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Afghanistan 100BC
map by Thomas Lessman
c.100 Son of Heliocles-II, ANTIALCIDAS ends.  King of Eucratid Bactria at Taxila from 115.  APOLLODOTUS continues 115-95. 120 wikAnt     100 CAH 8-413, 420, MRDK 393, frH, rcCAS     95 coin
c.100 BACTRIA:  South is occupied by Yuezhi.  Bactria is divided into 5 chiefdoms. 100 B76 V-952, OCD 159
c.100 PHILOXENOS occupies the whole remaining Greek territory from Gandhara to Western Punjab until 95. 100 wikGB, wikIGK
c.100 XinjiangXINJIANG, vast arid plateau in far western China, between Mongolia to the northeast, Tibet to the south, and Khazakhstan to the west, comes under China until 190CE. map TUBS

100 rcCAE
c.95 APOLLODOTUS ends.  King of Eucratid Bactria from 115, ends.  Bactria is divided: ZOILUS, DIONYSIUS, and APOLLOPHANES succeed until 80.  NICIAS and DIOMEDES succeed until 85.  TELEPHOS succeeds until 80. 95 frH, rcCAS
c.95 PHILOXENOS ends.  Occupied the whole remaining Greek territory from Gandhara (Paropamisadae) to Western Punjab from 100.  AMYNTAS, and EPANDER succeed until 90. 95 wikGB, wikIGK
c.95 DIOMEDES becomes ruler of Peshawar until 90. 95 rcCAS, wikIGK
c.90 MAUES becomes chief of Sakas (Yuezhi) until 58. 97 rcCAS     85 wikMs
The Yuezhi are called Scythians in Greek records, and Sakas in Indian records.
c.90 GANDHARA, Indo-Greek kingdom from ?, taken by Maues, under Sakas until 60, capital at Taxila in Punjab. 125 rcCAS
90 hifiG
80 wikGB, wikIGK
Scythians are called Sakas in Persian and Sanskrit sources. wikSk
c.90 PARNAJOM, Nimrodid king of Iberia from 109, ends.  Artaxiad ARSHAK-I succeeds until 78. 90 hifiGeo
by 90 RECURVE BOW becomes a standard feature of Indo-Greek horsemen. by 90 wikIGK
c.90 East Persia comes under Parthians. 90 hifiE, wikGnd '  
c.90 DIOMEDES ends.  Ruler of Peshawar from 95, ends.  THEOPHILOS succeeds until 85. 90 wikIGK 85 rcCAS
88 SINATRUCES flees from Mesopotamia to Central Asian steppes, dies. by 88/7 wikGt1
c.85 OLBIA, mostly under Pontus from 107, comes under Rome until 50. 85 rcU
c.85 NICIAS and DIOMEDES, rulers of Eucratid Bactria from 95, end.  HIPPOSTRATUS succeeds until 70.  AMYNTAS succeeds until 75. 85 frH, rcCAS 65 wikGB
c.85 THEOPHILOS ruler of Peshawar from 90, ends.  AMYNTAS succeeds until 75. 85 wikIGK 80 rcCAS
c.84 BUDDHISM arrives in Khotan. 84 wikKt
c.83 Uprising in COLCHIS quelled by Mith-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, who gives Colchis to his son, Mithradates Chrestus, who is soon executed for plotting against his father. 83 hifiGeo, wikCl, wikCl,
c.83 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, executes his son Mithradates Chrestus on suspicion of treason, and prepares to fight rebels in Bosporus. 83 DGRBM 2-1121
c.81 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator, king of Pontus 115-66, begins recovering Bosporan possessions.  Appoints son MACHARES viceroy.
BOSPORUS, under Mith-VI from 107, comes under Machares until 66.
