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200 Mar. CONSULS:  P. Sulpicius GALBA (2nd) and C.(2) Aurelius COTTA 200 CAH 8-156, DGRBM 1-867, 2-204, OCD 454, csm, wikCon
c.200 C. Sergius Plancus is praetor urbanus.  His imperium is prolonged for 199, to assign lands to soldiers who had served for many years in Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia. 200 DGRBM 3-787
c.200 L.(2) Quintius Flamininus is curule aedile. 200 DGRBM 2-161
c.200 Consul P. Sulpicius GALBA is assigned Macedonia as his province. 200 CAH 8-256, DGRBM 2-204
c.200 Consul P. Sulpicius GALBA proposes war on Philip-V of Macedonia to the senate and Assembly.  Tribune Q. Baebius argues against it on grounds of war-weariness.  Senate votes for war.  Assembly votes against war. 200 CAH 8-165, 257, LdHR 2-19, SHWC 109
c.200 Consul P. Sulpicius GALBA is appointed by senate to lead war against Macedonia, prepares and delivers a proposal to the Assembly. 200 LdHR 2-19
c.200 Consul P. Sulpicius GALBA promises not to levy veterans from the African war for Macedonia. 200 CAH 8-257, DGRBM 2-204
c.200 L.(6) Cornelius LENTULUS a governor in Spain from 206, returns to Rome.  He is replaced by C. Cornelius CETHEGUS until ?. 200 DGRBM 1-675, wikRCH
c.200 Roman Assembly agrees to war with Philip-V. 200 CAH 8-257, DGRBM
c.200 Senate levies 4 legions for Italy and 2 for Macedonia. 200 LdHR 2-20
c.200 Q. Fulvius GILLO and L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS are made praetors and sent to Sicily. 200 DGRBM 2-158, 2-268
c.200 Consul P. SULPICIUS GALBA, with 2 legions (25,000 men), sails to Illyria. 200 CAH 8-165, 261, DGRBM 2-204, LdHR 2-20, OCD 454, atl3
c.200 BRIXIA, under Rome from 225, renamed BRESCIA.  See 89. 200 B76 II-255, rcNI
c.200 Consul P. Sulpicius GALBA declares war on PHILIP-V of Macedonia, now besieging Abydos, on false charge of attacking Roman allies.  Sends M. Aemilius Lepidus with formal notice and ridiculous demands, leaving Philip-V no way out. 200 CAH 8-164
c.200 Rome/Macedonia, at peace from 205, 2nd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME begins until 196Rome declares war. 200 B76 I-634, VI-442, 15-1093, CDCC 52, DGRBM, DGRG 1-66, Dur 2-556, 3-20, GHH, LEWH 92, MCAW, OCD 928, OHG, SORH, bk, frH, lvG
c.200 Manius(1) Acilius GLABRIO is appointed decemvir sacrorum until , succeeding M. Aurelius Cotta who died 201. 200 DGRBM 2-270
c.200 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS, general & philhelene, crosses Adriatic against Macedonia. 200
Dur 3-85
c.200 M. Valerius LAEVINUS dies.  Sons P. and M. hold 4 days of games and gladiator fights in his honor. 200 DGRBM 2-711, OCD 576
c.200 2nd known Roman legal work:   Tripertita  of Sextus Aelius Catus.  Its 3 parts consist of the Twelve Tables, a commentary on its archaic language, and a collection of legal formulae or procedures dating from 312.  It decodes the patrician cyphers of 304, making legal mumbo-jumbo understandable to the public, and patrician lawyers less relevant. 202 GHH
CAH 8-455, DGRBM 2-174
c.200 M.(4) Claudius Marcellus and Sextus Aelius Paetus are curule aediles.  They are known for producing good games and getting cheap grain from Africa. 200 DGRBM 2-931, 3-84
c.200 CONCRETE V used in Rome to build Porticus Aemilia.  Volcanic ash from Puteoli is found to make concrete that will hold its form even under water. 200 PW 17 100 TTT
c.200?  Lex Furia Testamentaria  restricts amount of property that can be bequeathed to a non-traditional heir to 1,000 ases, except for legacies bequeathed to nearest relatives, spouse or bride. 204-169 EDRL 552 uncertain date: unrv
c.200 SHOEMAKERS form guilds in Rome. 200 EOET 295
c.200 After consuls leave for Illyria, Hamilcar, a minor general left in Cisalpine Gaul, incites a revolt of Boii, Insubres, Cenomanni, and several Ligurian tribes. 200 DGRBM 2-330, GHH, SORH
c.200 BOII & INSUBRES of Po valley, compliant with Rome from 216, defeat a Roman detatchment near Forli, rebel until 197, support Carthaginians until 194. 200 CAH 8, GHH, bk, hifiIn
c.200 PLACENTIA, on Po, Latin colony from 218, sacked by Boii & Insubres. 200 B76 VII-982, CAH 8-111,
DGRBM 2-330, DGRG 1-417, LdHR 2-49, SORH
c.200 CREMONA, on Po, Latin colony from 218, besieged by Cisalpine Gauls. 200 LdHR 2-49
c.200 Boii, Insubres, Cenomani, and Ligurian Ilvates make maximum effort to expel Romans from Gallic territory.  The Cenomani are not unanimous.  Not all Ligurian tribes are involved - the Ingauni abstain. 200 CAH 8-111, DGRG 1-584, 2-40, LdHR 2-48
c.200 Consul C. Aurelius COTTA has command against the Boii, Insubres, and Cenomanii. 200 DGRBM 1-867
c.200 L. Furius Purpurio is praetor and sent to Ariminum on east coast. 200 DGRBM 2-190, 3-605
c.200 Sp. Lucretius, Gn.(2) Octavius Rufus, and C. Terentius Varro are ambassadors to Africa to visit Carthage, Masinissa, and to negotiate peace with Vermina son of Syphax. 200 DGRBM 2-828, 3-6, 1222
c.200 Q.(1) Minucius RUFUS is praetor and sent to Bruttium.  He investigates the robbery of the temple of Proserpine at Locri, and discovers a local conspiracy.  As he had not completed his inquiries at the end of the year, his imperium is extended another year. 200 DGRBM 3-675
c.200 Cisalpine Gauls besieging Cremona are heavily defeated by praetor L. Furius PurpurioMore than 35,000 Gauls are killed or captured. 200 CAH 8-111, DGRBM 2-190, 330, 3-605, DGRG 1-702, Dur 3-87, SORH, wikRGG
c.200 CLASTIDIUM in Cisalpine Gaul taken by Ligures until 197. no date: LdHR 2-49
c.200 3 noble Gallic chiefs and Hamilcar, a minor general in Cisalpine Gaul, are killed in battle against praetor L. Furius Purpurio. 200 DGRBM 3-605
c.200 M. Furius is legate under L. Furius. 200 DGRBM 2-190
c.200 VENUSIA (Venusium) in Apulia becomes colony.  3 men (including P.(7) Cornelius Scipio Nasica) appointed to settle new colonists. 200 DGRBM 3-751, GHH
c.200 TAURASIA, former capital of the Taurini, under Carthaginians? from 218, annexed by Rome until 395CE.  Renamed TAURINORUM. 200 rcNI
c.200 10 men appointed to distribute land in Samnium and Apulia among veterans of Scipio brothers. 200 DGRBM 2-239
c.200 C. Terentius Varro returns from Africa, and is appointed one of the triumvirs for settling new colonists at Venusia. 200 DGRBM 3-1222
c.200 Public land within 50 miles of Rome is granted to private creditors of the state. 200 CAH 8-202
c.200 Quintus ENNIUS, poet, "I believe that the gods exist, but they scarcely trouble themselves about this world."  Many applaude. no date: HRRP 1-553
c. 200 Plautus blasts Λ SUNDIALS V:  " The gods confound the man who first found out how to distinguish hours!  Confound him too, who in this place would set up a sundial, to cut and hack my days so wretchedly into small portions.  When I was a boy, my belly was my sundial; one more sure, truer, and more exact than any of them.  This dial told me when it was proper time to go to dinner, when I had aught to eat.  But nowadays, why even when I have, I cant fall to, unless the sun give leave.  The greater part of its inhabitants, shrunk with hunger, creep along the streets!" 200 BD 28
c.200 "GRAPES & OLIVES" cultivated in Italy. 200 GHH
c.200 Plautus play  Stichus  produced.  "An unwilling woman given to a man in marriage is not his wife, but an enemy." 200 B76 14-552, bk, TTPC
Of the 70 consuls from 200 to 166, 55 campaign in north Italy against Gauls. 200 B76 15-1096
c.200 Cult of BACCHUS brought from Greek south Italy to Rome.  Established in the Aventine grove of Stimula by a priestess from Campania, near the temple where Liber Pater "Free Father" has a State-sanctioned, popular cult.  Livy says the Bacchic mysteries were originally restricted to women and held only 3 times a year; but are soon corrupted by Etruscan-Greeks.  Thereafter drunken men and women of all ages and social classes cavorted in a sexual free-for-all 5 times a month. 200 wikDM, wikDn
c.199 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(6) Cornelius LENTULUS and P. VILLIUS TAPPULUS 199 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-975, 1260, csm, wikCon
c.199 Λ CENSORS V patrician P.(6) Cornelius Scipio Africanus and pleb P. Aelius Paetus 199 CAH 8-175, CDCC 796, DGRBM 3-84, 729, 746, LdHR 2-64, wikLC
