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Mediterranean Go to Europe Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Anatolia Go to Syria - Urartu Go to Levant Go to Arabia Go to Egypt Go to North Africa Go to North Africa
c.1000 CYCLADES Islands, under Myceneans from 1400, occupied by Ionic speakers from Greece. 1000 OCD 304
c.1000 MELOS Island in Cyclades colonized by Dorians from Laconia. no date: OCD 668
c.1000 DelosDELOS Island in Cyclades occupied by Ionians. 1000 ISBE 1-916
c.1000 RHODES, occupied by Dorians (mainly from Argos) from 1100, Dorian occupation ends. 1000 B76 VIII-552
c.1000 CYPRUS, receives influx of Iron Age PHOENICIANS. 1000 OCD 306
c.1000 PHOENICIANS become main power in Mediterranean until 700PHOENICIAN culture and seapower peaks. 1100 B76 12-885
1200-800 wikΦ
1000 PW 15     832 GHH
c.1000 SARDINIA begins to be visited by Phoenicians. 1000 wikSrd
c.900 RHODES, occupied by Dorians from 1000.  Dorians found 3 cities. 900 GRG
c.850 RAM added to the prow of warships. 850 TTT
c.814 ELISA (Dido) of Tyre, with partisans of dead husband Acharbas, land on Cyprus.  Joined by High Priest of Astarte.  Sail from Cyprus with 80 cult prostitutes taken to ensure propogation of Phoenician cultLand in Libya. 878 GHH 814
MWΦ 114
c.800 SARDINIA occupied by Phoenicians until 238. 800 B76 16-245
c.800 ELBA, small mountainous island between Italy and northeast Corsica, occupied by Etruscans until 275. 800 rcNI
c.800 CYPRUS invaded by Phoenicians from Tyre who colonize Citium. 800 B76 5-406
no date: OCD 306
c.800 PANORMUS founded in Sicily by Carthaginians. 800 Dur 2-170
c.800 MALTA V:  Bronze age south Italian culture from 2000 ends.  Phoenician colony of Malet begins until 650. 800 rcSI
Homeric Aegean
Homeric Aegean           GNU FDL
c.753 Poets Antimachos of Teos, and Asias of Samos, flourish. 753 GHH
c.750 Greeks begin colonizing Sicily. 750 bk
c.750 TEMPLE of HERA built on Samos.  Rebuilt 585. 8-700 wikHS
c.750 MEGARA, SICILY (aka Megara Hyblaea) founded by Greeks of Megara Attica, who had failed at Trotilon and Thapsos. 750 OCD 655
728 CAH 3-767, LEWH 62
trad date = 728 CAH 3.1, DGRBM, LEWH 62
c.735 CARIA is dominant in the Aegean. 735 GHH
c.734 NAXOS, SICILY, founded by Greeks of Chalcis under Theocles, after displacing a native settlement.  Under Chalcidians until 495/4. 736 DGRBM 3-1111
735 CDCC 819, DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GHH, OCD 725, OHG, bk
734 B76 8-330, CAH 3.1, 3.3-161, 7.2, GRG 324, OCD 264, lvS
Considered 1st Greek colony on Sicily, because Megara Sicily is traditionally dated 728.
c.734 SYRACUSE, Sicily founded on the small island of Ortygia by Corinthian Greeks under aristocrat ARCHIAS.  Greek elite dominates Sicilian laborers.  Under oligarchy until 485. 735 Dur 2-66, LEWH 62     734 B76 17-918, DGRBM 1-265, GHH, ISBE 4-686, OCD 1030, RAH 146, bk, rcSI, vrb
734/3 GRG 325     733 B76 8-330, 337, CAH 3.1, 7.2, GRG, OCD 264, 290, OHG
c.734 Actaeon killed by Archias and Chersicrates. 734 GHH
c.733 CORCYRA island, under Eretrians from ?, taken over by Corinthians under Chersicrates.  Eretrians are expelled. 734 DGRG 1-670 733 B76 8-330, CAH 3.3-105
c.730 nuragheNURAGIC AGE in Sardinia ends.  Began 1900.  Destroyed by fire.  A nuraghe is a beehive shaped megalithic building made of many layers of stones whose size diminishes with height. photo Gianni Careddu

900 wikB
730 wikNrg
c.730 Trotilas Sicily settled. 730 GHH
c.729 CATANA, on east coast of Sicily, founded by Greeks of Chalcis under Eucharos.  Under oligarchy until 500. 753 GHH     730 DGRG 1-567, GHH     729 B76 8-330, CAH 3.3-160, OCD 214, rcSI     728 bk
c.729 LEONTINI Sicily founded by Chalcidian Greeks from Naxos Island in Cyclades. 729 B76 VI-153, CAH 3.1, 3.3-161, OCD 596     728 LEWH 62, bk
c.729 ZANCLE Sicily (literally "Sickle" after the shape of its harbor) founded by Cumeans followed by Greeks of Chalcis.  under Greeks until 289. 730 B76 VI-824, CAH 7.2, OCD 264     725 OCD 675
c.728 MEGARA HYBLAEA Sicily founded by Greeks of Megara.  under Greeks until destroyed in 483. 728 B76 8-330, CAH 3.3-161, GHH
