|c.2000||ARYANS from Bactria and northern Persia cross Hindu Kush mountains into north India. Aryan language (ancestral to Sanskrit) is well differentiated at this time. Aryans have sophisticated theology and organized priesthoods, indicating influence of Sumerian and Babylonian religion. Aryans bring livestock with them, particularly cattle. Aryans eat beef, mutton, milk, and curds and use "ghi", clarified butter, which can be kept for months.||2000 TTT, mxfld
|c.2000||COTTON V spun into yarn and woven into cloth in Indus Valley.
(See Peru 2000, Scandinavia 1000)
|2000 WNHI 19|
|c.2000||DRAVIDIANS, in northwest India from ?, begin migrating southeast until 1500.||2000 B76 5-990|
|c.2000||Oldest existing BUTTON (decorative, not fastening) in Indus Valley.||2000 EOET 314|
|c.2000||TEA & BANANAS cultivated in India, APPLES in Indus Valley.||2000 TTPC-5, ehst, grddst|
|c.2000||BETEL NUT chewing is a well established practice. Betel nut is part narcotic and part stimulant.||2000 mxfld|
MATURE PHASE of HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION of west India from 2600, ends.
Over 1,000 settlements show centralized authority, large urban centers, urban planning, sanitation systems, efficient city governments. Architecture includes dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls. No conclusive evidence of palaces, temples, kings, armies, or priests.
|Mature Hrp. Avantiputra7
1900 bk, wikI, wikIVC
Late Hrp. Avantiputra7
LATE HARAPPAN period, including CEMETERY H culture begins in western PUNJAB until 1300.
Cremation of human remains. Bones stored in painted pottery burial urns. This differs from Indus civilization where bodies are buried in wooden coffins.
Reddish pottery, painted in black with antelopes, peacocks etc., sun or star motifs, with different surface treatments to the earlier period.
Expansion of settlements eastward. Rice becomes a main crop.
Widespread trade of Indus civilization breaks down, with materials such as marine shells no longer used.
Continued use of mud brick for building.
|c.1900||MOHENJO DARO, Harrapan culture 2300-1700, gradually abandoned.||1900 KIH 13|
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo Daro. Photo by Saqib Qayyum
|c.1900||Sarasvati River dries up. Indus-Sarasvati culture ends. Civilization relocates to the Ganga, along with possible migrations out of India to the Near East.||1900 ht|
|c.1800||LATE HARAPPAN period of Indus Valley, 1900-1300: Climate becomes significantly cooler and drier. Portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system disappear. The monsoon weakens. Gradual decline of culture begins.||1800 wikIVC|
|c.1800||GANGES VALLEY occupation begins by two groups:
Ochre Color Pottery People in Doab begin until 1200. Copper Hoard People begin until ?.
(Copper: see Canaan 2000, Britain 1950, Sumerian cubit 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia 1800, China 1500)
|c.1800||IRON V working begins in Ganges Valley. Attested in documents and archaeology as a material for items such as jewelry.||1800 wikIA
|c.1800||JUTE, a fiber for making twine and rope, cultivated in India.||1800 TTT|
|c.1800||Agricultural communities, in the lower Ganges Valley from 3000, spread into south India, and into Malwa in the Punjab.||1800 wikI|
|c.1750||INDUS VALLEY, under Harappan culture from 2300, overrun by Aryans from Bactria and northern Persia who speak a dialect of Indo-European.||2000 CWH, PW 14 1900 wiki
1750 B76 9-344, TTT
1700 vrb 1550 TAWH 16
1500 HCIP 1-156 1200 PAE 108
|c.1730||INDUS VALLEY: Streets no longer follow a grid pattern. Homes diminish in size. Pottery and drainage diminishes or disappears.||soon after 1750 WNHI 21|
|c.1700||INDUS VALLEY civilization damaged by floods.||1700 WNHI 22|
|c.1700||MOHENJO DARO, Harrapan culture from 2300, destroyed by some sudden disaster. Homes hastily abandoned, 30 skeletons found of people not buried, but trapped.||1700 WNHI 22, vrb|
|c.1700||PUNJAB in northwest India is the first place the Aryan invaders settle.||1700 vrb
1550 TAWH 16
|c.1700||LATE HARAPPAN period of Indus Valley, 1900-1300: Most cities are abandoned.||1700 wikIVC|
|c.1700||SOUTH INDIA: Indus Valley Civilization from 3300 ends.
LATE HARAPPAN period begins until 1300.
|c.1550||INDUS VALLEY civilization destroyed by ARYANS from Bactria and northern Persia, who settle in north India until 1020.||1550 TAWH 16
by 1500 WNHI 24
|c.1500||PUNJAB urban civilization from 2500 terminated or displaced by ARYANS (Indo Europeans) who enter from Asia and Persia bringing sheep & cattle. Religion - Vedism. Big dairy eaters.||1550 TAWH 16
1500 B76 X-377, 8-908, 9-345, 15-287, HCIP 1-211, Sdl 1-103, WNHI 24, TTPC 6
|Migration from Punjab to Ganges Valley.|
|c.1500||DRAVIDIANS, migrating from northwest to southeast from 2000, complete their migration. Language is split into 3 distinct dialects. They don't intermarry until 1200.||1500 B76 5-990|
|c.1500||Indigenous Λ IRON V technology in Dwarka and Kashmir.||1500 ht|
|c.1500||Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East.||1500 ht|
|c.1500||LEVER, originated in Egypt, used in Egypt & India for lifting water and soldiers over battlements.||1500 B76 11-232|
|c.1500||Λ COTTON V yarn and cloth manufacture mentioned in a Hindu hymn.||1500 wikHC
1400 B76 7-273
|c.1500||VEDIC ERA begins until 500.
