website source links
ae     bk     frM    ktut     lveg     nar
phou     pic     resh     scar     tig
treg     wik20     wik19     wikP
Egypt Middle Kingdom Go to Mediterranean Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Africa Go to North Africa
c. 2040 FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD ends.  Began 2181.
10th DYNASTY ends.  At Heracleopolis 2130, it is conquered by MENTUHOTEP-I, rebel king at Thebes from 2060, thus becoming MENTUHOTEP-II of Egypt until 2010.
2052 Sdl 1-23
2040 BHoE,
B76 6-469, MCAW, FHBC 208, GEoP, Grim
c. 2040 MIDDLE KINGDOM begins until 1786.
11th DYNASTY begins as pharaohs until 1991.
EGYPT, divided from 2160, reunited until 1750.   Capital: THEBES until 1990.
2160 BHoE 598     2133 CAH 1.2
2050 SHWC 14     2040 B76 6-469, FHBC 213, Grim, PW 14, TAWH 58, WCBOT     2025 Sdl 1-23     2000 RAH, SOTS 25     1991 LEWH 38     1989 FLAP 81
c.2026 Rebellion at THINIS. yr 14 Shaw 134, 139
Mentuhotep-2 tomb reconstruction
Mentuhotep-2 tomb
Photo by Olaf Tausch
c. 2010 MENTUHOTEP-II dies.   King of Thebes from 2060, Pharaoh of Egypt from 2040.  His tomb in the cliff at Deir el-Bahri on the west bank of Thebes may not have had a pyramid, as in the reconstruction on the left.   MENTUHOTEP-III succeeds to 1998. 2014 DMoN     2010 MCAW 19, MRDK, ae, ktut, pic, resh, wikP     2009 Grim     2004 Shaw, treg
1999 nar     1998 Clay, scar, tig
1995 wikM2     1992 phou
c.2000 Rulers are entombed on edge of desert near the pyramids. ?
c.2000 BRONZE, common in the Mid East, only now becomes common in Egypt. 2000 SHT 1-588
c.2000 Polished stone axheads mostly superceded by bronze. 2000 SHT 1-503
c.2000 KAHUN in the Fayum founded in an area already containing tombs.  Its layout shows a workmens area in the west with very small houses, notables in the north with big houses of several hundred rooms, courts, and corridors, the market in the east, and probably a temple area in the center.  Mud-brick town walls have been found on 3 of its 4 sides. 2000 B76 18-1066
no date: wikEL
c.2000 DYEING of linen and leather is an individual craft and temple industry.  Urine is used to dissolve the dye. 2000 SHT 1-248-9
c.2000 OIL LAMPS begin in Egypt, using castor oil at first.   (See Europe 2000, Crete 1500) 4000 epld
1300 EOET 133
c.2000 shadufSHADUF V - a long pole balanced on a pivot with a bucket on one end and a counter-weight on the other - used to lift water in Egypt and Mesopotamia. drawing {{PD-US}}

