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DieKraft   Beaker Culture
GNU FDL     cups from
south Germany
Miguel Hermoso Cuesta
Beaker burial reconstruction
map BELL BEAKER Culture exists thruout Europe 2900-1800.  A widely scattered culture of prehistoric western Europe from late Neolithic or Chalcolithic into the early Bronze Age.  Known for a particular pottery type, metalwork in copper, gold and later bronze, archery, specific types of ornamentation and shared ideological, cultural and religious ideas. map: Krakkos

motillas motillasMOTILLAS around LaMancha Spain 2200-1300 are man-made hills 4-5m high with forts on top.  The hills are separated by 4-5km, and used as control centers for agricultural resources, to secure water, store and process cereals, occasionally keep livestock, and to produce pottery and other domestic artefacts. photo: Felicisimo

c.2000 Bronze HALBERD used in Ireland from 2400, no longer evidenced. 2000 wikB
c.2000 Early Bronze Age Britain 2700-1500, Mount Pleasant Phase and Early Beaker culture from 2700 end.  Late Beaker culture continues 2100-1900.  Knives, tanged spearheads. 2000 wikBAB
c. 2000 Grime's Graves GRIMES GRAVES, Neolithic flint mining site in East Anglia, worked 3000-1900.  Extends over 96 acres, consists of at least 433 shafts dug into chalk to reach seams of flint.  Largest shafts are more than 14m deep and 12m diameter at the surface.  Over 2,000 tons of chalk had to be removed from the larger shafts, taking 20 men around 5 months, before stone of sufficient quality was reached.  Has LAMPS V made of chalk lumps hollowed out for oil & wick.   (Lamps: see Crete 1500, Egypt 2000) photo Ashley Dace

SHT 1-235, vrb
3000-1900 wikGG
c.2000 Minoan SHIPS sail from Mediterranean as far as north Scotland. 2000
SHT 2-569, mxfld
c.2000 White HorseWhite Horse of Uffington parish in Oxfordshire county made by deep trenches filled with crushed white chalk.  Thought to represent a tribal symbol, perhaps connected with builders of Uffington Castle.  Until late 19th century the horse was scoured every 7 years.  When regular cleaning is halted the figure quickly becomes obscured. photo
pub dom

