal son of Gisco and Hasdrubal Barca, call out 20,000 Celtiberi mercenaries, and divide their armies. 212 SORH
c.212 SCIPIO bros divide.  P. Scipio is to attack Mago and Hasdrubal son of Gisco, who are supported by Masinissa and Spanish chief Indibilis, while his bro Gnaeus is to attack Hasdrubal.  But Publius is destroyed, with the greater part of his forces, and Mago and Hasdrubal son of Gisco, now join Hasdrubal son of Barca, to crush Gnaeus. 212 DGRBM 3-742, LdHR 1-380, wikRCH
c.212 20,000 Celtiberi mercenaries, with Romans from 213, defect to Carthaginians. 212 DGRBM 2-355
c.211 Carthaginians renew offensive in Spain. 211 CAH 8
c.211 L. Marcius Septimus is attacked by Mago and one of the Hasdrubals, who are defeated and pushed over the Ebro. 211 HRRP 1-678
c. 211 Praetor C. Claudius NERO with 6,000 Roman and 6,000 allied infantry and 300 Roman and 600 allied cavalry sails from Italy to Tarraco, marches to the Ebro and takes over armies of Ti. Fonteius and L. Marcius Septimus.  He then advances against Hasdrubal Barca, and occupies the 2 exits of the pass to Lapides Atri (Black Boulders), in Ausetanian territory, where Hasdrubal is camped, thus shutting him in.  Hasdrubal promises to take his army out of Spain if Nero lets him escape.  Hasdrubal asks for talks.  Nero accepts.  Hasdrubal temporizes for days.  Meanwhile, his army gradually sneaks out of the pass at night.  Finally, Hasdrubal leaves too and escapes. 213 DGRBM 2-1161
211 DGRBM 3-743, HRRP 1-678, SORH, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.211 Large Punic counter-offensive led by Hasdrubal Barca, his bro Mago Barca, and Hasdrubal Gisco. 211 wikTRH
c.211 ILURCO (Iliturgi, Ilourgeia, Intibili) Spain defects to Carthaginians until 206. 211 CAH 8-60
c.211 CASTULO Spain, under Scipios from 212, defects to Carthaginians until 206. 211 CAH 8-60
c.211 P. Cornelius SCIPIO dies.  Proconsul of Spain, defeated by Mago and Numidian cavalry of Hasdrubal son of Gisco at upper Baetis, killed by a lance.  Mago and Hasdrubal son of Gisco hurry to join Hasdrubal Barca. 212 GHH, SORH     212/1 LdHR 1- 398     211 B76 VIII-895, 15-280, 1097, CAH 8, DGRBM 3-742, HRRP 1-678, OCD 961, TToH, wikLRB, wikTRH
no date: DGRBM 2-355, wikRCH
c.211 29 days later, Gn. SCIPIO CALVUS dies, surrounded by all 3 Punic armies at Ilurco and killed with most of his troops, who elect L. Marcius Septimus to lead them until summer. 212 GHH     212/1 LdHR 1- 398 211 B76 VIII-895, 15-280, CAH 8, DGRBM 3-742, 784, HRRP 1-678, OCD 961, TToH, wikLRB, wikTRH
no date: DGRBM 2-356
c.211 HASDRUBAL, 2nd son of Barca, commander in Spain from 218, leaves. 211 B76 IV-938
c.211 Romans in Spain driven north to Ebro River. 212 LEWH 100, SORH     211 CAH 8
c.211 MASINISSA, Numidian chief, ally of Carthage, in Spain from 212, returns to Africa until 210. guess
c.210 BIBRACTE hill fort is founded by the Aedui.  It covers 200 hectares and is protected by an outer rampart.  This could mark the Aedui's arrival in the region. end of 3rd c. hifiAd
c.210 Praetor C. Claudius NERO holds the Ebro line. 210 CAH 8, OCD 730
c.210 MASINISSA, Numidian chief, ally of Carthage, arrives with reinforcements in Spain.  Fights Romans until 208. 210 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-967
c.210 All Spain south of the Ebro is under Carthage. 210 DGRBM 3-743
c.210 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr., age 24-27, accompanied by elder bro Lucius, friend C. Laelius, and M. Junius Silanus sail from Italy to Emporia Spain.  Scipio Jr. commands Roman army in Spain until 206.  He marches to Tarraco and takes over army of C. Nero, holds an assembly of the peoples under Roman control at Tarraco. 211 DGRBM 2-356, wikRCH
