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Hittite territory Go to Europe Go to Asia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS enter Anatolia from Asia between Black Sea & Caspian Sea.  They speak Hittite languages. pre-2000 PAE 79, 81
2000 WNHI 24
1800 SHWC 23
by 1800 MCAW 20
c.2000 INDO-EUROPEANS, now thruout Europe & Anatolia, having uniform culture in 3000, begin having CULTURAL DIVERSITY:  Illyrian, Dacian, Thracian, Armenian, Phrygian, Mysian, Greek. 2000
B76 2-614
c.2000 Evidence of destruction and burning in 300 sites. 2000 PAE 78
c.2000 BRONZE making begins at Troy using ores from central Europe. 2000 B76 11-1061
c.2000 Treasure found at the earliest levels of Troy is not likely to be later than 2000. 2000 B76 11-1101
c.2000 HEATING V:  At Troy, hearths are put in the center of the main room of houses. 2000 tand
c.2000 Crude LENSES appear in Anatolia and Crete. 2000 B76 18-97
c.1950 ANATOLIA, under the HATTI from ?, invaded by HITTITES from either Europe or east of the Black Sea.
HORSES and pull chariots introduced.
THEOLOGY VHittites have the same 4 primary gods V (Indara, Uruvna, Mitira, the Nasatiya) as the Aryans who later invade India.
pre-2000 TAWH 55
2000 CWH, WNHI 24, 27, TAWH 16
1950 HCIP 1-210
1900 LEWH 17, bk
1800 SHWC 23
1400 CMoG3 121, HCIP 1-224
c.1950 ASSYRIAN trading colonies in Cappadocia from 2950, terminated by the Hittites. 1950 HCIP 1-210
c.1950 ASSYRIAN trading colonies founded, one at KANES (later called Kultepe). 1950 PW 14, Sag1 68
soon after 2000 PAE 79
c.1950 ASSYRIAN trading colony in the Hittite capital.  Their business letters show caravans of pack-asses regularly crossing the Aramean steppes and Taurus Mountains. 2000
SHT 1-706
c.1900 TROY, unimportant villages from 2050, TROY-5 rises until 1800.   Horse skeletons suggest Indo-Europeans from north. 1900 MCAW 20
c.1900 TROY-4 destroyed by unknown causes, TROY-5 begins.  Roomier houses with corner seats and clay benches.  Brighter colored pottery which is more symmetrical. 1900 lvA 1800 rcT
c.1900 EQUIDS drawing vehicles with SPOKED WHEELS V, represented in Egypt, Asia, and northeast Persia from 2000, now appear in Cappadocia. 1950-1850 SHT 1-721
c.1900 HITTITES, in Anatolia from 1950, convene around HATTUSA. 1900 TAWH 54
c.1900 LANGUAGE V:  Oldest attested form of Indo-European language exists in Cappadocia. 1900 HCIP 1-210
c.1880 Standard Akkadian words for horse and chariot appear in central Anatolian business correspondence. 1900-1860 PAE 110
c.1845 HURMELI ends.  King of Kanes from ?.  HARPATIWA succeeds to 1831. 1845 hinf
c.1833 Kanes HARPATIWA overthrown.  King of Kanes from 1845, KANES is destroyed, taking the long-established Assyrian merchant trading system with it, probably by UHNA, king of Zalpa.  Statue of the god of Kanesh (Sius) is taken as a prize by Zalpa. photo Klaus-Peter Simon

1710-05 wikHt 1835 hifi
1833 wikHt
1831 hinf
c.1800 TROY-5 from 1900, destroyed by quake.  TROY-6 begins until 1300.  Has large citadel and shows signs of wealth.  During this period horses are introduced.  Area is terraced, making room for large stone houses on terraces. 1800 rcT     1700 lvA
c.1800 Solid WHEEL vehicles, in Asia, Europe, Crete, Syria, and Egypt from 2000, appear in central Anatolia.   (See China 1300) 1800
SHT 1-211
c.1790 KUSSARA, under the Hatti from ?, taken by Hittites. 1800-1780 hifi
c.1750 ANITTA, a Hittite prince, conquers many cities including Hattusa and Kanes, attacks Zalpa, recovers the city god of Kanes, captures Huzziya, king of Zalpa.  Anitta now controls entire valley of Kizil Irmak river to its mouth on Black Sea. 1750 MCAW 24, hifi
c.1750 HITTITES are now militarily dominant in Anatolia, but soon lose Zalpa. 1750 mxfld, hifi
c.1750 BEYCESULTAN, a Luvian city on Meander River, destroyed, possibly by Hittites. 1750 mxfld
c.1750 IRON V melted and forged in east Anatolia. 2000 wikIA     2000-1500 PW 120
2000-1700 SHT 1-598
1300 B76 11-1061
c.1745 PITHANA, king of Kussara from 17??, ends.  ANITTA succeeds until 1720. 1745 wikHt
c.1740 TUDHALIYA-I ascends as king of Hittites at Kussara until 1710. 1750 CWH
1740 RAI2, frN, hifi
1600 vrb
Capital at Kussara until 1650.