2000 wikB
no date: wikUWH
c.2000 British WESSEX CULTURE begins until 1400.  WESSEX-I begins until 1650.  Has enough social organization to produce Stonehenge 3:5.  Burial under barrows, inhumation at first, later cremation, often with rich grave goods.  Traded with Europe, importing amber from Baltic, jewelry from Germany, gold from Brittany, daggers and beads from Mycenaean Greece and vice versa. 2000 be
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS, now thruout Europe & Anatolia, having uniform culture in 3000, begin having CULTURAL DIVERSITY based on location:  Illyrian, Armenian, Phrygian, Mysian, Dacian, Thracian, Greek. 2000
B76 2-614
c.2000 SCANDINAVIA V, populated by at least 4 different cultures from 2500:  declining remains of megalithic culture, Boat-axe Culture of south Sweden, Single-grave Culture of Jutland, Pitted Ware Culture, populations fuses together in a Neolithic Culture which makes flint daggers and other instruments.  Battle-axe people arrive, but they have no bronze.  Amber beads no longer appear in tombs, as amber is now traded to the Mediterranean. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 The BALTIC linguistic group of northeastern Indo-Europeans enters the eastern Baltic and western Russia as farmers and cattle raisers. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 BRONZE V AGE begins in Europe until 900 (including south Britain until 750 ), but replaces the Stone Age much more slowly than in the Near East. 2000 LEWH 15, MCAW 22, PAE 78, PW 14, TTPC, mxfld
Fortified settlements in center and east indicate increasing social & economic pressures.
c.2000 UNETICE culture (named for site at Unetice northwest of Prague), in central Europe 2300-1600Phase A1 begins until 1800.  A1 has triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads. 2000 wikUnC
c.2000 AUSTRIA, BOHEMIA, TYROL, and CARINTHIA occupied by Celto-Ligurians until 1250. 2000 rcCE
c.2000 Cimmerians occupy difuse region in far west Ukraine, generally the south flank of the Carpathian Mountains until 680. 2000 rcU
c.2000 WALLACHIA occupied by Cimmerians until 670. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 TRANSYLVANIA (uplands of Carpathians) occupied by Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 MORAVIA, under Danubian Indo-Europeans from ?, occupied by Celto-Ligurians until 1200. 2000 rcCE
c.2000 MOLDAVIA (northeast of Black Sea), comes under Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 SLOVAKIA (Carpathian mountains north of Hungary, east of Moravia and Czech Republic, west of Galitzia and Ukraine, and south of Poland) under Danubian Indo-Europeans from ?, occupied by Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcCE
c.2000 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Celto-Ligurians until 1250. 2000 rcWB
c.2000 BIHAR (area between Tisza, Szamos, Muresul Rivers, and Transylvanian highlands) occupied by Cimmerians until 700. 2000 rcEB
c.2000 KARANOVO, Bulgaria:  A hilltop community of wattle and mud-walled houses loosely scattered in a village area is deserted and replaced by a new people. 2000 PAE 91
c.2000 Solid wooden WHEELS V (no spokes V) used in Netherlands, Asia, Crete, Aram, and Egypt.   (See Anatolia 1800, China 1300) 2000
B76 5-970, PAE 95
c.2000 Domestic CATS V, common in Egypt from 4,000, domesticated by lake dwellers of Switzerland. 2000 TTT
c.2000 HORSE bones in BADEN culture of Hungary, but no evidence of domestication.  Evidence of horse domestication in Sweden. 2000 PAE 95-6
c.2000 BEAKER PEOPLE (named after bell shaped vessels), bronze using farmers & archers in Portugal from ?, migrate to Brittany, thence to Holland, thence to Germany, possibly also Britain. 2000 BCAW 90, MCAW 20,
PAE 100
c.2000 BALKANS are occupied by 3 groups: TUMULUS, BATTLE AXE, and CORDED WARE peoples. 2000 mxfld
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS from Asia begin to appear in BALKAN PENINSULA and East Europe. 2000 vrb
c.2000 DORIC Indo-Europeans settle in ILLYRIA. 2000 vrb
c.2000 ITALY, until now occupied by Western Iberians, receives various Indo European & Arian speaking tribes, including Italics, Latins, Faliscans until 1800.   Farmers & shepherds build villages on man-made islands, settle on Lakes Garda, Como, Maggiore.   They have bronze tools & weapons. 2000 Dur III-4, MCAW 20, vrb, mxfld, wik20
c.2000 MANTUA settlement founded on banks of Mincio river, on a sort of island.  Under unknown people until 550. 2000 wik20, wikMnt
c.2000 GREECE, under Aegeans from ?, invaded from north by Arian speaking Indo Europeans.   Conquered.  Invaders destroy much and contribute little, but their pottery is better. 2000 B76 19-275, MCAW 20,
2000-1900 GRG 1
BRONZE AGE, in Europe 2000-900, EARLY BRONZE AGE in Greece from 3000 ends.
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE begins in Greece until 1580.
c.2000 GREECE: EARLY HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 3200.
EARLY HELLADIC Period-III ends.  Began 2200-2150.
MIDDLE HELLADIC Period begins until 1550.
2050- 2000 wikHP
In the Early Period Neolithic agricultural population imported bronze and copper and learned bronze-working techniques from Anatolia.  In the Middle Period settlements draw together usually on hilltops.  Gray burnished Minyan pottery begins at Tiryns and spreads.  It may be related to people whom Greek historians called Minyans.
c.1950 BRITAIN receives influx from Rhineland of people having knowledge of COPPER V.
(For copper, see Canaan 2000, Sumerian cubit 1950, Amenhemhet-III 1842, Asia1800 , Ganges Valley 1800)
soon after 2000 PAE 100,
SHT 1-81
c.1950 BRITAIN:  Houses are circular wood-framed huts.  A few have stone walls. early 2nd mil
PAE 150
c.1950 Government by kings, elders, and assembly, and the importance of the warrior class all become evident. soon after 2000 PAE 107
c.1950 POTTER'S WHEEL V:  Evidence of pivoted disks in Greece, Uruk 2000, Crete 1950, Egypt 1950.  Foot wheels also in Greece and Crete. 2000 SHT 1-203
1950 MCAW 21
1800 SHT 1-200
c.1950 Merchants of PHOENICIA trade with south central Europe. soon after 2000 PAE 102
Leubingen mound
Regani   Leubingen mound
drawing 1
Fiedrich Klopfleisch
grave drawings
Fiedrich Klopfleisch
grave goods
c. 1942 King of Leubingen in Thuringia is buried in a large barrow within a 20m stone cairn inside a ring ditch.  It is part of the Unetice culture.  The mound is 7m high and contains a burial chamber of 3.9m x 2.1m with a maximum height of 1.7m.  Inside the mound is the burial Chamber, in the form of a hut of the time.  It has a saddle-shaped roof made out of heavy oak beams covered with stones.  Contents: open bracelet, 2 pins, 2 rings, a gold spiral, a stone battle-hammer, 2 bronze edge-axes (axe with elevated edges to prevent it from moving too much on the handle), 3 bronze chisels, 3 bronze dagger blades in leather and oak bark scabbards, a large ceramic pot with brown and black decorations. 1942 wik20, wikLb 1940 wikLbt
c. 1930 STONEHENGE 3:4 ends.  Began 2280.  Includes circle of bluestones between the 2 rings of sarsens and in an oval at the centre of the inner ring.  Altar Stone may have been moved within the oval and re-erected vertically.  Shabbily built compared to immediate predecessors: Re-installed bluestones are not well-founded and begin to fall over.  Only minor changes are made after this.
STONEHENGE 3:5 succeeds to 1600:  North east section of the 3:4 bluestone circle is removed, creating a horseshoe, which mirrors the central sarsen Trilithons.
1930 wikSh
c.1900 Late Beaker culture ends.  In Britain from 2100.  Knives, tanged spearheads.  Bedd Branwen Period begins until 1500. 1900 wikBAB
c.1900 BEAKER PEOPLE, in Gaul from 2000, migrate to Britain.  Introduce bronze. 1900 CWH
c.1900 SLOVENIA northwest of Balkans, comes under Illyrian tribes until 15. 1900 rcCE
c.1900 GREECE, under Indo Europeans from 2000, invaded by ACHAEANS V - the 1st Greek speaking people of Greece.  they remain on the continent until 1200. 1900 Wiki
1200 HCIP 1-212
c.1900 MYCENAE, in Peloponnese, founded by Achaeans.  Greek Achaeans are now called MYCENEANS.  But Mycenean Age does not begin until 1600. 1900 vrb
1470 TTPC
Mycenae from south           MA p.20-21
Argive plain looking south from Mycenae           MA p.20-21
c.1900 ARGOLIS in western Peloponnese of Greece is the main region for cities. 1900 vrb
c.1850 Central Europe becomes dominated by the Bell-beaker Culture.  In Eastern Europe Λ COPPER V working extends almost to the Arctic. 1850 mxfld
c.1800 ORKNEY Islands north of Scotland:  Neolithic farming arrives.  Well built stone huts. 1800 MCAW 24
c.1800 BELL BEAKER Culture fades out.  Spread thruout Europe from 2900.  A widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western Europe starting in late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age.  Known for a particular pottery type, metalwork in copper, gold and later bronze, archery, specific types of ornamentation and shared ideological, cultural and religious ideas. 1800 wikBC
north Europe Cultures of north Europe

c.1800 ELP Culture begins in Netherlands until 800.  Known for low quality earthenware pottery.  1st phase begins until 1200, noted for tumuli, like contemporary tumuli in north Germany and Scandinavia, and apparently related to Tumulus Culture. 1800 wikElp
c.1800 UNETICE culture (named for site at Unetice northwest of Prague), in central Europe 2300-1600Phase A1 ends.  Began 2000.  A1 has triangular daggers, flat axes, stone wrist-guards, flint arrowheads.  Phase A2 begins until 1700.  A2 has daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets. 1800 wikUnC
c.1800 HindsgavlHindsgavl Dagger:  A Scandinavian 30cm flint dagger inspired by European Bronze Age cultures. photo: Arnold Mikkelsen

1800 wikNSA
c.1800 Λ SCANDINAVIA V, having no metal resources, imports bronze, mainly from Britain.   BRONZE AGE begins in Scandinavia until 440. 2300 arhs     early 2nd mil: PAE 120 1800 B76 5-148, clmn, NBA, wikSP 1700 wikNBA     1500 arcer
c.1800 Λ COPPER V is used in British Isles and all Europe south of mid-Scandinavia. 1800 mxfld
c.1800 El Argar El ArgarEl ARGAR civilization begins in Almerķa, in southeast Spain, replacing the earlier civilization of Los Millares.  Adoption of bronze metallurgy allows gradual dominance and influence in the region.  It also has silver and gold.  It remains until 1300. grave goods: Luis Siret

