100 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(7) Valerius FLACCUS and C. MARIUS (6th) 100 B76 IV-167, 11-504, DGRBM 2-158, 956, GHH, LEWH 105, OCD 440, SORH, bk, csm, wikCon, wikGM, wikTAR
c.100 C. Servilius GLAUCIA is praetor. 100 B76 11-504,
DGRBM 2-271, 3-724, SORH
c.100 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO (anti-Saturninus) is urban quaestor.  He opposes lex frumentaria. 100 DGRBM 1-535, wikQSCY
c.100 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO opposes Saturninus. 100 B76 III-302
c.100 Tribune SATURNINUS is re-elected, establishes Roman colonies at Eporedia north of the Po and in Corsica, and plans other colonies. 100 GHH, atl1
c.100 2nd SICILIAN SLAVE WAR from 103, ends.Manius(2) AQUILIUS wins. 101 CAH 9-25     100 CAH 9, DGRG 2-983, 1231, OCD 496 99 LEWH 105, TTPC
c.100 EPOREDIA (Ivrea) founded as a Roman colony to keep the Salyes (Salassi) in check, and guard invasion routes thru western Alps. 100 CAH 9-99, DGRG 2-880, SORH, hifiSls, wikIvr
100 Consul C. MARIUS accepts services of L. Apuleius Saturninus to gain consulship of 99 and ruin Q.(4) Metellus.  Marius supports Saturninus in all his violent and unconstitutional acts. 100 DGRBM 2-956, wikGM
c. 100 Λ  Lex Apuleia Agraria(2)  of tribune L. Apuleius Saturninus gives land grants to Marius' veterans of German war 105-02 in Transalpine Gaul.  The land promised is the land in Cisalpine Gaul vacated by the Cimbri.  Gives Marius the right of enfranchisement in new colonies.  Saturninus adds a clause, that if the people pass the law, the senators must swear obedience to it within 5 days or be expelled, and pay 20 talents fine.  It is common knowledge that Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus will not take the oath.
It also cuts price of state controled grain by ⅞.  Violently opposed by optimates.  Quaestor Q.(3) Caepio says the treasury cannot bear the expence.  It is probably never passed, and certainly never done.
101 DGRA 685
100 CAH 8-243, 9-110, CDGRA 15, DGRA 41, 549, DGRBM 2-956, 1059, 3-724, HRL 232, OCD 955, SORH, atl1, unrv, wikLRL
c.100 To entrap Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus, Marius addresses the senate, and says that he would never take the oath.  Metellus says likewise.  But when the tribune summons the senators to the rostra to comply with the demand, Marius, to the astonishment of all, takes the oath, and advises the senate to follow his example. 100 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-956, atl1
c.100 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS NUMIDICUS is the only senator who refuses to take the oath to observe Saturninus' land law.  Exiled until 99/8.  Equite L. Aelius Praeconinus Stilo accompanies him. 100 DGRBM 2-956, 3-724, 913, GHH, OCD 678, 955, SORH, atl1
c.100 Q. POMPEIUS RUFUS is pleb tribune.  He and colleague L. Cato propose the recal of Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus from banishment. 100 DGRBM 3-474
100 L. EQUITIUS is imprisoned by Marius, but Equitius is rescued by a mob. 100 atl1
100 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO is quaestor urbanus.  He is prosecuted for obstructing the passage of L. Apuleius Saturninus' grain law. 100 DGRBM 1-535, atl1, wikQSCY
100 Consul C. MARIUS, opposed by the senate, turns for help to tribune L. Apuleius Saturninus and praetor C. Servilius Glaucia.  Saturninus arranges for settlement of Marius veterans in Gaul. 100 B76 15-1102, LEWH 105
100 Tribune L. Apuleius SATURNINUS is re-elected 4th time for 99, but Marius, recognizes his revolutionary spirit, and breaks with him. 100 B76 VIII-917, atl1
100 C. MEMMIUS(1), respected patrician and opponent of Glaucia in consular elections, is murdered by P. Mettius, a follower of L. Apuleius Saturninus, in a riot caused by Glaucia and Saturninus.  Consular elections collapse in violence. 100 B76 VIII-917, DGRBM 2-1026, 1072, Dur 3-120, GHH, OCD 468, 668, 955, SORH, atl1
c.100 Senate declares Saturninus and Glaucia public enemies. 100 atl1
c.100 L. Porcius CATO is pleb tribune.  He opposes attempts of L. Apuleius Saturninus, and helps reject a rogation on behalf of exiled Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus. 100 DGRBM 1-645
c.100 SATURNINUS and GLAUCIA sieze the Capitoline Hill.  Q. Labienus and neph T. Labienus join them. 100 B76 VIII-917, DGRBM 2-695
Julian Bridge photo:
Lo Scaligero
c.100 PONTE PIETRA "Bridge of Stone" built to allow the Via Postumia to cross the Adige River.  Originally flanks another bridge, Pons Postumius.  Both connect Verona (on the left bank) with a Roman theater on the east bank.  All but the left arch will be blown up by Nazis in 1945. 100 wikPPV
c.100 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS, princeps senatus, moves for a senatus consultum ultimum against Glaucia and Saturninus. 100 OCD 955, 958
c.100 Equites appeal to, and senate orders, consul MARIUS to suppress riot led by Glaucia and Saturninus, who are Marius' friends.  Marius uses some of his own troops to suppress the violence of his own allies. 100 CAH 9-114, Dur 3-120, LEWH 105, SHWC 116, SORH, wikGM
c.100  Lex Servilia Glaucia  proposed and carried by praetor C. Servilius Glaucia:  Applies to magistrates who had improperly taken or received money from any private person.  The magistrate cannot be accused while in office.  Praetor peregrinus will annually appoint 450 Judices (not senators) to try these offenses.  Raises penalty to double what was wrongfully transferred.
Also provides allotments for veterans on land in southern Gaul.
100 CDGRA 745, DGRA 986, wikLRL
c.100 P. FURIUS is pleb tribune and partisan of Saturninus and Glaucia.  He opposes recall of Metellus from exile. 100 CAH 9-101, DGRBM 2-190
c.100 T.(2) DIDIUS, praetor in Macedon 100 returns to Rome and triumph over the Scordisci. 100 wikTD
100 Consul MARIUS suppresses riot, besieges friends Glaucia and Saturninus on Capitoline hill. 100 CAH 9,
LEWH 105, wikGM
100 Consul MARIUS, besieging Glaucia and Saturninus on Capitoline hill, cuts off the pipes which supply the hill. 100 DGRBM 2-956
c.100 Senate forbids all port cities in the Empire and among allies to admit Cilician pirates. 100 CAH 9-351
100 Jul 12 C.(4) JULIUS CAESAR born to C.(3) Caesar, d.84, and Aurelia Cotta, dau of L. Aurelius Cotta or his bro, M. Aurelius Cotta.  C.(4) has 2 older sisters: Julia Major, Julia Minor. 100 B76 3-576, CAH 9-487, DGRBM 1-539, Dur 3-167, GHH, OCD 189, SORH, atl1, wikELJC, wikJC
100 Consul MARIUS orders return of Fannia's dowry, after she is divorced by Titinius. 100 atl1
c.100 Consul MARIUS is so popular that libations are dedicated to him, linking his name with the gods. 100 MCAW
c.100 Apartment houses in Rome commonly reach 5 stories.  They are called insulae "islands". 100 TTT
c.100 SKYLIGHTS:  Small round glass panes are installed in Roman houses. 100 TTT
c.100 CODEX:  leaves of parchment sewn together on one side used in Rome. 100 TTT
c.100 Population of Rome 500,000. 100 wikHR
c.100 Cult of ISIS, introduced to Rome.  Legal until 58.  Lasts until 19CE. end 2nd cen mtms
c.100 Praetor designate P. Sextius is accused of bribery by T. Junius, and condemned. 100 DGRBM 3-810
c. 100 MASKS, long worn in Atellan farces at the Oscan Games in Campania, 1st worn by actors in plays.  Introduced by slave-actor Q. Roscius Gallus. 100 DGRA 893
c. 100 Liver of PiacenzaLIVER of PIACENZA (Placentia):  Life-size bronze model of a sheep liver marked with the name of regions assigned to various Etruscan deities for purpose of haruspicy (liver divination).  Similar to clay models from Near East.  Found near Piacenza 1877. photo: Shonagon

100 wikHrs
100 Opponents of Saturninus include Ser.(4) Sulpicius, Galba, L.(5) Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus, L.(2) Marcius Philippus, M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus, L.(7) Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, C. Atilius Serranus, P. Servilius Vatia. 100 DGRBM 2-205, 1058, 3-286, 736, 748, 1232
100 Dec. C. Servilius GLAUCIA and L. Appuleius SATURNINUS, besieged on Capitoline hill by C. MARIUS, surrender.  They are locked in the curia. Dec. 100 B76 VIII-917