Lasts until 1500.
c.1720 ANITTA, a Hittite prince from 1745, ends.  ZUZZU succeeds until 1710. 1720 wikHt
c.1710 ZUZZU, a Hittite prince from 1720, ends.  1710 wikHt
c.1710 TUDHALIYA-I ends.  1st king of Old Hittite dynasty at Kussara from 1740.  Son PU-SARRUMA succeeds until 1680. 1710 MCAW 24, RAI2 192, RAI3, frN, hifi
c.1700 CUNEIFORM WRITING V is adopted thruout the Mid East for international communication.  Some use the Babylonian Λ LANGUAGE V, some adopt cuneiform signs to their own language.  Hittites do both.
(See Mesopotamia 1700, Levant 1700)  Signs can have 3 functions:  syllabograms, Akkadograms, or Sumerograms.  Syllabograms are characters that represent a syllable.  Akkadograms and Sumerograms are ideograms from earlier Akkadian or Sumerian orthography, but not intended to be pronounced as in the original language.  Sumerograms are mostly ideograms and determiners.
17th cen. wikHC 1700 MCAW 25
c.1700 HITTITE CUNEIFORM appears.  Directly adapted from Old Assyrian cuneiform.  375 cuneiform signs exist in known Hittite documents (11 of them only appearing in Hurrian and Hattic glosses), compared to some 600 signs in use in Old Assyrian. 17th cen. wikHC
c.1680 PU-SARRUMA ends.  2nd king of Old Hittite dynasty at Kussara from 1710.  Son LABARNA-I succeeds to 1651. 1680 MCAW 24, RAI2 192, frN, hifi, hinf
c.1670 ZALPA, city on Black Sea, conquered by LABARNA-I.  Under Hittites until ?. 1670 hifi
c.1651 LABARNA-I ends.  3rd king of Old Hittite dynasty at Kussara from 1680.  Son HATTUSILI-I succeeds 1650-20. 1651 RAI2, WPOT 204     1650 B76 IV-949, Bryce, MCAW 27, RAI2 192, RAI3, anan, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma     1586 wikHK
c.1650 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, begins expanding territory southward, attacks Sanawitta but fails to capture, destroys ZALBAR. 1650 MCAW 26, TAWH 55     yr 1 hinf
c.1650 KIZZUWATNA, kingdom of southeast Anatolia from ?, comes under Hittites until 1540. no date: hinf
Hattusa ruins with part of wall reconstructed           GNU FDL
c.1650 HATTUSILI-I, 4th king of Old Hittite dynasty at Kussara 1650-21, rebuilds HATTUSA (under Hittites from 1750), with 30 foot high wall 4 miles circumference. 1700 bk
1650 MCAW 26, TAWH 16
by 1600 SHWC 23
c.1650 HITTITE CAPITAL:  at KUSSARA from 1740, moved to HATTUSA until 1390.  Kussara has never been located. 1650 PW 14, WPOT 199
c. 1650
Apa swords
photo: Dbachmann
APA type SWORDS appear in Black Sea and Aegean areas as a further development of the dagger.  Previous swords were usually 60-80cm long.  Apa swords reach over 100cm.  Technology to produce blades this long developed using alloys of copper and tin or arsenic c.1700. 
17-1600 wikBAS
c.1648 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, invades Aram. yr 2 hinf
c.1648 ALALAKH, ruled by Ammitaqu, who was vassal to Hammurapi of Halap, attacked & destroyed by HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20. yr 2 hinf
c.1648 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, besieges URSU (Warsuwa) and captures it, attacks IKAKALI, then TASHINIYA. yr 2 hinf
c.1647 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, attacks ARZAWA, but doesn't take any cities. yr 3 hinf
no date: hifi
c.1647 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1725, 1st recorded invasion of Anatolia, capture everything up to Hattusa.  HATTUSILI-I counterattacks, and drives them back out of Anatolia. yr 3 hinf
1635 WPOT 223
c.1646 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, attacks Sanahut north of Hattusa, destroys it, defeats chariots of Abbaya, marches against the leader of an anti-Hittite coalition, Parmanna, which opens its gates him.  Then he destroys Alahha (location unknown). yr 4 hinf
c.1645 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, attacks Hurrians.  Destroys Zaruna, fights a Hurrian army from ISHUWA (Hassu), defeats the combined armies of Yamhad (later called Halap) and Hassu in the Adalur Mountains (in the Amanus range).  He then crosses the Euphrates (first Hittite king to do so) and destroys ISHUWA (Hassu), destroys Tawanaga, cuts off its king's head, then destroys Zippasna.  He then fights three battles with Hahhu before taking it, then returns to Hattusa. yr 5 hinf
1630s hifi