2200 wikEA 1800 wikTpR
c.1800 Domesticated HORSES arrive in Europe from Asian Steppes. 1800 eah
c.1800 Goods begin to travel widely between cultures. 1800 eah
c.1800 Spearheads, swords, imported jewelry, pins with wheel-shaped heads all appear in tombs. 1800 eah
c.1800 ITALY, under Italics, Latins, Faliscans from 2000, taken over by Italics, except the northwest quarter which is occupied by Etruscans. 1800 mxfld
c. 1800 APENNINE CULTURE begins until 1200 in south 2/3 of Italy.  Alpine cattle herdsmen, living in small hamlets located in defensible places.  On the move between summer pastures they build temporary camps or live in caves and rock shelters.  Their range is not confined to the hills.  Apennine pottery has been found on the Capitoline hill and on islands.  It is burnished and incised with spirals, meanders, and geometric zones, filled with dots or transverse dashes.  It has been found on Ischia island in association with LH-II and LH-III pottery, and on Lipari in association with LH-IIIA pottery, which date it to Late Bronze Age. 1800
B76 19-278, wikLat
15th cen. wikApC
BRONZE AGE begins in Italy until 900.
c.1790 PROTO-CELTIC LANGUAGE V spoken in Germany.  Soon spreads west to become Gaelic and neo-Celtic. soon after 1800 B76 6-1123
c.1775 BRITAIN:  People arrive at northeast coast, evidenced by corded & cord ornamented pottery, perforated stone battle axes. 1775 CMoG3 66
c.1775 BRITAIN:  Bell-Beaker People arrive at southeast coast from Rhineland. 1775 CMoG3 66
c.1750 ACHAEANS, in mainland Greece from 1900, now control it. 1750 SHT 1-726
c.1700 BEAKER PEOPLE in Ireland and Britain from 2500 fade out. 1700 wikB
c.1700 UNETICE culture (named for site at Unetice northwest of Prague), in central Europe 2300-1600.  Phase A2 from 1800 ends.  A2 has daggers with metal hilt, flanged axes, halberds, pins with perforated spherical heads, solid bracelets.  Phase B begins until 1600.  Phase B is Tumulus culture in west, and Trzciniec culture in east. 1700 wikUnC
c.1700 RYE cultivated in eastern Europe.  It will soon be the main bread of the proto-Celts, Teutones, & Slavs. 1700 TTPC 6
c.1700 THEBES Boeotia, founded c.3000, increases in population. 1700 ahe
c.1650 British WESSEX CULTURE 2000-1400.  WESSEX-1 ends.  Began 2000WESSEX-2 begins until 1400.  Associated with later Stonehenge. 1650 wikWC
c. 1650 Apa swords APA type SWORDS appear in Black Sea and Aegean areas as a further development of the dagger.  Previous swords were usually 60-80cm long.  Apa swords reach over 100cm.  Technology to produce blades this long developed using alloys of copper and tin or arsenic c.1700.  photo Dbachmann

17-1600 wikBAS
c. 1650 Boar's tusk helmet Mycenaean BOAR TUSK HELMETs appear until 950.  Previous swords were usually 60-80cm long.  Made of slivers of boar tusks attached in rows to a leather base, padded with felt.  A description of a boar's tusk helmet appears in Homer's Iliad book 10, as Odysseus is armed for a night raid against the Trojans.
This one is 14th century, from chamber tomb 515, Mycenae.
photo frankfl

17th cen. wikBTH
c.1650 vase Gray Minyan Ware:
Both are Minyan amphorae from Mycenae, Middle Helladic III period.
left: Zde
right: Zde

17-1600 MW
c.1628 Evidence of Thera eruption appears in tree rings in Ireland. 1628 TTS, wikME     1520 TTPC
1500 MCAW 32, OCD 1060, TAWH 66, mxfld
c.1600 Stonehenge 3.5 STONEHENGE 3:5 ends.  Began 1930.  The outer 2 rings of holes (Y and Z Holes) are the last known construction.
Stonehenge reaches final form which appears today.  Roman coins and medieval artefacts have been found, but it is unknown if or how it was used henceforth.
diagram pub dom

1600 wikSh
16th cen.
PAE 138
1450-00 TTS, TTT
by 1600 Southwest BRITAIN has a trade boom as British tin is exported across Europe. by 1600 wikPB
c.1600 Arreton Down Hoard in Britain:  7 bronze spear-heads, 4 axes, 1 dagger, 1 halberd. 17-1500 wikLBAH
c.1600 Λ COPPER mines at MITTERBERG, Austria begin until 800. 1600 SHT 1-565-6
c.1600 Λ BRONZE working has spread all over Europe except the northern half of Britain, Λ Scandinavia V, and western Iberia. 1600 mxfld
by 1600 UNETICE culture trades with the Mycenaeans. by 1600 hifiTtn
c.1600 UNETICE culture fades out.  In central Europe from 2300.  Named for site in Unetice northwest of Prague.  Phase B from 1700 consists of Tumulus culture in west, and Trzciniec culture in east.
Metalsmiths mainly use pure copper.  Trade with British Wessex culture.
1600 wikUnC
c.1600 TUMULUS culture, distinguished by burying dead under mounds (tumuli), begins in central Europe until 1200. 1600 wikTC
c. 1600 Nebra skydisk NEBRA SKYDISK.  A bronze disk of @30cm diameter weighing 2.2kg, with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols, interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades).  Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, will be added later.  A final addition will be another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, variously interpreted as a Solar Barge with numerous oars, as the Milky Way, or as a rainbow).
The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt.  It has been associated with the Unetice culture.
photo Dbachmann

1600 wikNSD
c.1600 Sogel swords SOGEL type SWORDS found with Nebra skydisk. photo Dbachmann