2000 TTT, wikSdf
1700 rgnms
1500 B76 11-232
c.2000 BALANCE SCALE V used in Egypt and Mesopotamia. 2000 TTT
c.2000 BEER V, in Egypt from ?, has laws governing manufacture, sale and consumption.
(See Gilgamish 2000)
2000 prtmt
c.2000 DATE-WINE is the most popular liquor.  Juice is pressed from soaked dates, and fermented by the wild yeast in the date skins. 2000 SHT 1-276
c.2000 DRILL turned by a bow is used to make holes in stone. 2000 TTT
c.2000 TOOTHPASTE made of pumice powder and wine vinegar. 2000 EOET 210
c.2000 CONTRACEPTIVES V (honey & crocodile dung) introduced. 2000 TTS, TTT
c.2000 Pointed BATTERING RAM operated from a portable hut covered with reeds and hides. 2000 CWH, TTT
c.2000 DOGS bred into diverse forms. 2000 CWH
c.2000 Egyptians abandon effort to domesticate antelope, gazelle, & oryx.   Devote more time to hunting, fishing, gathering to supplement cultivated crops. 2000 TTPC-5
c.2000 Oldest Egyptian SHOE V is a sandal made of braded papyrus found in a tomb. 2000 EOET 294, TTT
c.2000 Earliest known textiles are linen mummy wrappings.  Dyes include blue from indigo or woad leaves which contain indigo.  Safflower is used for yellow and red. 2000
B76 5-1099
c.2000 Solid WHEEL V carts and wagons appear in Egypt.
(See Europe, Asia, Crete, Syria, also in 2000, and Anatolia 1800)
1650 MCAW 25
1600 B76 5-970, SHT 211
c.2000 SPOKED WHEELS (4 spokes until 1300) appear in Egypt, Aram, Asia, and Mesopotamia.   (See Europe 1500, Crete 1500) 2000 B76 X-643     1600 TTT
soon after 1600 SHT 1-212
c.2000 Tomb (TT60) of Antefoker (Intefiqer), Vizir of Senusret-I, has pictures of a clay oven with a grate on which is a tray for food. 2000 SHT 1-273
no date: wikTT60
c.2000 SAFFLOWER seeds stored in Theban tombs. 2000 SHT 1-246
c.2000 TATTOO practiced by Egyptians, evidenced on mummies. 2000 B76 IX-841
c.2000 Prisse Papyrus  Prisse Papyrus contains earliest complete text of  Maxims of Ptahhotep . photo {{PD-US}}

2000 CHJ 2-491
no date: wikPP
Dental implants
pub dom
DENTISTRY:  2 front jaw teeth joined together and attached to natural teeth by gold wires.  Surgery was performed in the mouth of the living person; not after death.  Mummy skull found at Giza.
2000 AEDA, fbHF, blgsp
c. 2000 Nubian archersNubian archers, probably mercenaries under Prince Mesehti of Syut (later Asyut, Assiut) in whose rock-cut tomb this painted wood model was found.  Syut is capital of the 13th Nome.  (Now in Cairo Museum). photo
pub dom