c.1635 At some point, ARZAWA and WILUSA are subjugated by HATTUSILI-I.  ARZAWA under Hittites until 1540. no date: hinf
c.1630 WILUSA, under Hattusili-I from 1635, breaks free, but remains on friendly terms with Hittites. no date: hinf
c.1625 HATTUSILI-I, king of Hittites 1650-20, holds assembly of nobles, adopts grandson MURSILI as heir in place of unsuitable nephew. 1625 MCAW 27
no date: hinf
c.1620 HATTUSILI-I dies.  4th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1650.   Grandson & adopted son MURSILI-I succeeds 1620-1590. 1621 RAI2     1620 B76 IV-949, VII-117, Bryce, MCAW 27, RAI3, WPOT 204, anan, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma     1560 Sag 1556 wikHK     1540 Sdl 1-96
c.1600 MURSILI-I, king of Hittites 1620-1590, invades Aram , takes YAMHAD (later called Halap). 1620-00 MCAW 26
1600 SOTS 89     no date: Sag 74
c.1600 HURRIANS, in north Aram from 1725, settle also in coastal plain of Kizzuwatna. 1600 Wiki, hifi
c.1595 MURSILI-I, king of Hittites 1620-1590, invades Aram, encounters and fights Hurrians, destroys Halap & Alalakh, continues down Euphrates. 1600 SOTS 89
1595 B76 17-935, Sag1 74, hifi
c.1595 MURSILI-I, king of Hittites 1620-1590, takes BABYLON and burns it. 1650 bk     1595 Sag1 74, hifi, hinf
1590 Brit     1531 vrb, wikHK
c.1595 MURSILI-I, king of Hittites 1620-1590, returning from Babylon with loot, attacked by Hurrians. 1595 hinf
c.1590 MURSILI-I murdered.  5th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1620, murdered in Hattusa by bro-in-law Hantili.  HANTILI-I succeeds until 1560.   Insurrections and loss of territory follow. 1590 B76 VII-117, Bryce, MCAW 28, RAI2 208, RAI3, anan, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma
1570 IDB Sup-412
1530 LEWH 49     1526 wikHK
1510 Sdl 1-96     no date: Sag 76
c.1561 PISENI, legitimate heir of Hantili-I, murdered along with his children by ZIDANTA. no date: hinf
c.1560 HANTILI-I murdered.  6th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1590.   Son-in-law ZIDANTA-I succeeds to 1550. 1560 Bryce, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, anan, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank
1540 IDB Sup-412     1496 wikHK
c.1550 ZIDANTA-I murdered.  7th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1560, murdered by son Ammuna.  AMMUNA succeeds to 1530. 1550 RAI2, RAI3, anan, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma     1486 wikHK
c.1540 ARZAWA, under Hittites from 1635, goes independent until 1444. during reign of Amuna: hinf
c.1540 PALA, under Hittites from ?, goes independent until ?. during reign of Amuna: hinf
c.1540 KIZZUWATNA, under Hittites from 1650, goes independent until 1470. during reign of Amuna: hinf
c.1530 AMMUNA dies.  8th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1550, dies.  Son HUZZIA succeeds to 1525. 1530 anan, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma     1466 wikHK
no date: Bryce, LEWH 49, RAI2, RAI3
c.1527 SCAMANDROS becomes king of the TEUCRI of Dardania north of Troy until 1503. 1527 hifi
c.1525 HUZZIA, king of Hittites 1530-25, tries to have sis ISTAPARIYA and her husband TELEPINU, killed. 1525 MCAW 28, RAI2, RAI3, anan, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma 1461 wikHK
c.1525 HUZZIA deposed.  9th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1530, deposed by bro-in-law Telepinu, and exiled with his 5 bros.   TELEPINU succeeds to 1500. 1525 B76 IX-872, MCAW 28, RAI2, RAI3, anan, 4nel, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma     1461 wikHK
c.1510  Treaty  made between TELEPINU and PARIYAWATRI, king of Kizzuwatna. 1525 MCAW 28
no date: hifi, hinf
c.1510 Λ CUNEIFORM writing is used by Hittites.  Hittite Λ LANGUAGE V is earliest documented Indo-European language.   (See Mycenean 1500Ugaritic 1500China 1500) 1500 TAWH 16, mxfld
c.1503 SCAMANDROS ends.  King of the TEUCRI of Dardania from 1527.  TEUCER succeeds until 1481. 1503 hifi
c.1500 HITTITE kingdom partly destroyed and occupied by Mitannians. 1500 vrb
c.1500 TELEPINU dies.  10th king of Old Hittite dynasty from 1525.  Son-in-law ALLUWAMNA succeeds until 1490. 1510 anan, 4nel
1500 B76 IX-872, Bryce, MCAW 32, RAI2, WPOT 205, frN, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma
OLD HITTITE DYNASTY ends.V   Began 1740.