1600 wikBAS
c.1600 Proto-Italic bronze workers from northeast of Alps enter Italy and begin TERREMARE civilization in the Po valley.  They prefer cremation over burial. 1700 flm 1600 RAH
c.1600 GREECE:  In Λ Bronze Age 2000-1200
Λ MYCENEAN AGE begins until 1200.
1600 TAWH 16, wikMc
1550 PW 15
Independent city states are established thruout Aegean Sea.
c.1600 A single GREEK LANGUAGE (with many dialects) is spoken in Greece. 1500 B76 9-431
c. 1600 SHAFT GRAVE Era begins at Mycenae until 1450.  Mycenaean warrior class dead men are usually laid in gold masks and funerary armor, women in gold crowns and clothes with gold ornaments.  The royal shaft graves next to the acropolis of Mycenae, particularly Grave Circles A and B signify the elevation of a native Greek-speaking royal dynasty whose economic power depends on long-distance sea trade.  Mycenaeans increase contacts with the outside world, especially the Cyclades and Crete. 1600 wikMG
c. 1600 Aegina Treasure AEGINA TREASURE:  Mycenean treasure is buried in a tomb on Aegina Island.  Gold, pieces include a cup, 4 pendants, 5 necklaces, 54 roundels for dress-trimming, 3 or 4 diadems, a bracelet of solid gold, 5 solid gold rings of nearly uniform weight, and so conjectured to be ringmoney, and 5 finger-rings inlaid with glass paste.  There are also many beads and pendants made of a variety of materials including gold, lapis lazuli, amethyst, quartz, cornelian and green jasper.  Other later treasure from Aegina will confuse the dating. earring       GNU FDL

1850-1550 wikAT     17-1500 niem, wikAe 800 MA 393
7th cen. jcam
c.1600 gold cupRadial daisies juxtaposed to interconnected spirals is the most common Mycenean art pattern, as evidenced by this gold cup from Aegina. no date: MA 389
c.1600 Mainland Greece renews contact with Crete.  Late Minoan culture flows into Greece. 1600 B76 19-276
c.1580 MIDDLE BRONZE AGE ends in Greece.  Began 2000.
LATE BRONZE AGE begins in Greece until 1200.
B76 14-898
c.1550 Monument building in Britain ends. 1500 mxfld
c.1550 Skilled BRONZE METALURGY is centered in Czechoslovakia. pre-1500 PAE 123
c. 1550 GREECE:  MIDDLE HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 2000.
LATE HELLADIC Period begins until 1050.
LATE HELLADIC Period-I begins until 1500.
1675-50 wikMP 1550 wikHP, wikSc

Photo Svilen Enev
Silver rhytonMycenaean culture flourishes, influenced by Minoan Crete and the Cyclades.  Gray & black Minyan ware disappears.  Yellow Minyan ware begins.  LH-I pottery has more lustrous paint than MH, and is known from Shaft Graves of Lerna and the settlements of Voroulia and Nichoria (Messenia), Ayios Stephanos, (Laconia) and Korakou.
c. 1550 Mask of AgamemnonSo called Mask of Agamemnon buried in tomb V at grave circle A, Mycenae.  Made of a gold sheet.  2 holes near the ears indicate that the mask was held in place of the deceased's face with twine.  Believed to be a fake due to the high level of detail, such as the beard and ears.  It's 3 centuries too early to be Agamemnon. photo CC BY 2.0

16th cen. wikMsk
c. 1528/7 Mythical FLOOD of DEUCALION happens, according to  Parian Chronicle  of 260. 1528/7 wikPC 1504 GHH
c. 1525 ±25 Grave Circle A
Mycenae GRAVE CIRCLE A built inside the city wall.  Grave circle B will be outside the wall.
1550-00 hlpme 1504 GHH
Mycenae layout
c.1500 WRITING V:  MYCENEAN SCRIPT (Linear-B), 88 symbols (combination of a consonant and a vowel) each denoting a syllable develops in GREECE and soon afterward in Crete (Linear-A).   (See Hittites 1510, Ugaritic 1500, China 1475) 1500 TAWH 16
1450 vrb     1400 bk
1200 BBP 17
c.1500 Λ SPOKED WHEELS V, in Asia from 2000, Aram and Egypt from at least 1600, appear in Greece and Crete.   (See Anatolia 1400,  China 1300) 1500
SHT 1-211-13
c.1500 Early Bronze Age in Britain ends.  Began 2700.  Bedd Branwen Period from 1900 ends.  Middle Bronze Age begins in Britain until 1000.  Acton Park Phase begins until 1300:  palstaves, socketed spearheads; copper, tin, lead.  Hill forts appear.  See 350. 1500 wikBAB
1200 wikPB
c. 1500 TerramareTerramaricoli people south of the Po from 1600, develop TERRAMARE culture until 1150.  Each settlement is trapezoidal.  Houses are square wooden stilt, built on the mainland generally near a stream, with roads that cross at right angles.  Some houses are built on piles to protect them from floods.  The whole is protected by an earthwork defensive wall strengthened on the inside by buttresses, and encircled by a wide moat with running water.  Over 60 villages are known, almost entirely from Emilia.  In Middle Bronze Age they are no larger than 4.9 acres placed at an average density of 1 per 25 km2. reconstruct Reever

1700 wikTC 1500 B76 19-280
16th cen wikPIIA
c.1500 THRACE inhabited.  Rulers and Indo-European gods are identifiable. 1500 mxfld
c. 1500 Spain 1500 SPAIN:  A culture of small fortified villages known as Bronze of Levante culturally close to El Argar appears in modern Valencia.  They settle in the semi-desertic La Mancha in motillas (forts on top of man-made hills).  Cattle-herding tribes of the central plateau organize into a single culture, known as Cogotas-I, practicing transhumance (moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle).  Strategic tin resources in northwest Iberia probably causes some development in this region.  The Montelavar group is known for bronze axes. map: Sugaar