c.199 Censors don't expell anyone from any of the orders - a departure from usual policy, probably from euphoria following the end of the Hannibalic War. 199 CAH 8-182, LdHR 2-64
c.199 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS, Greek lover, is quaestor despite being younger than the constitutional age requires. 199 B76 IV-171, DGRBM 2-162, wikTQF
c.199 L. Villius TAPPULUS is praetor and sent to Sardinia. 199 DGRBM 3-975
c.199 Aedile C. Cornelius CETHEGUS produces first rate games. 199 DGRBM 1-675
c.199 L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS, friend of M.(1) Porcius Cato, is made praetor and sent to Sicily until 198. 199 OCD 440
c.199 Censors P.(6) Scipio and Paetus review senate without any disputes. 199 atl2
c.199 P.(6) Cornelius Scipio Africanus becomes princeps senatus every year until his death 183. 199 B76 15-1096, 16-397, OCD 962, SORH
c.199 L. STERTINIUS is sent as proconsul to Farther Spain until 196. 199 DGRBM 3-907 198 wikRCH
c.199 C.(1) Valerius FLACCUS is curule aedile.  But being flamen dialis from 209, he can't take the oath.  So his bro Lucius takes it for him. 199 DGRBM 2-158
c.199 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus and C. Helvius are pleb aediles.  They restore the plebian games and give a banquet in honor of Jupiter. 199 B76 II-645, CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-638, 2-380, Dur 3-102, OCD 214, SORH
c.199  Lex Porcia  by tribune P. Porcius Laeca, re-affirms right of appeal in capital cases. 199 CAH 9-494, atl2, wikLRL 199 or 95 wikVPL
c.199 L. Manlius is prevented from celebrating an ovation by tribune P. Porcius. 199 atl2
c.199 Consul P. Villius TAPPULUS is assigned to Macedonia to take over command of Roman army.  But he first has to deal with a mutiny of P.(6) Scipios veterans. 199 DGRBM 3-975, LdHR 2-23, atl2, 198 DGRBM 2-204
c.199 NARNIA Umbria complains to senate of economic depression and infiltration by outsiders who behave like colonists.  Senate sends them new colonists. 199 CAH 8-212, 217, DGRG 2-399, GHH
c.199 L. Manlius ACIDINUS, proconsul in Spain from 206, returns to Rome.  He is prevented by tribune P. Porcius Laena from entering Rome with an ovation which the senate had authorized. 199 DGRBM 1-12, wikRCH
c.199 P. Porcius Laeca is pleb tribune.  He vetos a senate decree of ovation for Manlius Acidinus on his return from Spain. 199 DGRBM 2-704
c.199 praetor C. SERGIUS is assigned to distribute land to veterans who had served in Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain. 199 wikRCH
c.199 Gn. Baebius TAMPHILUS is made praetor and gets command of the legions of former consul, C. Aurelius Cotta, near Ariminum, with orders to wait for new consul, L.(6) Cornelius Lentulus.  Tamphilus, anxious for glory, invades the country of the Insubrii, and is defeated with great loss.  Lentulus arrives and sends Tamphilus back to Rome. 199
CAH 8-111, DGRBM 3-973, SORH, atl2, wikRGG
c.199 CASTRA HANNIBALIS, the seaport of Scylacium in Bruttium, receives a small colony of 300 settlers.  Next batch 122. 199 DGRG 1-563
c.199 COSA Etruria, Latin colony from 273, asks Rome for more colonists.  Request is refused, then granted 197. 199 DGRG 1-695
c.199 Pleb tribunes M' CURIUS and M. FULVIUS oppose patrician T.(1) Quinctius Flamininus bid for consulship, because he had not been aedile or praetor, but yield to wishes of senate. 199 DGRBM 1-903, 2-162
c.198 Mar. CONSULS:  patrician T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS, a Greek lover under age 30 who had not been aedile or praetor, and Sextus AELIUS PAETUS. 198 B76 IV-171, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-162, 3-84, LdHR 2-23, OCD 13, 441, csm, wikCon
c.198 C. HELVIUS is made praetor, but not assigned a province.  He accompanies consul Aelius Paetus to Cisalpine Gaul, and receives command of a consular army. 198 DGRBM 2-380, wikRGG
c.198 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus is made praetor and sent to Sardinia with 3,000 inf and 200 cav. 198 B76 II-645, CAH 8, CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-638, Dur 3-102, OCD 214
c.198 ALEXANDER ISIUS, strategos of Aetolian League, leads an embassy to Rome to accuse Philip-V. 198 DGRBM 1-117
c.198 M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS is made praetor and assigned with 4,000 inf and 300 cav to Sicily.  But his services are confined to sending supplies to Roman armies in GreecePraetor L. Valerius FLACCUS in Sicily from 199, returns to Rome. 198 DGRBM 2-931, OCD 646
c.198 Consul T.(1) FLAMININUS is levied 8,000 inf and 800 cav, including some of P.(6) Scipios veterans. 198 LdHR 2-23
c.198 Consuls leave for their provinces:  AELIUS PAETUS to Cisalpine Gaul, and T.(1) FLAMININUS to Greece. 198 B76 IV-171, atl2
c.198 12,000 Latins and Italians who have been living in Rome from 204 are required to return to their own communities. 198 CAH 8-217
c.198 Consul Sextus AELIUS PAETUS refuses to accept a gift of silver plate from some Aetolian envoys. 198 atl2
c.198 L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININUS, bro of T.(1), is put in command of fleet supporting T.(1)  He sails to Corcyra. 198 DGRBM 2-161
c.198  Lex Porcia de provinciis  by praetor? M.(1) Porcius Cato (or at least heavily sponsored by him):  Forbids violence against Roman citizens. 198 DGRA 696, atl2
197 GHH
deals with provincial corruption and restrictions on money-lending by provincial governors 198 unrv
c.198 C.(1) Sulpicius GALBA, pontifex from 201, dies. 198 DGRBM 2-205
c.198 M. Helvius BLASIO is pleb aedile. 198 DGRBM 1-492
c.198 C.(1) Sempronius TUDITANUS is pleb aedile. 198 DGRBM 3-1181
c.198 A group of Punic hostages who had been captured in the 2nd Punic War try to incite a slave revolt at Circeii, Norba, and Setia in Latium. 198 DGRG 1-626, 2-446, 971, acdm, atl2
c.198 Praetor urbanus L.(6) Cornelius Lentulus, learns of the slave conspiracy from 2 slaves, whom he grants protective custody.  He informs the Senate, which advises him to conduct a quaestio and suppress the coniuratio.  His imperium is extended until 197. 198 acdm
c.198 Praetor urbanus L.(6) Cornelius Lentulus arrests the slave ringleaders.  The rest flee. 198 acdm
c.198 Praetor urbanus L.(6) Cornelius Lentulus returns to Rome, and receives 100,000 bronze coins.  The slave informants are freed. 198 acdm
c.198 The slave conspirators regroup and try to take Praeneste Latium.  Lentulus goes there, executes 500 Punic slaves and leaves the rest in chains. 198 acdm
c.198 Consul AELIUS PAETUS in Cisalpine Gaul, does no more than settle the colonists of Placentia and Cremona, who had been dispersed.  Placentia and Cremona are necessary to the conquest of Cisalpine Gaul. 198 DGRG 1-943
c.198 Cethegus provides mead for Roman populace after consular elections. 198 atl2
c.198 Blasio and Stertinius amass loot from their provinces in Spain. 198 atl2
c.198 Embassy from Attalus-I of Pergamum complains of Antiochus-III attacking his kingdom and asked the Senate for permission to pull his forces out of the Macedonian war in order to deal with it.  Senate not only complies but sends envoys to order Antiochus-III out of Pergamum. 199 atl2
c.198 Reps of everyone affected by the Macedonian war are sent from the meeting at Nicaea to Rome.  Philip-V's envoy begins a speech, and is cut off by senators asking if Philip is prepared to withdraw garrisons from the 3 "fetters of Greece" i.e. Demetrias, Chalcis, and CorinthPhilip-V's envoy says he has no instructions on this.  He is ordered to leave Rome. 198 LdHR 2-26, atl2
c.198 Senate decides to keep both consuls of 197 in Italy and extend T.(1) & L.(2) Q. Flamininus in Greece. 198 CAH 8-267, SORH, atl2
c.198/7 Envoys from Aniochus-III assure senate of good will.  They are well received, hoping that Aniochus-III will not ally with Philip-V. 198/7 BHS 2-38
c.197 Mar. CONSULS:  C. Cornelius CETHEGUS and Q.(1) Minucius RUFUS. 197 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-675, 3-675, csm, wikCon
c.197 Consuls CETHEGUS and Q.(1) Minucius RUFUS, both sent to Cisalpine Gaul, Cethegus against the Insubres & CenomaniMinucius Rufus goes to Genoa and begins war with the Celeiate and Cerdiciate Ligures in the Po basin. 197 CAH 8-114, DGRG 1-943, 3-675, wikRGG