c.724 ELULAIOS king of Tyre 730-694 tries to invade Cyprus, which asks help from Assyrians, therefore Assyrians besiege Tyre. 724 wikAGhC
c.716 MYLAE Sicily founded by Greeks of Cumae and Chalcis to support Zancle. 717 OCD 675     716 B76 8-330, CAH 3.3-161, GHH
711 Mar 14 SOLAR ECLIPSE in Aegean and Greece. 711 Mar 14 OCD 98, wikLSE
c.709 CYPRUS, independent from ?, taken by Assyrians under Sargon-II, under Assyrians until 669. 709 B76 5-406, ISBE 1-843, OCD 306, cpnt, wikHC
c.709 SARGON II of Assyria erects a stela at Citium saying he received homage from kings of 7 Cypriot cities:  Curium, Paphos, Marion, Soli, Lapithos, Salamis, and Amathus. 709 cpnt
c.708 THASOS Island in north Aegean colonized by Parians. 708 DGRBM, OCD 98
c.700 SAMOTHRACE Island in north Aegean occupied by Thracians, gradually and peacefully receives Aeolian Greek immigrants until 513. 700 IDB 4-197, rcAg
c.700 DelosTEMPLE of ARTEMIS on Delos Island in Cyclades rebuilt. 700 GRG 324
c.700 Λ MALTA, under Phoenician colony of Malet 800-650, invaded by Greeks, who plant colony of MELITE, which lasts until 528. 700 rcSI
c.700 BIREMES invented.  But stangely the ships are shortened and the same number of oars are used at first. 700 TTT
c.700 PHOENICIAN dominance in Mediterranean from 1000, gives way to Carthaginians and Greeks. 786 GHH
700 B76 12-885
c.700 CYPRUS:  EARLY IRON AGE 1050-525
Geometric Period ends.  Began 1050.
Archaic Period begins until 525.
700 cpnt, wikHC
c.700 shipExact repros of Geometric period Cycladic ware by Hellenic-Art.  A krater (left) c.735, an amphora (right) c.650. 700 Hellenic-Art.com
c.690 MOTYA founded on a small island off the west coast of Sicily by Carthaginians as a trading post. 800 Dur 2-170
early 7th cen: OCD 702, mxfld
c.690 AMORGOS Island in Cyclades settled by Samians. 690 OCD 949
c.688 GELA, Sicily founded by Dorians from Rhodes under Antiphemos and Cretans under Entimos.  Under democracy until 505. 713 GHH     690 DGRBM 1-205, GHH 690/88 GRG 325     688 B76 8-330, CAH 3.3-161, 7.2, LEWH 62,
OCD 264, 459     680 rcSI
c.680 THASOS Island, colonized by Parians from 708, contested by Thrace, Paros, and Naxos Islands, colonized and ruled by Telesicles of Paros until 670. 680 CDCC 68, OCD 1051, rcAg
c.680 PAROS town founded on Thasos Island. 680 B76 8-332
c.680 10 Cypriot kings, including Pylagoras king of Chytroi, Eteander king of Paphos, and Damasus king of Kurion help Esarhaddon's campaign against Egypt. 680 wikAGhC
Cretan Ware
Exact repros of Geometric RHODIAN WARE with approx. dates by Hellenic-Art.com
c.675 Messenians migrate to Zancle and other parts of Sicily. 675 GHH     668 GHH
c.673/2 CYPRUS, under Assyria 709-669:  10 kingdoms listed by an inscription of Esarhaddon:  Soloi, Salamis, Paphos, Kourion, Amathus and Kition on the coast, and Tamassos, Ledrai, Idalion and Chytroi in the interior. 673/2 wikCyp
c.672 LESBOS Island dominant in Aegean. 672 GHH
c.670 ARCHILOCHOS of either Thasos or Paros Island in Cyclades, lyric poet, flourishes.  1st known Greek author to write almost entirely on his own emotions and experiences. 706 GHH     670 Dur 2-66, bk
675-40 CAH 3.3, OHG
665 GHH     650 HAG 61
648 MCAW 75
670 ±25 MUSIC V:  TERPANDER of Antissa Lesbos, poet & musician, flourishes.  1st certain figure in music of Greece.  Developed the citharoedic nomos (sung with the lyre) by making the divisions of the ode 7 instead of 4.  Introduced new rhythms in addition to the dactylic, composed drinking-songs. 670 Dur 2-66, wikTrp     650 CAH 3.3, OHG
c.670 Telesicles tyrant of Thasos from 680, ends. 670 rcAg
c.669 CYPRUS, under Assyria from 709, starts becoming independent while remaining under Assyria until at least 667.  Afterward remains independent until 565. 669 B76 5-406, wikHC 669-3 wikCyp
c.665 Λ MUSIC:  THALETAS of Crete flourishes.  Greek musician and lyric poet.  He introduces to Sparta elements of music and rhythm, which did not exist in Terpander's system, thereby founding the 2nd musical school of Sparta. 665 GHH
c.664 ACRAE, SICILY founded by Corinthians from Syracuse. 664 CAH 3-767, GHH
663 B76 8-331, CAH 3.3-160, DGRG 1-21, OCD 6