100 L. EQUITIUS, runaway slave posing as a son of Ti. Gracchus, elected pleb tribune for 99.  He sides with Saturninus. 100 DGRBM 2-42
c.100 Proconsul Manius(2) AQUILIUS, in Sicily from 101, returns to Rome, receives an ovatio in 99 for ending the slave revolt, has triumph. 100 DGRBM 1-253
c.100 Temple of FortuneTemple of Fortuna Virilis by the Forum Boarium by the Tiber, built over a previous 4th-3rd century temple.  Ionic style. photo: Mac9

120-80 wikTPrt
100 Dec. While imprisoned in the curia C. Servilius GLAUCIA and L. Appuleius SATURNINUS are murdered.  Enemies tear off the roof and stone them to death.  Their adherents blame Marius. 100 B76 VIII-917, CAH 9, DGRBM 2-272, GHH, OCD 955, SORH, atl1, bk, wikTAR
100 Dec Partisans of Glaucia & Saturninus also killed:  Q. Labienus and neph T. Labienus, quaestor C. Saufeius. 100 DGRBM 2-695, GHH
100 Dec After the murders, the senate wants to recal Q.(4) Metellus Numidicus from exile.  Tribune P. Furius opposes the senate, and refuses to listen to entreaties of Q.(6) Metellus Pius, Q.(4)' son, who implores mercy on his knees. 100 DGRBM 2-190, atl1
100 Dec After the murders, the  leges Apuliae  of Saturninus are dropped and Marius leaves Rome. 100 SORH
100 Dec. L. EQIUTIUS, partisan of Saturninus, tribune designate for 99, is executed. 100 DGRBM 2-42
100 Dec. Quaestor C. SAUFEIUS, partisan of Saturninus, and with him in the capitol, is executed. 100 DGRBM 3-729
100 Dec L. Geganius, partisan of Saturninus, is killed. 100 DGRBM 2-233
100 Dec Gn.(3) Cornelius DOLABELLA, bro of Saturninus, is executed.  Son of same name will be consul 81. 100 DGRBM 1-537, 1058, 2-233
100 Dec. Tribune L. Appuleius Saturninus political' scandal forces C. Marius to retire from public life. 100 wikTAR
100 Dec. At consular elections, with Glaucia as candidate, orator M.(3) Antonius is elected, tribune C. MEMMIUS is beaten to death.  In the chaos the senate passes  "last decree"  calling on consuls to save the state. 100 B76 11-504, wikTAR
c.100 SCREW PRESS for separating liquids from solids, in Greece from ?, introduced to Rome. end of 1st cen.: SHT 2-117
99 Jan 1 CONSULS:  A. Postumius ALBINUS and M.(3) ANTONIUS (the orator) 99 DGRBM 1-213, OCD 76, csm, wikCon
c.99 P. FURIUS, now x-tribune, is accused of offending the majesty of the people by factious opposition by pleb tribune C. Canuleius.  Furius is so detested by the people that they tear him apart before he can make a defense. 100 DGRBM 1-596
99 DGRBM 2-190, LdHR 264
C. Appuleius Decianus instead of C. Canuleius 99 atl1
c.99 Populares in control from ?, changes to Optimates in control until ?. 99 CAH 9
99 C.(7) Claudius PULCHER is curule aedile.  His games feature the first elephant fight. 99 DGRBM 1-770, GHH, LdHR 265, atl1
c.99 Public taxes are farmed out in the provinces by equites from now to 81. 99 GHH
c.99 Pleb Tribune Q. CALIDIUS carries a law recalling Q. Metellus Numidicus from exile. 99 DGRBM 1-563, 2-1059
c.99 L. Sextius CALNINUS is made praetor and sent to Macedonia. 99 DGRBM 1-586
c.99  Lex Calidia de Revocando Q. Caecilio Metello  recalls Metellus Numidicus from exile after death of Saturninus. 99 unrv
c.99 L. Cornelius SULLA runs for praetor and loses. 99 atl1
c.99 BAD OMEN: The spears of Mars in the Regia are moved. 99 atl1
c.99 Curule aedile L. FLACCUS is charged by tribune C. DECIANUS. 99 atl1
c.99 Temple to Honor and Virtue, dedicated 205, is rededicated by C. Marius.  Nothing remains. 99 atl1
c.99 Sextus TITIUS is pleb tribune.  He tries to follow in the steps of Saturninus and Glaucia, by proposing an agrarian law, but is resisted by consul M. Antonius the orator, and the law is killed by bad omens. 99 CAH 9-101, DGRBM 3-1158, atl1
c.99 P. FURIUS, accused 100 by pleb tribune C. Canuleius, is so detested that he is torn to pieces brfore his trial.  The law for removing the ban from Q.(4) Caecilius Metellus Numidicus then passes by acclamation. 99 LdHR 264, atl1
c.99 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS NUMIDICUS returns from exile.  The whole city greets him outside the walls.  Metellus goes straight to the Capitol, thanks the state gods, and is escorted home by a crowd. 99 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1058, GHH, LdHR 265, atl1
c.99/8 C. MARIUS leaves Italy on a tour of the east, goes first to Asia. 99/8 CAH 9-142 98 CAH 9
98 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Q.(5) Caecilius METELLUS NEPOS and T.(2) DIDIUS 98 DGRBM 1-1005, 2-1060, OCD 340, csm, wikCon, wikQ5MN
c.98 Sextus TITIUS flamboyant oratorical style leads to a dance being named after him. 98 atl1
c.98 MANIUS(2) AQUILIUS accused by L. Fufius of maladministration in Sicily, defended by M. Antonius the orator.  His friend C. Marius shows up, and Aquilius is aquitted despite strong evidence of guilt. 98 DGRBM 1-253, wikGM, wikM2Aq
c.98 Sextus TITIUS, having supported Saturninus, is tried and condemned. 98 atl1
c.98 Orators, M.(3) Antonius and Cassius, inveigh against the oppressors of the provinces. 98 GHH
c.98 Roman schools of oratory, founded on the Greek model, flourish. 98 GHH
98 C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS is urban praetor. 98 DGRBM 2-159
98 M. DURONIUS, probably a tribune, abolishes Lex Licinia? Sumptuaria. 98 DGRBM 1-1093
c.98  Lex Caecilia Didia  by consuls Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos and T. Didius, establishes trinundinum, i.e. laws must be proposed at least 3 market days before any popular vote.  Gives senate power to decide on contested validity.  Also forbides Omnibus bills (combining unrelated material).   See 91, 67.  Infringements of the auspices caused by the neglect of evil omens renders legislation invalid. 98 CAH 9-102, DGRBM 2-1060, OCD 272, 340, 601, atl1, unrv, wikLRL
88 EDRL 546
no date: EDRL 548
c.98/7 Consul T.(2) DIDIUS sent to Nearer Spain until 93.  Q. SERTORIUS is his military tribune. 98 rcIb, wikRCH 97 DGRBM 3-789, wikTD     96 atl1
c.98/7 C. MARIUS, now in Anatolia, is elected in absentia to the college of augurs. 98/7 wikGM
97 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Gn. Cornelius LENTULUS and P.(4) Licinius CRASSUS Dives 97 DGRBM 1-874, 2-730, OCD 295, csm, wikCon
97 Λ CENSORS V patrician L.(7) VALERIUS FLACCUS and pleb M.(3) ANTONIUS (the orator)  A census is conducted this year. 97 CAH 9-111, DGRBM 1-213, 2-158, wikCns, wikCon
97 M. DURONIUS expelled from senate by censors for his opposition to sumptuary laws. 97 DGRBM 1-1093, atl1
97 L. Cornelius SULLA becomes praetor.  He displays a lion hunt for first time in the games. 97 MCAW 238, atl1
97 P. Servilius VATIA is pleb tribune. 97 wikPSV
c.97 C. Appuleius DECIANUS, prosecutor of P. Furius in 99, is himself condemned for remarks about death of Saturninus. 97 atl1
c.97 C. MARIUS buys a house in the center of Rome. 97 atl1
97 HUMAN SACRIFICE forbidden in Roman territory by senate - except gladiator shows, of course. 97 Dur 3-64, OCD 295, PD 120, atl1, bk
96 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(3) CASSIUS LONGINUS and Gn.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS 96 DGRBM 2-799, OCD 361, csm, wikCon
96 L.(1) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is made praetor and sent to Sicily. 96 DGRBM 1-85
96 Senate decides that Cappadocia and Paphlagonia should become republics. 96 atl1
c.96 P. Sulpicius RUFUS makes his first public speech. 96 atl1
c.96 L.(1) Licinius Crassus and Q. Mucius Scaevola take opposite sides in a court case, over an inheritance dispute between M' Curius and M. Coponius. 96 atl1
c.96 Crassus speaks in defence of C. Aculeo. 96 atl1
c.96 C. Sergius Orata, a proponent of new luxuries, is tried for building on Lucrine lake, and is defended by Crassus. 96 atl1
96 L. Crassus, candidate for consul, is ashamed to canvass for votes in the presence of Q. Scaevola. 96 atl1
96 C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS is urban praetor. 96 wikGVF
c.96 Praetor P.(4) Licinius CRASSUS goes to Farther Spain as proconsul, remains until 93. 96 DGRBM 1-874, rcIb     95 atl1