c.197 Praetor urbanus L.(6) Cornelius Lentulus, commanding Cisalpine Gaul from 199, relieved by arrival of consular army, returns to Rome. 197 wikRGG
c.197 Commanders of praetorian rank are no longer assigned to Liguria or against Cisalpine Gauls.  Military operations in north Italy are usually conducted by consuls. post 197 wikRGG
c.197 Consul C. Cornelius CETHEGUS defeats the Insubres and Cenomani. 197 DGRBM 1-675
c.197 CLASTIDIUM in Cisalpine Gaul, under Ligures from 200, recovered by consul M.(1) Minucius RUFUS, who drives the Ligures back into the mountains. 197 LdHR 2-49
c.197 After the truce at Nicaea between Q. Flamininus and Philip-V, all interested parties send envoys to Rome.  The Greek allies had been well primed by Flamininus, and argue so cogently that the senate refuses to listen to the prepared statement of Philip's envoys, but merely asks if he were prepared to give up Chalcis, Acrocorinth and DemetriasPhilip's envoys had no instructions on this issue.  Senate votes to continue the war and keep Flamininus in command. 197 CAH 8-267
c.197 QUAESTORS, 8 in number from ?, raised to 12 until 81. 197 wikTAR
c.197 PRAETORS, 6 in number from 227, raised to 8 until 81.  2 are added for Spain.   See 181. 198 CAH 8, DGRA 956, LdHR 2-52, atl2, wikRCH, wikTAR     197 B76 15-1095, OCD 873
Raised from 4 to 6. B76 15-1096, CAH 8-122, 176, 9-20, GHH, SORH, atl2, wikTAR
c.197  Lex Licinia de Creandis Triumviris Epulonibus  by tribune C. Licinius Lucullus: Creates priestly office of the EPULONES, to take over from the pontiffs the function of arranging feasts and public banquets at festivals and games.  Initially 3 are selected but this grows to 7.  Open to plebes and patricians. 197 unrv 196 CDGRA 277, DGRA 470
c.197 M. Helvius BLASIO is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 197 DGRBM 1-492
c.197 C.(1) Sempronius TUDITANUS is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain until death. 197 DGRBM 3-1181
c.197 PRAETORSHIP is made a prerequisite for consulship. 197 CAH 8-176
c.197 C.(1) LAELIUS is aedile. 197 B76 V-984
c.197 Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS is curule aedile. 197 DGRBM 2-806
c.197 M.(2) Minucius RUFUS is praetor peregrinus. 197 DGRBM 3-675
c.197 M. Sergius SILUS is praetor urbanus. 197 DGRBM 3-827
c.197 L. Manlius VULSO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 197 DGRBM 3-1286
c.197 Ap.(9) CLAUDIUS PULCHER serves as military tribune under T.(1) Quinctius Flamininus in Greece until 194. 197 DGRBM 1-769
c.197 Consul Q.(1) Minucius RUFUS defeated by Cisalpine Gauls.  Tribune T. Juventius is killed. 197 DGRBM 2-691
c.197 Consul Q.(1) Minucius RUFUS, reduces all Ligurians south of the Po except the Ilvates, and all Gauls except the Boii.  He marches into Boii country.  The Boii had crossed the Po to help the Insubres.  The Boii return to defend their lands. 197 DGRG 1-943
c.197 The Cenomani are induced by Cethegus to betray the Insubres, whom they had joined. 197 DGRG 1-943, LdHR 2-49
c.197 Consul Cornelius CETHEGUS, aided by the Cenomani, defeats the Insubres and Boii near the Mincius in the Po Valley.  Over 30,000 Gauls are said to have fallen.  The Cenomani become loyal allies.  Some say Hamilcar falls or is taken prisoner in this battle. 197 B76 7-960, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-330, DGRG 1-584, 943, 2-359, LdHR 2-49, atl2, bk
c.197 On death of pontifex C.(1) Sempronius Tuditanus in Spain, M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS becomes pontifex. 197 DGRBM 3-1181, atl2 196 DGRBM 2-931
no date: DGRBM 2-931
c.197 The Ligurian ILVATES are destroyed by consul M.(1) Minucius Rufus, and fall out of history (unless they are later called Eleates). 197 DGRG 2-40
c.197 News of the Insubres defeat discourages the Boii, who disperse to their villages, and leave the Roman commander to plunder their lands and burn their houses. 197 DGRG 1-943
c.197 Cethegus celebrates a triumph over Gauls, but senate refuses to grant an official triumph to M.(1) Minucius Rufus. 197 DGRBM 3-675, atl2
c.197 C. Acilius GLABRIO is pleb tribune.  He proposes planting 5 colonies on the west coast of Italy. 197 DGRBM 2-270
c.197 L. OPIUS [SALINATOR?] is pleb tribune. 197 DGRBM 3-38
c.197 M.(1) Minucius Rufus, refused a triumph by senate, celebrates one on the Alban Mount. 197 wikRGG no date:
DGRBM 3-675
c.197 Q. Minucius THERMUS is curule aedile. 197 DGRBM 3-1097
c.197 Gn. Manlius VULSO is curule aedile. 197 DGRBM 3-1286
c.197 L. OPPIUS is pleb tribune. 197 DGRBM 3-38
c.197 C. Atinius LABEO is pleb tribune. 197 DGRBM 2-694
c.197 C. AFRANIUS (Ursanius?) is pleb tribune. 197 DGRBM 3-1284
c.197 Manius(1) Acilius GLABRIO is praetor peregrinus. 197 DGRBM 2-271
c.197 3 men appointed for a period of 3 years, to establish 6 colonies on the west coast of Italy.  They include M. Servilius Palex Geminus, Ti.(2) Sempronius Longus, Q. Minucius Thermus. 197 DGRBM 2-239, 806, 3-1097
c.197 BUXENTUM on west coast of Lucania selected by Rome as the site for a colony, which happens in 194. 197 DGRG 1-460
c.197 COSA Etruria, Latin colony from 273, receives 1,000 new colonists. 197 CAH 8-212, wikCs 196 DGRG 1-695
c.197  Lex Atinia de usucapione : dealing with ownership. 198 CDGRA 378
197 or 149 wikLRL
c.197 Peace of Tempe results:  Aetolians are miffed at not getting Thessaly etc.  All parties send delegates to Rome. 197 CAH 8-176
c.196 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V goes from Macedonia to Rome as hostage until 191. late 197 CAH 8-269
c.196 Mar. CONSULS:  L. Furius PURPURIO and pleb M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS, both employed at home. 196 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-605, DGRG 1-943, 2-931, OCD 646, csm, wikCon
c.196 Consuls MARCELLUS and PURPURIO are sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 196 DGRBM 2-931, 3-605
c.196 Consul M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS is defeated by the Boii.  M. Junius Silanus is killed in battle. 196 DGRBM 2-931, 3-819
c.196 Consuls MARCELLUS and PURPURIO defeat the Boii. 196 DGRBM 3-605, wikRGG
c.196 The Cenomani desert the INSUBRES, who are finally defeated by Consul M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS in a great battle in Po Valley near ComumMarcellus penetrates as far as Comum, north of Insubri territory, takes Comum, upon which 28 strong places surrender to him.  This leaves only the Boii unsubdued. 196 B76 II-677, CAH 8-112, DGRG 1-653, 943, GHH, MCAW, OCD 646, atl2
c.196 Q. MARCIUS REX is pleb tribune.  He proposes to make peace with Philip-V. 196 DGRBM 2-838
c.196 C. Licinius LUCULLUS is pleb tribune.  He proposes a law to create the sacerdotal office of Triumviri Epulones, who continue from that time forth to be regularly appointed.  He is one of the first 3 to hold the office. 196 DGRA 694, DGRBM 2-838, GHH
c.196 Consul Furius PURPURIO fights Ligurii. 196 wikRGG
c.196 Consul Furius PURPURIO carries on the war in Boii country in the usual way; burning, destroying, and killing.  The Boii, being unable to harm the cautious Purpurio, cross the Po and fall on the Laevi and Libui, who are also Gauls. 196 DGRG 1-943
c.196 Q.(1) FABIUS BUTEO is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain. 196 DGRBM 1-519, wikRCH
c.196 Q. Minucius THERMUS is made praetor and sent to Nearer Spain until 195. 196 DGRBM 3-1097, wikRCH
c.196 L. STERTINIUS, proconsul of Farther Spain from 199, returns to Rome with 50,000 lbs of silver. 196 DGRBM 3-907, wikRCH
c.196 M. Cornelius CETHEGUS, pontifex from ?, dies. 196 DGRBM 1-675
c.196 The BOII, returning home with their loot, meet the consuls.  The fight is so fierce that scarcely a Boii is left to return home. 196 DGRG 1-943, GHH, atl2, wikRGG
c.196 Ti.(4) Sempronius GRACCHUS, commander of the allies under M.(4) Marcellus, is killed in battle with the Boii. 196 DGRBM 2-288
c.196 Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia until late 195. 196 DGRBM 2-806
c.196 Heavy fines imposed by aediles on herdsmen.  These are probably rich large-scale herdsmen grazing illegally on public land. 196 CAH 8-186, 204
c.196 C.(1) LAELIUS, friend of P.(6) Scipio, is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 196 B76 V-984, DGRBM 2-706, OCD 576