2000 wikNA
c.1998 MENTUHOTEP-III ends.  2nd pharaoh of 11th (Theban) Dyn from 2010, ends.  His burial place is disputed.   MENTUHOTEP-IV succeeds 1997-91. 2001 DMoN     1998 MRDK 286, ae, ktut, lveg, pic, resh, swar, wikP     1992 Shaw, treg     1991 Clay, scar, tig
1987 nar     1985 phou
c.1997 MENTUHOTEP-IV, 3rd Pharaoh of 11th (Theban) Dyn 1997-91, consolidates southern commerce under control of chief treasurer, Henu, with title: "keeper of the door of the south". no date: BHoE 153, 182
c.1996 AMENEMHET, vizir and governor of south for Mentuhotep-IV, secures route to quaries of Wadi Hammamat, between Coptos and Red Sea, to get stone for king's sarcophagus, establishes 15 watering stations from Coptos to Red Sea, trades by ship with PUNT (unknown location to southeast). yr 2 DMoN
no date: BCoC 153, 182
c.1991 MENTUHOTEP-IV ends.  3rd Pharaoh of 11th (Theban) Dyn from 1998.  Burial place unknown.  Vizir AMENEMHET-I succeeds to 1962. 1994 DMoN     1991 B76 6-469, FHBC 209, Grim, JIAE, MCAW 20, MRDK, WCBOT 31, WPOT 84, ae, bk, ktut, lveg, pic, resh, swar, wikP     1989 FLAP 126
1987 treg     1985 Shaw     1983 nar
c.1991 11th DYNASTY ends.   At Thebes from 2060 as a dynasty,
from 2040, as pharaohs.
1994 DMoN     1991 AYGC 61, B76 6-469, CAH 1.2, Clay, FHBC 209, GEoP, Grim, lveg, MRDK 286, WCBOT 31, WPOT 84, ae, ktut, pic, resh, swar, tig, wikP     1989 FLAP 126    1987 treg
1985 Shaw, phou     1983 nar
12th DYNASTY begins at Itj Towy until 1786.
c.1990 CAPITAL of Egypt, at Thebes from 2040, moved by Amenemhet-I to newly built ITJ TOWY until 1786. 1990 PW 14
no date: TAWH 58, ae
c.1990 KHNUMHOTEP made count of Menet-Khufu by Amenemhet-I until 1980. no date: BHoE 161-2
c.1985 AMENEMHET-I, 1st pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1991-62, with 20 cedar ships, fights unknown enemy on Nile.   Drives them from Egypt. no date: BHoE 154
c.1980 KHNUMHOTEP, count of Menet-Khufu from 1990, promoted to Nomarch of Oryx by Amenemhet-I until 1950. no date: BHoE 162, 180
c.1974 AMENEMHET-I, 1st pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1991-61, suffers assassination attempt. no date: BHoE 177
c.1971 AMENEMHET-I, 1st pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1991-62, makes son SENUSRET-I co-regent. 1974 DMoN     1971 Clay, GEoP, JIAE, MCAW 20, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, ae, bk, frM, ktut, pic, scar, tig, wikP     1963 nar
c.1970 AMENEMHET-I:  "I grew corn.  I loved Neper the grain god.  In every valley the Nile greeted me.  None hungered.  None thirsted during my reign." 2000 SHT 1-537
c.1968 AMENEMHET-I makes 1st recorded 12th Dyn campaign into Nubia. yr 23 1968 Grim 161
c.1962 SENUSRET, son of pharaoh Amenemhet-I, penetrates WAWAT as far as Korosko, for conquest and colonization, but mostly for raw materials, especially gold.  He takes prisoners as far as Mazol land and founds fortresses at Semna and Quban at 2nd Cataract. Amen yr 29 BHoE 178, Grim 161, Shaw 148, nar, treg
Amenemhet-I tomb
AMENEMHET-I murdered.  1st pharaoh of 12th Dyn from 1991, murdered by nobles while son, Senusret is fighting in Libya.  Entombed in a pyramid at Lisht made of limestone blocks taken from Old-Kingdom monuments.
photo Jon Bodsworth