95 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS and Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA 95 B76 VIII-940, DGRBM 1-879, 3-733, OCD 295, 957, csm, wikCon
c.95 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO accused of maiestas by tribune C. NORBANUS, ostensibly because he had robbed the temple of Tolosa when consul in 106, and caused the military disaster of 105, but really for his attempt to restore judicial power to the senate.  He is lazily defended by consul L.(1) Licinius Crassus.  Tribunes Cotta and Didius try to interfere, but Cotta is pulled down from the tribunal by force.  M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus lends futile support.  Caepio is convicted.  Riot ensues.  Senatorial party is driven from the forum.  Caepio is imprisoned. 95 DGRBM 1-535, 867, 2-1209, atl1 94 LdHR 267
Acquitted. OCD 188, wikQSCY
c.95 Pleb tribunes include L. Aurelius COTTA, C. NORBANUS, L. REGINUS, and T. DIDIUS.  95 DGRBM 1-867, 1005, 2-1209
c.95 C. NORBANUS is tried for his conduct as tribune in 103.  P. Sulpicius Rufus speaks against him, but he is successfully defended by M. Antonius. 95 CAH 9-96, DGRBM 1-867, 2-1209
c.95 Envoys of Nicomedes-III of Bithynia and Mith-VI of Pontus arrive in Rome to claim their respective pretenders to the throne of Cappadocia.  The Senate finds this too tiresome to unravel, and orders Mith-VI out of Cappadocia and Nicomedes-III out of Paphlagonia.  Both peoples are to be autonomous and free from taxation. 95 CAH 9-142, wikBθP
c.95 Q. HORTENSIUS HORTALUS makes 1st public speech on behalf of inhabitants of Africa. 95 atl1
95 Historian Gn. Aufidius adopts Gn. Aufidius Orestes, and M. Pupius adopts M. Pupius Piso, tho both adopters are old men. 95 atl1
c.95 ASIA Province is Rome's chief source of income in the 90s. B76 15-1102
c.95 Plottius Gallus founds a rhetoric school. 95 OCD 372
c.95 T.(3) DIDIUS, possible son of T.(2), is pleb tribune. 95 DGRBM 1005
95 Censor M.(3) ANTONIUS (the orator) accused of bribery by M. Duronius.  Acquitted. no date: DGRBM 1-213
c.95 M' Aquilius is accused of extortion, but acquitted. 95 LdHR 266
c.95 Many Latins and Italians are discovered to have illegally been registered into the tribes. 95 LdHR 266
95  Lex Licinia Mucia  by consuls L.(1) Licinius Crassus and Q. Mucius Scaevola creates a quaestio (committee) to investigate Italians who had recently and likely illegally enrolled as citizens.  Removes Latin and Italian allies from Roman citizen-rolls.  Causes violence thruout Italy.  Secret societies begin to form in towns. 95 B76 15-1102, CAH 9-102, 110, Dur 3-121, EDRL 556, HRL 238, LdHR 266, MCAW 238, OCD 957, atl1, unrv, wikLRL
95 C. Marius successfully acts as sole defense for T. Matrinius, an Italian from Spoletium who had been granted Roman citizenship by Marius and is now accused under Lex Licinia Mucia (95). 95 wikGM
94 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. Coelius CALDUS and L.(1) Domitius AHENOBARBUS 94 DGRBM 1-85, 561,
OCD 258, atl1, csm, wikCon
c.94 L. Cornelius SULLA spends much money in bribes to be elected praetor.  He is elected. 94 LdHR 266
c.94 C. Sentius is praetor. 94 OCD 955
c.94 L.(4) Julius CAESAR becomes praetor without having been quaestor or aedile. 94 wikL4JC
c.94 P.(13) Cornelius SCIPIO NASICA is praetor.  He supports Sextus Roscius in his trial. 94 DGRBM 3-752
c.94 Praetor L.(4) Julius CAESAR becomes proconsul of Macedonia until ?. 94 OCD 190, wikL4JC
c.94 Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA becomes proconsul of Asia for 9 months to reorganize it.  P. Rutilius Rufus is legate and 2nd in command. 94 B76 VIII-940, 15-1102, OCD 957
c.94 L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS the orator subdues south foothills of Alps. 94 CAH 9-107
c.94 Q.(2) Servilius CAEPIO, helped by tribune L. Antistius, escapes from prison.  Both flee to Smyrna. 94 LdHR 267
c.94 Senate forbids loans to provincial envoys. 94 atl1
c.94 L.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS loses consulship campaign to M. HERENNIUS. 94 atl1
93 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS and M. HERENNIUS 93 csm, wikCon, wikGVF
93 Praetor T. DIDIUS and his tribune Q. Sertorius, in Nearer Spain from 98, return to Rome.  C. Coelius CALDUS succeeds until ?.  Didius has triumph for defeating the Celtiberri. 93 DGRBM 1-561, 1005, atl1, rcIb, wikTD
c.93 Gn. SEXTUS POMPEIUS STRABO becomes governor of Sicily. 93 DGRBM 3-477
c.93 P. Sulpicius RUFUS is quaestor. 93 DGRBM 3-945
93 Inheritance battle between M. Curius and M. Coponius before the centumviri under praetor T. Manilus.  L.(1) Licinius Crassus represents Curius.  Q. Scaevola represents Coponius. 93 DGRBM 1-880
c.93 Populare M.(2) Livius DRUSUS is aedile.  He delivers noteworthy games 93 atl1
c.93 M. Claudius MARCELLUS is accused by L. Licinius Crassus, but acquitted. 93 atl1
c.93 30 pounds of laserpicium is imported from Africa to Rome.  It is resin from the Silphium plant (commonly believed to be now-extinct), used as a seasoning and medicine. 93 atl1
c.93 Greek poet A. Licinius ARCHIAS is made a citizen of Heracleia Lucania thru influence of L.(3) Licinius Lucullus. 93 atl1
93 L. Cornelius SULLA is praetor.  He exhibits in the Ludi Apollinares 100 African lions, which are killed by archers whom Bocchus, king of Mauretania, had sent for the purpose. 93 DGRBM 3-935, LdHR 266
c.93 Consul C.(3) Valerius FLACCUS is sent to Spain before expiration of his consulship, remains until 83. 93 rcIb, wikGVF
c.93 P.(4) Licinius CRASSUS Dives, in Farther Spain from 96, returns to Rome, has triumph over the Lusitani. 93 DGRBM 1-874, OCD 295, atl1, wikRCH     92 rcIb
c.93 L. Crassus is refused a triumph over the Gauls. 93 atl1
c.93 Populare C. NORBANUS is accused of majestas (encouraging the 94 riot) under lex Appuleia by P. Sulpicius Rufus.  Orator M. Antonius, under whom Norbanus had formerly served as quaestor, defends him.  Acquitted. 95 OCD 737, 1023 94 DGRBM 2-1209, 3-945     93 DGRBM 2-510, LdHR 267
92 Jan CONSULS:  C.(7) Claudius PULCHER and M. PERPERNA 92 DGRBM 1-770, 3-202, OCD 802, csm, wikCon
92 Λ CENSORS V plebs Gn.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS and L.(1) LICINIUS CRASSUS   They quarrel over oratory styles. 92 DGRBM 1-880, OCD 295, 361, atl1, wikCns, wikCon
c.92 Censors forbid teaching rhetoric in Latin. 92 atl1, OCD 361
c.92 Claudius Centumalus is found guilty of dishonestly selling his house to Calpurnius Lanarius.  Judge is M. Cato. 92 atl1, OCD 361
c.92 M.(5) Porcius CATO, a candidate for praetor, dies in his province, Narbonensis. 92 atl1
91 wikRGG
92 Gn. SEXTUS POMPEIUS STRABO, father of Pompey, becomes praetor. 94 DGRBM 3-477 92 ttpm
c.92 SULLA is made praetor and sent to Cilicia with orders to restore Ariobarzanes to his kingdom of Cappadocia, and to settle disputes between Mithridates-VI and Nicomedes-IV. 92 B76 IX-1006, DGRBM 3-935, LdHR 310, MCAW 238
c.92 Slave actor Q. Roscius accepts compensation from Q. Flavius for a murdered slave. 92 atl1
92 Gn.(2) Papirius CARBO is reported for sedition by consul C. Claudius.  Senate adopts recommendation of L.(1) Licinius Crassus. 92, atl1
92 P. RUTILIUS RUFUS, former legate to Q. Mucius Scaevola, Pontifex when he was governor in Asia, is charged with extorting from the provincials, though he had made efforts to prevent them from being extorted.  He is prosecuted by C. Marius.  Though Rufus is clearly innocent, the jury (composed totally of hostile equites) convicts, and his property is confiscated to satisfy claims for compensation.  Rufus is exiled to Mytilene Lesbos, then goes to Smyrna, among people whom he allegly extorted, where he spends the rest of his life.  His case is long a byword for unjust sentences. 92 B76 15-1102, CAH 9-81, 103, DGRBM 3-681, OCD 648, atl1, bk, wikMLD, wikPRR
92 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO accuses M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS of repetundae, alleging that Scaurus had expropriated public money, during an embassy to Asia, and took bribes from Mith-VI of Pontus.  Scaurus counter-accuses Caepio, and thwarts the prosection. 92 OCD 188
95 wikQSCY 91 DGRBM 3-736, atl1