c.196 1st TRIUMPHAL ARCH built by L. Stertinius.  He dedicates 2 arches (fornices) in the Forum Boarium, and another in the Circus Maximus, both surmounted by gilt statues. 196 B76 X-133, CAH 8-508, DGRA 125, DGRBM 3-907-8
c.196 P.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA is curule aedile. 196 DGRBM 3-751
c.196 Manius(1) Acilius GLABRIO is praetor. 196 DGRBM 2-270
c.196 Q. FABIUS LABEO is quaestor urbanus. 196 DGRBM 2-695
c.196 Temple to FAUNUS is built on an island in the Tiber. 196 DGRBM 2-138
c.196 Senate, in spite of opposition by consul M.(4) Marcellus who hoped for command of Greece, votes to ratify Peace of Tempe, and makes peace with Philip-V.  Senate nominates 10 commissioners to help T.(1) Quintius Flamininus settle affairs in Greece.  At least 4 are ex-consuls and include Flamininus' predecessors P. Sulpicius Galba and P. Villius Tappulus.  Also included: L. Stertinius, P. Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus. 197 atl2
196 CAH 8-179, 270, DGRBM 2-164, 204, 729, 3-907, 975
c.196 Smyrna and Lampsacus send envoys from Ionia to Rome complaining about Antiochus-III.  Welcomed with open arms. 196 CAH 8
c.196 Consuls receive a report from the 10 commissioners on activities of Antiochus-III.  They say the death of Ptolemy-V is all that prevented Antiochus from conquering Greece. 196 atl2
195 BHS 2-54
c.196 SENATE decides to defend the Greeks in Anatolia as well as Greece, sends P.(2) Cornelius Lentullus to Antiochus-III to defend Greek & Ptolemaic interests. 196 CAH 8-180
c.196 SENATE sends Calpurnius Cornelius to make alliance with Philip-V against Antiochus-IIIPhilip-V accepts. 196 CAH 8-185
c.196 Gn.(1) Domitius AHENOBARBUS and C. CURIO, pleb aediles, prosecute many pecuarii, succeed, collect fines, and build a temple of FAUNUS on the Tiber island. 196 DGRBM 1-84
c.196 2nd MACEDONIAN WAR with ROME from 200, ends.  3rd 171. 197 Dur 3-20, GHH, OHG, atl2
196 B76 I-634, VI-442, CDCC 456, GHH, LEWH 92, OCD 928, frH
c.196 COMUM south of Lacus Larius at the foot of the Alps, under Gauls, joins the Insubres. 196 DGRG 1-653
c.196 From 196, pleb aediles are brought into line with their curule counterparts by no longer being allowed to proceed to praetorship without an interval of at least 1 year. 196 CAH 8-176
c.196 Rome / Macedonia  peace treaty . 196 CAH 8-270, DGRBM 3-284, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.196 Insubres make peace until ?. 196 SORH
c.196 Insubres and Cenomani are granted peace terms.  Perpetual exclusion from citizenship, independence and freedom from tribute. 196 SORH
c.196 COMUM, under Gauls from ?, comes under Rome.  Colonized 89. 196 DGRG 1-653, OCD 277, SORH
c.196 BONONIA, stronghold of the Boii from 350, taken by Romans. 196 B76 IV-89, DGRG 1-419
c.196 BERGOMUM, north of the Po founded by Romans as the capital of the Orobi tribe, under Rome until 395CE. 200 rcNI
196 B76 I-996
c.196 ETRURIA:  Rural slaves and free workers rebel, because of large estates, belonging to noblemen, which were worked by serfs and slaves.  They are defeated by praetor M'(1) Acilius Glabrio.  Leaders scourged and crucified. 196 CAH 8-236, CDGRA 216, Dur 3-112, OCD 467, atl2, bk
c.196 TRESVIRI EPULONES created:  A board of 3 priests, to take charge of the Epulum Jovis (Banquet of Jupiter) - main event in the Ludi Romani and Ludi Plebii.  They include P. Porcius Laeca. 196 B76 X-134, DGRBM 2-704, GHH, atl2
c.196 C.(2) FLAMINIUS, son of C.(1) F., is curule aedile.  He sells grain from Sardinia to plebs at a low price. 196 DGRBM 2-168
c.196 Quaestors force priests and augurs to contribute towards payment of war expenses. 196 atl2
c.196 M.(1) Porcius CATO is supported by senate in his bid for consulship 195 because he is a useful opponent of P.(6) Scipio. 195 LdHR 2-70
c.196 Plautus play  Mostellaria  "haunted house".  "Things which you don't hope happen more frequently than things which you do hope."  "A woman smells well who smells of nothing." 196 TTPC
no date: B76 14-552
c.196 late It is decided that with war in Spain raging, a consul with a consular army of 2 legions plus 15,000 Latin inf and 800 cav transported by 20 ships are needed. 196 wikRCH
c.195 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS and M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus 195 CAH 8-453, CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-638, 2-158, Dur 3-102, LdHR 2-70, OCD 214, 440, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.195 C. Fabricius Luscinus is city praetor. 195 DGRBM 2-842
c.195 M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR is curule aedile. 195 DGRBM 2-1206
c.195 Gn. Manlius VULSO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 195 DGRBM 3-1286
c.195 C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER is made augur. 195 DGRBM 1-769
c.195 Consul M.(1) Porcius CATO sent to quell rebellions in Nearer Spain until 194.  P. Manlius is his assistant. 195 B76 II-645, CAH 8, Dur 3-87, LdHR 2-52, wikRCH
c.195 Praetor Q. Minucius THERMUS in Nearer Spain from 196, returns to Rome and has triumph. 195 DGRBM 3-1097
c.195 App. Claudius NERO is made praetor and assigned to Farther Spain.  Nothing is recorded of his operations, and it is doubtful if he went there. 195 DGRBM 2-1161, rcIb, wikRCH
c.195 M. Helvius BLASIO in Spain from 197, returns to Rome, granted an ovation, but not a triumph. 196 wikRCH 195 DGRBM 1-492, 2-380
c.195 L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS is made pontifex to replace Cethegus who died 196. 195 DGRBM 2-158
c.195 C. Atinius LABEO is praetor peregrinus. 195 DGRBM 2-694
c.195 Consul L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS sent to Cisalpine Gaul until 194 to subdue Boii and Insubres. 195 CAH 8-112, DGRBM 2-158, 704, OCD 440, wikRGG
c.195 P. Porcius LAECA is made praetor and stationed with an army in the district of Pisa Etruria, to co-operate with consul L.(4) Valerius Flaccus. 195 DGRBM 2-704
c.195 Insubres defeated by Romans. 196 GHH
c.195  Lex Porcia de Tergo Civium  by M.(1) Porcius Cato prohibits scourging citizens without right of appeal established by Lex Valeria 509. 197 SORH     195 BBA 319, CAH 9-494, wikLRL     198-184 unrv
c.195 Roman free women storm the forum, demand repeal of Oppian Law 215, now seen as an outdated wartime measure.  M.(1) Porcius Cato and Livy object.  Cato: "Luxury and avarice have been the ruin of every state."  Lex Oppia restricting women's luxuries is repealed anyway. 195 B76 II-645, CAH 8-184, DGRBM 3-38, Dur 3-89, MNDQ 728, OCD 214, atl2, bk
c.195 M. and P. Junius BRUTUS are pleb tribunes.  Both try to prevent the repeal of Lex Oppia 195 DGRBM 1-508
c.195  Lex Valeria et Fundania de Dege Oppia Abroganda  by tribunes M. Fundanius and L. Valerius, repeals Lex Oppia 215.  Causes reaction 184. 195 unrv
c.195 M.(1) Porcius CATO:  "all other men rule over women; but we Romans, who rule all men, are ruled by our women." no date:
Dur 3-89
c.195 Senate declares war on Nabis of Sparta, authorizes T.(1) Flamininus to deal with him any way he likes. 195 CAH 8, GHH, bk
c.195 M. Fundanius and L. Valerius are pleb tribunes.  Fundanius proposes abolition of Lex Oppia 215, which restricted dress and manners of Roman women.  Valerius and Fundanius are opposed by 2 members of their own collegium, M. Brutus and T. Brutus, and by consul M.(1) Porcius Cato.  The women get the law rescinded. 195 DGRBM 2-189, GHH, SORH
c.195 Roman envoys including Q. Terrentius CULLEO sent to Carthage with extradition ultimatim, because of a noble's accusations against Hannibal. 195 CAH 8, MCAW, OCD 301
c.195 Praetor P. Porcius LAECA is sent to attack the Liguri from the rear. 195 wikRGG
c.195 Consul L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS defeats the Boii near the Silva Litana, killing 8,000 and dispersing the rest.  He restores the buildings in Placentia and Cremona which had been destroyed in the war. 196 GHH
195 DGRBM 2-158, DGRG 2-197, SORH, atl2     194 DGRG 1-943
c.195 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS, recommends the senate recall army from Greece.  Senate agrees. 195 CAH 9-192
c.195 Senators are given separate seats at Megalensia festival for first time. 195 CAH 8-437, atl2