1500 wikTpR
c.1500 Λ LANGUAGE V:  All Central Europe speaks a single Indo-European idiom called Old European. 1500 mxfld
c.1500 Mycenean objects, ideas, motifs, and techniques appear in central Europe and south Britain. 1500
SHT 1-609
c.1500 SLEDGE HAMMER of modern shape appears at MITTERBERG, Austria. 1500
SHT 1-609
c.1500 Cult of DEMETER appears in Greece. 1500 wikEM
c.1500 Cult of DIONYSUS appears in Greece at Thebes. 1500 wikDM
c. 1500 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-I ends.  Began 1550.
LATE HELLADIC Period-II begins until 1400.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIA begins until 1450.
1600- 1550 wikMP
1500 wikHP
In Messenia are small closed shapes such as squat jugs decorated with hatched loops "rackets" or simplified spirals; dark-on-light painted motifs include small linked spirals such as varieties of hook-spiral or wave-spiral.  Forms of the hatched loop and double-axe, and accessorial rows of small dots and single or double wavy lines; also, the ripple pattern on Keftiu cups.
In LH-IIA these innovations spread thruout the mainland.
c.1480 Mycenaean pottery reaches Ionia, including Miletus and Troy, also Cyprus, Lebanon, Palestine and Egypt. early 15th cen. wikMG
c.1475 MYCENEANS of Greece invade and conquer eastern CRETE. 1475 vrb
c.1450 Balto-Slavic ethnic group splits into Slavic and Baltic. 15-1400 vrb
c.1450 CASTELLIERI culture begins on the coast of Istria, and later expands into Friuli and Dalmatia.  Castellieri are fortified boroughs.  Lasts until Roman conquest. 15th cen. wikPIIA
c.1450 SHAFT GRAVE Era at Mycenae from 1600 ends.  A new and more imposing type of elite burial emerges, the Tholos: large circular burial chambers with high vaulted roofs and a straight entry passage lined with stone. 1450 wikMG
c. 1450 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-IIA ends.  Began 1500.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIB begins until 1400.
1490-70 wikMP 1450 wikHP
Ephyraean style, most commonly represented on goblets and jugs, spins off of the Alternating style of LM-IB.  Dependence on Minoan ceramics disappears, and somewhat reverses.
c.1425 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES V begin new phase of expansion. 1450-1400 B76 9-431
c.1400 British WESSEX CULTURE ends.  Began 2000WESSEX-2 ends.  Began 1650.  Related to Hilversum culture and Armorican tumuli. 1400 wikWC
c.1400 CREMATION becomes common north of the Danube, leading to the URNFIELD CULTURE, named for human ashes buried in urns in fields. no date: wikUC
c.1400 Mycenean trading posts appear in Italy at Ischia and near the future site of Taras. 1500-1400 PAE 134
1300 mxfld
c.1400 TUMULUS PEOPLE, proto-Urnfield people, migrate south to Balkan Peninsula. 1400 B76 2-614
c.1400 MYCENEAN civilization peaks. 1400 RAH
c.1400 Geometric pottery design, a copy of Minoan, begins at Mycenae. 1400 MA 318
c. 1400 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-II ends.  Began 1500.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIB ends.  Began 1450.
LATE HELLADIC Period-III begins until 1060.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIA begins until 1300.
1435-05 wikMP 1400 wikHP
Cretan and Minoan power decreases.  Mycenaean expansion covers most of the Eastern Mediterranean.  New shapes appear.  Motifs of painted pottery become standardized.  Goblets have a shallower bowl, and stems lengthen.  This begins the transformation from goblet to kylix.  Stirrup jar becomes popular.  Naturalistic motifs become less popular.  Kylix becomes main pottery shape.  Levant, Egypt and Cyprus come into close and continuous contact with the Greeks.
c.1400 Dagger blades in Greece made by Cretan craftsmen have ornamentation in relief incised or inlaid with varicolored metals including gold and silver. 1400
B76 11-1096
c.1400 PYTHIAN PRIESTESS, aka Delphic Oracle, MAY have begun this early.  The oracle (always a virgin) is initially said to be possessed by goddesses Themis and Phoebe.  The site is initially sacred to Gaia until ?.   See 1000. 1400 wikPyt
c.1400 Dendra Panoply Mycenaean ARMOR from Dendra in Argolid - commonly called the Dendra Panoply.  V:  Oldest surviving armor in Greece. photo Hohum

1400 ehow, wikHP, wikMG
c.1350 SLASHING SWORD V with a flanged hilt-grip begins in central Europe.  (see Aegean 1240) 14th cen. PAE 159
Tiryns citadel plan
Ruins of Tiryns           Photo by Dorieo
c.1350 TIRYNS fortress built by Myceneans in Argolis in Peloponnese.  It covers 5.9 hectares sustaining 1,180-1,770 people, and had large tiled two-storeyed round house (Rundbau) 28m diameter on the upper citadel.  It may have served as a palace or temple or communal granary. 1350 MCAW 36 14th cen. wikHP
c.1350 Palace of Mycenae greatly enlarged. 1350 CMoG3 145
Spread of the chariot
Spread of the CHARIOT:           photo by Dbachmann
c.1350 ChariotCHARIOT with 4 spoke wheels on a fresco from Pylos.  Charioteers wear Boar's tusk helmets. picture: {{PD-US}}

1350 wikMG
c. 1350 Mycenae citadel MYCENAE:  A citadel on the acropolis, and fortifications on other surrounding hills, are rebuilt in cyclopean style.  The blocks are so massive that they are thought in later ages to be the work of Cyclopes.  Within these walls, much of which can still be seen, successive monumental palaces are built.  Earlier palaces were cleared away or built over. photo: GNU FDL

1350 wikMc     14th cen wikHP
c.1350 THEBES is fortified by Myceneans.  It covers 20 hectares with a population of 4,000-6,000. 14th cen wikHP
c.1350 CORINTH inhabited. 1350 ISBE 1-772
Mycenean states
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0
c.1300 Lambourn HoardLAMBOURN Hoard in Berkshire:  2 gold armlets, 3 gold bracelets Photo Creative Commons

1400-1200 wikLBAHB
c.1300 Middle Bronze Age Britain 1500-1000:  Acton Park Phase ends.  Began 1500.  palstaves, socketed spearheads; copper, tin, lead.  Knighton Heath Period begins until 1200: Rapiers. 1300 wikBAB
c.1300 Solid WHEEL vehicles, in Europe from 2000, appear in Sweden. by 1300 B76 19-521
c.1300 URNFIELD CULTURE appears in Poland, where it is called the Lausitz Culture. 1300 mxfld
c.1300 From Rhine to upper Danube develops a Bronze Age fine sword-making, horse-using, farming culture that trades with the Mediterranean area.   Their descendants will be Celts. 1300 MCAW 42
c.1300 El ArgarEl ARGAR civilization in Almerķa southeast Spain from 1800, ends abruptly, giving way to a less homogeneous post-Argarian culture. 1550 wikEA 1300 wikTpR
c.1300 SPAIN:  Motillas are abandoned.  Urnfield culture is the first wave of Indo-Europeans to enter Spain and stay in Catalonia.  They trigger the Atlantic Bronze Age in Northwest that maintains commercial relations with Brittany and British Isles.  In Western Andalusia appears an internally burnished pottery culture.  Northwest is defined by their typical axes, divided into Galician and Astur-Cantabrian. 1300 wikTpR 1200 wikMtl
c. 1300 Spain Late Bronze SPAIN:  The Chalcolithic culture of Vila Nova vanishes, possibly in direct relation to the silting of the canal connecting the main city Zambujal with the sea.  It is replaced by a non-urban culture, whose main artifact is externally burnished pottery.
El Argar also disappears as such, what had been a homogeneous culture, a centralized state for some, becomes an array of many fortified cities.
The Motillas are abandoned.
The proto-Celtic Urnfield culture appears in the North-East, conquering all Catalonia and some neighboring areas.
Lower Guadalquivir valley shows its first clearly differentiated culture, defined by internally burnished pottery.  This group might have some relation with semi-historical Tartessos.
West Iberian Bronze cultures interact among themselves and with other Atlantic cultures in Britain, Gaul, and elsewhere. This has been called the Atlantic Bronze complex.
map pub dom