211/0 LdHR 1- 400     210 B76 15-280, 16-396, fall CAH 8-59, 175, CDCC 428, DGRBM 3-743, 819, Dur 3-20, LdHR 1-400, LEWH 100, MCAW, OCD 962, wikTRH
c.210 C. Flaminius is quaestor to Scipio. 210 DGRBM 2-168
c.210 P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus is with Scipio. 210 DGRBM 2-729
c.210 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. sends his ships and troops to the mouth of the Ebro, then, after leaving M. Silianus in charge north of the Ebro with 3,000 inf and 300 cav, crosses it with 25,000 inf and 2,500 cav, surprises Cartagena. 210 SORH, wikRCH
c.210 late Punic armies withdraw to winter quarters, Hasdrubal to Gadir on the south coast, Mago inland, above Castulo, and Hasdrubal Barca near Saguntum. 210 wikRCH
c. 209 CARTAGENA, under Carthaginians from 228, blockaded by fleet under C. Laelius, stormed and taken by P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr.  Under Rome until ?.  Scipio captures 276 gold plates, each weighing 1 lb, 18,300 lb of silver in bullion and coin, many silver vases and quantities of copper and iron, besides 120 of the latest catapults and 281 smaller ones, 23 larger and 52 smaller ballistae (crossbow catapults), many larger and smaller scorpions (crossbows) and many other weapons, also a mine yielding 300 lbs of silver a day.  80 warships and 63 merchant ships are seized in the harbor.  Afterward He treats the Cartagenans respectfully, and wins their favor. 210 DGRBM 2-705, DGRG 1-1079, lvG, wikRCH, wikTRH
209 B76 15-280, 16-396, CAH 8-41, 59, CDCC 169, HRRP 1-659, IDB 4-430, ISBE 4-591, LEWH 100, MWΦ 235, OCD 209, 962, bk
c.209 After Scipio returns from Cartagena to Tarraco, M. Silianus succeeds C. Nero.  The new troops are sent into winter quarters.  Command of Scipio and Silianus is extended by senate. 210 wikRCH
c.209 EDECO, chief of the Edetani (in northern Valencia, south of the Ebro), visits P. Cornelius Scipio Jr. at Tarraco, offers to surrender, requesting only that his wife and children, now prisoners, be returned to him.  Scipio agrees.    Indibilis and Mandonius, chiefs of the Ilergetes and other Iberian chiefs follow suit. 209
CAH 8-59, DGRBM 2-4, 572, 3-744, wikRCH
c.209 Praetor peregrinus L. Veturius Philo is governor of Cisalpine, then propraetor of Transalpine Gaul until 208. 209 wikRGG
c.209 The 3 Punic armies remain separated, and their generals at odds, thus giving the Romans a chance to deal with them one by one. 209 wikTRH
c.209 HASDRUBAL BARCA is camped with 30,000 men in a strong position near Baecula, in the upper valley of the Baetis (Guadalquivir), where he is collecting money from silver mines.  Having resolved to help his brother in Italy, he does not wish to risk battle. 209 DGRBM 3-744
c. 209 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. in Spain 210- , with 30,000 Roman and Italian troops and 10,000 Spanish auxiliaries, advances inland, defeats HASDRUBAL BARCA at Baecula in Baetica  DETAILS, takes (supposedly) 22,000 prisoners, and kills 8,000, but Hasdrubal escapes north with his treasure, elephants, and most of his army.  There he joins the other 2 Punic generals. Livy says 209 B76 15-280, 16-396, CAH 8, CDCC 428, DGRBM 2-356, 3-744, DGRG 1-367, HRRP 1-683, OCD 962, SORH, wikRCH
Polybius says 208 CAH 8-59, CDCC 796, wikBB, wikLRB
c.209 Massiva, grandson of Gala, neph of Masinissa captured at Baecula.  Scipio returns him without ransom. 209 DGRBM 2-971
c.209 3 Punic generals in north Spain decide:
Hasdrubal Barca will cross Pyrenees to invade Italy.
Hasdrubal son of Gisco will defend Lusitania (Portugal), and avoid battle with P. C. Scipio Jr.Mago-II will give his army to Hasdrubal Gisco, and then go to the Balearic Isles to hire mercenaries.  3,000 cavalry is to be assembled to help Masinissa cross western Spain.