c.195 Plautus play  Persa  "The Persian". 195 TTPC 27
no date: B76 14-552
c.195/4 Consul L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS defeats Insubres at Mediolanum. 195/4 wikRGG
194 Mar. CONSULS:  P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO AFRICANUS (2nd) and Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS. 194 B76 16-397, CAH 8-277, DGRBM 2-806, 3-746, OCD 962, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.194 Λ CENSORS V patrician C. Cornelius CETHEGUS and pleb Sextus Aelius PAETUS CATUS 194 DGRBM 1-675, wikCon, wikLC     193 DGRBM 3-84
c.194 ARGENTARIAE, 7 shops in the north side of the Forum, which were burnt in 211, rebuilt. 194 CDGRA 71
c.194 Censors are moderate in their expulsions. 194 CAH 8-183
c.194 Consul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO AFRICANUS is given the title princeps senatus by the censors, a distinction which he had received from the former censors, and which he will again receive in 190. 194 DGRBM 3-746
c.194 Consul Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS assists as triumvir in founding the colonies which had been determined upon in 197. 194 DGRBM 2-806
c.194 Consul SEMPRONIUS, helped by consul SCIPIO sent against the Boii and Liguri. 194 wikRGG
c.194 T. Juventius THALNA is praetor. 194 DGRBM 2-691, 3-1020
c.194 M.(2) Valerius Messalla is praetor peregrinus. 194 DGRBM 2-1050
c.194 VULTERNUM, on coast between Sinuessa & Liternum, becomes a Roman colony with 300 colonists and voting rights. 194 B76 15-1096, DGRBM 1-675, DGRG 2-198, 1330, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.194 LITERNUM on the coast of Campania becomes a Roman colony with 300 colonists and voting rights. 194 B76 15-1096, DGRG 2-198, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.194 LIGURES begin insurrection.  M. Cincius, praefect of Pisa Etruria sends message to senate. 194 DGRBM 1-753
c.194 The BOII under chief Boiorix and 2 bros, rebel against Romans until 191Gauls, Boii, and Insubres under chief DORULACUS cross the Po. 194 DGRBM 1-498
no date: DGRBM 2-158
c.194 Consul Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS fights an indecisive battle against the Boii. 194 DGRBM 1-498, 806, SORH, atl2
c.194 Proconsul L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS defeats Gauls, Boii, and Insubres who had crossed the Po10,000 of them are killed. 194 CAH 8-112, DGRBM 2-158
c.194 Gn.(1) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is praetor. 194 DGRBM 1-84
c.194 Q. Aelius TUBERO is pleb tribune.  He proposes and carries a plebiscite, in accordance with a senatorial decree, to appoint commissioners with a 3 year imperium to found 2 Latin colonies in south Italy.  They are M. Furius Crassipes, Q. Naevius, and M.(2) Minucius Rufus to found Vibo in Bruttium.  Tubero and Gn. Manlius Vulso to found Thurii.  Thurii is founded 193, Vibo 192. 194 DGRBM 1-871, 2-1135, 3-1179, DGRG 2-1193, 3-675, 1179
193 DGRBM 3-1286, atl2
c.194 SIPONTUM on the coast of Apulia founded as a Roman colony by 3 commissioners including M. Helvius Blasio, D. Junius Brutus. 194 B76 15-1096, DGRBM 1-492, 508, DGRG 2-1011, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.194 TEMPSA in Bruttium founded as a Roman colony by 3 men, including C. Salonius, M. Baebius Tamphilus. 194 B76 15-1096, DGRBM 3-700, 974-5, DGRG 2-251, 1123, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.194 BUXENTUM on west coast of Lucania becomes a Roman colony. 194 B76 15-1096, DGRG 1-460, 2-251, SORH, atl2
c.194 PUTEOLI becomes a Roman colony with 300 colonists. 194 B76 VIII-172, 15-1096, DGRG 2-251, 679, IDB 3-972, SORH, atl2
c.194 Gn. Cornelius BLASIO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 194 DGRBM 1-492
c.194 Q. Marcius RALLA is created duumvir for dedicating a temple.  (Same 192) 194 DGRBM 3-640
c.194 L. Furius PURPURIO dedicates 1 of the 3 temples to Jupiter which he had vowed. 194 DGRBM 3-605
c.194 CROTON:  Roman citizen colony established by commissioners Gn.(2) Octavius Rufus, C. Plaetorius, and ????, but fails to revive it. 194 DGRBM 3-6, 381, DGRG 1-711, 2-251, 1123, OCD 300, atl2
c.194 SALERNUM Campania becomes a Roman colony to hold the Picentines in check. 194 B76 15-1096, DGRG 2-882, GHH, SORH, atl2
c.194 INSUBRES submit to Rome, and now support Romans. 196 B76 7-96     194 B76 V-372, CAH 8, hifiIn
c.194 CAMPANIA (Capuan territory) Roman public domain from 211, mostly rented out until 59, partly used for colonies. 194 OCD 204
c.194 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS in Greece from 198, withdraws all legions from Greece to Brundisium, in Italy until 193. 194 B76 IV-171, 8-384, 15-1093, CAH 8-192, CDCC 350, DGRBM 2-165, LdHR 2-34, OCD 928, OHG, SORH, bk
c.194 FLAMININUS has a 3 day triumph for victories over Philip and Nabis of Sparta. 194 DGRBM 2-165, GHH, LdHR 2-34, atl2
c.194 Consul P.(6) Cornelius SCIPIO AFRICANUS returns to Rome to hold elections. 194 wikRGG
c.194 P.(6) Scipio opens up public treasury after quaestors refuse to do so for legal reasons. 194 atl2
c.194 Temples are dedicated to Juno Matuta, and Fortuna Primigenia. 194 atl2
c.194 Temple of Jupiter dedicated on Tiburnia Island in mid Tiber west of Rome.  It is adjacent to the Temple of Asclepius. 194 atl2
193 DGRG 2-840
c.194 Temple of Faunus on Tiburnia Island dedicated. 194 atl2     193 DGRG 2-840
c.194 M.(1) Porcius CATO in Spain from 195, returns with a load of loot and has a triumph.  He is unexpectedly generous with the money. 194 DGRBM 1-638, GHH, atl2
c.194 Sextus DIGITIUS is made praetor and sent to south Nearer Spain.  Praetor Q. P. Manlius returns. 194 DGRBM 1-639, 1009, wikRCH
c.194 P.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA is made praetor, sent to Farther Spain until 192, succeeding praetor Ap. Claudius Nero, in Farther Spain from 195, who returns. 194 DGRBM 1-639, 3-751, OCD 962, wikRCH
c.194 Plautus play  Aulularia  "Pot of Gold". 194 TTPC 27
no date: B76 14-552
c.194 Plautus play  Rudens  "The Rope". 194 TTPC 27
no date: B76 14-552
c.194 TEMPLE of CYBELE (Magna Mater), begun on northwest slope of the Palatine 205/4, is finished.  Stands until 111.  LUDI MEGALENSES (Megalesia), a 6 day festival, 1st celebrated in honor of Magna Mater who was brought to Rome 205/4.  Dedicated 191. 203 GHH
194 CDGRA 394 193 DGRA 749
c.193 Mar. CONSULS:  L. Cornelius MERULA and Q. Minucius THERMUS. 193 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-1049, 3-1097, csm, wikCon
c.193 Consuls take emergency action to raise troops to deal with uprising in Liguria. 193 atl2
c. 193 HEGESIANAX, LYSIAS, and MENIPPUS, envoys of Antiochus-III are sent from Thrace to Rome, with instructions to seek friendship and negotiate an alliance (a repetition of Antiochus' alleged wishes in 195).    Senate, with armies busy in Spain & Cisalpine Gaul, doesn't want war with Antiochus-III.  Senate refer the envoys to its eastern experts, T.(1) Flamininus and the 10 legati, who tell them that Antiochus must must keep out of Europe, and if Antiochus crosses to Thrace, then Rome will protect its friends in Anatolia and acquire more.  Syrian envoys have no authority to negotiate, and plead for further talks. 194/3
CAH 8-278 193
B76 IV-171, 8-384,
CAH 8-200, DGRBM 2-367, 864, 1041, GHH, atl2
c. 193 Senate receives embassies from various Greek states, plus one from Antiochus-III, whitewashing his intentions.  The Greeks want to give the Senate living evidence of the current depth of Greek goodwill.  Their presence had doubtless been engineered by T.(1) Flamininus. 193 early BHS 2-57, CAH 8-278, atl2
c. 193 HEGESIANAX, LYSIAS, and MENIPPUS, envoys of Antiochus-III are received by the full Senate.  The Greek envoys are also present.  Menippus also represents Teos (since c.203 part of Antiochus' kingdom), which had asked him to try to get Roman recognition of the asylia (places where people facing persecution may seek refuge) which Antiochus promoted as part of his public relations among the Greeks.  Senate grants Menippus' request for Teos, but adds that the asylia should be valid only as long as Teos maintains friendship with Rome.  Since the only way Teos would be likely to lose friendship with Rome is if Rome wars with Antiochus, Antiochus is made responsible for preserving the asylia. 194/3