1964 DMoN     1962 AYGC 62, B76 17-933, MCAW 20, Clay, Grim, FHBC 209, GEoP, lveg, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, WCBOT, ae, frM, ktut, pic, resh, scar, tig, treg, wikP
1956 Shaw, phou     1953 nar
c.1962 SENUSRET, son of Amenemhet-I, in Libya, learns of father's murder, tells no one. 1970 BHoE 179
1964 DMoN 58
c.1962 SINUHE, noble under Senusret in Libya, overhears conversation about murder of Amenemhet-I by tent of Senusret.  Fears implication.  Flees. V 1970 BHoE 179
1964 DMoN 58
c.1962 SENUSRET, son of Amenemhet-I, in Libya, departs by night to residence at Itjtowe, assumes throne.  SENUSRET-I begins until 1928. 1970 BHoE 179     1964 DMoN
1962 Grim, MCAW 20, MRDK 286, resh
c.1959 SENUSRET-I rebuilds temple of Atum-Ra at Heliopolis. yr 3 1959 Grim 164
c.1958 SENUSRET-I, 2nd pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1962-28, resumes conquest of NUBIA in person.  1st campaign ever personally led by a pharaoh.  Penetrates beyond 2nd cataract, occupies as far as Buhen. 8 yrs after A-1 dies: BHoE 181
no date: DMoN
AMENI, son of Khnumhotep, under Senusret, commands Oryx soldiers.
Asiatic caravan
photo by NebMaatRa     Caravan of "Asiatics" portrayed in tomb of Khnumhotep-II
c.1955 KHNUMHOTEP-II (or III, not a pharaoh), nomark of Oryx from 1980, dies.  37 Aramo-Canaanites are portrayed on his tomb (#3 of the 39 tombs at Beni Hasan). 2000 WCBOT 20
Senusret-II yr 6 wikBeniHasan
1900 wikHk     1892 wljv
1890 Jud 6-480
early 12th dyn: wikBH
no date: BHoE 162, 180
Sons promoted by Senusret:   NAKHT made count of Menet Khufu.  AMENI made nomarch of Oryx.
c.1955 LOOM V portrayed in Assyrian and Egyptian murals in tomb of Khnumhotep-II. 2000 TTT
c.1953 MENTUHOTEP, general under Senusret-I in Nubia, dispatched south. 1953 BHoE 181
yr 10 Shaw 149
c.1950 Λ SINUHE, Egyptian fugitive, goes to Aram. 1950 MCAW 21
c.1950 NUBIA, independent from ?, conquered by general Mentuhotep.  Under Egypt until 1913. 1950 TTPC
no date: BHoE 17, 166, 181
General MENTUHOTEP erects so many boastful monuments that Senusret gets nervous and dismisses him.
One large stele north of 2nd cataract now extant.
c.1950  Sinuhe Autobiography  describes travels thru Aram etc. and penitential return to Pharaoh Senusret-I.   Shows that pharaoh is regarded as a god. 1950 MCAW 21
c.1950 POTTER'S WHEEL V, in Uruk from 2000:  Evidence of pivoted disks appears in Egypt.  Foot wheels also in Greece, and Crete. 2000 SHT 1-203 1950 MCAW 21 1800 SHT 1-200
c.1949 AMENI, nomarch of Oryx 1950-?, with prince Amenemhet + 400 men, dispatched to consolidate NUBIA and mine gold. no date: BHoE 181
c.1932 SENUSRET-I erects 2 obelisks (each weighing 121 tons) in front of temple pylon at Heliopolis.  1 still stands. yr 30 Clay 81, Grim 164
1932 Grim 164
c.1931 SENUSRET-I sends 2 expeditions to alabaster quarries at HATNUB in eastern desert. yr 31 1931 Grim 165
c.1929 SENUSRET-I, 2nd pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1962-28, makes son AMENEMHET-II co-regent. 1932 DMoN     1929 Clay, GEoP, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, ae, frM, ktut, pic, scar, tig, wikP     1928 Grim
3 yrs before death: BHoE 182
c. 1928 Senusret-I tomb SENUSRET-I dies.  2nd pharaoh of 12th Dyn at Itj Towy from 1962.  Entombed in a pyramid at Lisht.
Son AMENEMHET-II sole rule until 1895.
photo Jon Bodsworth

1935 BHoE 182     1929 DMoN
1928 FHBC 209, GEoP, Grim, FHBC 209, JIAE, lveg, MCAW 20, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, WCBOT, frM, pic
1926 Clay, ae, bk, ktut, scar, tig, wikP
1916 nar     1911 Shaw, phou, treg
c.1913 NUBIA, under Egypt from 1950, goes independent until 1903.  War with Egypt until 1903. 1913 wik20
c.1903 EGYPT / NUBIA war from 1913, ends.  Nubia under Egypt until 1829. 1903 wik20
c.1900 AMENEMHET-II, 3rd pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1928-1895, resumes trade with PUNT (unknown location to southeast). yr 28 Clay 82
no date: BHoE 182
c.1900 CANAANITES arriving with pack-assess carrying tribute and children depicted at tombs at Beni-Hasan. 1900 SHT 1-706
c.1900 PLOW drawn by two oxen depicted at tombs at Beni-Hasan. 1900 SHT 1-73
c.1900 A GREYHOUND and a mongrel dog depicted at tombs at Beni-Hasan. 1900 SHT 1-330-31
c.1900 INCENSE V BURNER depicted at tombs at Beni-Hasan. 1900 SHT 1-298
c.1900 DRIED FOODS:  A tomb painting portrays making and storing rasins.  Another shows ox meat being hung up to dry.  Another - gutted fish hung on a boat mast.  Netting and curing of sea fish and fowl is shown at Sakkara and Beni-Hasan. 1900 SHT 1-263-5
c.1900 RaRA, dominant god in Egypt from 2490, at apex during 12th Dyn, becomes so dominant that priests of other gods discover that their own local deity is really RA by a different form or name. photo: Jeff Dahl