c.92 Communication opened with Parthia. 92 GHH
c.92 First treaty of Parthia with Rome; ambassadors from Pacorus received by Sulla, Roman praetor of Cilicia. 92 GHH
92  Edictum Lician et Domitia de Rhetoribus  by censors Ahenobarbus and L.(1) Licinius Crassus, bans rhetoric schools in Rome. 92 atl1, unrv
92  Lex Minucia de Conubium  Orders that children born of parents of mixed status (civitatis) receive the lower status. 92 atl1, unrv 90 EDRL 557
c.92 L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS builds a house on Palatine hill, includes a few small marble columns.  He is ridiculed for "Greek luxury". 92 SHT 2-406
c.92 OMENS according to Cicero:  Dau of Q. Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, Caecilia, wants to arrange a marriage for her neice.  Both of them go to a small chapel to receive an omen.  The neice stands, while Caecilia sits on a chair.  They wait silently getting impatient.  The niece says to Caecilia, "Let me sit awhile on your chair." Caecilia says, "Certainly, my child, you may have my place." After this incident Caecilia dies and the niece marries Caecilia's husband.  Cicero comments, "I realize perfectly well that the foregoing omens may be lightly regarded and even be laughed at, but to make light of signs sent by the gods is nothing less than to disbelieve in the existence of the gods." On Divination 1-104
92 atl1
c.92/1 L. Cornelius SULLA, propraetor of Cilicia from 96, returns to Rome. 94 wikSl     92/1 DGRBM 3-935, OCD 1021
91 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Sextus(5) Julius CAESAR and L.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS, enemy of M.(2) Livius Drusus 91 Dur 3-167, OCD 816, csm, wikCon
c.91 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO, son of Q.(2), becomes praetor. 91 wikQSCY
c.91 L. Cornelius SULLA prosecuted by C. Censorinus for extortion in Cilicia, but fails to bring him to court, so the accusation is dropped. 92 atl1
92/1 OCD 1021
91 DGRBM 3-935
c.91 ARIOBARZANES-1, king of Cappadocia from 92, driven out by Tigranes-II of Armenia, flees to Rome until 90. 91 atl1
91/0 CAH 9-143
91  Lex Livia judiciaria  creates a special court (quaestio) for trials of judges corrupted by bribery. 91 EDRL 556
c.91 C.(4) Julius CAESAR goes to Asia and is governor this year alone. 91 wikLRGA, atl1
c.91 C. NORBANUS, populare, made praetor, sent to Sicily until ?. 91 OCD 737
90/89 DGRBM 2-1209
c.91 M. Claudius MARCELLUS is curule aedile. 91 DGRBM 2-932
91 Populare M.(2) Livius DRUSUS, helped by L.(1) Licinius Crassus & M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus, elected pleb tribune over Q.(3) Servilius Caepio.  1st Populare triumph since 99.  Commences the struggle, by proposing popular laws. 91 B76 15-1102, CAH 9-102, DGRBM 1-1079, Dur 3-121, GHH, MCAW 238, OCD 295, 365, atl1, wikGM, wikMLD
c.91 P. TARQUINIUS is pleb tribune.  He supports M.(2) Livius Drusus. 91 DGRBM 3-980
91  Leges Liviae  by tribune M.(2) Livius Drusus:
  1.  Lex Frumentaria et Agraria  cuts price on grain and distribution of land to poor in new colonies.
  2.  Lex de Senatum ex Equestri Ordine  enrolls 300 qualified equites as senators
  3.  Lex de Iuidiciara  restores senate monopoly to juries, but ensures that some equites are court judges.
  4.  Rogatio de Foederatae Civitates  gives citizenship to all Italian allies.  Not passed.
On the day of voting, consul Philippus tries to stop proceedings, and is throttled by one of Drusus' supporters to the point of bleeding.  When Q. Caepio continues to oppose his legislation, Drusus threatens to have the praetor thrown from the Tarpeian Rock.
91 CAH 9, Dur 3-121, LEWH 105, MCAW 239, SHWC 116, atl1, unrv, wikMLD
91 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO deserts senatorial cause for equite cause, opposes lex judiciaria of tribune M. Livius Drusus. 91 DGRBM 1-535
91 The 1st 3 laws of Livius Drusus are lumped together and passed as 1 by tribal assembly, after L.(2) Marcius Philippus is dragged to prison by partisans of M.(2) Livius Drusus, and threats have been made against Caepio.
They never get to #4 because Drusus is killed.
91 CAH 9, Dur 3-121, OCD 816, LEWH 105, atl1
91 Saufeius passes another land law.  A 5 man commission is appointed including tribune M.(2) Livius Drusus. 91 atl1
91 Tribune M.(2) Livius DRUSUS maltreats visitors from Mauretania and Numidia. 91 atl1
91 Tribune M.(2) Livius DRUSUS debases currency, issues copper coins coated with silver. 91 MCAW 239, atl1
91 On advice of consul Philippus, senate voids Drusus' 3 bills on a technicality.  No lumping bills together:   Lex Caecilia Didia 98. 91 Dur 3-121, OCD 816, LEWH 105, atl1
c.91 Λ PATAVIUM V and other Venetian cities ally with Rome against rebels in Social War. 91 wikPd
c.91 Italians plan to murder consuls at the Latin Festival, but their plot is discovered. 91 atl1
91 L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS, censor 92-1, partisan of Drusus, attacks consul Philippus. 91 OCD 295
c.91 Bocchus, king of Mauretania erects in the Capitol gilded statues, representing the surrender of Jugurtha to Sulla, at which Marius is so enraged that he can scarcely be prevented from removing them by force. 91 DGRBM 3-935, atl1
c.91 L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS, speaking in defense of Gn. Plancus, denounces extravagance of M. Brutus "the accuser".  Crassus is himself criticized for having a luxurious house and furnishings. 91 atl1
c.91 L.(4) Licinius Lucullus prosecutes Servilius the Augur, who had prosecuted Lucullus' father.  Servilius is acquitted. (Before Social War) 91 atl1
c.91 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS NUMIDICUS dies.  Some say he was poisoned by Q. Varius. 92 atl1
90 B76 VI-836
c.91 Q. Poppaedius Silo, leader of the Marsi, tries to lead 10,000 supporters into Rome, but is persuaded by Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus to return home. 91 atl1
c.91 Italians swear a loyalty oath to tribune M.(2) Livius Drusus. 91 atl1
91 Sep Momentum is turning against M.(2) Livius Drusus and his backers.  Drusus' popularity with the people is losing him support in the Senate. 91 wikMLD
91 Sep 13 L.(2) Marcius PHILIPPUS says he can no longer work with the current senate, to which L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS says. "Should I consider you a consul, when you don't think that I am a senator?".  Crassus dies a week later. 91 atl1, wikMLD
91 L.(1) Licinius CRASSUS, the orator, censor from 92, dies. 91 GHH, OCD 295
91 Pleb tribune, M.(2) Livius DRUSUS builds a new house on the Palatine.  his personal wealth amounts to over 10,000 pounds silver. 91 atl1
c.91 SOCIAL WAR begins until 88:  Originally called the the Marsian War because the Marsi were 1st to rebel.  Except for Latins, Etruscan, and Umbrians, all Italians, denied citizenship, secede from Rome, under leadership of the Marsi.  They form a federal republic of Italia, with a 500 man senate from all tribes with capitol at Corfinium (which they rename Italica) until 90. 91 CAH 9-115, Dur 3-110, 122, LEWH 105, TTPC, atl1, bk, wikTAR 90 B76 3-576, 15-1102, DGRG 1-1072, LdHR 276
c.91 CORFINIUM, chief town of the Peligni, becomes capital of rebel Italians until 90. 91 Dur 3-122, GHH, LEWH 105, TTPC, wikTAR     90 atl1
c.91 ALBA FUCENS, a Roman colony, besieged by the Marsi. 91 OCD 737
91 DGRG 2-281, atl1
c.91 VESTINI Sabines, allies of Rome from 302, join Social War, by which they gain citizenship. 91 B76 X-412
91 fall Q. VARIUS Hybrida creates a standing court under lex Varia to prosecute supporters of Drusus. 91 wikMLD
c.91 Optimates and populares unite to declare war on secessionists. 91 Dur 3-122
c.91 L. Cornelius SULLA links up with optimates. 91 OCD 1021
c.91 Ser. GALBA is captured by Lucanians, but escapes. 91 atl1
c.91 BOVIANUM Samnium, rebel capital from 90, taken by Sulla, reduced to a village.  Rebels move capitol to AESERNIA until end of war. no date: OCD 179, 289
c.91 AESERNIA Samnium is besieged by Italians. 91 atl1
c.91 Romans receive aid from Latin allies and from abroad. 91 atl1
