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c.1000 SAHARAN DESSICATION is completed. 1000 wikBP
c.950 MOROCCO on northwest coast colonized by Phoenicians. 950 TToH 6
c.950 CAMELS:  Domestic dromedary, in Sahara from ?, disappears until invasion of Cambyses 525.   (See Levant 1000, Levant 853) 950 zwf
c.900 MANDE civilization in west Africa begins.  Peaks 600. 900 wikMnd
c.814 ELISA (Dido) of Tyre, with Tyrians and 80 cult prostitutes, sail from Cyprus to Libya.  Bargain with Utica for as much land as can be covered by an ox hide.  Cuts the hide into thin strips and surrounds the hill of Byrsa that will become Carthage. 869 GHH
814 B76 17-944, LEWH 48, MWΦ 114, TTT, hifiC, wikMC
c.814 CARTHAGE founded (traditional date) by ELISSA of Tyre. 850 IDB 3-803     814 CAH 3.1, MWΦ 17, OCD 208, RAI2 223, TAWH 16, WPOT 268     813 Dur III-39, TToH 7
c.800 CARTHAGE, a colony of Tyre from 814, goes independent. 800 SHWC 106 574 hifiC
c.800 PHOENICIANS exploit silver mines of Spain and Africa. 800 B76 II-598
c.750 CARTHAGE founded (despite traditional date of 814) by ELISSA of Tyre.  1st archaeologial evidence. 750 PW 15
c.700 West Africa:  further climatic deterioration begins. 700 mxfld
c.630 CYRENE founded by the Minyae tribe from Thera Island under chief Battos, who rules until 600. 640 DGRBM 1-476     639 GHH     632 B76 III-329, 8-332, CAH 3.3-160, 7.2, GRG 325, rcNA
631 DGRBM, DGRG 1-733-4, GHH
630 B76 13-149, CAH 4-109, Dur 2-173, ISBE 1-844, LEWH 62, MCAW 72, OCD 94, 265, 307, OHG, Shaw 374, lvG, wikC
founded by Sparta: mxfld
BATTAID DYNASTY of CYRENE begins until 440.
c.600 MANDE civilization in West Africa from 900, peaks until beginning of decline 300. 600 wikMnd
c.600 EUESPERIDES Libya founded by Greeks. 600 CDCC 332
c.600 BATTOS-I 1st Greek king of Cyrene from 630 dies.  Son ARCESILAOS-I succeeds to 583. 600 rcNA, wikC
599 DGRBM 1-476, lvG
591 DGRBM, OCD 94
c.600 VOYAGE AROUND AFRICA commissioned by Neco-II using Phoenician sailorsStarts at Ezion-Geber and sails clockwise around Africa, arriving back in Egypt 3 years later. Herodotus 4-42
BAR Jul-Aug 1979 vol V #4
610 GHH     600 WPOT 277, TTS, TTT
c.583 ARCESILAOS-I 2nd Greek king of Cyrene from 600 dies.  Son BATTOS-II succeeds to 560. 583 DGRBM 1-476, lvG, rcNA, wikC 575 DGRBM, OCD 94
c.580 HANNO-I becomes Magonid honcho of Carthage until 556. 580 hifiC, rcNA, wikMC
c.571 Many Dorian Greeks move to CYRENE at invitation of Greeks already there. 571
Shaw 374
c.570 Libyans of Cyrene appeal to pharaoh APRIES for help against GreeksApries sends a large mercenary force that is disastrously defeated at the well of Thestis in Irasa. 571 Shaw 374 570 CAH 4-109-11, DGRBM 1-476, Grim 363, OCD 307, lvG
c.560 BATTOS-II 3rd Greek king of Cyrene from 583 dies.  Son ARCESILAUS-II succeeds to 550. 560 lvG, wikC     554 rcNA
no date: DGRBM 1-476, OCD 94
c.556 HANNO-I Magonid honcho of Carthage from 580, ends.  MALCHUS succeeds until 550. 556 hifiC, rcNA, wikMC
c.554 Perseus, Zacynthus, Aristomedon, and Lycus, renounce allegiance to bro of Arcesilaus-II, Greek king of Cyrene, persuade local Libyans to join them in rebellion. 554 DGRG 1-377
c.554 BARCA Cyrenaica founded by Greek brothers Perseus, Zacynthus, Aristomedon, and Lycus. 560-50 CAH 3.3-160 554 DGRG 1-377
c.550 MALCHUS, general of Carthage, banished from Carthage because of defeat by Sardinia.  Besieges and takes Carthage. 550
MWP 118
c.550 MALCHUS, general of Carthage, killed for aspiring to tyranny.  MAGO succeeds as ruler until 530.   Magonid dynasty rules until 340. 550 OCD 641, hifiC, rcNA, wikMag, wikMC
no date: MWP 118