81 CAH 9-356, MRDK 271, rcCrm 80 atl1
Pontic Empire of MITHRIDATES-VI at largest            map Javierfv1212
c.80 Kings of Eucratid Bactria from 95, ZOILUS, DIONYSIUS, TELEPHUS, and APOLLOPHANES end. 80 frH
c.80 MACHARES viceroy of Bosporus has short war with L. Murena governor of Asia. 80 DGRBM 2-885
c.80 SAKAS (Scythians), on Persian borders from ?, diverted by Parthians into Gandhara.  Saka invasions begin until 20CE. 80 hifiP, wikGB, wikGnd
c.80 SAKAS and PAHLAVAS become closely associated during Saka migration. 88 wikMs
c.80 KASHMIR, under Sakas from 130, comes under Suren (a Parthian vassal state), until 60. 80 rcCAE
c.80 KANDAHAR, under Parthians from 175, comes under Suren (a Parthian vassal state) until 60CE. 80 rcCAS
CONFUSION ALERT!  KANDAHAR is in Arachosia.  GANDAHAR is in Gandhara.
c.78 ARSHAK-I, Artaxiad king of Iberia from 90, ends.  ARTOG succeeds until 63. 78 hifiGeo
c.77 IBERIA allies with Pontus against Rome. 77 hifiGeo
c.76 XIONGNU, KHOTAN, and KASHGAR conquered by Han. 76 wikKsg
c.75 TUSHKALAVATTI, under Bactria from ?, under Artemidoros from ?, taken by Sakas until ?. 75 CHI 644
c.75 AMYNTAS ends.  Ruler of Eucratid Bactria at Peshawar from 85.  HERMAEUS SOTER succeeds until 55. 75 frH, rcCAS
c.73 MACHARES, viceroy of Bosporus 81-, at request of dad Mith-VI of Pontus, sends him help. 73 DGRBM 2-885
c.71 SAKAS go thru Bolan pass into Indus Valley. 71 MCAW 246
c.70 CRIMEA, under Pontus from 107, comes under Bosporus until 66. 70 rcCrm
c.70 HIPPOSTRATUS ends.  Ruler of Eucratid Bactria from 85. 70 frH, rcCAS 55 wikGB
c.70 THEOPHILUS ends.  Ruler of Eucratid Bactria from ?. 70 frH
c.70 ARACHOSIA, occupied by Indo-Greeks from ?, Indo-Greeks are expelled by Sakas, who are then expelled by Parthians. 70 hifiP
c.70 HERMAEOS dies.  Indo-Greek king of Gandhara from 90, Peshawar from 75.  After death of Hermaeos, the Yuezhi or Sakas rule Gandhara. 80 wikGB, wikIGK 70 wikGB, wikIGK 55 rcCAS
c.67 KUCHA in Tarim Basin surrenders to Han. 67 CHEIA 134
c.66 CRIMEA, under Bosporus from 70, back under Pontus until 47. 66 rcCrm
c.65 MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, in Colchis from 66, chased by Pompey, goes to Bosporus in Crimea until ?.  Tries to rebuild power, despite hostility of his family and many former subjects. 65 CAH 9-254, DGRBM 3-483, LEWH 108, MCAW 248, TTPC 31, lvA
c.65 COLCHIS under Pontus from , occupied by Pompey, who captures one of the local chiefs Olthaces, and instals ARISTARCHUS as a dynast until 47. 65 wikCl
c.65 MACHARES, viceroy of Bosporus from 81, flees from dad Mith-VI to the Crimean Chersonese, replaced by Mith-VI until 63. 66 rcCrm
65 DGRBM 2-885, MRDH 271
c.65 Indo-Greek king HIPPOSTRATOS rules Punjab in northwest India until 55. 65 wikIGK
c.64 MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, in Ukraine, raises an army of 36,000, plans to invade Italy. 64 CAH 9-398, atl1
talks about invading Balkans 64 lvA
c.64 Places under Mith-VI rebel, including Phanagoria Bosporus, Crimea, Theodosia, Nymphaion. 64 atl1