no date: BHoE 170, wikRa
c.1900  Execration Texts  written in Egyptian hieratic:  Names of potential enemies of the Pharaoh inscribed on vases include 30 Aramo-Canaanite names.  Texts are written on statuettes of bound foreigners, bowls, or blocks of clay or stone, which are subsequently destroyed in effigy.  Over 1,000 deposits found, in sites at Semna, Uronarti, Mirgissa, Elephantine, Thebes, Balat, Abydos, Helwan, Saqqara, and Giza.  Evidenced also in Canaan. 1925-1875 WBANE 55
1850 IDB 1-252, 4-303
1800 IDB 1-328
no date: wikET
c.1897 AMENEMHET-II, 3rd pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1928-1895 at Itj Towy, makes son SENUSRET-II co-regent. 1900 DNoN     1897 Clay, GEoP, JIAE, MCAW 20, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, ae, frM, ktut, lveg, pic, scar, tig, wikP
1895 Grim     1877 Shaw, phou, treg
3 yrs before death: BHoE 182
c. 1895 Amenemhet-2 tomb plan AMENEMHET-II murdered.  3rd pharaoh of 12th Dyn from 1928, murdered by guard.  Entombed in a white limestone pyramid at Dahshur, where stone thieves will steal its casing, leaving the sandstone to erode to shallow humps.   Son SENUSRET-II sole rule until 1878. photo Franck Monnier

1903 BHoE 182     1897 MCAW 20, wik19     1896 DMoN
1895 Clay, FHBC 209, GEoP, JIAE, lveg, MCAW, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, WCBOT, frM, ktut, pic, scar, tig, wikP     1877 Shaw, phou, treg     1885 nar
c.1890 FAYUM depression converted to farmland under Senusret-II. 1842-36 4nel
c.1878 SENUSRET-II, 4th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1895-78, makes son SENUSRET-III co-regent. 1881 DMoN
1878 B76 6-470, Clay, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, MCAW 20, MRDK, Murn, ae, frM, ktut, pic, resh, tig, scar, wikP
c.1878 SENUSRET-II dies.  4th pharaoh of 12th Dyn at Itj Towy from 1895.  Entombed in a burial chamber at Al Lahun.
Son SENUSRET-III sole rule until 1843.
1880 DMoN     1879 frM
1878 Clay, FHBC 209, JIAE, MRDK, Murn, Sdl 1-24, bk, lveg, wik19
1877 MCAW 23, GEoP, RAI2
1870 Shaw, treg, phou
c.1872 Confirmed as 7th year of SENUSRET-III by three records of helical risings of Sirius between 2770 and 1314. 1872 B76 6-462
c.1869 SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1877-43, prepares for consolidation of south by reopening canals cut in 2307.   Clears out channel at 1st cataract. yr 8 Clay 85, DMoN 60, BHoE 183-4 1850 MCAW 21
no date: BHoE 183-4
c.1869 A stele at Semna forbids Nubians to take boats or herds north of that location. yr 8 BHoE 184, DMoN 61, Shaw 155
c.1869 SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1877-43, sails war ships into NUBIA.
Sets up forts, Semna & Kummeh south of 2nd cataract as his southern border.
Puts temple to Dedwen, god of Nubia, in fortress Semna.
yr 8 BHoE 184, DMoN 60, Grim 168
c.1867 SENUSRET-III, minor Nubian campaign. yr 10 DMoN 61, Grim 168
c.1861 SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1877-43, extensive campaign against NUBIA.  Sets up victory stele at Semna. yr 16 BHoE 186, DMoN 61, Grim 168
c.1858 SENUSRET-III personally leads campaign against NUBIA.  Burns crops, takes cattle. yr 19 BHoE 186, DNoN 61,
Shaw 155
c. 1858/7 SENUSRET-III, having built a pyramid complex at Dahshur, now begins an elaborate subterranean tomb complex at Abydos, possibly because of his loyalty to the cult of Osiris. yr 20 or 19 eulr
c.1850 SENUSRET-III, 5th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1877-43, invades RETENU (Egyptian name for Levant) (a first for any pharaoh) to a place called Sekmem (Shechem?).  Plunders and returns. 1850 MCAW 20
1818 Wiki
no date: BHoE 187
c. 1850