c.664 1st recorded Greek sea battle:  CORCYRA vs. CORINTH.  Corinthians defeated by Corcyrans off Sybota Island south of Corcyra. 712 mxfld     664 CAH 3-767, DGRBM, LEWH 62, OCD 724
664 or later: GRG 326
660 MCAW 70
c.654 IBIZA Island in Balearics colonized by Carthaginians as a port on route from Sardinia to Spain.  Ibiza fishing village founded. 654 B76 17-402, wikTpR
654/3 MWΦ 117
c.654 ENNA in central Sicily founded by Syracuse. 654 DGRG 1-828
c.654 ANDROS Island in Cyclades sends colonies to Acanthus and Stageira in Chalcidice. 654 DGRG 1-136
c.650 1st TRIREMES built by Corinthians.  200 men work 3 tiers of oars.  But biremes are still popular. 700 Dur 2-273     650 LS 38, TTT
c.650 THASOS Island in north Aegean, under Greeks of Paros Island in Cyclades from 680, colonized by more Parians .  Under them until 491. 650 CAH 3.3-162, GRG 326, OHG
c.650 SOLDERING invented by Glaucus of Chios, a maker of metal statues. 700-601 TTS, TTT
693 DGRBM     690 GHH
c.650 KourosKOUROS statues first made on Delos.  Earliest extant examples are 2 life-size marble figures from the Ionic sanctuary.  Beardless males, in a formulaic advancing posture, usually nude.  A few early kouroi are belted around the waists.  This ends at the turn of the 6th century. photo 550 Zde

675-25 wikKr
c.650 MALTA:  Phoenician colony of Malet from 800 ends.  Greek colony of Melite from 700 continues until 528. 650 rcSI
c.650 SEMONIDES, iambic and elegiac poet, leads colony of Samians to Amorgos Island in Cyclades.  .  Fragments of his poetry survive as quotations in other authors, the most extensive of which is a satiric account of different types of women. 693 GHH
7th cen wikSmA 650 CAH 3.3
630 OHG 113
no date: wikSmnd
Not to be confused with Simonides of Ceos
c.649 HIMERA, Sicily founded by Chalcidian Greeks of Zancle under Theron, helped by the Myletidae clan exiled from Syracuse. 649 CAH 3-768, CDCC 426, OCD 515
648 B76 8-331, CAH 3.3-161, 7.2, DGRBM, DGRG 1-1065, Dur 2-66, GRG 325, GHH, OCD 264
648 Apr. 6 SOLAR ECLIPSE, recorded by Archilochos, lyric poet of either Thasos or Paros.  "Zeus, the father of the Olympic Gods, turned mid-day into night, hiding the light of the dazzling Sun; and sore fear came upon men... Nothing can be surprising any more or impossible or miraculous, now that Zeus, father of the Olympians has made night out of noonday, hiding the bright sunlight, and . . . fear has come upon mankind.  After this, men can believe anything, expect anything.  Do not any of you be surprised in future if land beasts change places with dolphins and go to live in their salty pastures, and get to like the sounding waves of the sea more than the land, while dolphins prefer the mountains." 648 Apr 4 MCAW 73
648 Apr 6 OCD 98, 688, hbar, nasaS
c.648 SELINUS on southwest coast of Sicily founded by Greeks of Megara Hyblaea.  Lasts until 409. 651 Dur 2-171     648 CAH 3-768 651 or 628 B76 IX-44
628 CAH 3.3-162, 7.2, GRG 247, OCD 264
c.643 CASMENAE, 12km northwest of Acrae Sicily founded by Greeks of Syracuse. 644 GHH     643 B76 8-331,
CAH 3.3-160, DGRG 1-558, GHH
c.640 PISANDER of Camirus in Rhodes, epic poet, flourishes.  Author of a  Heracleia  in which Heracles' traditional armor is replaced by a lion skin and club - which soon becomes his official costume.  He supposedly fixed the number of Heracles' labors at 12. 640 GHH, wikPs
c.640 COLAEUS of Samos:  voyage to Tartessos, Spain until 638. 650 OCD 1039     640 CAH 3.3, GRG 324     638 OCD 949
c.630 MINYAE tribe of Thera Island in Cyclades, vexed by their Dorian neighbors, sail away, some to mainland Greece, some under Battos, on advice of the Delphic oracle, sail south to Africa. 640 DGRBM 1-476 630 ISBE 1-844, MCAW 72
c.630 TEMPLE of ARTEMIS on Samos Island built by Theodoros of Samos. 630 CDGRA 85
c.627 LIPARA Island north of Sicily colonized. 627 GHH
c.626 ARISTOXENOS of Selinus flourishes.  1st poet to write in anapaestic meters. 662 GHH     626 GHH
no date: DGRBM
c.620 SAMOS Island in east Aegean comes under tyrant Demoteles until 590, comes under aristocrats until 522. 620 rcAg
c.620 TEGULAE (roofing tiles) of baked clay introduced by Byzes of Naxos Island in Cyclades. 620
DGRA 1098