c.91 Earthquake at and around RHEGIUM depletes its population. 92 atl1     91 DGRG 2-705, IDB 4-75
91 Q. Servilius CAEPIO the Younger is elected praetor for 90. 91 wikQSCY
91 late Pleb tribune, M.(2) Livius DRUSUS turns in desperation to eliciting support from Italian allies.  Rumors say the Italians swore allegiance to Drusus alone. 91 wikMLD
91 late Marsian leader Q. Poppaedius Silo leads 10,000 Italians in a pro-Drusus protest march on Rome.  Some of the Italians plot to assassinate the consuls on the Alban Mount.  Drusus learns of it and warns consul Philippus. 91 wikMLD
91 late Pleb tribune M.(2) Livius DRUSUS dies, stabbed to death by unknown assassin.  Sources disagree on location.  Consul Philippus, Caepio, and Q. Varius Hybrida are suspected as instigators. 91 B76 III-677, DGRBM 1-867, bk, CAH 9, Dur 3-121, GHH, MCAW 239, atl1, wikCY, wikMLD
c.91/0 NICOMEDES-IV Philopator king of Bithynia 94-90, overthrown by anti-Roman pretender NICOMEDES-V Socrates, flees to Rome. 90 wikN4B
90 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L.(4) Julius CAESAR and P. Rutilius LUPUS  Both sent to the Social War. 90 DGRBM 1-537, LdHR 385, OCD 190, csm, wikCon, wikL4JC
90 Jan 1 Consul P. Rutilius LUPUS is sent against the Marsi beseiging Alba Fucens.  A division under Perperna is destroyed at the outset. 90 DGRG 2-281
90 Commanders of the Social War are Marsian leader Poppaedius Silo in the north and Samnite C. Papius Mutilus in the south.  Silo had been in touch with Drusus and had begun the rebellion; the family of Mutilus had fought against Rome in the 300s.  Each has 6 commanders responsible for particular sectors.  The rebels have 100,000 men, including inf and cav, plus troops necessary to guard the cities under their control. 90 CAH 9-118
90 C. Papirius CARBO ARVINA is pleb tribune. 90 DGRBM 1-611, OCD 204
90 Q. VARIUS Hybrida is pleb tribune. 90 wikMLD
90 early A law of tribune Q. Varius Hybrida sets up a quaestio extraordinaria with equites as jurors, to inquire who was responsible for the events which had led to the revolt of the allies.  It is also used for personal political ends.  Not all condemned are supporters of M.(2) Livius Drusus. 90 CAH 9-114
c.90 Pleb tribune Q. VARIUS Hybrida, induced by Q.(3) Servilius Caepio, accuses M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus of having excited Italian allies to revolt.  Scaurus puts it to the people whether they would believe Varius, a Spaniard, or Scaurus, the princeps senatus.  Mob cheers Scaurus.  Varius withdraws the accusation. 90 DGRBM 3-736, OCD 1107
90 Praetor L.(2) CASSIUS is made proconsul of Asia until later 90. 90 DGRBM 1-625
90 C. Appuleius DECIANUS is pleb tribune. 90 DGRBM 1-947
90 Tribune Q. VARIUS Hybrida passes a law setting up a court with equite jurrors, which tries and convicts several supporters of Drusus for inciting Italians to rebel. 90 OCD 1107
90 Q. HORTENSIUS Hortalus makes a speech calling for restoration of Nicomedes-IV Philopator. 90 atl1
90 Tribune C. Carbo speaks out against laws (91) of M. Drusus. 90 atl1
90 Eminent grammarian slave DAPHNIS is bought by M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus until 87. 90 atl1
90 L. Cornelius SULLA is legate under consul L. Caesar. 90 DGRBM 3-935
90 Oct  Lex Juliae  grants citizenship to allies who didn't participate in the Social War. 90 CAH 9-123, 10-421, wikL4JC
90  Lex Varia  by tribune Q. Varius, punishes for treason those who "by help and advice" induce an allied country to take up arms against Rome. 90 atl1, EDRL 561
90  Lex Varia de maiestate  by tribune Q. Varius, prosecutes citizens who openly or secretly help Italians get citizenship. 90 unrv
90 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO again accuses enemy M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus under provisions of lex Varia. 90 DGRBM 1-535
90 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO serves as legate under consul Rutilius until Rutilius dies, after which Caepio and C. Marius receive command of consular army. 90 DGRBM 1-535
90 Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO is first successful then decoyed into ambush by Marsi leader Poppaedius. 90 DGRBM 1-535
90 VOLSINI Etruria gets Roman citizenship. 90 B76 X-489
90 Temple of Juno Sospita is restored by L. Julius Caesar in response to a dream reported by Caecilia, dau of Q. Caecilius Metellus. 90 atl1
This could be the one in the Forum Holitorium, dedicated 194 or 104, or on the Palatine. rrb, wikFH
90 C.(1) Julius Caesar STRABO is curule aedile. 90 CAH 9-165, DGRBM 1-538, OCD 190
90 C.(3) Scribonius CURIO is pleb tribune. 90 B76 III-302, DGRBM 1-901, OCD 302, wikGSC
90 Spaniard Q. Varius SEVERUS is pleb tribune.  He will be the 1st non-Italian senator. 90 CAH 10-460
90 P. Servilius VATIA is praetor. 90 wikPSV
90 Samnite general C. PAPIUS MUTILUS invades Campania, takes several towns, and forces almost all the rest to surrender; but having attacked the camp of consul Sextus Caesar, he is repulsed with a loss of 6,000 men. 90 DGRBM 2-1127
90 NUCERIA Campania territory ravaged by Samnite general C. Papius Mutilus. 90 DGRG 2-451
90 L. Calpurnius BESTIA goes into exile to escape prosecution under Lex Varia. 90 OCD 166, atl1
90 JUDACILIUS of Asculum is main general of Italians.  He commands in Apulia and receives submission of Canusium and Venusia. 90 DGRBM 2-637
90 Gn. POMPEIUS STRABO is legate under consul P. Rutilius Lupus.  He is defeated near Mt. Falernus by a coalition of Judacilius, T. Afranius, and P. Ventidius and forced to take refuge at Firmum, where Pompeius is besieged by Italian general Afranius.  When P. Sulpicius Rufus comes to help Pompeius, the 2 Roman armies attack AFRANIUS who is killed in the battle.  Afranius troops flee in confusion to Asculum, remain until 89. 90 CAH 9-122, DGRBM 2-637, 3-477, DGRG 1-901, atl1
90 Gn. POMPEIUS STRABO besieges Italian army in Asculum Picenum. 90 DGRBM 3-477
90 Jun 11 Consul P. RUTILIUS LUPUS and C. Marius are defeated by river Tolenus by coalition forces under T. Vettius Scato.  RUTILIUS is killed in an ambush, but a counter-attack by C. Marius stops Vettius from advancing further.  Rutilius is succeeded by Q. Servilius CAEPIO, but shares command with C. Marius against the Marsi. 90 CAH 9-121, DGRG 2-281, atl1
90 Jn/Jl Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO is victim of a trick played by Q. Poppaedius Silo, who had pretended to surrender.  C. Marius assumes command of the whole front. 90 CAH 9-121
90 Oct? Learning of the approach of Sex. Caesar, Pompeius Strabo mounted 2 sorties. The army of T. Lafrenius was caught between them and routed, Lafrenius was killed; the rebel army flees to Asculum. 90 CAH 9-122
90 L. CAESAR is defeated by Samnites under T. Vettius Scato. 90 atl1
90 A. PLOTIUS defeats Umbrians. 90 atl1
90 VENAFRUM Campania (22km SW of Aesernia) is taken by Italian general Marius Egnatius. 90 atl1
90 C. PERPERNA is defeated by Italian P. Presentaeus, and relieved of command. 90 atl1
90 P. Licinius CRASSUS Dives is defeated by M. Lamponius and driven back to Grumentum Lucania. 90 atl1
90 Samnites under C. Papius Mutilus capture Nola, Herculaneum. Salernum, Stabiae, Surrentum (12km west of it), and other towns. 90 CAH 9-120, atl1
c.90 C. Aurelius COTTA is found guilty under Lex Varia, and goes into exile. 90 atl1
c.90 L. MEMMIUS is found guilty under Lex Varia, and goes into exile. 90 atl1
c.90 M. Antonius the orator tried under Lex Varia and acquitted. 90 atl1
c.90 M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus tried under Lex Varia and acquitted. 90 atl1
90 Rebel capitol, CORFINIUM from 91, moved to BOVIANUM until 90/89. 90 OCD 289
90 ASCULUM Picenum joins the rebels until 89. 90 B76 X-390
CONFUSION ALERT!  Asculum Satriano is in Apulia.
90 (Social War, north) C. MARIUS commands.  Gn. Pompeius Strabo is legate.  They besiege ASCULUM Picenum until 89. 90 DGRBM 3-477, OCD 648, 857
c.90 MANIUS(2) AQUILIUS becomes consular legate.  He and Manlius Maltinus head embassy to Asia until 88 to fight Mith-VI of Pontus
ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromanus former king of Cappadocia,
in Rome from 90 accompanies.