c.1500 Λ IRON V SMELTING improved by Hittites and Mitannians. 1500 TTT     1300 mxfld
c.1500 TROY-6, destroyed from 1800, rebuilt as Troy level 7 until 1230.  This contradicts most data. 1500 BCoC 255
c.1490 ALLUWAMNA ends.  King of Hittites from 1500.  5 unimportant kings in uncertain order follow. 1500 anan     1490 frN
no date: RAI2, RAI3, hifi, hinf, hiwo, jrank, stma
Tahurwaili, Hantili-II, Zidanta-II, Huzziya-II, Mutawalli-I
c.1490 Hantili-II becomes king of Hittites until 1480. 1490 frN
c.1490  Treaty  made between Hittites and PADDATISU, king of Kizzuwatna. 1490 hifi
c.1481 TEUCER, king of the TEUCRI of Dardania from 1503, ends.   DARDANUS succeeds until 1450. 1481 hifi
c.1480 Mycenaean pottery reaches Ionia, including Miletus and Troy, also Cyprus, Lebanon, Palestine, and Egypt. early 15th cen. wikMG
c.1480 Hantili-II, king of Hittites from 1490, ends.  Zidanta-II succeeds until 1470. 1480 frN
c.1478  Treaty  made between ZIDANTA-II king of Hittites and PILLIYA, king of Kizzuwatna. 1480-75 hifi
c.1471  Treaty THUTMOSE-III, pharaoh 1504-1436 & unnamed Hittite king.   Hittites pay tribute in exchange for frontier adjustments.  Aram is now dominated by Thutmose-III until his death. 1471 B76 1-818, CAH 2.1-671
c.1470  Treaty  made between IDRIMI king of Alakhtum and PILLIYA, king of Kizzuwatna. 1470 hifi
c.1470 KIZZUWATNA, independent kingdom from 1540, under king Pillaya from ?, conquered by PARTATARNA, king of Mitanni 1480-55.   Becomes vassal of Mitanni until 1390. 1470 hifi
no date: hinf
c.1470 Zidanta-II ends.  king of Hittites from 1480, ends.  Huzziya-II succeeds until 1460. 1470 frN
c.1460 Huzziya-II ends.  King of Hittites from 1470. 1460 frN
c.1450 DARDANUS, king of the TEUCRI of Dardania from 1481, ends.   Son ILUS succeeds until 1375. 1450 hifi
c.1450 AHIYAWANS on Aegean coast of Anatolia are mentioned in Hittite texts, but remain unimportant.  Their main base or capital is Millawanda. 1450 hifi
c.1450 Myceneans settle in Miletos. 1450 wikMG
c.1450 NERIK, Hittite holy city now in ruins, taken over by Kashkans. no date: hifi
c. 1450 MUWATALLI murdered.  King of Hittites from ?, murdered by conspirators under Kantuzzili.  Muwa, chief of bodyguard, flees to Hurrians for help.  Kantuzzili joins forces with a man named Tudhaliya.  Conspirators defeat forces of Muwa and Hurrians.  Tudhaliya emerges on top. 1450 hifi 1282
B76 VII-117
no date: hinf
c. 1450 Λ 2nd HITTITE DYNASTY begins until 1190 at Hattusa. 1467 Tudhaliya-I: RAI2     1460 MCAW 32, Sag     1450 LEWH 49, RAI3, WPOT 205, hiwo, vrb
1430 Morb, stma     1420 hifi, hinf
1400 Bryce, Sdl 1-96     1390 jrank
TUDHALIYA-II ascends.  1st king until 1420.
The land we call Syria is abbreviated from Assyria because the name stuck after Assyria fell in 612.  It is arbitrarily called Aram here because the Torah calls it Aram even before the Arameans arrived.
c.1449 HALAP Aram, ally of Hurrians from ?, defects to Tudhaliya-II, but soon forced back under Hurrians. at Tud-2's ascension: hinf
c.1444 ARZAWA, independent kingdom in west Anatolia from 1540, conquered by Tudhaliya-II.  Under Hittites until 1410. no date: hinf
c.1444 While Tudhaliya-II is in the west, the KASHKANS invade Hatti. no date: hinf
c.1443 TUDHALIYA-II, king of Hittites, attacks KASHKA lands. 1430 hifi     no date: hinf
c.1442 ISHUWA (Hassu), in east Anatolia north of Mitanni , attacked by Tudhaliya-II, but not conquered.  It then sides with Mitanni. 1430 hifi
no date: hinf
c.1430 TUDHALIYA-II conducts third campaign against Kashkans, apparently unsuccessfully. 1430 hifi
c.1430 KIZZUWATNA, under Mitanni from 1470, conquered by Tudhaliya-II.  Under Hittites until ?. 1430 hifi     no date: hinf
Parts of hifi say he doesn't conquer.
