website source links
ade     hifiK     hifiS     mxfld     rcAr
  rri    wikQd   wikLRSH    wikTY 

Arabia Go to Mediterranean Go to Levant Go to Mesopotamia Go to Persia Go to Egypt Go to Africa
c.1000 CAMELS, long used by Arameans in Arabia, come into common use.
(See Levant 1000, Mesopotamia 1000)
1000 mxfld
c.965 BALKIS, queen of Saba from 1005, ends.  Sucessors unknown. 965 hifiS
CONFUSION ALERT!  SABA in Arabia is different from Saba (Seba) Ethiopia, (Isaiah 43:3 and 45:14).
c.960 TADMOR in desert east of Kadesh, independent from ?, comes under Israel until 928. 960 rcS
c.946 SOLOMON, king of Israel 970-31, begins building a merchant FLEET at Ezion-Geber on Gulf of Aqaba.  This means he controlls all Edom.  Hiram of Tyre furnishes sailors.  It trades with OPHIR, which must have been in Africa, because they brought back apes and ivory. 1K 9:26-28, 10:22, 2Ch 9:21
950 MCAW 55
c.925 EZION-GEBER, on Gulf of Aqaba, under Israel/Judah from ?, sacked and destroyed by SHESHONK-I, pharaoh 945-24. 925 IDB 2-214
c.900 The Qahtanis begin using a Variant of Phoenician script, which leads to recording of the South Arabian history. 900 wikTY
c.870 Kingdom of QEDAR begins until 610. 870 hifiK
c.870 GINDIBU becomes king of Qedar until 850. 870 hifiK, wikQd
c.850 GINDIBU king of Qedar from 870 ends. 850 hifiK, wikQd
c.800 QAHTANI Semites, dominant in Yemen from 2300, no longer dominant. 800 ade
c.800 Hegemony of Saba begins until 400. 800 wikAHY,
c.800 The Qatabani rise as Sabean vassals in central and east Yemen. 800 wikTY
c.800 The Hadhramawt rise as Sabean vassal kingdom in east Yemen. 800 wikTY
c.800 AWSAN appears as independent nation until 500.  HAGAR YAHIRR (location unknown) becomes capital of Awsan kingdom. 800 ade, wikAHY, wikTY
Though the city lasts until 600s, the kingdom of Aswan soon fades out of history, to be replaced by Yemen.
c.760 AB'AMAR SAQID becomes 1st documented king of Nashan until ?. 760 rri
c.750 Kingdom of MA'IN V begins until 100.  Capital at Karna (Baraqish). 800 wikTY
800-700 ade, wikAHY
c.750 TIHAMA Semitic culture of Yemen, settling Ethiopian highlands from ?, peaks and begins decline. 800-700 ade
c.750 SABAEANS begin to rule Aseer region of southwest Yemen until 275CE.  Capital at MARIB on the edge of the mountains regions in Sirwah. 800 wikTY 800-700 ade
c.750 Kingdom of Hadramawt begins until 300CE. 8-700 wikAHY
c.750 ZABIBE becomes queen of Qedar until 735.
First monarch explicitly associated with Qedar in Assyrian texts.