c. 1850
Moscow Papyrus MATH V Moscow Mathematical Papyrus : 15' x 3", contains 25 math problems which were already old at this time.  Contains practical approximations for measuring, rather than actual mathematical knowledge.  Approximates the surface area of a hemispherical basket.  Computes the length of a ship's mast given that it is 1/3 + 1/5 of the length of a cedar log originally 30 cubits long.  Pi is approximated at 256/81, which is about 0.5% low.   (See Mesopotamia 2000) photo: {{PD-US}}

2000 BHM 19, EIHM 39, wikMMP
1900 B76 11-640
1850 IDB 3-561, lsned
1800 ldkn
1750-01 TTS
c.1850 ASTRONOMICAL V  INSTRUMENT:  oldest extant, combination plumb line and sighting rod.
Presently in Berlin museum.
1850 EIHM 39
c.1850 GOLDEN RULE V prototype attested in  The Eloquent Peasant .  "Do to the doer to make him do" 2040-1550 wikGR
c.1843 SENUSRET-III dies.  5th pharaoh of 12th Dyn from 1877 at Itj Towy.  Though he had built a pyramid complex at Dahshur, he is entombed in his more recent subterranean tomb complex at Abydos.
1st son AMENEMHET-III succeeds 1842-1797.
1843 BHoE, MCAW 20, GEoP, JIAE, MRDK, RAI2, WCBOT, frM
1842 FHBC 209, Grim, lveg, pic
1841 Clay, Murn, Sdl 1-24, ae, resh, scar, tig     1840 DMoN, bk, nar
1839 ktut, wik19     1831 Shaw, phou
1817 treg
c.1842 AMENEMHET-III, 6th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1842-1797, exploits copper and turquois of Sinai from now to the end of his reign.
(For copper, see Canaan 2000, Britain 1950, Sumerian cubit 1950, Asia 1800, Ganges Valley 1800, Sinai 1750)
1842 MCAW 21
yr 2 Clay 88
c.1840 PULLEY first evidenced in 12th dynasty Egypt. 1991-1802 wikPly
c.1829 NUBIA, under Egypt from 1903, at war until 1818. 1829 wik19
c.1820 AMENEMHET-III, 6th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1842-1797, creates (or improves) artificial lake of MOERIS in the Fayum, helping to control Nile flooding. 1820 MCAW 21
c.1820 Vast irrigation system created by AMENEMHET-III. no date: TTPC 6
c.1818 EGYPT / NUBIA war from 1829 ends. 1818 wik19
c.1800 HYKSOS, Semites of unknown origin (possibly Amalekites), enter Egypt during 11th Dynasty, but remain obscure until ?. c.1750 1800 wikHk 1750
c.1800 Pyramid of Ahmose Berlin Papyrus:   written in hieratic by a Middle Kingdom scribe.

Λ MATH V:  Discusses fractions.  Contains 2 problems in simultaneous equations, one of which is 2nd degree:
1. You are told the area of a square of 100 square cubits is equal to that of 2 smaller squares, the side of one square is ½ + ¼ of the other.  What are the sides of the 2 unknown squares.
2. You are told the area of a square of 400 square cubits is equal to that of 2 smaller squares, the side of one square is ½ + ¼ of the other.  What are the sides of the 2 unknown squares.
(See Plimpton 1800, multiplication 1775)

ANATOMY V:  Also has a pregnancy test.