c.1430 ALASHIYA (CYPRUS) conquered by Attarsiya, king of Ahiyawa.  Cypriot ruler Madduwatta flees to Hittite king Tudhaliya-II for help. 1430 hifi
no date: hinf
c.1430 MADDUWATTA, with Hittite help, drives the Ahiyawans out of Alyshiya (Cyprus), which comes under Hittites until 1380. no date: hifi, hinf
c.1430 MADDUWATTA is made a Hittite vassal in the land of Mt. Zippashla in west Anatolia. no date: hifi, hinf
c.1428 WASSUKANNI, city in Mitanni, conquered by Tudhaliya-II.  Annexed to Kizzuwatna until ?. 1370 bk
no date: hinf
c.1425 TUDHALIYA-II, king of Hittites, makes son, ARNUWANDA co-regent. no date: hinf
c.1420 TUDHALIYA-II ends.  1st king of 2nd Hittite Dyn from 1450.   Son-in-law ARNUWANDA-I succeeds to 1400. 1440 MCAW 35, Sag
1420 RAI3, hifi, hiwo     1400 hinf     1385 Sag     1370 jrank
c. 1418 KASHKANS take several lands from Arnuwanda-I:  Nerik, Hurshama, Kashtama, Sherisha, Himuwa, Taggashta, Kammama, Zalpuwa, Kapiruha, Hurna, Dankushna, Tapashawa, Tarukka, Ilaluha, Zihhana, Shipidduwa, Washhaya, and Patalliya. no date: hinf
c.1410 ARZAWA, under Hittites from 1444, goes independent until 1317. no date: hinf
c.1410 ALASHIYA (CYPRUS), under Hittites from 1390, attacked by Attarisiya of Ahiyawa. no date: hinf
c.1408 ALASHIYA, under Hittites and Attarisiya of Ahiyawa, taken by Madduwatta, a Hittite vassal in west Anatolia.  Arnuwanda-I demands it back.  Outcome unknown. no date: hinf
c.1405 SIDE, on coast of Tarhuntasa, founded.  Remains under barbarians until ?. 1405 OCD 986
c.1400 Λ LANGUAGE V:  Linguistic evidence proves Indo-Aryan speech forms older than the oldest known Avestan or Sanskrit exist in Cappadocia and Syria. 1400
HCIP 1-209
c.1400 BRONZE AGE in Anatolia from 3000, ends. 1400 SHT 1-595, TTPC
Λ IRON V AGE begins in Anatolia.
Iron is produced only in small quantities and only in the Armenian mountains.
(See Indus Valley 1300, Crete 1200, Levant 1200)
HCIP 1-209, bk
B76 11-1061
c.1400 STEELING of WROUGHT Λ IRON V achieved by Chalybes, a sub-tribe of Hittites:  Hittite kings gain monopoly on it until 1200. 1400 SHT 1-595, mxfld
c.1400 Hittite records mention military activities of an Ahiyawan warlord, Attarsiya, a possible Hittite way of writing the Greek name Atreus, who attacked Hittite vassals in western Anatolia. 1400 wikMG
c.1400 Λ SPOKED WHEELS (6 spokes) appear in Hittite and Aramean chariots.
(See Greece 1500, Egypt 1300, China 1300)
2000-1951 TTS
1400 SHT 1-213
c.1400 Invasions occur on all borders of Hittite Empire.
ARNUWANDA-I ends.  2nd king of 2nd Hittite Dyn from 1420.  Son TUDHALIYA-III succeeds to 1375.
1420 Sag     1410 RAI3, hiwo
1400 MCAW 36, hifi     1386 Morb     1385 hinf     1360 stma     1355 jrank
c.1400  Treaty  between Hittites and Mitanni lists 5 Vedic Λ gods: Indra, Varuna, Mitira, the 2 Ashvins. 1400 CMoG3 121, bk
c.1390 KASHKANS lose their grain to locusts, join Hayasa-Azzi, Ishuwa, and other Hittite enemies, and invade Hittite land. 1375 hifi
c.1390 Hittite fort MASHAT burnt by Kashkans. 1375 hifi     no date: hinf
c.1390 City of SAMUHA, under Hittites from ?, taken by Kashkans. 1375 hifi
c.1390 Λ HATTUSA, capital of Hittites from 1650, burnt by Kashkans.  Tudhaliya-III moves capital northeast to SAMUHA until 1312. 1375 hifi
no date: hinf
c.1385 TUDHALIYA-III, king of Hittites 1400-1375, and son SUPPILULIUMA campaign against unknown forces at Mt. Nanni. no date: hinf
c.1380 TUDHALIYA-III, king of Hittites, is sick. no date: hinf
c.1380 SUPPILULIUMA, son of Tud-III campaigns against Hayasans and Kashkans.  Hayasans refuse battle.  12 tribes of Kaskans unite under Piyapili.  Suppiluliuma defeats Kashkans. 1370 hifi
no date: hinf
c.1380 ARZAWA now controls all of western Anatolia and southern Anatolia as far east as the border of Kizzuwatna. no date: hinf
c.1379 Kashkans plunder town of Washhaniya. no date: hinf
c.1378 TUDHALIYA-III, king of Hittites 1400-1375, fights Kashkans. no date: hinf
c.1378 SUPPILULIUMA, son of Tud-III, campaigns against Arzawans who had encroached on western Hittite territory.  Suppiluliuma defeats Arzawans, but they are not pushed back far. no date: hinf
c.1375 ILUS, king of the TEUCRI of Dardania from 1450, dies childless.  TROS succeeds until 1315. 1375 hifi