CAH 8-279 193
B76 IV-171, 8-384,
CAH 8-200, DGRBM 2-367, 864, 1041
c.193 Failure of negotiations at Rome between senate and Antiochus-III's envoys.  Senate, certain of success, appoints 3 of the 10 legati (P. Sulpicius Galba, P. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus) to travel again to Antiochus, but they first sail to Ephesus, then visit Eumenes of Pergamum.  P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus is among them. 193 CAH 8-279, DGRBM 3-746
c.193 Pleb L. OPIUS SALINATOR is aedile. 193 DGRBM 3-38
c.193 HEGESIANAX, LYSIAS, and MENIPPUS, envoys of Antiochus-III return east by way of Greece. 193 CAH 8-280
c.193 Envoys P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, return from Pergamum thru Greece to Rome, and report that they saw no reason for war with Antiochus-III, but recommend action against Nabis of Sparta. 193 CAH 8-279-80
c.193 Consul L. Cornelius MERULA is sent to Cisalpine Gaul. 193 DGRBM 2-1049
c.193 Consul Q. Minucius THERMUS is sent to Liguria, makes Pisa his headquarters.  Numerically inferior to the Ligurians, he fights defensively. 193 DGRBM 3-1097
c.193 Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS becomes legate to consul L. Cornelius Merula. 193 DGRBM 2-806
c.193 M.(4) Claudius MARCELLUS becomes legate to consul L. Cornelius Merula in Cisalpine Gaul. 193 DGRBM 2-931, OCD 646
c.193 L. Oppius SALINATOR is pleb aedile. 193 DGRBM 3-38
c.193 TIBER overflows, damages Rome.  2 bridges destroyed. 193 DGRG 2-849, 1198
c.193  Lex Sempronia de Fenore  a plebiscite proposed and carried by pleb tribune M.(2) Sempronius TUDITANUS.  Money lent should be the same for Socii and Latini as it is for Roman citizens.  Purpose is to prevent Romans from lending money in the name of the socii who are not bound by the leges Fenebres. 193 DGRBM 3-1181, EDRL 560
c.193  Lex Sempronia de pecunia credita  by tribune M. Sempronius arises out of the userers' practice employing Latin and Italian agents to circumvent the prohibitions of existing law.  It authorizes debts contracted with members of Latin and allied communities to be regulated by the same laws as those contracted with Roman citizens. 194
DGRA 527 193
CAH 8-224, GHH, SORH, unrv
c.193 L. Scribonius LIBO and C. Atilius SERRANUS are curule aediles.  They are first aediles to exhibit the Megalesia as ludi scenici.  In their aedileship the censors grant senators assigned seats in the theater distinct separate from the rest of the people. 193 DGRBM 2-779, 3-788, 1218, LdHR 2-64
c.193 M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR is made praetor and sent to Farther Spain with title of proconsul until 191. 193 DGRBM 2-1206, rcIb, wikRCH
Nearer Spain 193 OCD 736
c.193 L. Porcius LICINUS is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 193 DGRBM 2-785
c.193 M. and C. TITINIUS are pleb tribunes. 193 DGRBM 3-1158
c.193 L.(5) Cornelius Scipio (later Asiaticus) is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 193 DGRBM 3-747
c.193 M.(1) Porcius CATO Censorinus dedicates temple of Victoria Virgo, a small temple which he had vowed 195. 193 DGRBM 1-639, atl2
c.193 PLACENTIA territory devastated by Ligurians up to its walls. 193 DGRG 2-636
192 DGRG 1-943, LdHR 2-49
c.193 PISA Etruria attacked and besieged by 40,000 Ligurians.  Rescued by Consul Minucius Thermus. 193 CAH 8-115, DGRG 2-632, LdHR 2-49
c.193 Q. Minucius THERMUS, consul based in Pisa; fights the Liguri with little success. 193 wikRGG
c.193 Consul Q. Minucius THERMUS escapes a Ligurian ambush. 193 atl2
c.193 Magistrates level the area on the left bank of the Tiber south of the Aventine, for the creation of new port installations.  They are flanked by an enormous dock warehouse.  The Porticus Aemilia is begun in the same year and resumed in 174. 193 CAH 8-506
c.193 P.(6) SCIPIO AFRICANUS, M.(2) Minucius Rufus, and C. Cornelius Cethegus are sent to Africa to mediate between Masinissa and Carthage.  They achieve nothing.  Possibly they also go to the east. 193 B76 16-397, DGRBM 1-675, 3-675, 746, LdHR 2-117
c.193 C.(2) FLAMINIUS, son of C.(1) F., is elected praetor and sent with a fresh army for Nearer Spain, with orders to send the veterans back.  He is detoured by a storm to AfricaHe recruits veterans who had settled there, and proceeds to Spain 193 DGRBM 2-168, wikRCH
c.193 PORTICUS AEMILIA, a large warehouse, built in Rome's dockland by aediles M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus and L.(2) Aemilius Paulus.  Rebuilt 174. 193 OHG 466, wikPA
c.193 Heavy fines again imposed by aediles on herdsmen.  These are probably rich large-scale herdsmen grazing illegally on public land. 193 CAH 8-186, 204
c.193 Boii are betrayed by their own leaders. 193 CAH 8-113
c.193 Consul L. Cornelius MERULA defeats Boii at Mutina.  But it is a costly victory.  His officers accuse him of negligence on his march to Mutina.  Senate refuses him a triumph on his return to Rome. 193 DGRBM 2-1049, Dur 3-87, atl2, wikRGG
c.193 C. Livius SALINATOR fights under consul Merula against the Boii, and in same year is unsuccessful candidate for consul. 193 DGRBM 3-695
c.193 Plautus play  Curculio  "The Weevil". 193 TTPC
no date: B76 14-552
c.193 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS in Italy from 194, quickly sent back to Greece to use his popular influence until 190. 193 CAH 8-204
c.193 Punic envoys arrive in Rome, reports emissary from Hannibal, also complains about the injustices of Massinissa. 193 CAH 8-144
c.193 Senate prepares A. Atilius Serranus with 2 legions and 30 quinqueremes to go back to Greece in spring. 193 CAH 8-204
c.193 Roman money-lenders sub-contract with Italian business partners, who charge higher interest rates, circumventing the legal limit.  This causes a serious debt problem.  Senate and magistrates respond with new regulations, followed by new legislation. 193
CAH 8-185 acdm
c.193 P.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA, in Farther Spain from 194, returns, fails to be elected consul for 192, despite support of cousin P.(6) Scipio Africanus. 193 DGRBM 3-751, atl2
c.193 Λ CENSUS V completed by censors Paetus and Cethegus.  143,704 adult males. 194 GHH 193 atl2
c.193 Enrolment of allied contingents takes account of the number of juniores, perhaps because the allied communities are unable, temporarily at least, to supply troops according to the requirement. 193 CAH 8-222
c.193 Statue of Veiovis dedicated on the Capitoline. 193 atl2
c.193 THURII on the Lucania / Bruttium border, a Greek colony from 443, back under Rome from 203, refounded as a Latin colony by Q. Aelius Tubero and Gn. Manlius Vulso. 193
CAH 8-206 SORH
c.193 COPIA, a Latin colony is established at Castrum Frentinum near Thurii with 300 equites and 3,000 infantry by triumvirs Aulus Manlius Volso, L. Apustius Fullo, and Q. Aelius Tubero.  Thurii is included in its territory. 194 wikθr 193 atl2
c.193/2 Q. Minucius THERMUS, consul in Liguria, is made proconsul, and is given more troops, and is able to assume the offensive.  He continues until 190. 193/2
CAH 8-115, DGRBM 3-1097
c.192 Mar. CONSULS:  L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININUS and Gn.(1) Domitius AHENOBARBUS 192 CAH 8, DGRBM 1-84, 2-162, OCD 361, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.192 ATTALUS, bro of Eumenes-II king of Pergamum comes to Rome, tells senate Antiochus-III had crossed the Hellespont into Thrace, and that he plans to invade Greece.  Also there is a false rumor that he planned to continue west into Sicily and Italy, mobilizes for war. 192 CAH 8-206, 280, DGRBM 1-411
c.192 Consul L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININUS is assigned to Cisalpine Gaul.  Enroute he is attacked by Ligurians near Pisa, and defeats them, killing 9,000.  He then besieges their camp.  Ligurians escape by night. 192 DGRBM 2-162, wikRGG
c.192 Consuls L.(2) FLAMININUS and AHENOBARBUS ravage lands of Boii and Ligurians. 192 SORH, wikRGG
c.192 Q. Salonius SARRA is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 192 DGRBM 3-700
c.192 L. Valerius TAPPO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 192 DGRBM 3-975