209 DGRBM 2-358, 903
c.209 Fleet commander C. LAELIUS, operating off Spain from ?, returns with Punic prisoners to Rome.  Then sails back to Spain because of a threatened new invasion from AfricaLaelius rejoins Scipio at Tarraco. 209 DGRBM 2-705, 710
c.209 MAGO-II sails to Balearic Islands to recruit more troops for Spain. 209 DGRBM 2-903 208 SORH
c.209 Praetor C. Claudius NERO, in Spain north of the Ebro from 210, returns to Italy. 209
OCD 730
209/8 HASDRUBAL BARCA winters at Baecula. 209/8 DGRBM 3-744
c.208 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. moves against Hasdrubal, wintered at Baecula, inflicting great losses.  After the battle, Hasdrubal leads his depleted army to the western passes of the Pyrenees. 208 wikTRH
c.208 Hasdrubal son of Gisco goes to Lusitania (Portugal). 208 SORH
c.208 HASDRUBAL BARCA, in Spain from ?, crosses Pyrenees into Gaul, plans to go to Italy. 208 B76 15-1093, CAH 8, DGRBM
c.208 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. retires his army to Tarraco, and secures alliances with most of the native Iberian tribes. 208 wikTRH
c.208 MASINISSA, king of western Numidia 215-06, working for Carthage in Spain from 210, meets Scipio secretly, defects to Romans without openly proclaiming defection from Carthaginians. 208 LEWH 100, OCD 206, 653     206 B76 VI-668, VII-441, CAH 8-63, CDCC 561, DGRBM 2-967
c.208 L. Marcius SEPTIMUS is sent by Scipio Jr. with a third of the army to besiege Castulo. no date: DGRBM 3-785
208-7 HASDRUBAL BARCA winters in Gaul. 208-7 DGRBM
c.207 CARMO, under Hasdrubal son of Gisco with 70,000 inf, 5,000 cav, besieged and taken by P. Cornelius Scipio with 20,000 inf, 1500 cav15,000 Carthaginians, 800 Romans killed. 207 wikBC, wikLRB
c.207 HASDRUBAL son of Gisco splits his army and retires to Gadir. 207 CAH 8-60
c.207 HANNO is sent with reinforcements from Carthage to replace Hasdrubal Barca in Spain.  He joins Mago-II in Celtiberia. 208 DGRBM 2-346
207 CAH 8-60, DGRBM 2-903, SORH, wikRCH, wikTRH
c.207 HASDRUBAL son of Gisco advances from Gadir into Andalusia. 207 wikTRH, wikBI
c.207 M. Junius SILANUS sent with 10,000 inf and 500 cav by Scipio to strike Mago-II first. 207 wikRCH, wikTRH
c.207 HANNO and MAGO-II in Celtiberia, are surprise attacked and defeated by M. Junius SilanusHanno is captured, and sent to RomeMago-II and a few thousand men escape south, join Hasdrubal son of Gisco.  When Scipio sees this, he sends his bro, L. Scipio, with 10,000 inf and 1,000 cav to attack Orongi. 208 DGRBM 3-744
207 CAH 8-60, DGRBM 2-903, 3-819, SORH, wikRCH, wikTRH     no date:
DGRBM 2-346
c.207 ORONGI, a town of the Maessesses under a Punic garrison taken by L. ScipioCarthaginians lose 2,000 men.  Romans lose 90. 207 wikRCH
c.206 HASDRUBAL son of Gisco joins Mago at Ilipa. 206 wikBI
c.206 Mago-II and Hasdrubal son of Gisco have 50,000 inf and 4,500 cav.  P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. marches from Tarraco to Castulo picking up small forces from friendly tribes along the way.  Scipio is joined by Silianus there with ally Chulcas' 3,000 inf and 500 cav.  His army now has 55,000 men. 206 wikRCH
c.206 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. in Spain 210-6, with Roman cavalry & Spanish infantry, defeats Mago-II, Hasdrubal son of Gisco, & Masinissa, 70,000 in all at ILIPA (Silpia, Elinga, or Carmo) just north of Hispalis.  DETAILS  Mago & Hasdrubal son of Gisco retreat to Gadir. 207 B76 VI-495, 13-150, 15-280, CDCC 428, 796, DGRBM 3-744
206 B76 16-396, CAH 8-60, 121, CDCC 452, DGRBM 2-358, 903, 967, HRRP 1-683-4, ISBE 4-591, LdHR 1- 404, LEWH 100, OCD 690, wikLRB, wikTRH