1300 wikPI
c.1300 URNFIELD CEMETERIES, in Danube area from 1400, spread westward.  URNFIELD CULTURE begins in central Europe until 750. 1300 PW 15, wikUC
13th cen. PAE 146
c.1300 URNFIELD CULTURE (possibly including proto-Celts) arrives in SPAIN.  Occupy mainly the north, and do not mix with indigenous population. 1400 vrb
c.1300 Illyrian NORICI settle in eastern foothills of Alps. 1300 ooctA
c.1300 ILLYRIANS V, in Pannonia from ?, spread south to Dalmatia. 1300 vrb
c.1300 THRACE:  Gold bowls produced. 1300 MCAW 43
c.1300 Mycenean bridgeMycenean ARCHED BRIDGE built near the road from Tiryns to Epidauros in the Peloponnese.  Still used.   (See Askelon 1900, Smyrna 825, Etruscan 590) 1300 wikAB, wikArk
13-2000 wikB
c.1300 Mycenean culture peaks. 1300 SHWC 49
c.1300 Athamas becomes King of the Minyans in Boeotia. 1300 wikAθm
c.1300 Athamas is cast away from his kingdom in Boeotia, submitting to an oracle commanding him to inhabit a wild and mountainous place.  He reaches the Pindos mountains, where he marries Themisto, dau of Ypseus and Kreousa, and becomes founder of Athamania and Patriarch of the Athamanians. 1300 wikAθm
c.1300 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIA ends.  Began 1400.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIB begins until 1190.
1320-00 wikMP     1300 wikHP
LH-IIIB1 has equal amounts of painted deep bowls and kylikes.  Kylikes are mostly Zigouries.  LH-IIIB2 has an absence of decorated kylikes.  Deep bowl styles further develop into the Rosette form.  Non-Helladic ware from the Aegean ceases to be homogeneous.  LH-IIIB pottery is associated in Greek mainland palaces with Linear B archives.
Mycenean territory
c.1270 Part of the Ausone tribe moves from Campania Italy to Sicily. 1270 wikAsn
1251 Sep 7 SOLAR ECLIPSE seen in Sparta in early morning. strts, wik1250
c.1250 BALTIC people, along Vistula and Oder Rivers from 2000, move north and east. 1250 vrb
c.1250 TUMULUS PEOPLE, Urnfield people in Balkan Peninsula from 1400, begin causing upheaval from Balkans to Anatolia thru 1200. pre-1200 B76 2-614
c.1250 ARMENO-PHRYGIANS cross Danube into Thrace.  Remain until 1200. pre-1250 hystn
c.1250 AUSTRIA, BOHEMIA, and CARINTHIA, occupied by Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Urnfield Culture, Austria and Bohemia until 600. 1250 rcCE
c.1250 TYROL (mountainous western corridor of Austria), occupied by Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Italics until 450. 1250 rcCE
c.1250 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Urnfield Celts until 625. 1250 rcWB
c. 1250 Canegrate cultureCanegrate culture begins north of Po River.  An example of western Hallstatt culture.  Necropolis is similar to contemporary sites north of the Alps.  It represents the first wave of proto-Celtics from the northwest Alps that, through the Alpine passes, had already penetrated and settled in the western Po valley between Lakes Maggiore and Como.  They bring cremation, which supplants inhumation.  They remain homogeneous for a century, then melt into the Ligurians. map Ruthven

13th cen. wikCC, wikPIIA
c. 1250 Lion GateMYCENAE:  In Late Helladic-IIIB, the Cyclopean wall is extended on the west slope to include grave circle A.  The main entrance thru the circuit wall is the LION GATE, thru which passed a stepped ramp leading past circle A and up to the palace.  The Lion Gate is in the form of a "Relieving Triangle", i.e. a triangular space above a lintel to relieve the weight of the masonry. pics: wikcomMLG, wikcomLGM

B76 19-276, about, wikcomM
c. 1250 Treasury of AtreosTreasury of Atreos (aka Tomb of Agamemnon), a tholos tomb on the Panagitsa Hill at Mycenae.  The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons, with approximate dimensions 8.3 x 5.2 x 1.2m, the largest in the world.  The tomb was used for an unknown period, and probably has no relation to either Atreos or Agamemnon, as archaeologists believe the man buried there ruled earlier than either. photo GFDL

1330 wikHESD 1250 wikTA
CONFUSION ALERT!  Treasury of ATREOS looks similar to Tomb of CLYTEMNESTRA, both in Mycenae, and Treasury of MINYAS in Orchomenos.
c.1250 Treasury of Minyas Treasury of MINYAS in Orchomenos Boeotia built by Minyas, son of Chryses.  A vaulted tholos tomb.  . photo: Ziegler175

1250 flkr     13th cen. drtm
c.1250 Tomb of Clytemnestra Tomb of Clytemnestra in Mycenae built by ????.  Last of the vaulted tholos tombs. photo: Jean Housen