c.611 MELANCHROS, tyrant of Lesbos, defeated and killed by Pittacos, allied with Mytilene, with brothers Cicis and Antimenidas. 612/11 B76 VIII-11 611 DGRBM 1-95
c.610 LAWS of CHARONDAS at Catana, Sicily. 610 Dur 2-66
6th cen OCD 228
c.608 LEONTINI Sicily, oligarchy from ?, under tyranny until ?, PANTAENIUS becomes tyrant. 608
DGRG 2-158
c.600 ATHENS-LESBOS WAR over Sigeum Peninsula on the Anatolian side of Dardanelles Strait begins until 590Mytilene commander Pittacos kills Athenian commander Phrynon in battle. 606 DGRBM 1-95, 3-191
600 CAH 3.3-162, 4-32, LEWH 65, MCAW 78
c.600 Phocaean fleet defeats Etruscan/Carthaginian fleet. 600 CAH 7.2
c.600 Naxos Island in Cyclades begins coining silver. 600 CDCC 610
c.600 War:  Chios Island and Miletus Ionia vs. Erythrae city on the coast of Ionia. 600 CAH 4-95
c.600 SAPPHO and ALCAEOS, lyric poets of Mytilene, Lesbos, flourish. 630-580 bk     610-575 OHG
600 Dur 2-66, GHH, MCAW 81
590 GRG 324
c.600 COINS minted in small quantity on Siphnos island. 600 wikSf
c.600 Rock-cut tombs at Tamassos Cyprus.  Pillars show Phoenician influence.  Some graves contain remains of horses and chariots. 600 wikHC
c.599 CAMARINA, Sicily founded by Greeks of Syracuse under Dascon and Meriecolus.  Lasts until 553. 599 DGRBM, DGRG 1-486, GHH, MCAW 78, OCD 198
598 B76 8-331, CAH 3.3-160, 7.2
c.591 SAPPHO, poetess of Lesbos, banished again by Pittacos.  This time she goes to Sicily until 586.  She marries a rich merchant of Andros and has a daughter. 591
Dur 2-153
c.590 ATHENS-LESBOS WAR over Sigeum Peninsula from 600, ends.  Sigeum is awarded by arbitration of Periander of Corinth to Athens. 590
HAG 76, LEWH 65
c.590 Demoteles tyrant of Samos Island from 620, ends.  Syloson-I succeeds until 560. 590 rcAg
c.586 SAPPHO, poetess of Lesbos, on Sicily from 591, husband dies, returns with dau to Lesbos. 586
Dur 2-153
c.586 SAPPHO, poet/priestess of Lesbos, heads a female cult honoring Aphrodite and the musses.  Includes homosexual activity. 590 TTPC
no date: OCD 950
c.585 MYTILENE (Mitylene) Lesbos under the Penthilis family from 1050, under tyrant Melanchros from ?, has popular revolt led by PITTACOS, who becomes tyrant until 575.  Alcseus, his opponent is banished. 612 GHH     600 Dur 2-66
590 B76 VIII-11, 8-345, GRG 324     589 GHH     590-80 wikLs
589 DGRBM 1-95     570 bk
c.585 TEMPLE of HERA on Samos from 750, rebuiling begins until 560. 660 GRG 324
600-570 wikHS
c.585 Elymians (and Phoenicians?) repulse attempt by Penthalus to colonize Lilybaeum.  Survivors settle on Lipara island and attack Etruscan shipping. 580-70 CAH 7.2
c.585 Sculptor ARISTOCLES of Cydonia flourishes.  He is called a Cydonian and a Sicyonian, probably because he was born at Cydonia and practiced in Sicyon.  He has a grandson, also a sculptor, called Aristocles of Sicyon. 600-568 wikArs
c.580 ACRAGAS, Sicily (later Agrigentum) founded by Greeks of Gela Sicily.  Aristocratic Republic until 570, under Greeks until 280. 582 DGRBM, DGRG 1-984, GHH     582-80 wikAgrig     581 B76 I-146     581-73 rcSI     580 B76 8-331, CAH 3.3-160, 4, 7.2, Dur 2-66, LEWH 62, MCAW 84, OCD 6, 264, lvG, lvS  
c.580 SICILY:  PENTATHLUS of Knidos leads Dorian party from Knidos and Rhodes to settle Lilybaeum, Sicily.  They are driven out by Phoenicians & Segestans.  They finally settle in LIPARI Islands 25 miles northeast of Sicily and become pirates. 580 B76 8-331, 346, CAH 4-99, 354,
Dur 2-171, LEWH 67, MCAW 84, OCD 610
c.580 Some Greek settlements in Sicily, such as Syracuse, try to drive the Phoenicians from Motya and Panormus.  The Carthaginians fear that if the Greeks win the whole of Sicily they will next move on to Sardinia and beyond, isolating the Phoenicians in North Africa. 580 hifiC
c.580 A Phoenician fortress is built at Monte Sirai in Sardinia.  Oldest Phoenician military building in the west. 580 hifiC
c.580 ALCAEOS, Greek lyric poet of Mytilene, Lesbos, dies. 580 B76 I-206
c.580 MARBLE:  Pliny estimates that works in marble were made by Malas in Chios at the start of the Olympiads. H.N. xxxvi-4.2
580 DGRA 1061
c.578 LIPARA founded in AEOLIC Islands 25 miles northeast of Sicily by Greeks from Knidos and Rhodes. 579 GHH     580-76 OCD 15