At Baecula, not Ilipa 206 SORH
c.206 Hasdrubal son of Gisco, in Spain from 214, leaves Mago-II at Gadir, returns to Africa. 206 B76 IV-938, DGRBM 2-903
c.206 C. L. Marcius Septimus defeats a Punic army under Hanno at Baetis (Guadalquivir) River. 206 CAH 8-60, wikLRB
c.206 MASINISSA, king of western Numidia from 215, with cavalry in Spain from 210, ally of Rome from 208, after Ilipa, learns that Syphax has invaded his land, returns to Africa. 207 B76 13-150, CAH 8-63, rcNA 206 B76 VI-668
c.206 Iberian COLCHAS, ruler of 28 cities, furnishes supplies and troops to P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr.. 206 DGRBM 1-813
c.206 Hanno, lieutenant of Mago-II, defeated by L. Marcius. 206 DGRBM 2-903
c.206 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. in Spain from 210, leaves M. Junius Silanus and L. Marcius in charge of Spain at Tarraco and Cartagena, goes to Africa until later 206. 209 Dur 3-20
206 B76 16-396, DGRBM 3-819, LdHR 1- 407, wikRCH
no date: DGRBM 3-744
c.206 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. returns from Africa to Spain, finds a rebellion among Iberian people led by city of Ilurco. no date:
DGRBM 3-744
c.206 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, in Spain from ?, with 60 ships consisting largely of transports, sails to Minorca, in Balearic Islands until 205. 206 CAH 8-66, DGRBM 2-346, 903, LEWH 100
c.206 City of Juba, under Carthaginians from ?, taken by Romans, named CORDUBA.   See 152. 206 wikCrd
c.206 ILURCO (Iliturgi, Ilourgeia, Intibili), on road from Corduba to Castulo, on south bank of the Baetis, under Carthaginians from 211, taken by P. Cornelius Scipio Jr..  Razed to the ground, all inhabitants butchered. 206 CAH 8-60, DGRBM 2-705, DGRG 2-35, wikIlt, wikRCH
c.206 L. Marcius SEPTIMUS is sent with a third of the force by Scipio Jr. to besiege Castulo.  Scipio Jr. soon follows. 206 wikRCH
c.206 ASTAPA Spain, under Carthaginians from ?, taken by L. Marcius Septimus.  Inhabitants mass suicide. 206 CAH 8-60, wikRCH
c.206 CASTULO Spain, under Carthaginians from 211, betrayed by Spaniard Cerdubellus to Scipio. 206 CAH 8-60, wikRCH
c.206 After Castulo, L. Marcius SEPTIMUS is sent by Scipio Jr. against Hispalis. no date:
DGRBM 3-785
c.206 HISPALIS, destroyed 216, taken by C. L. Marcius Septimus.  Inhabitants mass suicide. 206 CAH 8-60
c.206 HISPALIS Andalusia, destroyed from 216, refounded as ITALICA 1st Roman colony in Spain, by P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. to settle Roman soldiers wounded in Battle of Ilipa.  Italica will later be called Seville. 206 CAH 8-121, 9-22, LEWH 100, MWΦ 235, wikIt 205 B76 V-467
c.206 P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr., commander in Spain 210-06, gets sick.  L. Marcius Septimus takes command of the troops.  Rumor of Scipio's death causes a revolt by Indibilis (Andobales) and Mandonius and a mutiny in the Roman army in a camp near Sucro.  When rumor proves false, the Ilergetan leaders abandon their plans, and the mutiny is quelled, leaders executed. 206 CAH 8-60, DGRBM 2-572, 3-785, SORH, wikRCH
c.206 South and east SPAIN, under Carthage from 237, comes under Rome until ?.   Divided 197.  Roman conquest of Spain begins until 27. 206 B76 17-402, DGRG 1-565, 1079, GHH, LEWH 100, PW 17, TAWH 17, wikRCH
c.206 TARTESSUS (unknown location near mouth of Baetis river), under Carthaginians from 510, comes under Rome until ?. 206 rcIb