91/0 CAH 9-143
90 atl1, lvA     89 OCD 90, DGRBM 1-286
88 DGRBM 1-253, wikKPn
c.90 Q. SERTORIUS is a quaestor in Cisalpine Gaul until ?.  He collects supplies for Romans. 91 DGRBM 3-789 90 B76 IX-74, atl1
c.90 PRAENESTE becomes a municipium and declares for C. Marius, remains Marian until 82. 90 B76 VIII-173, CDCC 716
90 Marsi and Peligni coalition defeated by Servius Sulpicius Galba. 90 DGRG 2-567
90 The Peligni are defeated by P. Sulpicius Rufus. 90 atl1
90 Praetor Q.(3) Servilius CAEPIO and his legate C. FONTEIUS are killed in a popular riot at Asculum Picenum in Social War.  Caepio is killed by Poppaedius. 91 atl1     90 atl1, DGRBM 1-535, 2-179, 3-794, OCD 188
90 (Social War) Consul L.(4) Julius CAESAR collects available troops, marches to Samnium and is routed by Vettius Scato.  Caesar flees to Aesernia, then disguised as a slave, escapes to Campania. 90 LdHR 276
90 AESERNIA is taken by Samnites. 90 atl1
90 A Cretan makes an offer of betrayal to L.(4) Julius CAESAR. 90 atl1
90 Consul L.(4) Julius CAESAR withdraws from Acerrae Campania, which is being besieged by Samnites under C. Papius Mutilus. 90 atl1
90 L.(4) Julius CAESAR is defeated by Marius Egnatius near Teanum in Apulia. 90 atl1
90 (Social War) After several defeats, consul L.(4) Julius CAESAR defeats Samnites under C. Papius Mutilus. 90 OCD 190, atl1
90  Lex Julia de Civitate Latinis Danda  by consul L.(4) Caesar, offers citizenship to all Italian cities which had not rebelled against Rome in the Social War.  Mainly affects Latins, Etruscans, & Umbrians. 90 B76 3-576, 15-1102, CAH 9, CDCC 363, DGRG 1-945, 2-90, 1267, EDRL 553, LEWH 105, atl1, unrv, wikLJ, wikLRL
90 AQULEIA, on north end of Adriatic, Roman prefecture from 181, given municipal status. 90 CDCC 61
90 PINNA, at town of the Vestini in central Italy, loyal to Rome, is besieged by Italians and taken until 89. 90 atl1
90 C. MARIUS defeats the Marsi and kills over 6,000. 90 atl1
90 The Picentes raid Roman territory, and execute their prisoners. 90 atl1
c.90 Herius ASINIUS of Teate, commander of the Marrucini, killed in battle against Marius. 90 DGRBM 1-385
90 STABIAE Campania, taken by Samnite general C. Papius Mutilus until 89. 90 DGRG 2-1033
c.90 ARIOBARZANES-I Philoromanus king of Cappadocia from 92, expelled 2nd time by Mith-VI of Pontus, flees again to Rome until 89. 90 DGRBM 1-286, GHH     89 atl1     88 DGRG 1-507
90 L.(1) Calpurnius BESTIA, in danger because of Lex Varia, goes into voluntary exile. 90 DGRBM 1-486
90 ARPINUM Latium, Roman prefecture from 188, given municipal status for not joining Social War. post-90 OCD 122
90 RHEGIUM, independent from 270, given municipal status for not joining Social War. post-90 OCD 920
90 T.(2) DIDIUS becomes legate of consul L.(4) Julius Caesar, then of L. Porcius Cato in 89, then Sulla. 90 wikTD
c.90 Roman ARMY, until now consisting mainly of detachments from Italian towns, receive inf and cav raised in the provinces and allied kingdoms, often in the area of the war zone.  Each group serves under its own chiefs and aristocracy, with Roman praefecti in overall control. 90 CAH 10-372
90 PHAEDRUS the Epicurean, a teacher of Cicero, visits Rome, introducing Epicureanism. 95 TTS 90 B76 6-912
90 late Some Etruscans and Umbrians intervene briefly in Social War. 90 CAH 9-115
90 late L. Porcius CATO defeats Etruscans. 90 DGRBM 1-645, atl1
89 Jan CONSULS:  Gn. Pompeius STRABO (father of Pompey) and L. Porcius CATO 89 B76 14-793, DGRBM 1-645, 3-477, OCD 215, 857, csm, ttpm, wikCon
89 Λ CENSORS V patrician L.(4) Julius CAESAR and pleb P.(4) LICINIUS CRASSUS  They are occupied with enrolling new tribes of the Latini and Itali, and never get around to a census. 89 DGRBM 1-874, LdHR 279, OCD 190, 295, atl1, ttpm, wikCns, wikCon, wikL4JC
c.89 ALEXAS of Heraclea granted Roman citizenship by P.(4) Licinius Crassus. 95 atl1
c.89 P. Sulpicius RUFUS is legate under consul Gn. Pompeius Strabo. 89 DGRBM 3-945
89 Consul Gn. Pompeius STRABO defeats Italians on east coast, who, ignorant that the Etruscans had made terms with the Romans, march to their assistance.  He then defeats, in succession, the Marsi, Marrucini, and Vestini. 89 DGRBM 3-477
89 The MARRUCINI living on the south bank of the Aternus River are defeated and their land ravaged by P. Sulpicius Rufus, lieutenant of consul Pompeius.  They soon after submit to Pompeius himself. 89 DGRG 2-279
89 C. MARIUS gets sick and gives up army command. 89 atl1
89 An Italian force tries to encourage revolt in Etruria, but is defeated by Gn. Pompeius Strabo. 89 atl1
89 BRESCIA, under Rome from 200, is recognized as civitas, but not given citizenship until 41. 89 hifiCn, wikBrs
89 L. Cornelius SULLA is legate under consul L. Cato. 89 DGRBM 3-935
89 P. Servilius VATIA is propraetor of either Corsica/Sardinia or Cilicia until 88. 89 wikPSV
89 The coast between Cumae and Rome is garrisoned with freedmen by the senate. 89 atl1
89 Cos 91, Sextus(5) Julius CAESAR dies at Asculum Picenum, and is succeeded in command by C. Baebius. 89 atl1
89 ASCULUM Picenum, under rebels from 90, besieged from 90, falls.  Only isolated pockets of resistance hold out. 89 CAH 9-165, atl1
89 After Asculum Picenum, Italian general C. Vidacilius, who valiantly tried to save it, suicides. 89 atl1
89 After Asculum, Gn. Pompeius STRABO subdues the Picentines. 89 DGRBM 3-477, DGRG 2-627
c.89 Pontifex maximus from 103, Gn.(4) DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS dies.  Q.(4) Mucius SCAEVOLA succeeds until 82. 89 B76 VIII-940, wikPM
c.89 Asiello murdered by creditors. 89 bk
c.89 C. TITIUS incites mutiny of the troops against consul L. Porcius Cato, but escapes punishment. 89 DGRBM 3-1158, atl1
c.89 MUTINY at Pompeii.  Admiral A. Postumius ALBINUS is killed because he is suspected of treason. 89 atl1
c.89 Q.(6) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS is praetor. 89 B76 VI-836, CAH 9-176, DGRBM 2-1060
c.89 L. CASSIUS is pleb tribune. 89 DGRBM 1-626
89 M. PLAUTIUS SILVANUS is pleb tribune. 89 DGRBM 3-826
c.89 Samnite forces under L. CLUENTIUS, defeat Sulla near Pompeii, but is then heavily defeated by Sulla, and forced to retreat into Nola. 89 DGRBM 1-806, 3-935, DGRG 2-646, atl1
89 L. Cornelius SULLA, legate under consul Cato, besieges POMPEII. 89 B76 14-789, CAH 9-124, DGRG 2-646, atl1
Apr 30
L. Cornelius SULLA, legate under consul Cato, destroys Campanian town of Stabiae, and conquers the Hirpini. 89 CAH 9-125, DGRBM 3-935, atl1
89 Gn. Pompeius STRABO, helped by son Pompey, Cicero, and L. Sergius Catiline, defeats T. LAFRENIUS. 89 B76 4-607, OCD 857
89 PINNA, a Vestini town in central Italy, under rebels from 90, is besieged by Romans. 89 atl1
89 Consul L. Porcius CATO has initial success against the Marsi, but is killed in battle by the Marsi near Lake Fucinus in Social War 89 DGRG 2-281, OCD 215, atl1
89 SAMNITES threaten Campania, but Etruscans and Umbrians in north do not help them against Romans. 89 MCAW 240
89 Praetor C. COSCONIUS comes down the coast from the north, takes Salapia and Cannae, but is defeated by Samnite Trebatius. 89 CAH 9-125
89 Samnite TREBATIUS is defeated by Cosconius on River Aufidus.  Trebatius flees to Canusium. 89 CAH 9-125
89 Praetor C. COSCONIUS besieges Samnite Trebatius in Canusium. 89 CAH 9-125
89 CANUSIUM Apulia, a rebel city, besieged unsuccessfully by praetor C. COSCONIUS, who ravages its territory along with that of Frentani and Larinum. 89 DGRG 1-503, 2-126
89 SAMNITES under Trebatius are defeated by praetor C. Cosconius and general Lucceius near Canusium Apulia. 89 DGRBM 2-809, atl1
89 Aug SOCIAL WAR in the north from 91 ends.  From Picenum to the borders of Samnium, only Asculum holds out under Vidacilius.  War continues in south until 88. 89 CAH 9-124, OCD 857
88 B76 X-390
89 Samnite general C. PAPIUS MUTILUS, defeated by Sulla, badly wounded, flees with a few troops to Aesernia. 89 DGRBM 2-1128
89 X-tribunes Q. VARIUS Hybrida and G. Pomponius are convicted of violating Varius' own law 90, and exiled. 89 CAH 9-115, OCD 1107, atl1
89 C.(3) Papirius CARBO is tribune. 89 OCD 204
c.89 Ap. CLAUDIUS PULCHER becomes praetor. 89 DGRBM 1-770
c.89 P. GABINIUS CAPITO becomes praetor until 88. 89 DGRBM 2-195
c.89 GRUMENTUM Lucania is besieged and taken by Romans - possibly A. Gabinius.  2 slaves who had been mistreated by their domina rescue her, and are then freed by her. 89 atl1