c.576 PHOCAEA Ionia becomes dominant in Aegean. 576 GHH
plan Bjs
Temple Apollo Syracuse
c.575 Temple of Apollo at Syracuse built.  Base is 55.36 x 21.47m.  The most ancient Doric temple in Sicily, and possibly first model of a temple surrounded by a peripteros of stone columns, that will become the Greek standard.  It will have many restorations; so there is no way to know how ancient the extant ruins are.    599-90 wikTAS
575 GRG 325 500 ISBE 4-686
c.575 PITTACOS, tyrant of Mytilene, Lesbos from 585 resigns.  580 B76 VIII-11, 8-345, OCD 35
579 DGRBM 1-95, GHH
570 B76 VI-164, OCD 837
c.574 Pharaoh APRIES begins series of campaigns into Cyprus and Phoenicia until 570. 574 Shaw 373
c.570 PHALARIS siezes Acragas and becomes tyrant until 554.  Ruthless expansionist.
ACRAGAS, aristocratic republic from 580, under tyranny until 510.
573 rcSI     571 CAH 3.3     570 B76 I-146, DGRBM, DGRG 1-75, Dur 2-172, GRG 325, GHH, LEWH 67, MCAW 86
568 DGRA 1182
c.570 AESOP of Samos flourishes.  Originally a slave, granted freedom. 580 Dur 2-66     570 DGRBM 1-46     560 Dur 2-710
c.570 SALAMIS Island in Saronikos Gulf, disputed by Athens and Megara, taken by Athens and under it until 350.  This secures the bay and promotes trade with Corinth. 600-560 B76 8-345
573 rcAg     570 MCAW 86
565 LEWH 66, TTPC
c.569 PITTACOS dies.  Former tyrant of Mytilene, Lesbos 585-75, age over 70. 570 B76 VIII-10     569 DGRBM 3-379
c.568 SIROMAS becomes king of Salamis Cyprus until 522 568 wikAGhC
c.565 ALALIA, on east coast of Corsica colonized by Greeks of Phocis. 565 CAH 3.3-160, GRG 177, 324, Hag 92
565-60 CAH 7.2     564 DGRBM, DGRG 1-94, 690, GHH     560 B76 8-331, 346, MWΦ 233
c.565 CYPRUS, independent from 669, conquered by AHMOSE-II.  Under Egypt until 545.  Governed by EUELTHON of Salamis until 525. 570 cpnt, wikCyp, wikHC
soon after 570 OCD 306
560 B76 5-406, cpnt, resh
c.560 STESICHORUS, poet of Himera, Sicily flourishes. 612 GHH     600 MWΦ 231
560 OHG     no date: OCD 1012
c.560 COMEDY introduced in Sicily.  Susarion of Megara produces short rough satyric plays.   (See comedy 487) 560
Dur 2-231
c.560 TEMPLE of HERA on Samos, under reconstruction from 585, finished.  Stands until 550.   See Olympia. 660 GRG 324 600-570 wikHS 560 OCD 949
c.560 SYLOSON-I tyrant of Samos Island from 590, ends.  AEAKES-I succeeds until 540. 560 rcAg
c.554 PHALARIS tyrant of Acragas from 570, overthrown by popular uprising led by Telemachus.  Dies.  TELEMACHUS succeeds until 550. 554 B76 I-146, VII-924, Dur 2-66, LEWH 67, MCAW 86-9, rcSI
554-49 GRG 325, OCD 809
c.553 CAMARINA Sicily, founded 599 by Greeks of Syracuse, rebels and is now destroyed by Syracuse.  Desolate until 495. 553 GHH, OCD 198
552/1 B76 8-331, DGRG 1-486 550 CAH 3.3
c.550 MALCHUS general of Carthage, campaigns successfully in Sicily, subjugates part of Sicily. 550 LEWH 67, MWΦ 118
c.550 TELEMACHUS tyrant of Acragas from 554, ends.  THERON-I succeeds until ?. 550 rcSI
c.550 MALCHUS general of Carthage, goes from Sicily to Sardinia, severely defeated by locals, returns to Carthage. 550 CAH 7.2, MWΦ 118
c.550 TEMPLE of HERA on Samos, finished 560, destroyed by earthquake or dismantled because of marshy ground and poor foundation. 550 wikHS
c.550 Temple of HERA at Samos begun again 40m west of the first, this time by sculptor Rhoecos on order of Polycrates.  This temple is larger - 55.2m x 108.6m.  It will never be completed. 575 DGRBM 1-693, SHT 2-401
560 OCD 949
500 wikHS
c.550 TUNNEL begun under Mt. Castro on Samos.  Commissioned by Polycrates to bring water to the city.  Architect: Eupalinos of Megara.  Finished 520. 550 wikEup
c.550 CYTHERA Island, under Argos from ?, taken by Sparta until 424.  Receives a Spartan garrison and governor, comes under Sparta until 424. 550 OCD 308 546 rcAg
c.550 Sculptor ARCHERMOS of Chios flourishes.  A son and father of sculptors.  1st to represent Nike and Eros with wings. mid 6th wikArc
c.550 Sculptor RHOECOS of Samos flourishes.  He and his son Theodoros are noted for their bronze works. 6th cen wikRh
c.550 PHERECYDES, prose writer of Syros Island in Cyclades, flourishes.  Writes about the beginning of the world (cosmogony).  Teacher of Pythagoras.