Found at Saqqara.
art {{PD-US}}

1800 mthbf, plnmth
c.1800 Kahun papyrus Kahun Gynecological Papyrus :  Oldest known MEDICAL V text on papyrus.  35 paragraphs relating to women's health, fertility, pregnancy, and Λ contraception.  Each deals with a specific problem and contains diagnosis and treatment.  No prognosis is suggested.  Treatments are non surgical:  applying medicines to the affected body part or swallowing them.  Womb is at times seen as the source of complaints manifesting themselves in other body parts.
(See 1975 physicians, physicians)
photo {{PD-US}}

1800 hstnf, wikEMP 18-1700 rfil
c.1800 ALPHABET:  1st pure alphabets mapping single symbols to single phonemes, but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol developed by Semitic workers in Egypt.   (See Arabia 2000, Mesopotamia 2000, Crete-Hyro 1900, Linear-A 1650) 1800 wikHW
c.1798 AMENEMHET-III, 6th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1842-1797, completes reservoir at Sarbut el-Khadem in Sinai, and wall at El Kab. yr 44
BHoE 208
c.1798 AMENEMHET-III, 6th pharaoh of 12th Dyn 1842-1797, makes AMENEMHET-IV co-regent. 1815 ktut, wikP       1799 ae, tig
1798 Clay, DMoN, GEoP, JIAE, lveg, MRDK, Murn, RAI2, frM, scar
Amenemhet-III pyramid at Dahshur Pyramid at Dahshur
photo by Jon Bodsworth
Pyramid at Hawara
pub dom
Amenemhet-III pyramid at Hawara
c.1797 AMENEMHET-III dies.  6th pharaoh of 12th Dyn from 1842.  Though he had started a pyramid on unstable subsoil at Dahshur, he is entombed in his 2nd pyramid at Hawara, made of sun dried bricks covered with limestone which will all be stolen by Roman times.  Middle Kingdom begins decline when lowly AMENEMHET-IV begins sole rule until 1790. 1815 wikP     1814 ktut
1799 bk     1797 MCAW 24, Clay, DMoN, FHBC 209, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, lveg, Murn, RAI2, WCBOT, ae, frM, scar, tig     1796 resh     1794 pic     1793 nar
1786 Shaw, phou     1772 treg
c.1790 AMENEMHET-IV dies.  7th pharaoh of 12th Dyn from 1797, leaves no male heir.  Entombed in an unfinished tomb at Beni Hassan.   Dau of Amenemhet-III, SEBEKNEFRU is Queen 1789-86. 1807 wikP     1806 ktut, wikAm4
1790 MCAW 24, FHBC 209, GEoP, Grim, JIAE, WCBOT, resh
1789 lveg     1788 pic     1787 ae
1786 Clay, Murn, scar, tig
1785 DMoN     1782 nar
1777 Shaw, phou    1763 treg
c.1786 SEBEKNEFRU ends.  Queen of 12th Dyn from 1790.  Probably married a pharaoh of 13th Dyn, who is not recognized in Thebes. 1803 wikP     1802 ktut     1786 GEoP, JIAE, lveg, MRDK, RAI2, WCBOT, resh 1784 pic    1783 ae     1782 Clay, Murn, scar, tig     1781 DMoN     1778 nar
1773 Shaw, phou     1759 treg
c. 1786 12th Dynasty ends.  Began 1991.   Vizir preserves continuity of power.
MIDDLE KINGDOM ends.  Began 2040.   (Some sources end it after the 13th Dynasty.)
1792 IDB 2-667, phou
1788 BHoE 17
1786 B76 6-469, 11-896, CAH 1.2, CWH, lveg, MCAW 24, WCBOT, WPOT 86     1785 FHBC 209, 213, RAH
1783 PW 14
1780 SOTS 25
1778 Sdl 1-23
1776 FLAP 81 1750 SHWC 14
13th Dynasty begins in Memphis until 1674, ends 1650.
Rival 14th Dynasty begins at Xois (aka Sais) until 1650.  About 76 unrelated kings.
Capital of Egypt, at  ITJ TOWY from 1990, moved to MEMPHIS until 1674.