89 A. GABINIUS is killed besieging a camp in Lucania.  P. Sulpicius Rufus takes over, slaughters all Marrucini tribe on the east coast and accepts the surrender of the entire region. 89 atl1
89 STABIAE Campania, under Samnites from 90, retaken by Sulla, destroyed, never rebuilt. 89 DGRG 2-1033, atl1
89 T. Vettius Scato, leader of the Peligni, meets and talks informally with Gn. Pompeius Strabo. 89 atl1
89 Gn. Pompeius Strabo defeats the Marsi. 89 atl1
89 T. VETTIUS SCATO dies.  Leader of the Peligni, is captured by Romans and killed by his slave. 89 atl1
89 Senate suspends trials under Lex Varia because of the war. 89 atl1
89  Lex Plautia de Vi(s)  by tribune M. Plautius Silvanus, forbids public acts of violence.  Enacted to reduce mob influence on magistrates. 89 unrv
78-63 EDRL 557
89  Lex Plautia Iudicaria  by tribune M. Plautius Silvanus, gets the composition of the juries in the quaestio lex lege Varia changed, introduces annual election by the tribes, selects 15 people (disregarding wealth or social rank) from each tribe to act as annual judges in criminal trials.  (Asconius 79).  Later repealed in Leges Corneliae by Sulla. 89 CAH 9-114, DGRBM 3-826, EDRL 557, LdHR 286, atl1, unrv
89  Lex Plautia et Papiria  by tribunes M. Plautius Silvanus and C.(3) Papirius Carbo, supplements Lex Julia 90, grants citizenship to Roman allies.  Full citizenship to any living in Italy at the time the law is passed, if they give their name within 60 days to the urban praetor at Rome. 89 CAH 9-126, DGRG 1-1047, 2-90, EDRL 553, LEWH 105, OCD 604, 842, TAWH 18, atl1, unrv, wikLRL
89 HERACLEIA Lucania is not even sure it wants Roman citizenship. 89 DGRG 1-1047
89 8 new tribes added for new citizens of Lex Plautia Papiria. 89 GHH,
@10 tribes LdHR 284
89  Lex Pompeia de Civitate  by consul Gn. Pompeius Strabo, creates province of CISALPINE GAUL by granting citizenship (civitas) south of the Po, and Latin rights north of Po, but no citizenship until 49. Cisalpine Gaul is a separate province until 42. 89 CAH 9-126, DGRBM 3-1263, DGRG 1-945, LEWH 105, OCD 243, unrv, wikLRL     80 CDCC 375
89 ETRUSCANS granted Roman citizenship. 89 DGRG 1-863
89  Lex Pompeia de Transpadanis  by consul Gn. Pompeius Strabo, grants Latin rights (latinitas) north of Po.  Includes Mediolanum. 89 DGRG 2-303, LEWH 105, OCD 243, atl1, wikLPT
89  Lex Papiria de Asse Semunciali  by tribune C.(3) Papirius Carbo, as a condition of citizenship granted in de Civitate above, ends coinage of bronze in the few confederate towns in Italy which are still coining in their own names.  Paestum alone is excepted.  It also sets the weight of an "as" at half an ounce. 89 atl1, unrv, wikLRL
89 COMUM, near the Alps, under Rome from 196, colonized with Romans by Pompey.  Again 59. 89 OCD 277 87 atl1
89 Gn.(2) Papirius CARBO defeats the Lucanians. 89 atl1
89 ARIMINUM, Latin colony from 268, granted citizenship. 89 OCD 108
89 Greek poet Aulus Licinius ARCHIAS is granted Roman citizenship by his friend praetor Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius, the legality of which will be challenged in 62. 89 atl1
89 Greek cities of south Italy are given citizenship by Caesar. 89 CAH 9-442
Jun 11
HERCULANEUM in Campania retaken by Sulla, who is now in position, to move against the Hirpini and attack Aeclanum. 89 CAH 9-125, atl1
Jun 11
Legate of Sulla 89, T.(2) DIDIUS killed in Social War after capture of Herculaneum. 89 DGRBM 1-1005
Jun OCD 340, atl1, wikTD
89 AECLANUM, main town of the Hirpini of Samnium, taken and sacked by Sulla, which causes submission of most neighboring cities. 89 DGRG 1-30, wikSl
89 SULLA, legate under consul Cato, is given command in Campania, penetrates Samnium, defeats C. Papius Mutilus, leader of the Samnites, and captures chief Samnite town Bovianum. 89 CAH 9-125, DGRBM 3-935, MCAW 240, atl1
89 fall News of Mithridates-VI victories in Anatolia and Asia province reaches Rome. 89 CAH 9-148
89 Nov ASCULUM Picenum, rebel stronghold from 90, defended by Vidacilius, taken, sacked, and destroyed by consul Gn. POMPEIUS STRABO, helped by his son Pompey, Cicero, and L. Sergius Catiline.  Vidacilius suicides. 89 CAH 9-125, OCD 857, rtp, wikAsP, wikCat 88 B76 X-390
Nov 17
A degree of consul Gn. POMPEIUS STRABO grants Roman citizenship to a troop of Spanish horsemen. 89 CAH 9-126
89 VERONA in northeast Italy, on Adige River, occupied by Cenomani from 400, becomes a Roman colony.  (See 49) 89 B76 X-403, rcNI, wikHV
89 Social War:  Sulla is successful in south Italy, after which he returns to Rome to run for consul. 89 CAH 9, MCAW 240, OCD 1021, SHWC 116, atl1
89 C.(1) Julius CAESAR STRABO, though never a praetor, bids for consulship, supported by optimates, clashes violently with opponent C. Marius, who allies with P. Sulpicius Rufus.  Caesar is thwarted. 89 CAH 9-166, DGRBM 1-538, OCD 190, 648, atl1
89 RAVENNA on coast of Umbria designated civitas foederata (allied community). 89 B76 15-533
89 C. VETTIENUS is punished for trying to avoid military service. 89 atl1
89 late The MARRUCINI, PELIGNI, and VESTINI submit to Gn. Pompeius Strabo and his lieutenant P. Sulpicius Rufus. 89 DGRG 2-281, atl1 88 DGRG 2-567
89 Optimate L. Cornelius SULLA is helped in his consular campaign by the Metelli. 89 OCD 1021
89 Praetor A. SEMPRONIUS ASELLIO tries to help debtors, and is murdered for it. 89 atl1
89 LUXURIES such as perfume and wine are restricted by censors L.(4) Julius Caesar and P. Licinius Crassus. 89 atl1
89 Dramatist L. POMPONIUS of Bononia flourishes. 89 atl1
89 M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS dies. 89 B76 VIII-949, DGRBM 3-736
89 Dec Gn. Pompeius STRABO returns to Rome, has triumph on Dec. 27 for victory over the Picentes of Asculum.  P. Ventidius Bassus is paraded. 89 B76 X-390, 15-1102, CAH 9-126, OCD 1113, atl1
89 Before the end of 89, the senate had decided on war with Mithridates-VI of Pontus, and chosen Sulla to command it, which angers C. Marius. 89 CAH 9-148, LdHR 288
89/8 Sulla takes 18 months to assemble 5 legions and feel secure about the political situation he leaves behind in Rome. 89/8 CAH 9-148
88 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Optimate L. Cornelius SULLA and Q. Pompeius RUFUS 88 B76 15-1103, CAH 9-165, DGRBM 3-935, Dur 3-110, OCD 857, 1021, SHWC 116, csm, wikCon, wikSl
88 Consuls intermarry.  Sulla's dau marries Pompeius' son. 88 CAH 9-166
c.88 12 Italian tribes adopt a constitution, try to form a federal republic; its capital to be Corfinium in Samnium, chief town of the Peligni. 89 MCAW 240 88 GHH
c.88 Italians abandon Corfinium in Samnium, and make Marsi leader Q. POPPAEDIUS SILO their commander until his death later 88. 88 atl1
c.88 VENAFRUM Campania, garrisoned by 2 cohorts, betrayed into hands of Samnite leader Marius Egnatius.  Romans are executed. 88 DGRG 2-1270
c.88 Samnite leader MARIUS EGNATIUS dies.  Defeated and killed by C. Cosconius and Lucanus, who then accept the surrender of several towns.  The only remaining rebel leader is Poppaedius Silo. 89 atl1
no date: CAH 9-125
c.88 Q. POPPAEDIUS SILO, leader of the Marsi, retreats to Iapygia. no date: CAH 9-125
c.88 Q. POPPAEDIUS SILO dies.  Leader of the Marsi, defeated and killed during the storming of Venusia in Apulia by Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, legate of praetor Q.(6) Caecilius Metellus Pius. 89 B76 VI-836
88 DGRBM 2-1060, atl1, wikQPS
c.88 VENUSIA Apulia is taken by praetor Q.(6) Caecilius Metellus Pius. 88 atl1
88 SOCIAL WAR from 91 ends.  Senate gives Italians Roman citizenship. 89 MCAW 240 88 GHH, wikTAR
c.88 M.(4) Junius BRUTUS is praetor. 88 CAH 9-196, DGRBM 2-510
88 Patrician turned pleb P. SULPICIUS RUFUS is pleb tribune.  With colleague,P. Antistius, he resists attempt of C.(3) Julius Caesar to run for consul before he had been praetor, and he also opposes the return from exile of those who had been banished. 88 DGRBM 3-945, wikPSR
c.88 Praetor C. HIRRIUS is 1st private person to have sea-water ponds for lampreys. 89 DGRBM 2-496
c.88 C. MARIUS promises to nullify debts of tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus in exchange for services. 88 wikGM
c.88 Populare tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus, bribed by Marius, proposes to Tribal Assembly that the Asian command be transferred from Sulla to Marius. 88 CAH 9, OCD 1023, atl1
88  Leges Sulpiciae  by tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus, challenges constitutional standards at behest of C. Marius and thru use of mob violence.