1st to teach immortality of souls according to Cicero & Augustine.
550 B76 10-1090, KPHP 6, OCD 812 544 GHH
c.550 model cargo shipTerracotta model of a CARGO SHIP from Amathos Cyprus.  It had the usual mast and sail.  The rear turrets are for protection against pirates. 6th cen. CGS 576
c.550 Kouros of SamosKouros of Samos, a marble statue.  Many Kouros statues are made in the 500s. photo Adam Carr

6th cen. wikKoS
c.546 ANTIKYTHIRA Island (between Kythera and Crete), Mycenean and Dorian settlements from 1200 end. 546 rcAg
c.546 KYTHERA Island (south of Peloponnese), comes under Sparta until 424. 546 rcAg
c.545 CYPRUS, under Egypt from 565, partly conquered by Persians until 526/5. 546 CAH 3.3
545 cpnt, wikHC
c.545 XENOPHANES of Colophon, Ionia, exiled from 545, moves to Zancle and Catana in Sicily until 530. 545 GRG 326
no date: B76 X-780
c.543 METAL CASTING improved by Rhoecus of Samos. 543 GHH
c.540 Carthage, allied with Etruscan cities, backs Phoenicians of Corsica and excludes the Greeks from contact with colonies such as Gadir in Spain. 540 hifiC
c.540 Phocaeans of Corsica begin war with Carthaginians and Etruscans over trading rights in West Mediterranean until 535. 540 B76 9-1081, GRG 177, 324, OHG, RW  
c.540 Bros, Polycrates, Pantagnostus, and Syloson, stage a coup on SAMOS.  Tyrant of Samos Island from 560, AEAKES-I overthrown.  POLYCRATES succeeds until 522.  Defies Persia, rebuilds temple of Hera, allies with Egypt, builds up fleet of 100 ships. 550 CDCC 780     540 GRG 324, MCAW 92, lvG     538 rcAg
535 B76 VIII-95, 8-347, Dur 2-66, OHG     532 DGRBM 2-860, GHH, bk
c.539 PYTHAGORAS, mystic, mathematician, devotee of Apollo, flourishes at Samos Island. 539 GHH
c.539 Phoenicians fleeing from Persians emigrate to the colonies, especially Carthage. 539 hifiC
c.536 NAXOS Island in Cyclades comes under tyrant Lygdamis until 524. 540 DGRBM 2-860 536 rcAg
c.535 War of Phocaeans against Carthaginians and Etruscans from 540 ends with sea battle of ALALIA Corsica.  Phocaeans defeat a fleet twice their size, but suffer such losses that the survivors leave and become pirates.  They resettle at Elea, Etruria.  Etruscans stone their Phocaean P.O.W.s. 540 B76 17-402, CAH 3.3, 7.2-48     538 DGRG 1-861 535 B76 8-331, CAH 4-117, Dur 2-169, 3-7, GRG 177, 324, MCAW 92, MWΦ 118, OCD 208, RAH 213
c.535 CORSICA, under Phocaeans from 565, comes under Etruscans until ?. 535 CAH 7.2, OCD 923
c.535 CARTHAGE controls western Mediterranean.  Greeks are shut out. 540 OHG     535 MCAW 93, MWΦ 118, OCD 208
c.535 Greeks of SPAIN from 620, forced out by Carthaginian control of trade. 535 MCAW 93
c.535 POLYCRATES tyrant of Samos 540-22 turns pirate, with strongest fleet in Aegean. 535 B76 8-347
c.534 IOS Island in Cyclades begins paying tribute to Athens. 534 wikIos
c.531 ANACREON, poet/musician of Teos, visits court of Polycrates of Samos. 531 GHH
c.531 PYTHAGORAS, mystic, mathematician, devotee of Apollo, leaves Samos Island, goes to Croton, Italy. 532 B76 VIII-326     531 BNTH 51, GRG 324, 326, OCD 903, bk     530 CAH 7.2
post-530 B76 8-346     529 Dur 2-66,142
525 B76 15-322     522 RAH 167
c.530 Greek poet XENOPHANES of Colophon, in Sicily from 545, wanders Mediterranean until 520. no date:
B76 X-780
c.530 Greek ALCMAEON son of Peirithous leaves home on Samos Island for Croton Italy, where he becomes a famous physician until death 490. 530 sepAlc
c.530 Eupalinos tunnelTUNNEL of Eupalinos on Samos, begun 550, to bring water from an inland spring to the city.  Finished.  1,036 meters long.  Still exists. photo Zach Marshall

530 wikEup