c.192 P. Junius BRUTUS is curule aedile. 192 DGRBM 1-508
c.192 M. TUCCIUS is curule aedile. 192 DGRBM 3-1181
c.192 M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS and L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS are curule aediles. 192 DGRBM 2-763, 3-154
c.192 M. Fulvius CENTUMALUS is praetor urbanus.  He is ordered to build 50 new quinqueremes. 192 DGRBM 1-667
c.192 M. Baebius TAMPHILUS is made praetor and sent to Bruttium with 2 legions, 1500 inf and 500 cav of the allies. 192 DGRBM 3-974
c.192 Temple of Veiovis (Juventas) in the Circus Maximus on the Capitoline dedicated by C. Licinius Lucullus and ?. 192 DGRG 2-816, atl2 191 DGRBM 2-838
c.192 Consul L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININUS attacks the Boii, and allegedly treats his captives with unwarranted cruelty. 192 atl2
c.192 Heavy fines imposed on some usurers. 192 CAH 8-186
c.192 Gn.(2) OCTAVIUS RUFUS is sent to Greece to support Roman interests there. 192 DGRBM 3-6
c.192 Envoys P. Sulpicius Galba, T. Villius Tappulus, and P. Aelius Paetus, in Ionia from 193, return to Rome.  They report that there is no immediate need for war with Antiochus-III, but the need increases. 192 BHS 2-65
c.192 An Achaean embassy to Rome accuses Nabis of Sparta of violating peace terms. 192 atl2
c.192 P. Villius Tappulus, and 2 other envoys sent by senate back to Greece until 190.  They arrive in Greece before Atilius. 194 B76 IV-171
193 CAH 8-280
192 BHS 2-66, CAH 8-204, DGRBM 2-165, LdHR 2-38
c.192 A. Atilius SERRANUS is made praetor and fleet commander with 30 quinqueremes until 191, and sent to Greece under pretext of helping the Achaeans against Nabis of Sparta, but really to threaten Antiochus-III. 192 DGRBM 2-165, 3-788
c.192 When news of Antiochus-III's crossing reaches Rome, the senate declares war on him, sends M. Baebius Tamphilus to Illyria with only a few troops to see which way Philip-V will go.  Consul L.(2) Quinctius Flamininus, levies more troops. 192 B76 1-825, CAH 8-283, GHH, OCD 159
c.192 Senate declares war on Antiochus-III.
ROME / SYRIA WAR begins until 189.
192 B76 1-825, CHJ 2, GHH, OHG, atl2, bk, lvA3     191 BHS 2-80, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-271     190 DGRG 2-1187
c.192  Lex Baebia de Praetoribus  by tribune M. Baebius Tamphilus?:  suggests that 4 and 6 praetors be chosen in alternate years, but this is largely ignored (though it will occur at least in 180). 192 DGRA 685, unrv
c.192 Rome / Aetolia War begins until 189.  Aetolia declares war. 192 LEWH 92
c.192 L. Oppius SALINATOR is sent to convey 20 ships to Sicily. 192 DGRBM 3-38
c.192 Consul L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININIUS returns from Cisalpine Gaul to Rome to supervise elections.  He then returns to Cisalpine Gaul. 192 DGRBM 2-162, wikRGG
c.192 VIBO (aka Hipponium) in Bruttium founded as a Roman colony by 3 commissioners including M.(2) Minucius Rufus. 192 CAH 8-206, DGRBM 3-675, DGRG 2-251, SORH, atl2
c.192 L. Furius PURPURIO dedicates 2 of the 3 temples to Jupiter which he had vowed. 192 DGRBM 3-605
c.192/1  Lex Plaetoria (Laetoria?)de Minoribus  protects persons under age 25 (minores) who had been defrauded in a transaction.  The transaction is valid in principle, but the minor, when sues for payment, had an exepttion, for his defense. 192/1 EDRL 557
c.191 Praetor M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR in Farther Spain from 193, returns to Rome, succeeded by praetor L.(2) Aemilius PAULUS with title of proconsul until 189. 191 B76 VII-808, CDCC 15, DGRBM 3-154, rcIb, wikRCH
c.191 Consul M'(1) ACILIUS GLABRIO passes a law, which according to M.(1) Fulvius Nobilior is first law to govern intercalation of months at Rome. 191 DGRBM 2-271, atl2
c.191 Consul L. Quinctius FLAMININUS returns from Rome to Cisalpine Gaul, ravaging Boii country.  The Boii submit without fight. 191 early DGRBM 2-162
c.191 Mar. CONSULS:  P.(7) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA and novus homo Manius(1) ACILIUS GLABRIO 191 CAH 8, DGRBM 3-751, OCD 467, 962, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.191 Q. Minucius THERMUS, proconsul in Liguria, defeats the Ligurians, who had surprise attacked his camp in the night. 191 DGRBM 3-1097
c.191 M. Junius BRUTUS is praetor in charge of Rome itself. 191 DGRBM 1-508
c.191 A. Atilius SERRANUS, fleet commander from 192, succeeded by praetor C. Livius SALINATOR until ? in the war against Antiochus-III. 191 CAH 8-283, DGRBM 3-695, 788
c.191 A. Cornelius MAMMULA is made praetor and sent to Bruttium. 191 DGRBM 2-913
c.191 M.(4) Aemilius LEPIDUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 191 DGRBM 2-763
c.191 L. Oppius SALINATOR is made praetor and sent to Sardinia. 191 DGRBM 3-38
c.191 L.(4) Valerius FLACCUS is legate under Consul M'(1) Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRBM 1-158
c.191 Ti.(2) SEMPRONIUS LONGUS is legate under Consul M'(1) Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRBM 2-806
c.191 L.(2) Quinctius FLAMININUS is legate under Consul M'(1) Acilius Glabrio. 191 DGRBM 2-162
c.191 Consul M'(1) ACILIUS GLABRIO, with 20,000 inf, 2,000 cav, 15 elephants, sails from Brundisium to Apollonia Illyria.  He is in the area until 190.  M.(1) Porcius Cato Censorinus is tribune under him, and remains in Greece until 189. 191 B76 II-645, BHS 2-82,
Feb CAH 8-213, DGRBM 1-639, Dur 3-102, SORH, atl2
c.191 BOII, resisting Rome from 203, rebelling under Boiorix from 194, defeated and subdued by Consul P.(7) Scipio NASICA, who slaughters the Boii without mercy, and claims that he had left only children and old men alive (to justify a triumph).  Nasica confiscates half their land.  This is the end of the Boii as a nation.  Strabo says many resettle near the Danube. 191 B76 II-122, 7-960, CAH 8-113, DGRBM 1-498, 3-751, DGRG 1-417, 944, 2-378, GHH, ISBE 2-415, SORH, atl2, wikAq, wikRGG
c.191 FASTS in honor of CERES are begun as ordered by the Λ Sibylline Books V, and held every 5 years. 191 CDGRA 630
c.191 CISALPINE GAUL becomes Rome's 5th province. 191 B76 II-122, CAH 8, TTPC
c.191 DAMOCRITOS, strategos of Aetolian League, and other leading Aetolians are sent to Rome.  Damocritos is imprisoned at the Lauturniae (no idea what it is). 191 DGRBM 1-936
c.191 Aetolian DAMOCRITOS, imprisoned at the Lauturniae, escapes, but cannot escape his pursuers.  Suicides by sword. 191 DGRBM 1-936
c.191 PHILIP-V, king of Macedonia 221-179 sends ambassadors to Rome, with offers of support against Antiochus-III, who is now in Greece. 191 DGRBM 3-284
c.191 AETOLIAN ENVOYS visit Rome, offer peace terms.  Senate refuses. 191 atl2
c.191 Temple of MAGNA MATER (Cybele), begun 204 on northwest slope of Palatine Hill, completed 194, dedicated by praetor M. Junius Brutus.  It contains the image which P.(7) Scipio Nasica had brought from Phrygian Pessinus in 205/4.  It stands until 111. 192 atl2     191 CAH 8-504, CDGRA 324, 394, DGRA 749, DGRBM 1-508, DGRG 2-803, OCD 625, SORH
c.191 LUDI MEGALENSES, a 6 day festival 1st celebrated 194, in honor of Magna Mater (Cybele), who was brought to Rome 205/4, is now instituted as a regular festival.  Games are mostly theatrical. 191 CAH 8, DGRA 749, DGRBM 1-508, GHH, OCD 625, wikMg
c.191 LUDI ROMANI, a religious festival honoring Jupiter (3 days from 494) in Sept. held annually from 366, increased to 10 days until 171. 191 wikLR
c.191 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, hostage in Rome 196-91, defends himself against apparently unjustified charges, makes a good impression. 191 atl2
c.191 SINUESSA Latium bids for exemption from Roman levy for naval service.  No luck. 191 DGRG 2-1008
c.191 DEMETRIUS, 2nd son of Philip-V, hostage in Rome from 196, released, returns to Macedonia. 191 atl2
c.191 Temple of PIETAS (personification of faithful attachment, love, and veneration), built over an earlier small sanctuary in the herb-market.  Dedicated 181. 191 DGRBM 3-366
c.191 CASTRUM NOVUM, a city on the coast of Etruria from 264, mentioned in Livy as one of the "coloniae maritimae," with Fregenae, Pyrgi, Ostia which contend in vain for exemption from military levies. 191 DGRG 1-564, 2-688, prs
CONFUSION ALERT!  There is another Castrum Novum directly opposite on the east coast, founded 289.