 Lex de Novorum Civium Libert. Suffragiis  Distributes new Italian citizens and the libertini among the 35 tribes (instead of the designated 8) in order to increase voting power of the Marian faction.
 Revocando Exsilium  Recalls political exiles.  Sets maximum debt that a senator could be obligated for at less than 2,000 denarii.  Transfers consular command against Mithridates-VI from consul L. Cornelius Sulla to privitas (private citizen) C. Marius.
Senate attempts a justitium (cessation of public business) to circumvent the vote, but mob violence of the Marians and personal threats against opposition force the senate to withdraw the justitium.  All proposals are passed by the Assembly.  Sulla refuses to acknowledge the validity of the Assembly's action.
88 B76 IX-664, CAH 9-167f, LEWH 106, OCD 1023, atl1, unrv, wikGM, wikPSR
c.88 Senate enrols the new citizens in 10 new tribes, which vote only after the existing 35 tribes, and permits only a few to attend assemblies in Rome. 88 CAH 9-167, Dur 3-122
c.88 L. Julius Caesar and bro C.(1) Julius Caesar Strabo oppose C. Marius. 88 OCD 190
c.88 T. POMPONIUS, friend of Cicero and Marius Jr., to escape civil war, moves with his wealth to Athens until 65. 88 B76 I-636
85 DGRBM 1-414
c.88 PHILO of Larissa, head of Platonic Academy 109-??, and pupil Antiochus of Ascalon, go from Athens to Rome.   (See 84) 88 OCD 73, 822 87 wikCc
c.88 Consul SULLA, age 50, divorces wife Cloelia on grounds of infertility, and marries 4th wife CAECILIA METELLA Dalmatica until 80.  She is dau of Pontifex Maximus L.(5) Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus, and widow of M.(1) Aemilius Scaurus.  The marriage is ridiculed by the people who think it is unworthy of Caecilia, but the Metelli are always eager to back a rising star. 88 CAH 9-166, atl1
c.88 Consuls are attacked by a mob of P. Sulpicius Rufus and C. Marius in the forum.  Allegedly at instigation of Gn. Pompeius Strabo, consul Q.(3) POMPEIUS RUFUS is murdered by mutinous troops, leaving widow Cornelia, son Q.(4), and dau Pompeia. 88 DGRBM 3-474, atl1       no date: CAH 9-173
c.88 1st Mithridatic War with Rome begins until 85/4.
c.88 Command against Mithridates-VI of Pontus is given to Sulla by the Optimates. 88 GHH, MCAW 240
c.88 Italians ask Mithridates-VI of Pontus to help them against Rome. 88 atl1
c.88 Consul SULLA joins his army at Nola and Neapolis preparing to sail for AsiaSulla urges his legions to defy the Assembly's orders and accept him as leader.  The legions stone the reps from the Assembly. 88 LEWH 106, atl1, wikGM
88 Praetor M.(4) Junius BRUTUS and tribune P. SULPICIUS RUFUS are sent by senate at request of Marius, to command Sulla, now at Nola, not to come closer to Rome. 88 DGRBM 2-510
c.88 P. GABINIUS CAPITO becomes propraetor in Achaia until ?. no date: DGRBM 2-195
c.88 Nicomedes-IV, expelled from Bithynia by Mith-VI of Pontus, flees to Rome 2nd time. 88 DGRG 1-405, GHH, wikBθP, wikN4B
c.88 Consul SULLA at Neapolis is popular enough with troops to lead 6 legions against Marius in Rome to regain his imperium.  This is an illegal and unprecedented act. 88 GHH, LdHR 288, LEWH 106, MCAW 240, OCD 224, 1021, atl1, bk, wikGM, wikMLC, wikTAR
c.88 Sulla's 1st CIVIL WAR begins until 86.  Marius tries to organize a defense of the city using gladiators.  SULLA defeats C. Marius and his supporters inside Rome near Esquiline Forum.  C. Marius and his son flee from Rome. 88 GHH, LdHR 288, LEWH 106, MCAW 240, OCD 224, 1021, atl1, bk, wikGM, wikMLC, wikTAR
c.88 Quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS is the only officer of Sulla who supports his march on Rome. 88 OCD 624
c.88 Populare tribune P. Sulpicius Rufus, bribed by Marius, proposes to Tribal Assembly that the Asian command be transferred from Sulla to Marius. 88 CAH 9-171, OCD 1023, atl1
c.88 Consul SULLA occupies Rome.  Street fighting ensues.  Sulla repeals laws of P. Sulpicius Rufus. 88 CAH 9, DGRBM 3-664, 936, GHH, MCAW 240, OCD 1021     87 TTPC
c.88 Populare tribune, P. SULPICIUS RUFUS dies.  Flees from Rome, betrayed by one of his slaves, captured and killed by order of Sulla.  His head is mounted on the rostrum. 88 B76 IX-664, DGRBM 3-936, Dur 3-123, OCD 1021, 1023, atl1     87 TTPC
c.88 C. MARIUS is discovered hiding in a swamp near Minturnae at the mouth of the Liris in Latium.  He escapes and goes to Minturnae.  Fannia receives him into her house, and takes care of him.  Citizens of Minturnae send a Gaul to kill Marius, but he fails to do so.  Marius is allowed to escape by boat.  He eventually gets a ship bound for Africa.  His son Marius Jr. and P. Cornelius Cethegus accompany. 88 DGRBM 2-136, 953, 3-1158, atl1
88  Lex Cornelia Pompeia  restricts legislative and electoral activity of the comitia tributa.
Another law by the same name permits loans at 10% annual interest.  Higher interest payments may have been deducted from the principal.
88 EDRL 550

 Leges Corneliae et Pompeiae  by consuls Sulla and Q. Pompeius Rufus strengthen the senate.
88 OCD 602, unrv
 Lex Sulpicia de abrogatio  Voids all recently passed laws of P. Sulpicius Rufus because they were passed after the legal justitium (cessation of business) of the senate.
 Lex de Proscriptione  Exiles and proscribes members of the Marian faction including Sulpicius, Marius, his son Marius Jr., P. Cethegus, M. Junius Brutus, Gn. and Q. Granius, P. Albinovanus, Q. Rubrius Varro, and M. Laetorius.
DGRBM 3-936, unrv
 Lex Hortensia de abrogatio  Overturns various aspects of Lex Valeria et Horatia 449, Leges Publilae 339, or Lex Hortensia 287.  Requires senatorial debate before any proposal can be brought before the people.  Also voting is to be by the comitia centuriate rather than the comitia tributa, effectively restoring election/voting supremacy to the patricians and wealthy nobiles. unrv
c.88  Lex de Tribinus Plebis  reduces power of tribunes (further defined or perhaps not even addressed until a Cornelian law of 81).  Enrolls 300 new senators (conservatives). 87 MCAW 241
c.88 Q.(3) Mucius SCAEVOLA the Augur opposes Sulla's law declaring C. Marius a public enemy.  Scaevola then dies. 88 B76 VIII-940
c.88 Q. SERTORIUS declares himself anti-optimate, but knows Marius too well to join him. 88 DGRBM 3-789
c.88 Consul SULLA restores power to senate, decrees that nothing may be sent to Tribal Assembly without senate approval. 88 Dur 3-123
c.88 fall Quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS is sent by Sulla to Greece to take over command of the Mithridatic War. 88 wikLcl
88 Oct 21 P. Servilius VATIA has a triumph. 88 atl1
c.88 Consular Election:  SULLA is forced to remove his army to allow fair election.  He sends them to Capua.  His men, Nonius and P. Servilius Vatia lose election to weak optimate Gn. Octavius and staunch populare L. Cinna. 88 DGRBM 3-936, OCD 1021, atl1, wikPSV
c.88 Consul SULLA stops Q. Sertorius from becoming tribune for 87. 88 atl1
c.88 SULLA, about to leave to fight Mith-VI.  He takes the vain precaution of making conuls elect L.(2) Cornelius CINNA and Gn. Octavius swear not to alter Sulla's existing constitution. 87 DGRBM 1-754, 3-936, atl1
88 1st SCHOOL for Latin and rhetoric established in Rome by L. Plotius Gallus. 88 DGRBM 2-228, atl1

Italy 87-78