c.530 CYPRUS:  City-states begin to strike their own COINS using Persian weight system.   (See Greece 600, China 520, Darius-I 510, Etruscan 470) 6th cen.: xchng
560-25 anst
500 hCyp
c.529 SAMOS becomes dominant in the Aegean. 529 GHH
c.529/8 ARCHESILAUS-III king of Cyrene 530-15, driven from Cyrene.  His mom Pheretima flees to court of Evelthon, king of Salamis Cyprus, and presses for an army to restore Archesilaus. post-529/8 DGRBM 2-83
c.528 MALTA:  Greek colony of MELITE from 700 ends.  Malta under Carthage until 218. 528 rcSI
c.527 LESBOS V Island comes under Persia until ?. 527 B76 VI-164, rcAg 517 CAH 4
c.526/5 CYPRUS, partly conquered by Persians from 545, part under EUELTHON of Salamis from 560, taken by CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22.  Mostly under Persia until 478.. 526 wikCyp, wikHC     525 B76 5-406, ISBE 1-843, OCD 306, cpnt, wikCyp, wikHC
c.525 COINS introduced in Sicily. 530-20 CAH 4
c.525 Sculptors ARISTOCLES & CANACHOS of Sicyon, grandsons of Aristocles of Cydonia (585) flourish.  Found a school of sculpture at Sicyon.  They are teachers of Synoon. 540-08 wikArs
c.525 Sculptor / architect THEODOROS of Samos flourishes.  Along with Rhoecos, he is often credited with inventing ore smelting, improving the mixing copper and tin to make bronze, and according to Pausanias, the craft of casting.  He is credited with inventing a water level, a carpenter's square, and, according to Pliny, a lock and key and the turning lathe.  According to Vitruvius, Theodoros is the architect of the Doric Order Heraion of Samos temple. 6th cen wikθS
530-21 TTS
no date: wikThdr
c.525 POLYCRATES tyrant of Samos 540-22, pirate 535-22, possibly ordered by Cambyses-II, sends 40 triremes to help Cambyses invade Egypt, but mans them with men who hate Polycrates just to get rid of them.  Those men, having no reason to serve Cambyses, desert, and sail to Greece. They inspire Spartans and Corinthians to help them recover Samos from Polycrates.  Their combined fleet besieges Samos 40 days and withdraws.  This is 1st definite reference to use of triremes in combat. 525
B76 8-347-8, CAH 4,
DGRBM 3-459, MCAW 96, wikTr
524 CAH 4-75
c.525 In response to Samian exiles, Spartans and Corinthians send a fleet to overthrow POLYCRATES of Samos. 525 B76 8-348, GHH, bk     524 ISBE 2-563 523 CAH 4
c.525 After the fall of Egypt in 525, Polycrates has no more financial support.  Samian rebels, assisted by Spartans and Corinthians, besiege Samos 40 days and withdraw. 525 B76 8-348, lvG
c.525 Spartan ARCHIAS killed in battle at siege of Samos. 525 DGRBM 1-265
c.525 CYPRUS:  EARLY IRON AGE ends.  Began 1050.
Archaic Period ends.  Began 700.
525 wikHC
c.524 Pirates of Samos land on Siphnos island and extract 100 talents from the inhabitants. 524
Dur 2-133
c.524 LYGDAMIS, tyrant of Naxos Island in Cyclades from 536, deposed.  NAXOS island comes under oligarchy until 504. 525 or 515 CAH 3.3 524 rcAg
c.522  Homeric Hymn to Apollo  compsed.  Attributed Cynaethus of Chios for performance at the unusual double festival held by Polycrates of Samos to honor Apollo of Delos and of Delphi. 522 wikHH
c.522 OROETES, Persian satrap of Lydia at Sardis, sends message to Polycrates, pirate/tyrant of Samos.  Says he plans to rebel against Cambyses-II, offers money for naval support. 522
CAH 4-91
c.522 POLYCRATES dies.  Tyrant of Samos from 540, accepts invitation of Oroetes, satrap of Sardis, to a conference on mainland.  He leaves Menandrius (Maeandrios) in charge of Samos, sails to Ionia, and is crucified by Oroetes.
MENANDRIUS rules Samos until 517, with Syloson II, Phoibias, and Charilaos.  SAMOS, under aristocrats from 620, comes loosely under Persia until 494.