RIG VEDA period begins in northwest India until 1000.
Rig contains 1017 hymns written in the form of invocations in 10 mandalas.
THEOLOGY V: It shows that the Aryans had the same 4 primary gods as the Hittites: Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Naksatras. (see Phrygians)
1500 B76 VIII-874, 3-984, 8-923, Sdl 1-103, WNHI 27, wikHVR, wikI, wikSI, wikTI
1400 B76 17-133
1100 KIH 29
|c.1500||In the VEDIC period, the Aryans could eat goat, horse, sheep and buffalo. Cows could be eaten only if barren. V||no date: mxfld|
|c.1500||Vedic Hymns , (earliest Indian literature) begin until 1200.||1500 B76 X-375, 377, MCAW 33, bk
1450 TAWH 16
|c.1500||VEDIC SANSKRIT language begins in India until 200.||1500 B76 VIII-873|
|c.1472||Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas. Reign of Yudhisthira, king of the Pandavas. Life of Sage Yajnavalkya. Date based on Mahabharata citation of winter solstice at Dhanishtha.||1472 ht|
|c.1450||First Veda written in Vedic, an early form of Old Indic language, the predecessor of Sanskrit.||1450 vrb|
|c.1450||End of Rig Veda Samhita narration .||1450 ht|
|c.1450||BRAMA worship begins. "All beings ... are created from his mouth."||1450 TAWH 16|
|c.1400||BHARATA battle is fought, as related in Mahabharata.||1424 ht
1400 HCIP 1-201, 273
|c.1316||Mahabharata epic poem is composed by sage Vyasa.||1316 ht|
|c.1300||INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION ends. Began 3300.
BRONZE AGE in India ends. Began 3300.
|1300 wikI, wikIVC, wikSI
1000 WNHI 30, 37
|Λ IRON AGE begins to 272, except in south India, where the Neolithic Age prevails until 1000.
(See Anatolia 1400, Crete 1200, Levant 1200, Europe 900, Africa 700)
|c.1300||Cemetery H culture in PUNJAB from 1900, ends.||1300 vrb, wikIVC, wikTI|
|LATE HARAPPAN period in western PUNJAB ends. Began 1900.|
|c.1300||Changes to Mahabharata and Ramayana begin until 200.||1300 ht|
|c.1300||Panini composes Ashtadhyayi , systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000 terse rules.||1300 ht|
|c.1300||SOUTH INDIA: LATE HARAPPAN period from 1700 ends.||1300 wikSI|
|c.1255||King Shuchi of Magadha writes Jyotisha Vedanga , including astronomical observations.||1255 ht|
|c.1200||GANGES VALLEY: Ochre colored pottery people and copper hoard people from 1800 ends.
Black & Red Ware, culture begins until 900. PAINTED GRAY WARE culture begins until 600. Non-urban, has iron and horses.
|1200 B76 9-345, wikI
|c.1200||KURU KINGDOM in Ganges Valley begins until 900.||1200 wikI, wikMb|
|c.1200||DRAVIDIANS, in southeast India from 1500, begin mixing with Negritos and proto-Australoids until 600.||1200 B76 5-991|
|c.1200||Yaruveda (2nd Veda) Veda of the Yajus contains sacred formulas recited by a group of priests at the Yajna (Vedic sacrifices).||1200 B76 17-133|
|c.1200||Vedic Hymns , (earliest Indian literature) from 1500, end.||1200 B76 X-375, 900 bk|
|c.1200||SANSKRIT Formative Period begins until 400. Writing is for religious/magical purposes, mostly hymns to various gods. Structure: Evoke a god, flatter him, ask for something.||1200 B76 17-133|
|c.1200||Atharva-Veda (4th Veda) contains hymns, incantations, and many charms, forbids eating even barren Λ cows.||1200 B76 17-133
by 1000 mxfld
|c.1180||ARISHTANEMI (Neminatha), son of king Samudravijaya and Queen Shivadevi at Souripur, refuses to sacrifice deer at his wedding, leaves and renounces the world. He becomes the 22nd Jain Tirthankara.||early 12th cen. wikNmn
|c.1175||Himalayan and Karakorum mountain ranges both begin melting.||1200-1150 pczy|
|c.1100||Samaveda , Veda of the Chants is an anthology of the Rigveda .||1100
|c.1100||KOSALAS and VIDEHAS rule in north India until ?.||1100 bk|
|c.1050||Purusha Sukta (the 10th mandala) composed: A hymn in Rigveda , describes creation of the world from the sacrifice of a cosmic man, from whose mouth, arms, thighs and feet emerge the 4 classes (varnas) of society. First textual representation of CASTE SYSTEM. Gayatri mantras are also included in it.||1200 -900 tgam|
|c.1020||ARYANS, in India from 1550, expand eastward down Ganges valley.||by 1050 mxfld
1020 TAWH 16