c.1375 TUDHALIYA-III dies.  King of 2nd Hittite Dyn from 1400.  Son SUPPILULIUMA-I succeeds to 1322. 1385 Sag     1381 Morb     1380 Brit, MCAW, Sdl 1-96, SHWC 23, anan, bk, hinf, hiwo     1375 vrb     1370 hifi
1350 Bryce     1344 jrank, stma, wikHK
c.1374 TELEPINU, son of Suppiluliuma, appointed Priest of Kizzuwatna. soon after Sup's ascension: hinf
c.1374 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1375-22, invades Aram, attacks Halap (under Mitanni) unsuccessfully. soon after ascension: RAI3 257
c.1374 ALALAKH city state conquered by Suppiluliuma-I.  Dynasty deposed.  Comes under direct Hittite rule until ?. no date: hifi
c.1370 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1375-22, supports ARTATAMA, king of Hurrians, against his bro TUSHRATTA, king of Mitanni.  The campaign is unsuccessful. no date: Sag 81
c.1370 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1375-22, invades ARAM (now owned by Mitanni & Egypt).  Conquers from Mediterranean to Euphrates as far south as Lebanon.  Makes Hittite vassal states of AMURRU and EMAR.  Byblos & Kadesh remain loyal to Egypt. 1370 IDB 4-533, MCAW 36
1365 B76 17-935

Hittite tablet  Hittite Laws   200 laws written in Old, Middle, and Late Hittite, preserved cuneiform tablets found at Hattusa.  Formulated as case laws; they start with a condition, and a ruling follows.
  1. Aggression and assault: Clauses 1 - 24
  2. Marital relationships: Clauses 26 - 38
  3. Obligations and service - TUKUL: Clauses 39 - 56
  4. Assaults on property and theft: Clauses 57 - 144
  5. Contracts and prices: Clauses 145 - 161
  6. Sacral matters: Clauses 162 - 173
  7. Contracts and tariffs: Clauses 176 - 186
  8. Sexual relationships - HURKEL: Clauses 187 - 200
(See Eshnunna 1930, Lipit Ishtar 1870, Hammurabi 1790, Middle Assyrian 1100, Mosaic 1100, COMPARE)
photo: pub dom

1650-1100 wikHL
c.1370 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1375-22, conquers western MITANNI, some of it only until 1352. no date: hinf
c.1370 WASSUKANNI, city in Mitanni, plundered by Suppiluliuma-I. 1370 bk     no date: hinf
c.1370 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1375-22, crosses Euphrates near Malatya into Mitanni.  Plunders Washukkanni, capital of Mitanni, turns west, recrosses Euphrates near Carchemish, subdues Nuhashshe region south of Carchemish. 1370 IDB 4-533
no date: RAI3 258
c.1361 ARAMEAN CITIES (Halap, Alalakh, Qatna, Kadesh) now under or oppressed by Suppiluliuma-I, are instigated to rebel by Tushratta of Mitanni 1380-50. no date:
B76 17-936
c.1350 Λ IRON V:  1st certain use in quantity begins in Anatolia. 1400-1300 LEWH 15
c.1350 1st Mycenaean settlements founded on west coast while Hittites and Luwians of Arzawa still govern the territory. 1300s hifi
c.1350 TARHUNTASSA (either a region in south-central Anatolia or a city in it), formerly under Arzawa, comes under control of Suppiluliuma-I.  Under Hittites until 1240. 1350 hifi
c.1350 ISHUWA (Hassu) conquered by Suppiluliuma-I, under Hittites until ?. 1350 hifi
c.1340 CARCHEMISH, after 8 day siege, submits to Suppiluliuma-I.  Comes under Hittites until 1260. 1340 B76 1-818,
IDB 4-533, ISBE 1-616, MCAW 38
c.1340 Suppiluliuma-I puts his son, PIYASHILI in charge of the territory of ASHTATA which Piyashili rules from Carchemish until ?. 1340 B76 1-818, ISBE 1-616
no date: hifi
c.1340 SUPPILULIUMA-I, king of Hittites 1375-22, 2nd campaign into ARAM.  Crushes Aramean rebellion. 1360 B76 17-936
1340 IDB 4-533
c.1340 BYBLOS, ally of Egypt from ?, defects to Suppiluliuma-I. no date: B76 17-936
c.1340 DAMASCUS, under Egypt from ?, taken by Suppiluliuma-I, under Hittites until ?.  All Aram is now under Hittites until ?. no date:
B76 17-936
c.1325 ANKES-NAMUN, widow of Tutankhamun, sends 2 letters to Suppiluliuma-I, asking him to send a son to be her husband and pharaoh.  Suppiluliuma complies, but his son is killed by Horemheb. 1339 MCAW 38
c.1322 SUPPILULIUMA-I dies of plague.  Son of Tudhaliyas-III, king of 2nd Hittite Dyn from 1375.  Son ARNUWANDA-II succeeds to 1321. 1355 SHWC 23     1346 Brit, LEWH 49, Sdl 1-96, SOTS 90, TAWH 56, WPOT 205
1340 IDB 1-272, anan, hiwo     1336 B76 17-936, RAI3, hifi     1335 RAI2, Sag, vrb     1322 jrank, stma, wikHK     1320 hinf