c.206 GADIR on south coast of Spain, under Carthaginians from 501, taken without a fight by P. Cornelius SCIPIO Jr. and fleet commander C. Laelius, comes under Rome until ??V.  Name changed to GADES. 206 CDCC 373, CAH 8, LEWH 100, MWΦ 235, SORH, hifiC, rcIb, wikCdz, wikTRH
no date: B76 II-429
c.206 Punic refugees from Gades, board ships, and sail for CarthageC. Laelius pursues them.  4 ships are sunk and 5 get to Africa.  Laelius and L. Marcius return from Carteia to Cartagena. 206 wikRCH
c.206 Mandonius and Indibilis, resume hostilities with 20,000 inf and 2500 cav and attack Sedetania (a region south of the lower Ebro).  Scipio marches on them.  Romans lose 2,000 men and 3,000 wounded; 3,000 Spaniards are seized.  Scipio spares Indibilis, and imposes an indemnity to pay his troops. 206 wikRCH
c.206 M. Silianus is sent to Tarraco.  L. Marcius is sent to southern Spain.  Scipio joins Marcius as he approaches the coast. 206 wikRCH
c.206 MAGO-II, youngest bro of Hannibal, receives orders from Carthage to take his fleet from Gades to Italy and help Hannibal.  Sails 60 ships along the coast, lands near Cartagena, plunders fields, and attacks Cartagena.  Carthaginians are repulsed with heavy losses.  Mago sails back to Gadir, but finds its gates closed.  He calls out the chief magistrate to negotiate, then kills him.  Mago then sails to Balearic Islands to winter. 206 CAH 8-66, DGRBM 2-346, 903, wikRCH
c.206 P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO Jr., commander in Spain from 210, puts bro Lucius in charge, leaves with C.(1) Laelius for Rome. 206 B76 V-984, CAH 8, GHH, LdHR 1-407, LEWH 100,
206/5 MCAW    205 B76 15-280
c.206 L. Cornelius LENTULUS and L. Manlius ACIDINUS become governors with proconsular power without magistracy in Spain, without a clear term of stay.  Lentulus remains until 200.  Acidinus remains until 199. 206 DGRBM 1-12, 2-729 205 wikRCH
c.205 Now that Scipio Jr. is gone, Indibilis (Andobales) and Mandonius, gather 30,000 inf and 4,000 cav to oppose Romans. 205 DGRBM 2-573
c.205 L. Manlius ACIDINUS conquers the Ausetani and Ilergetes. 205 DGRBM 1-12
c.205 INDIBILIS (Andobales) and MANDONIUS defeated by Manlius Acidinus  Indibilis is killed in battle.  Mandonius escapes, but is later delivered to the Romans.  The rest are granted mercy. 205 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-10, DGRBM 2-573
c.205 30 tribes in northeast Spain give hostages to Romans. 205 CAH 8-121
c.205 The exhausted Turboletae sue for peace.  Roman Senate forces them to pay a huge compensation to the surviving citizens of Saguntum. 205 wikTRH
c.205 Roman Spain comes under proconsuls L. Cornelius Lentulus and L. Manlius Acidinus. 206 DGRBM 3-744 205 CAH 8-60
c.205 Remaining Punic troops surrender at Gades. 205 bk
c.203 Tribune M.(1) COSCONIUS killed in battle between P. Quintilius Varus and Mago. 203 DGRBM 1-863
c.201 Punic possessions in Spain now become officially Roman possessions.  Spain will serve as a granary and major source of metals:  gold, tin, silver, lead, wool, wheat, olive oil, wine, fish, and garum. 201 wikHsp
c.201 Nearer SpainHISPANIA CITERIOR "NEARER SPAIN" annexed by Rome, but not a province until 197.  Its area will expand inland until it is abolished in 19. 201
Dur 3-20
197 wikHC
c.201 AKRA LEUKE Spain, under Carthaginians from 237, taken by Romans.  Renamed LUCENTUM. 201 B76 I-242, brtA
c.201 DJERBA island in Gulf of Gades on west coast of Spain, under Carthage from 510, comes under Numidia until 146. 201 rcNA
c.201 The 2 legions in Spain are probably amalgamated. 201 CAH 8-122

Spain 200-100                     Europe 200-101
 V             V