750 hifiK, wikQd
c.746 ZABIBE queen of Qedar 750-35 makes dau SAMSIE co-queen. 746 hifiK
c.735 ZABIBE queen of Qedar from 750 ends.  Dau SAMSIE continues until 710. 735 hifiK
c.732/1 TIGLATH-PILESER-III, king of Assyria 745-27 claims to receive tribute from an Arabian queen, and lists SHEBA among tribes of northwest Arabia. 732/1
IDB 4-311
c.730 TEMA (town and oasis in northwest Arabia) comes under Assyria until 609. 730 rcAr
c.719 Temple of Marib is finished. 719 wikTY
c.718 War between Ma'in and the Sabeans. 718 wikTY
c.716 After securing their borders with Ma'in, the Sabeans move their capital to the more accessible Marib. 716 wikTY
c.716 West SINAI subdued by Assyrians. 716 Jud 14-881
c.715 The Sabeans control the trade line and start recording diplomatic relationships with Assyrians. 715 wikTY
c.710 SAMSIE queen of Qedar from 735 ends.  YATIE succeeds until 695. 735 wikQd 710 hifiK
c.709 HAASA (east coast of Arabia, primarily the region opposite Qatar and Bahrain, but extending north along coast toward Kuwait), under Dilmun from 1450, comes under Assyria until 650. 709 rcAr
c.709 DILMUN island, independent city-state from 1100, comes under Assyria until 609.  UPERI is ruler until 706. 709 rcAr
c.706 UPERI, ruler of DILMUN island under Assyria from 709, ends.  AHUNDARU-I succeeds until 685. 706 rcAr
c.700 DAM at Marib, capital of SABA, reconstructed over a previous dam built c.1725 to collect spring water, and let it out as needed to irrigate crops.  Irrigates 25,000 acres.  It lasts until 500. 700 ade
550 PW 16
c.700 The Qatabani build Timna and rebel against authority of Saba. 700 wikTY
c.700 ARABIC SCRIPT (South Semitic) produced in Yemen. 800 ade     8-700 wss     700 mxfld
c.695 YATIE queen of Qedar from 735 ends.  TE'ELHUNU succeeds until 690. 695 hifiK, wikQd
c.691 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, invades north Arabia until 689. 691
ISBE 2-887
c.690 TE'ELHUNU queen of Qedar from 695 captured by Sennacherib and taken to Assyria.  HAZAEL succeeds until 676. 690 wikQd
c.689 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, in Arabia from 691, departs to deal with rebellion in Babylon. 689
ISBE 2-887
c.685 AHUNDARU-I, ruler of DILMUN island under Assyria from 706, ends.  QANAYEH succeeds until 660. 685 rcAr
c.685 NAJRAN, town in southwest Arabia, comes under Saba until 25CE. 685 rcAr
c.676 HAZAEL king of Qedar from 690 ends.  Son YAUTA succeeds until 652. 676 hifiK, wikQd
c.676 ESARHADDON, king of Assyria and Babylon 681-69, raids Arabia. 676 DOTT 73, Jud 6-853, MCAW 68
c.675 The Qatabani rebellion from 700 is suppressed by Karibil Watar, who brings all of South Arabia under Sabean rule. 675 wikTY
c.660 QANAYEH, ruler of DILMUN island under Assyria from 685, ends.  AHUNDARU-II succeeds until 635. 660 rcAr
c.650 HAGAR YAHIRR destroyed by king Karibil Watar of Saba. 600s ade
c.652 YAUTA king of Qedar from 676 ends.  ABIYATE son of Teri succeeds until 644, but never gains support of his people. 652 hifiK, wikQd
c.650 HAASA (east coast of Arabia, primarily the region opposite Qatar and Bahrain, but extending north along coast toward Kuwait), under Assyria from 709, comes under Gerrha until 300CE. 650 rcAr
c.645 Assyrian campaign against tribes of Qedar, Su-mu-An and Nebaioth. 645 rri
c.644 ABIYATE, king of Qedar from 652, ends.  Kingdom of QEDAR conquered by Assyria, under Assyria until 610. 644 hifiK, rcJdn, wikQd
c.635 AHUNDARU-II, ruler of DILMUN island under Assyria from 660, ends.  Dilmun continues under Assyria until 609. 635 rcAr
c.620 Karabil Watar-II becomes king of Saba until 600. 620 wikLRSH
c.610 QEDAR, under Assyria from 644, comes under Babylon until 539. 610 hifiK, rcJdn