524/3 CAH 3.3
522 B76 VIII-95, 8-347, CAH 4, CDCC 780, DGRBM 2-890, 3-459, GHH, GRG 324, MCAW 96, OCD 327, bk, rcAg 515 Dur 2-66
c.522 MENANDRIUS, honcho of Samos 522-17, plans to distribute wealth of Polycrates equally among the Samians, finds it too dangerous, drops the plan. 522
CAH 4-92
c.522 AQUEDUCT built by engineer Eupalinus on Samos Island. 522 TTT
c.522 EVELTHON, king of Salamis Cyprus from 568 ends.  SIROMAS succeeds until 511 522 wikAGhC
c.520 Greeks of Aegina Island attack Samians on Crete. 520 OCD 12
c.520 Cypriot city-kings initiate coinage. 520 GRG 325     500 wikCyp
c.520 VOUNI Cyprus built as a royal residence on a hill overlooking the Morphou Bay until destroyed 380.  Contains royal audience chambers, open courtyards, bathhouses, and stores. 520
c.519 Pirates of Cydonia Crete defeated by fleet from Aegina. 519 bk
c.519 Pithagoras tyrant of Selinus Sicily from ?, overthrown with help of Euryleon of Sparta. 519 DGRBM 3-174,
c.519 LYGDAMIS, tyrant of Naxos Island in Cyclades, ally of Pisistratos of Athens, overthrown.  Sparta implicated. 519 CAH 4-79
c.517 SIMONIDES, poet of Ceos Island in Cyclades flourishes. 517 Dur 2-66 520-468 OHG
Not to be confused with Semonides of Amorgos
c.517 SAMOS Island, under weak Persian vassal Menandrius from 522, conquered by general Otanes, remains loosely under Persia until 494.  SYLOSON, bro of Polycrates, put in charge until ?.  Menandrius escapes to Sparta  521 GHH
517 CAH 4, lvOt
no date:
DGRBM 2-890
c.517 CHIOS Island comes under Persia until 499. 546 rcAg     517 CAH 4
c.513 SAMOTHRACE Island in north Aegean, under Aeolian Greeks from 700, comes under Persia until 478/7. 513 rcAg
c.513 Lacedaemonians are dominant in the Aegean. 513 GHH
c.512 LEMNOS island in northeast Aegean, comes under Persia until 477. 512 rcAg
c.511 SIROMAS, king of Salamis Cyprus from 522 ends.  CHERSIS EVELTHONIDES succeeds until 500 511 wikAGhC
c.511/10 SYBARIS Sicily destroyed. 510-10 CAH 4
c.510 DOREIUS, half bro of Cleomenes of Sparta, leads 1,000 men to settle foot of Mt. Eryx, west Sicily, founds HERACLEIA MINOA, forms anti-Punic alliance with Selinute, Himera, and the Sicanians.  All but one of them are killed by forces of Carthage, Segesta, Phoenicians of Sicily. 510 B76 8-346, CAH 3.3, 7.2-525, DGRBM 1-1066, DGRG 1-1048, MCAW 102, MWΦ 196, lvG     510/9 CAH 4
c.510 PYTHAGORAS tyrant of Acragas from ?, ends.  ACRAGAS, tyranny from 570, becomes aristocratic republic until 488. 510 rcSI
c.510 LEMNOS Island taken by Miltiades, now working for Persia, comes under Persia until 477. 512 rcAg
510-00 CAH 7.2 504 GHH
c.510 IOS Island in Cyclades comes under Persia until 480. 510 rcAg
c.509 150 years of Phoenician exploitation of Sardinia result in an uprising by the Sardi.  They attack Phoenician settlements, forcing the colonists to call on Carthage for help.  A military force arrives which quells the uprising and secures most of Sardinia under Carthaginian control. 509 hifiC
c.508 Aegina Island is dominant in the Aegean. 508 GHH
c.508 Carthage / ROME  1st treaty VRome to stay out of Sardinia, west Mediterranean, and Africa, except in maritime emergencies.  Carthage to stay out of Latium. 510 MWΦ 233     509 mxfld
508 B76 13-149, Dur 3-43, GHH, LEWH 83, MWΦ 208, OCD 208 506 OCD 703
c.508/7 EURYLEON at Minoa and Selinus. 508/7 CAH 4
c.506 MEGABYZOS, Persian commander in Aegean, recalled.  OTANES son of Sisamnes succeeds until ?. 506
DGRBM 3-65
c.505 GELA Sicily, under democracy from 688, under Rhodians and Cretans.  Overthrown by mercenaries of Cleandros.  CLEANDROS is tyrant until 498.  Under tyrants until 466. 505 CAH 4, DGRG 1-984, GHH, rcSI     500 OHG
c.504 CYNAETHUS of Chios is 1st to recite HOMER at Syracuse. 504 OCD 305
c.504 NAXOS Island in Cyclades, under oligarchy from 524, no longer under oligarchy. 504 rcAg
c.502 Eretria Euboea is dominant in the Aegean. 502 GHH

West Medit. 500-301       East Medit. 500-301
 V           V