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c.2000 ARYANS from Bactria and northern Persia cross Hindu Kush mountains into north India.  Aryan language (ancestral to Sanskrit) is well differentiated at this time.  Aryans have sophisticated theology and organized priesthoods, indicating influence of Sumerian and Babylonian religion.  Aryans bring livestock with them, particularly cattle.  Aryans eat beef, mutton, milk, and curds and use "ghi", clarified butter, which can be kept for months. 2000 TTT, mxfld
1800 wikbx
KIH 27
15-1200 ACrkr
c.2000 COTTON V spun into yarn and woven into cloth in Indus Valley.
(See Peru 2000, Scandinavia 1000)
2000 WNHI 19
c.2000 DRAVIDIANS, in northwest India from ?, begin migrating southeast until 1500. 2000 B76 5-990
c.2000 Oldest existing BUTTON (decorative, not fastening) in Indus Valley. 2000 EOET 314
c.2000 TEA & BANANAS cultivated in India, APPLES in Indus Valley. 2000 TTPC-5, ehst, grddst
c.2000 BETEL NUT chewing is a well established practice.  Betel nut is part narcotic and part stimulant. 2000 mxfld
c. 1900

c. 1900
Mature Harappan MATURE PHASE of HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION of west India from 2600, ends.
Over 1,000 settlements show centralized authority, large urban centers, urban planning, sanitation systems, efficient city governments.  Architecture includes dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls.  No conclusive evidence of palaces, temples, kings, armies, or priests.
Mature Hrp. Avantiputra7