1250 wikTC    
c.1250 Legendary physician of Thessaly, ASCLEPIOS dies.
Later deified c.450 as son of Apollo and nymph Coronis.  Learned healing from centaur Chiron.  Credited with bringing people back from the dead.  Killed by Zeus so he wouldn't make men immortal.
1250 TTPC
no date:
B76 I-572, wikAsc
c.1250 A Mycenean voyage into the Black Sea may have been the base for the story of JASON and the GOLDEN FLEECE according to Apollonius. 1250 MCAW 45 1246 strts
c.1250 SAFETY PIN invented in Europe. 13-1200 pnms
c.1240 Λ SLASHING SWORD with a flanged hilt-grip begins in central Aegean area. soon after 1250 PAE 159
c.1240 Mycenaean Greeks sail for Troy, but land in Mysia. 1192 hifi
c.1200 BRITAIN:  Early Bronze Age ends.  Began 2300.  Late Bronze Age begins to 700. 1200 wikPB
c.1200 Middle Bronze Age Britain 1500-1000:  Knighton Heath Period ends.  Began 1300.  Early Urnfield; Wilburton-Wallington Phase begins until 1000. 1200 wikBAB
c.1200 A branch of LIGURES sails to Britain, conquers and intermarries with natives, who are a mixed group of dark-haired and dark skinned people, possibly Iberian, and light-haired Scandinavians. 1200 mxfld
c.1200 BRITAIN:  Clear evidence of farming in south, circular huts in groups with small oblong fields and stock enclosures.  This type continues into Roman period. 1200
B76 3-194
c.1200 Burton HoardBURTON HOARD in Britain:  2 bronze palstaves, 1 bronze chisel, 1 gold torc, 1 gold twisted-wire bracelet, 1 gold necklace pendant, 4 gold beads, 3 gold rings, 1 pottery vessel. photo Creative Commons

1300-1150 wikLBAHB
c.1200 ELP Culture in Netherlands 1800-800, known for low quality earthenware pottery.  Phase 1 from 1800 noted for tumuli, like contemporary tumuli in north Germany and Scandinavia, and apparently related to the Tumulus Culture, ends.  Phase 2 begins until 800, noted for Urnfield (cremation) burial customs. 1200 wikElp
c.1200 TUMULUS culture, distinguished by burying dead under mounds (tumuli), in central Europe from 1600 fades out. 1200 wikTC
c.1200 LISBON Portugal founded by Phoenicians. 1200 B76 10-1029
c.1200 METALWORKING increases dramatically.  Smiths handle more bronze and gold and show sophisticated techniques such as lost-wax casting and casting in molds in many pieces. 1200 eah
c.1200 CREMATION V replaces burial as normal funerary practice. 1200 eah
c.1200 Proto-CELTIC culture in GAUL & GERMANY. 1200 vrb
c.1200 MORAVIA, under Celto-Ligurians from 2000, occupied by Urnfield Celts until 600. 1200 rcCE
c.1200 MUSHKI, in Thrace from ?, cross Bosphorus straits into Anatolia. 1200 TAWH 56
c.1200 ILLYRIANS, in Dalmatia from 1300, sail across Adriatic to southern ITALY. 1200 vrb
c.1200 APENNINE CULTURE from 1800 with incised geometric designs on pottery ends. 13th cen. wikApC 1200 wikLat
c.1200 Thanks to Hittites, local  IRON V production begins period of rapid growth in Transcaucasia, south Italy, Levant, and Persia until 1000.
(See China 1200, Egypt 1150)
SHT 1-595
c.1200 Chariot2 women drive a chariot with 4 spoke wheels on a fresco from Tiryns. pic:

1200 wikMG
c.1200 GREECE:  LATE BRONZE AGE from 1580 and MYCENEAN AGE from 1600   both destroyed by invading illiterate DORIANS who have the advantage of IRON V weapons.  Mycenae destroyed, TIRYNS people massacred.  Linear-B script forgotten.
EARLY IRON AGE begins to 725.  Dorians remain on continent until 1100.
1200 B76 8-326, 19-285, MCAW 46, 56, TAWH 16, bk, vrb, mxfld
1150 PW 15
1100 B76 14-898, LEWH 60, MCAW 50, RAH, wikMc
1050 wikGA
DARK AGE begins (Protogeometric) to 900.   Arcs and circles drawn with a compass.
c.1200 EARLY ARCHAIC Period begins to 750. 1200 B76 I-486
c.1200 MYCENEANS, in Greece from 1900, pressed by Doric and Aeolian tribes from north of Greece, start migrating to ATTICA, ARCADIA, CRETE, ANATOLIA, CYPRUS, and even to southern Italy. 1200
B76 19-277, MCAW 46, vrb
c.1200 ACHAEANS pressed by Doric and Aeolian tribes from the north of Greece start migrating to Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia. 1200 vrb
c.1200 PYLOS, Greece sacked and burned by Sea Peoples Linear-B tablets  will be found here. 1200 LEWH 60, RAH 130
c.1200 Domestic Λ CATS, in Egypt from 4000, 1st evidenced in Greece.   (Italy 450) 1200 wikCt
c.1200 ATHENS, occupied from before 1300, first buildings appear, including citadel on Acropolis. 1200 B76 2-265, MCAW 46
c.1200 ARMENO-PHRYGIANS, in Balkans and Thrace from 1250, cross Bosphorus strait into Anatolia. 1250 vrb
1200 LEWH 50, TAWH 56
1190 CWH, RAI2 219
c.1190 GREECE:  LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIB ends.  Began 1300.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIC begins until 1060.
1190 wikHP, wikMP
The end of LH-IIIB is associated with the destruction of Ugarit, whose ruins contain the last of that pottery.
c.1180 Palace of Pylos destroyed. 1180 wikMG
c.1152 ALBA LONGA on the Albus Mons founded by Iulus Ascanius. trad 1152 OCD 34
c.1151 Iulus ASCANIUS becomes king of Latium at Alba Longa until 1138. 1151 rcRm
c.1150 TERRAMARE culture along the Panaro River, between Modena and Bononia from 1500 ends.  Settlements are abandoned and populations move south, where they mingle with the Apennine peoples.  Area reoccupied 1000. 12th cen. wikPIIA, wikTC
c.1150 1st contacts between Phoenicians and Spain along Mediterranean coast. 11th cen. wikTpR
c.1138 Iulus ASCANIUS, king of Latium at Alba Longa from 1151, ends.  SILVIUS succeeds until 1109. 1138 rcRm
c.1130 AEOLIAN migration from Thessaly to Anatolia begins until 1000. 1130 B76 I-111
c.1124 The THESSALI expel the BOEOTI from land now named THESSALY.  The Boeoti migrate south to Cadmeis, and rename it Boeotia. 1124 GHH
c.1115 "BRUTUS," a descendant of Trojan Aeneas, sails to Britain, becomes 1st king, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth's 1136CE work  Historia Regum Britanniae . 1115 wikLKB
c.1110 AGADIR (later called Gadir, then Cadiz) on south coast of Spain, founded by Phoenicians from Tyre.  It is their 1st walled city.  Under Phoenicians until 501. 1110 B76 17-944, MWΦ 94, 230
1104 wik, wikTpR     1100 B76 II-429, 17-402, CWH, mxfld, rcIb
c.1109 SILVIUS, king of Latium at Alba Longa from 1138, ends.  AENEAS-II succeeds until 1078. 1109 rcRm
c.1100 DANES wear ornate weapons and ornaments and use bronze lyres as musical instruments. 1100 mxfld
c.1100 SPAIN, populated by dark whites, possibly ancestors of Basques.  Ligurians occupy west coast. 1100 mxfld
c.1100 Indo-European THRACIANS arrive in Balkans. 1100 vrb
c.1100 BRITAIN:  Rectangular houses evidenced at Gwithian and Cornwall, sub-rectangular houses at Wesex and Sussex, but circular buildings are still more common. 1200-1000 PAE 150
c.1100 ITALY:  New wave of Italics arrive including Indo-European OSCANS (Ausones) & Gallic UMBRIANS (Ombri). 1100 vrb
c.1100 Central European VILLANOVANS, iron using Urnfield people, enter Italy, but do not yet settle in the area that will be called Villanova.  They remain unconquered until 800. 1100 wikVlC
c.1100 Λ LAMPS made in Europe and Anatolia burn olive or nut oil thru a wick. 1100 TTT
c.1100 Bronze BODY Λ ARMOR V appears in central Europe. pre-1000 PAE 134
c.1100 Athamanians resist attacks by invading Dorians. 1100 wikAθm
c.1100 DELPHIC AMPHICTYONY created to protect the temple of Apollo at Delphi and of Demeter at Thermopylae.  Includes all tribes surrounding the oracle of Delphi: Ionians, Magnesians, Pythians, Boeotians, Dolopes, Locrians, Dorians, Malians, Thessalians, Perrhoebians and Phoecians.  Ruled by a council which has the right to declare war, punish offenders, and dictate religious policy.  Remains primarily a religious alliance until 590. 1100 grka 1040 GHH
c.1100 The NELEIDAE of Pylos in Messenia are driven out by Dorians.  Under Alcmaeon and Melanthos they go to Athens. 1100 DGRBM 1-106, GHH
c.1100 THYMAETES deposed.  Last Theseid king of Attica at Athens from ?.  MELANTHOS succeeds until 1091. 1128 GHH
c.1100 Group BURIAL in Mycenean chamber tombs from ?, changes to individual graves.  Athenians, however, continue cremation. 1100 wikAGF
c.1100 Post-Mycenean Greece is a land of villages making crude pottery with little decoration until 1050. 1100 GRG 2
c.1100 AEGINA Island south of Athens, conquered by Deiphontes of Tiryns, under Dorians until ?. 1100 OCD 12
c.1100 DORIANS, in Greece from 1200, spread to CRETE, destroy remnant of Minoan civilization.   Myceneans on Crete evacuate, mostly to Arcadia and Attica, some to Anatolia. 1100 CWH, MCAW 50
c.1091 MELANTHOS dies.  King of Attica at Athens from 1100.  KODROS succeeds until 1068. 1091 GHH
c.1078 AENEAS-II ends.  King of Latium at Alba Longa from 1109.  LATINUS-II succeeds until 1027. 1078 rcRm
c.1074 SISYPHID dynasty of Corinth from ?, ends.  ALETES becomes Heraclid king of Corinth until 1035.   HERACLID DYNASTY begins until 747. 1074 DGRG 1-450, 676, GHH     1073 wikHer
c.1068 KODROS dies.  King of Attica at Athens from 1091, dies.  Sons Nelos and Androclos emigrate with many followers to west coast of Anatolia.  Son MEDON becomes life term archon of Athens until 1048.  ARCHONS remain in his family until 713, and restricted to certain families until 479. 1068 CDGRA 65, rcSB3, wikEA     1045 GHH
1044 DGRG 2-61
c.1060 DORIAN invasions of Greece peak. 1075-50 GRG
c.1060 GREECE:  HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 1300.
LATE HELLADIC Period ends.  Began 1550.
LATE HELLADIC Period-III ends.  Began 1400.
LATE HELLADIC Period-IIIC ends.  Began 1190.
SUB-MYCENEAN Period begins until 1000.
1100 pmsgw
1060 wikHP
1030 wikSMP
Late LH-IIIC pottery is found in Troy-VIIa and a few pieces in Tarsus.  It is also made locally in Philistine settlements of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza.  Sub-Mycenean is a period of severe economic and cultural depression.  Crude, simplified versions of old Mycenaean and Minoan pottery are produced.  Metal craftsmanship is mostly rudimentary, but new iron working technology is adopted, perhaps from Cyprus.
c.1052 CUMAE, Italy founded by Ionian Greeks. 1052 CWH     1050 DGRG 1-716 1030 GHH
c.1050 BONONIA (Bologna), Italy occupied by Villanovans until 510. 1050 OCD 172
c.1050 Λ CREMATION becomes common at Athens. 1050 GRG 36
c.1050 Greek pottery quality begins improvement. 1050 B76 VIII-253
c.1050 Athamania is divided into 4 territories, Heracleia, Argithea, Tetraphylia, and Chalkis. 1050 wikAθm
c.1050 MYCENEANS of Attica and Arcadia begin Ionian migration to Anatolia. 1050 OCD 140
c.1048 Son of Kodros, MEDON ends.  Life term archon of Athens from 1068.  ACASTOS succeeds until 1012. 1048 rcSB3, wikEA 1025 GHH
c.1045 ATTICA overrun by Dorians. 1045 GHH
c.1035 Proto-geometric pottery decoration begins in Athens until 900. 1050-25 GRG
c.1035 ALETES, Heracleid king of Corinth from 1073, ends.  IXION succeeds until 997. 1035 wikHer 1034 GHH
c.1027 AENEAS-II ends.  King of Latium at Alba Longa from 1078.  LATINUS-II succeeds and ends.  ALBA succeeds until 988. 1027 rcRm
c.1024 Echastratos and Eurypion are kings of Sparta. 1024 GHH
c.1012 ACASTOS ends.  Life term archon of Athens from 1048, ends.  ARCHIPPOS succeeds until 993. 1012 rcSB3, wikEA

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