c.191 Λ CALENDAR V REFORM entrusted to Roman priests, who screw it up so badly that it will be 3 months off by the end of the Republic. 191
Dur 3-66
c.191  Lex Acilia de intercalando  by consul M'(1) Acilius Glabrio:  adjusts the calendar.  Empowers the pontiffs to intercallate whenever they want to.  This leads to arbitrary and dishonest intercalation, so that by the time of Caesar January will fall in late autumn. 191 CDGRA 133, unrv, wikLRL
c.191 Pleb tribune P. Sempronius Blaesus opposes triumph of consul P.(6) Scipio Nasica, but backs down. 191 DGRBM 1-491
c.191 Plautus play  Pseudolus .  "Let deeds match words." "If you utter insults, you will also hear them." 191 B76 14-552, DGRBM 3-407, MNDQ 271, 595, TTPC, bk
c.191 Plautus play  Epidicus . 191 TTPC 27     no date: B76 14-552
c.191 L.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO, consul designate for 190, a notorious incompetent, is nevertheless granted Greece as his province, but only after his more competent bro P.(6) Scipio Africanus agrees to serve as his legate against Antiochus-III. 191 atl2
190 Mar CONSULS:  L.(4) Cornelius SCIPIO (later Asiaticus) and C.(1) LAELIUS Scipio(Major).  Both want to be assigned to Greece. 190 B76 V-984, CAH 8-285, DGRBM 3-746-7, LdHR 2-42, 64, OCD 576, 962, SORH, csm, wikCon
c.190 PLACENTIA & CREMONA, Latin colonies on Po River from 218, ask for more settlers, resettled with 3,000 Roman families supervised by L.(3) Valerius Flaccus, M. Atilius Serranus, and L. Valerius Tappo. 190 CAH 8-114, DGRBM 2-158, 706, 3-975, DGRG 2-636, LdHR 2-49, OCD 297, SORH, atl2
c.190 Consul C.(1) LAELIUS Scipio(Major) is assigned Italy and commands in Cisalpine Gaul. 190 wikRGG
c.190 C. Atinius LABEO is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 190 DGRBM 2-694
c.190 M. TUCCIUS is made praetor and sent to Apulia until 188. 190 DGRBM 3-1181
c.190 L. Aurunculeius is praetor urbanus. 190 DGRBM 1-444
c.190 Sextus DIGITIUS and A. Hostilius CATO become legates to consul L.(4) Cornelius Scipio. 190 DGRBM 1-1009, 2-531
c.190 T.(1) Quinctius FLAMININUS in Greece from 192, returns to Rome. 190 DGRBM 2-166
c.190 L. Aemilius REGILLUS is made praetor and given command of the fleet against Antiochus-III. 190 DGRBM 3-642
c.190 PTOLEMY-V, king of Egypt 203-181, sends a fresh embassy to congratulate the Romans on their victory over Antiochus-III. 190 DGRBM 3-591
c.190 Sextus DIGITIUS and 2 others are commissioned to collect a fleet at Brundisium from all parts of the coast. 190 DGRBM 1-1009
c.190 Consul C.(1) LAELIUS Scipio is induced by P.(6) Scipio Africanus to renounce Greek command to bro, L.(4) Cornelius, a notorious incompetent.  Therefore P. Scipio Africanus, inelligible for command, is made legate of Lucius. 190
B76 16-397, CAH 8-219, LdHR 2-42
c.190 C. Fabricius Luscinus, Sex. Digitius, and L. Apustius are legates to consul L.(4) Scipio Asiaticus. 190 DGRBM 2-842
c.190 P. Junius BRUTUS is made praetor and sent to Etruria until 188. 190 DGRBM 1-508
c.190 L.(4) and P.(6) SCIPIO sail from Italy to AetoliaTi.(5) Sempronius Gracchus and Aulus and C. Hostilius Cato serve under Lucius. 190 Apr B76 8-384, CAH 8-219, DGRBM 2-288, 531, LdHR 2-42, SORH
c.190 M'(1) Acilius GLABRIO commander in Greece from 191, is relieved by consul L.(4) Scipio.  Glabrio returns without his army to Rome for triumph. 190 OCD 214, 467
c.190 Rhodian embassy tells senate that Greek cities in Anatolia are no less Greek than those in Greece.  "the change of place brought about no change of descent or custom." 190 CHJ 2-172
c.190 Aetolian embassy including Damoteles goes to Rome until 189, finds the senate just as intractable as they had been in 191, which means a new war in spring 189. 190 CAH 8-226, DGRBM 1-937
190 SOLAR ECLIPSE during Ludi Apollinares.  Livy says, "At the time of the consul's departure, while the Games of Apollo were being celebrated, the daylight was obscured, though the sky was clear, by the moon passing under the orb of the sun.  L. Aemilius Regillus set out at the same time to take command of the fleet.  L. Aurunculeius was commissioned by the senate to undertake the construction of 30 quinqueremes and 20 triremes." 190 DGRA 230, atl2     188 GHH
Livy reports this on July 11th (on the proleptic Julian calendar).  Historians have identified this report with the eclipse of March 14th 190, concluding that the Roman calendar had then been some 4 months ahead. 190 hstrm
c.190 Q. Minucius THERMUS maltreats his officers in Liguria. 190 OCD 214
c.190 Q. Minucius THERMUS, in Liguria from 193, proconsul from 192, returns to Rome, asks for a triumph, but is refused, chiefly thru influence of M.(1) Porcius Cato Censorinus, who prosecutes him for unjustly executing 10 freemen without trial, beating allied officials, and inventing many false battles in Liguria, and exaggerating the number of enemy slain. 190
CAH 8-181-2, DGRBM 1-639 3-1097, OCD 214
c.190 M'(1) Acilius GLABRIO celebrates triumph over Antiochus-III and Aetolians, but his army is still in Greece. 190 DGRBM 2-271, atl2
c.190 BRONZE, the preferred material for temple statues, starts being used also for architectural decorations and portrait sculptures. 190 B76 11-1097
c.190 Plautus play  Trinummus  "Three Penny Day".  "What is mine is yours, and all of yours is mine."  "Meaning well is nothing without doing well."  "Law follows custom."  "Keep what you have. The known evil is best."  "What you lend is lost. When you ask for it back, you may find a friend made an enemy by your kindness." 190 MNDQ 198, 596, 655 187 TTPC
no date:
B76 14-552
c.190 M'(1) Acilius GLABRIO is candidate for censor in 189, but the party of the nobles which had excluded him from consulship in 192 again prevail. 190 DGRBM 2-271
c.190 M.(5) Aemilius Lepidus, son of M.(4) is military Tribune. 190 DGRBM 2-764, atl2
c.190 2 marble fountains installed by P.(6) Cornelius Scipio Africanus. 190 CAH 8-503
c.190 3rd TRIUMPHAL ARCH built by P.(6) Scipio Africanus on Capitoline Hill.  It has 7 gilt statues and 2 figures of horses. 190 B76 X-133, DGRA 125
c.190 At the start of the electoral contest for censorship of 189 the favor of the populace inclined towards M'(1) Acilius Glabrio, because he had distributed many largesses, by which he had placed a great part of the people under obligation to himself.  Before long bribery is a cause for concern. 190 CAH 8-178
c.190 M.(1) Fulvius NOBILIOR ensures that Gn. Manlius Vulso is elected to be his colleague as consul, instead of M.(4) Aemilius Lepidus. 190 atl2
190 /89 Preliminary peace terms with Antiochus-III, as outlined by L.(4) Scipio, are ratified by the Senate and People.  A provisional treaty is made with Seleucid envoy Antipater.  The main principle is that the Taurus Mountains are to be the frontier.  Beyond that Rome refuses to interfere, even on behalf of older Greek cities in Anatolia.  Rhodian envoys raise the question of Soli in Cilicia.  Senate declines to demand its emancipation.  The Rhodians drop the issue. 190/89
BHS 2-112

Italy 189-172