1900 bk, wikI, wikIVC
KIH 23

Late Hrp. Avantiputra7
Late Harappan LATE HARAPPAN period, including CEMETERY H culture begins in western PUNJAB until 1300.
Cremation of human remains.  Bones stored in painted pottery burial urns.  This differs from Indus civilization where bodies are buried in wooden coffins.
Reddish pottery, painted in black with antelopes, peacocks etc., sun or star motifs, with different surface treatments to the earlier period.
Expansion of settlements eastward.   Rice becomes a main crop.
Widespread trade of Indus civilization breaks down, with materials such as marine shells no longer used.
Continued use of mud brick for building.
c.1900 MOHENJO DARO, Harrapan culture 2300-1700, gradually abandoned. 1900 KIH 13
Mohenjo Daro
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo Daro.           Photo by Saqib Qayyum
c.1900 Sarasvati River dries up.  Indus-Sarasvati culture ends.  Civilization relocates to the Ganga, along with possible migrations out of India to the Near East. 1900 ht
c.1800 LATE HARAPPAN period of Indus Valley, 1900-1300:  Climate becomes significantly cooler and drier.  Portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system disappear.  The monsoon weakens.  Gradual decline of culture begins. 1800 wikIVC
c.1800 GANGES VALLEY occupation begins by two groups:
Ochre Color Pottery People in Doab begin until 1200.  Copper Hoard People begin until ?.
(Copper: see Canaan 2000, Britain 1950, Sumerian cubit 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia 1800, China 1500)
B76 9-345
c.1800 IRON V working begins in Ganges Valley.  Attested in documents and archaeology as a material for items such as jewelry. 1800 wikIA
17-1400 wikHMIS
c.1800 JUTE, a fiber for making twine and rope, cultivated in India. 1800 TTT
c.1800 Agricultural communities, in the lower Ganges Valley from 3000, spread into south India, and into Malwa in the Punjab. 1800 wikI
c.1750 INDUS VALLEY, under Harappan culture from 2300, overrun by Aryans from Bactria and northern Persia who speak a dialect of Indo-European. 2000 CWH, PW 14     1900 wiki
1750 B76 9-344, TTT
1700 vrb     1550 TAWH 16
1500 HCIP 1-156     1200 PAE 108
c.1730 INDUS VALLEY:  Streets no longer follow a grid pattern.  Homes diminish in size.  Pottery and drainage diminishes or disappears. soon after 1750 WNHI 21
c.1700 INDUS VALLEY civilization damaged by floods. 1700 WNHI 22
c.1700 MOHENJO DARO, Harrapan culture from 2300, destroyed by some sudden disaster.  Homes hastily abandoned, 30 skeletons found of people not buried, but trapped. 1700 WNHI 22, vrb
c.1700 PUNJAB in northwest India is the first place the Aryan invaders settle. 1700 vrb
1550 TAWH 16
c.1700 LATE HARAPPAN period of Indus Valley, 1900-1300:  Most cities are abandoned. 1700 wikIVC
c.1700 SOUTH INDIA:  Indus Valley Civilization from 3300 ends.
LATE HARAPPAN period begins until 1300.
1700 wikSI
c.1550 INDUS VALLEY civilization destroyed by ARYANS from Bactria and northern Persia, who settle in north India until 1020. 1550 TAWH 16     16-1500 mxfld
by 1500 WNHI 24
c.1500 PUNJAB urban civilization from 2500 terminated or displaced by ARYANS (Indo Europeans) who enter from Asia and Persia bringing sheep & cattle.   Religion - Vedism.   Big dairy eaters. 1550 TAWH 16
1500 B76 X-377, 8-908, 9-345, 15-287, HCIP 1-211, Sdl 1-103, WNHI 24, TTPC 6
Migration from Punjab to Ganges Valley.
c.1500 DRAVIDIANS, migrating from northwest to southeast from 2000, complete their migration.  Language is split into 3 distinct dialects.  They don't intermarry until 1200. 1500 B76 5-990
c.1500 Indigenous Λ IRON V technology in Dwarka and Kashmir. 1500 ht
c.1500 Cinnamon is exported from Kerala to Middle East. 1500 ht
c.1500 LEVER, originated in Egypt, used in Egypt & India for lifting water and soldiers over battlements. 1500 B76 11-232
c.1500 Λ COTTON V yarn and cloth manufacture mentioned in a Hindu hymn. 1500 wikHC
1400 B76 7-273
c.1500 VEDIC ERA begins until 500.
RIG VEDA period begins in northwest India until 1000.
Rig contains 1017 hymns written in the form of invocations in 10 mandalas.
THEOLOGY V:  It shows that the Aryans had the same 4 primary gods as the Hittites:  Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Naksatras.  (see Phrygians)
1700 trpgr
1500 B76 VIII-874, 3-984, 8-923, Sdl 1-103, WNHI 27, wikHVR, wikI, wikSI, wikTI
1400 B76 17-133
1100 KIH 29
c.1500 In the VEDIC period, the Aryans could eat goat, horse, sheep and buffalo.  Cows could be eaten only if barren. V no date: mxfld
c.1500  Vedic Hymns , (earliest Indian literature) begin until 1200. 1500 B76 X-375, 377, MCAW 33, bk
1450 TAWH 16
c.1500 VEDIC SANSKRIT language begins in India until 200. 1500 B76 VIII-873
c.1472 Reign of Dhritarashtra, father of the Kauravas.  Reign of Yudhisthira, king of the Pandavas.  Life of Sage Yajnavalkya.  Date based on Mahabharata citation of winter solstice at Dhanishtha. 1472 ht
c.1450 First  Veda  written in Vedic, an early form of Old Indic language, the predecessor of Sanskrit. 1450 vrb
c.1450 End of  Rig Veda Samhita narration . 1450 ht
c.1450 BRAMA worship begins.   "All beings ... are created from his mouth." 1450 TAWH 16
c.1400 BHARATA battle is fought, as related in Mahabharata. 1424 ht
1400 HCIP 1-201, 273
c.1316  Mahabharata epic poem  is composed by sage Vyasa. 1316 ht
c.1300 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION ends.  Began 3300.
BRONZE AGE in India ends.  Began 3300.
1300 wikI, wikIVC, wikSI
1200 wikIA
1000 WNHI 30, 37
900 ht
Λ IRON AGE begins to 272, except in south India, where the Neolithic Age prevails until 1000.
(See Anatolia 1400, Crete 1200, Levant 1200, Europe 900, Africa 700)
c.1300 Cemetery H culture in PUNJAB from 1900, ends. 1300 vrb, wikIVC, wikTI
LATE HARAPPAN period in western PUNJAB ends.  Began 1900.
c.1300 Changes to  Mahabharata and Ramayana  begin until 200. 1300 ht
c.1300 Panini composes  Ashtadhyayi , systematizing Sanskrit grammar in 4,000 terse rules. 1300 ht
c.1300 SOUTH INDIA:  LATE HARAPPAN period from 1700 ends. 1300 wikSI
c.1255 King Shuchi of Magadha writes  Jyotisha Vedanga , including astronomical observations. 1255 ht
c.1200 GANGES VALLEY:  Ochre colored pottery people and copper hoard people from 1800 ends.
Black & Red Ware, culture begins until 900.  PAINTED GRAY WARE culture begins until 600.  Non-urban, has iron and horses.
1200 B76 9-345, wikI
1100 wikI
c.1200 KURU KINGDOM in Ganges Valley begins until 900. 1200 wikI, wikMb
c.1200 DRAVIDIANS, in southeast India from 1500, begin mixing with Negritos and proto-Australoids until 600. 1200 B76 5-991
c.1200  Yaruveda (2nd Veda)  Veda of the Yajus contains sacred formulas recited by a group of priests at the Yajna (Vedic sacrifices). 1200 B76 17-133
c.1200  Vedic Hymns , (earliest Indian literature) from 1500, end. 1200 B76 X-375, 900 bk
c.1200 SANSKRIT Formative Period begins until 400.  Writing is for religious/magical purposes, mostly hymns to various gods.  Structure: Evoke a god, flatter him, ask for something. 1200 B76 17-133
c.1200  Atharva-Veda (4th Veda)  contains hymns, incantations, and many charms, forbids eating even barren Λ cows. 1200 B76 17-133
by 1000 mxfld
c.1180 ARISHTANEMI (Neminatha), son of king Samudravijaya and Queen Shivadevi at Souripur, refuses to sacrifice deer at his wedding, leaves and renounces the world.  He becomes the 22nd Jain Tirthankara. early 12th cen. wikNmn
900 bk
c.1175 Himalayan and Karakorum mountain ranges both begin melting. 1200-1150 pczy
c.1100  Samaveda , Veda of the Chants is an anthology of the  Rigveda . 1100
B76 17-133
c.1100 KOSALAS and VIDEHAS rule in north India until ?. 1100 bk
c.1050  Purusha Sukta (the 10th mandala)  composed:  A hymn in  Rigveda , describes creation of the world from the sacrifice of a cosmic man, from whose mouth, arms, thighs and feet emerge the 4 classes (varnas) of society.  First textual representation of CASTE SYSTEM.   Gayatri mantras are also included in it. 1200 -900 tgam
c.1020 ARYANS, in India from 1550, expand eastward down Ganges valley. by 1050 mxfld
1020 TAWH 16

India 1000-501