c.550 ARCESILAOS-II, son of Battos-II, 4th Greek king of Cyrene from 560 strangled by bro Learchus, who usurps throne.  Queen Eryxo retaliates.  Learchus is murdered.  Son of Arcesilaos & Eryxo, BATTOS-III the Lame succeeds to 530. 550 lvG, rcNA, wikC 550 or 44
DGRBM 1-476
c.540 MAGO, Magonid ruler of Carthage 550-30, reorganizes army from citizen levy to mercenary force. no date: OCD 640
c.539 Phoenicians fleeing from Persians emigrate to the colonies, especially Carthage. 539 hifiC
c.530 MAGO, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 550, ends.  Son HASDRUBAL-I succeeds to 510. 530 wikMag, wikMC
520 OCD 640     510 rcNA
c.530 BATTOS-III the Lame, 5th Greek king of Cyrene from 550 ends.  ARCESILAOS-III succeeds to 515. 530 lvG, wikC     530-29 DGRBM 1-477     525 rcNA
c.529/8 ARCESILAOS-III king of Cyrene 530-15, driven from Cyrene.  His mom Pheretima flees to court of Evelthon, king of Salamis Cyprus. post-529/8 DGRBM 2-83
c.525 LIBYA and CYRENE submit to Cambyses-II.  CYRENE under Persia until 476. 525 B76 III-329, 13-149, CAH 4-20, OCD 307, rcNA
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, marches west, intending to take Carthage, stopped by sandstorm, turns back.  Phoenician sailors refuse to fight. 525 CAH 4-21     523 DGRG 1-533
c.525 ARCESILAOS-III 6th Greek king of Cyrene 530-15 pays tribute to Cambyses-II. 525 DGRBM 1-477
c.520 30,000 Carthaginians under Admiral HANNO in a fleet of 60 ships sail to west coast of Africa at Rio de Oro in the western Sahara.  Describes gorillas.  Colony survives 50 years. 520 TTPC, mxfld
500-491 TTS
c.520 CARTHAGE detatches itself politically from TYRE. 520 IDB 4-723
c.518 ARCESILAOS-III 6th Greek king of Cyrene 530-15 expelled by opposition, goes to Samos, recruits army. 518 lvG
c.516 ARCESILAOS-III 6th Greek king of Cyrene 530-15 returns to Cyrene, recovers his land, but ultimately flees to his father-in-law, Libyan king Alazeir of Barca. no date: lvG
c.515 ARCESILAOS-III 6th Greek king of Cyrene from 530 murdered (along with cousin ALAZIR king of Barca between Euesperides & Cyrene).  BATTOS-IV the Fair succeeds to 465, no longer ruler of an independent kingdom, but a puppet of Persians. post-522 OCD 94 515 lvG, rcNA, wikC 514 DGRBM 1-477 510 CAH 4-110
c.515 Persians in Egypt advance as far west as Greek city of EUESPERIDES Libya. 515 CDCC 332, wikBng
c.514 DORIEUS, half bro of Cleomenes-I of Sparta, begins western expedition to Cinyps River on coast of N. Libya until 512. 515/4 lvG     514 GRG 211
post-515 B76 8-332
513 CAH 7.2-525
no date: OCD 363
c.514 DORIEUS, at Cinyps River on coast of N. Africa from 514, expelled by Libyan natives, aided by Carthaginian troops. 514 GRG 211     513 CAH 4-112
no date: B76 8-332, OCD 363
c.512 BARCA between Euesperides & Cyrene captured by Persians. 512 DGRBM 1-477
c.510 HASDRUBAL-I, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 530, ends.  HAMILCAR-I succeeds to 480. 510 wikMag, wikMC, wikHam1     499 rcNA
c.510 MAGO-I, Magonid ruler of Carthage from 550, ends.  HASDRUBAL succeeds to 499. 510 hifiC
c.510 The RIF, a 290km long mountain range in north Morocco, comes under Carthage until 202. 510 rcNA
c.510 SFAX, port city on central Tunisian coast, opposite Kerkennah Islands, comes under Carthage until 146. 510 rcNA
c.510 DJERBA island in Gulf of Gades comes under Carthage until 201. 510 rcNA
c.508 CARTHAGE / ROME  1st treaty VRome to stay out of Sardinia, west Mediterranean, and Africa, except in maritime emergencies.  Carthage to stay out of Latium. 510 MWΦ 233     509 mxfld
508 B76 13-149, Dur 3-43, GHH, LEWH 83, MWΦ 208, OCD 208     506 OCD 703

North Africa 500-301