c.1321 ARNUWANDA-II ends.  Son of Suppiluliuma-I, king of 2nd Hittite Dyn from 1322, is incapacitated by plague.  MURSILI-II succeeds to 1295. 1345 anan     1339 hiwo     1344 LEWH 50, RAI3     1335 CWH, RAI2, Sag, WPOT 11 1334 B76 VII-117, 1-819     1333 hifi     1321 Bryce, jrank, stma, wikH, wikHK     1318 hinf
c.1320 Kashkans attack city of Turmitta. yr 1 hinf
c.1320 MANAPA-TARHUNTA king of Arzawa, escapes a plot by his brothers to kill him by fleeing to Karkissa (later Caria).  Hittite kings Mursili-II and his incapacitated bro Arnuwanda both write to Karkissa, asking them to keep Manapa-Tarhunta safe. 1336-33 hifi
c.1320 MURSILI-II retaliates against Kashkans by looting, and burning two Kashkan cities - Halila and Duddushka in the area of Turmitta.  Kashkans gather their allies, retaliate, and are defeated. 1326 hifi
yr 1 hinf
c.1319 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, attacks vassal state Tipiya, because it had stopped providing required troop levies, burns its most important city Kathaidwa.  Mursili returns to Hattusa, then goes and re-subjugates Ishupitta, plunders and burns Palhwissa, pacifies the Kashkans temporarily, goes to Ankuwa for the winter.  1326 hifi
yr 2 hinf
c.1319 Kashkan kings Pazzannas and Nunnutas flee to Uhha-ziti, king of Arzawa. 1326 hifi
c.1318 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, occupied in the north against Kashkans, sends messengers to Uhha-ziti, king of Arzawa demanding extradition of his enemies. yr 3 hinf
c.1318 Uhha-ziti, king of Arzawa refuses Mursili's extradition demands.  Mursili sends army which attacks and plunders Uhha-ziti's ally, the king of Millawanda.  Uhha-ziti attacks the city of Impaya, which is under Mursili's bro-in-law, Mashwiluwa.  Uhha-ziti then attacks the city of Hapanuwa. yr 3 hinf
c.1318 Mursili pacifies the Kashkans and then marches west. yr 3 hinf
c.1318 Mursili-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295 arrives in Arzawa.  Either lightning or a meteor strikes the city of Apasa in which Uhha-ziti resides.  Both sides regard this as a divine omen.  Uhha-ziti sends his son Piyama-Kurunta to fight Mursili, who defeats him and takes Apasa.  Uhha-ziti sails into the Aegean.  His son does likewise.  Mursili defeats all enemies in western Anatolia except the Seha River land and the city of Puranda, which he besieges.  Mursili then backs to the Ashtarpa River and winters. yr 3 hinf
1325 hifi
c.1318 Kashkan kings Pazzannas and Nunnutas, in Arzawa from 1319, flee back to Kashkan lands, lead a new rebellion. 1326 hifi
c.1318 Mursili attacks AHIYAWA. 1325 hifi
c.1317 Sometime in winter, Uhha-ziti dies of illness.  Mursili captures Puranda, then marches to the Seha River land.  Manapa-Tarhunta, king of the Seha River land, surrenders, and gets Mursili to accept him as vassal.  Mursili then moves on to Mira, where he installs his bro-in-law Mashwiluwa as ruler of Mira-and-Kuwaliya until 1309, Targashnalli to rule the land of Hapalla, Alakshandu to rule Wilusa. yr 4 hinf
c.1317 ARZAWA, independent kingdom from 1410, broken up by Mursili into several states: Wilusa, Seha River Land, Mira, and Hapalla. yr 4 hinf
c. 1316 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, marches against Kashkan territory of Mt. Asharpaya, then conquers provinces of Pala and Tummanna.  Mursili then moves east to the land of Samuha, where he stays in the city of Ziulila, then moves against the Arawannans, who had been oppressing the land of Kassiya.  He then returns victorious to Hattusa. yr 5 hinf
c.1315 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, raids and burns Kashkan lands of Mt. Tarikarimu in the land of Zihariya, then returns to Hattusa. yr 6 hinf
c.1315 Hittite interests in western Anatolia are again threatened by an anti-Hittite rebellion headed by Arzawa, a Hittite vassal state, supported by the king of Ahhiyawa. 1315 wikMG
c.1315 Ahhiyawa seizes various islands, presumably in the Aegean. 1315 wikMG
c.1315 TROS ends.  King of the TEUCRI of Dardania from 1375, ends.  Son ILOS succeeds in Troy until ?   Son ASSARACHUS succeeds in Dardania until ?. 1315 hifi
c.1315 TETTE, king of Nuhassi in Aram, encouraged by pharaoh Horemheb, and aided by EN-urta of Barga, rebells against Mursili.