c.609 TEMA (town and oasis in northwest Arabia) under Assyria from 730, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcAr
c.609 DILMUN island, under Assyria from 709, comes under Babylon until 539. 609 rcAr
c.600 YAHARIL becomes 1st king of Haram until ?.  His dynasty lasts until 175. 600 rri
c.600 Karabil Watar-II, king of Saba from 620, ends.  Son Samah ali Zarih succeeds until 580. 600 wikLRSH
c.600 SABA peaks in power and extends hegemony across the Red Sea establishing the Damot Kingdom, which will be the nucleus of Semitic culture of East Africa.  It is not the first attempt of the Qahtanis to expand to the African coast. 600 wikTY
c.598 NEBUCHADREZZAR-II king of Babylon 605-562, departs from Babylon, invades northwest Arabia, then proceeds to returns to Syria and Levant until 596. 599 RAI2 316     598 B76 11-988, 12-925, IDB 3-530, MCAW 78, MNHK 186, Sdl 4-349, SOTS 235
c.585 AMMIYITHA becomes 1st king of Kaminahu until 570. 585 rri
c.580 MATIIL becomes ruler of rebel Qedarites at Dedan until 565. 580 hifiK, wikQd
c.580 Samah ali Zarih, king of Saba from 600, ends.  Son Karabil Watar-III succeeds until 570. 580 wikLRSH
c.570 Karabil Watar-III, king of Saba from 580, ends.  Bro Ilsharih-I succeeds until 560. 570 wikLRSH
c.570 AMMIYITHA, 1st king of Kaminahu from 585, ends.  His line continues thru 8 more documented rulers to 475. 570 rri
c.565 MATIIL ruler of rebel Qedarites at Dedan from 580 ends.  Son KABARIL succeeds until 550. 565 hifiK, wikQd
c.560 Ilsharih-I, king of Saba from 570, ends.  Neph Yadail Bayin-V succeeds until 540. 560 wikLRSH
c.552 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, fails to see danger of Cyrus-II, goes south into Arabia until 540.  TEMA, large oasis in west Arabia, taken by Nabonidus, who plans to retire there. 552
B76 11-989, OCD 91
550 MCAW 88, rri
549 RAI2 322
by 548 SOTS 239
no date: MCAW 88
I doubt that this is identical to the location presently called Tema, or even Dumah, because of their remoteness.
c.550 KABARIL ruler of rebel Qedarites at Dedan from 565 ends.  NABONIDUS rules from Tema until 540. 550 hifiK, wikQd
c.550 WAQAHIL YAFUSH becomes king of Inabba until 530.  550 rri
c.550 States around Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rise because of overland export of frankincense and myrrh from south Arabia to Mediterranean. 550
PW 16
c.540 NABONIDUS king of Babylon 556-39, leaves Tema, returns to Babylon. 545 RAI2 322     542 B76 11-989 540 MCAW 92, rri
539 B76 VII-158, hifiK
c.540 Yadail Bayin-V, king of Saba from 560, ends.  Son Yakrib Malek Watar-IV succeeds until 520. 540 wikLRSH
c.539 TEMA, under Babylon from 609, no longer so. 539 rcAr
c.539 QEDAR, under Babylon from 610, comes under Persia until 332. 539 hifiK, rcJdn
c.539 DILMUN island, under Babylon from 609, comes under GERRHA until 125. 539 rcAr
c.535 LABAN becomes ruler of Nashan in southwest Arabia until 520. 535 rcAr
c.535 MARTAWUN becomes king of Awsan until 520. 535 rcAr
c.530 WAQAHIL YAFUSH, king of Inabba from 550, ends. 530 rri
c.520 LABAN, ruler of Nashan from 535, ends.  SUMHUYAFA YASRAN succeeds until 500. 520 rcAr
c.520 MARTAWUN, king of Awsan from 535, ends. 520 rcAr
c.520 AWSAN (Ausan), ancient state on coast, comes under Saba until 250. 520 rcAr, wikQd
c.520 Yakrib Malek Watar-IV, king of Saba from 540, ends.  Son Yatha Amar Bayin-IV succeeds until 500. 520 wikLRSH
CONFUSION ALERT!  SABA in Arabia is different from Saba (Seba) Ethiopia, (Isaiah 43:3 and 45:14).
c.510 MAHLAY becomes king of Qedar until 490. 510 wikQd
c.500 SUMHUYAFA YASRAN, ruler of Nashan from 520, ends.  YADIAB AMIR succeeds until 480. 500 rcAr, rri

Arabia 500-300