AITAKKAMA, king of Kadesh, also opposes Mursili.
1330 MCAW 38
no date: hinf
c.1314 Hittite general Kantuzzili sent by Mursili to attack Nuhassi. yr 7 hinf
c.1314 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, marches north, attacks Pihhuniya, Kashkan king of the land of Tipiya, retaking all lost territory, including the city of Istitina, where he resides to supervise reconstruction of forts. yr 7 hinf
1326 hifi
c.1314 Mursili sends a letter to Anniya, king of Azzi and Hayasa demanding extradition of some Hittite civilians who had fled there a decade previously.  Anniya refuses, and attacks the land of Dankuwa on the Hittite border, capturing its population. yr 7 hinf
1326 hifi
c.1313 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, attacks Ura, a strongly fortified border town belonging to Anniya, king of Azzi. yr 8 hinf
1326 hifi
c. 1313 Hutu-piyanza, Hittite governor of Pala, is at war with the city of Wachumana.  Mursili responds by sending general Nuwanza to Hutu-piyanza's assistance.  Hutu-piyanza and Nuwanza conquer, and burn Washumana.
Mursili puts Nuwanza in charge of northern operations, and sets out for Kummanni in Kizzuwatna.
yr 8 hinf
c.1313 The Azzians use this opportunity to attack pro-Hittite cities Istitina and Kannuwara.  Istitina falls and is destroyed.  Kannuwara holds out, and is besieged by Anniya, king of Azzi. yr 8 hinf
1324 hifi
c.1312 NUWANZA, Hittite general, attacks Anniya, king of Azzi, who is besieging Kannuwara.  Hittites defeat them. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 States of AZZI and HAYASA formally submit to Hittites.  They are never again mentioned as unified states. 1321 hifi
c.1312 SHARRI-KUSHU, bro of Mursili-II and his viceroy of Carchemish, joins Mursili in Kumanni, gets sick and dies there.  MURSILI sends general Kurunta to attack rebels at Nuhassi. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 CARCHEMISH, under Hittites 1340-1260, attacked by Assyrians. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 Hittite capital, at SAMUHA from 1390, moved back to HATTUSA until 1280. guess
c.1312 KURUNTA, Mursili's general, ravages Nuhassi, then besieges Aitakkama in Kadesh. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 AITAKKAMA murdered.  King of Kadesh from ?, murdered by his son Ari-Tessup.  ARI-TESSUP succeeds until ?, and submits to Hittites. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 NUWANZA, Mursili's general, defeats Anniya, king of Azzi, relieves siege of Kannuwara. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, goes from Kummanni to Astata where he builds fortifications.  Ari-Tessup of Kadesh arrives and is accepted as a Hittite vassal.  Mursili goes to Carchemish. yr 9 hinf
c.1312 SAHURUNUWA, son of Sharri-Kushuh, appointed viceroy of Carchemish by Mursili until ?. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 TALMI-SHARRUMA appointed king of Halap by Mursili until ?. Mursili yr 9 hinf
c.1312 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, goes from Carchemish to the city of Tegarama, then to Haran, then surprise attacks Yahressa and burns it. yr 9 hinf
c.1312 MURSILI-II then attacks the Kashkans in the land of Piggainaressa, which he burns.  He returns to Hattusa, then winters in Hakpis. yr 9 hinf
c.1311 MURSILI-II, king of Hittites 1321-1295, resumes campaign against Anniya, king of Azzi.  Azzians retreat to their various strongholds.  Mursili attacks only Aripsa and Duskamma.  Aripsa falls.  Duskamma surrenders.  Mursili returns to Hattusa. yr 10 hinf
c.1310 MURSILI-II, returns to Azzi and organizes it. yr 11 hinf
c.1309 MASHWILUWA, vassal king of Mira-and-Kuwaliya from 1317, rebels, convincing the Hittite city of Pitassa to join him.  Mursili marches to Shallapa and sends for Mashwiluwa to negotiate.  Mashwiluwa flees to the land of Masha.  Mursili destroys part of Masha.  The Mashaeans seize Mashwiluwa and send him to Mursili, who forgives him enough to make him a priest.  Mashwiluwa 's nephew KUPANTA-KURUNTA is installed as king of Mira-and-Kuwaliya by Mursili. yr 12 hinf
c.1306 HANIGALBAT, the residue of Mitanni from 1340, appears to have been taken by the Hittites during Mursili's reign. no date: hinf
c.1302 HANIGALBAT appears to have been taken back from the Hittites by the Assyrians during Mursili's reign. no date: hinf

Anatolia 1300-1001