c.64 Earthquake in the Bosporus; several towns destroyed. 64 GHH
c.64 MITHRIDATES-VI, former king of Pontus 115-66, in Ukraine with 36,000, enroute to Italy, overtaxes loyalty of troops, suffers mutiny under son Pharnaces, harshly suppresses it, but pardons son. 64 B76 12-288, CAH 9-391 63 wikBsp
c.64 OXYARTES, son of Mith-VI, taken prisoner in the insurrection of the citizens of Phanagoria Bosporus.  He is afterwards delivered to Pompey. 64 DGRBM 3-75
c.64 XERXES, son of Mith-VI, with several bros placed for security in Phanagoria in Bosporus, captured by Pompey, taken to Rome. 64 DGRBM 3-1308
63 early PHARNACES, son of Mith-VI, revolts again, drives father into fortress at Panticapaeum in Crimea. 63 B76 12-288, CAH 9-391
63 early XIPHARES, son of Mith-VI is killed by him in Panticapaeum. 63 atl1
63 Hu-han-yeh submits to Han. 63 CHEIA 128
63 MITHRIDATES-VI Eupator Dionysius dies..  Former king of Pontus 115-66, besieged in fortress of Panticapaeum Crimea, tries suicide by poison, fails, orders his Gallic friend and bodyguard to kill him.  Killed.  Son PHARNACES-II is allowed by Pompey to succeed in Pontus and Bosporus until 47. 64 wikCRE 63 B76 VIII-115, 8-385, 12-288, 14-793, BNTH 9, CAH 9-254, 390-1, 1023, GHH, ISBE 1-326, MCAW 249, MRDK 272, OCD 696, TToH, anan, atl1, frH, rcT, wikBsp, wikHCr, wikKCB, wikTAR
c.63 ARTOG, Artaxiad king of Iberia from 90, ends.
COLCHIS comes under Pontus, mostly, until 63CE.
63 hifiEU, , hifiGeo
c.63 PHARNABAZUS-II Bartom becomes ruler of Iberia until 30. 63 hifiEU, , hifiGeo
c.62 BASTARNAE between Carpathian mountains and river Dnieper, defeat C. Antonius. 62 OCD 162
c.60 PHANAGORIA Bosporus attacked by Pharnaces-II, surrenders. 60 atl1
c.60 Indo-Scythian SAKAS under Maues, controling Indo-Greek Gandhara from 90, with capital at Taxila in Punjab, end. 60 hifiG
c.60 KASHMIR, under Suren (a Parthian vassal state), from 80, remains under Parthia, as a Yuezhi client until 78 CE. 60 rcCAE
c.60 GANDHARA, under Indo-Scythian Sakas from 90, with capital at Taxila in Punjab, in unknown condition until 20. 60 hifiG 50 rcCAS
c.58 MAUES, chief of Sakas (Yuezhi) from 97, ends. 60 wikMs     58 rcCAS
c.58 TURKMENISTAN, area west of Caspian Sea, under Bactria from 256, becomes Kingdom of MARGIANA until 80CE. 58 rcCAW
c.58 BONON becomes king of Margiana until 20. 58 rcCAW
c.55 YUEZHI (later Kushans) capture Saka territory in Gandhara.  They probably also cause the downfall of Indo-Greek King Hermaeus, as they conquer Gandhara in the process. 70 wikGB 50 hifiG
c.55 HERMAEUS SOTER, ruler of Eucratid Bactria from 75, ends. 55 frH, rcCAS
c.55 Indo-Greek king HIPPOSTRATOS in northwest India from 65, ends,  Indo-Scythian AZES-I succeeds until 35. 55 wikBk, wikGB, wikIGK
c.50 OLBIA, under Rome from 85, taken by Dacians until ?. 50 rcU
c.50 MOLDAVIA, at northeast corner of Black Sea, under the Bastarnae from 200, comes under Dacia until 40. 50 rcEB
c.50 PHARNACES-II, client king of Pontus and Bosporus 63-47, consolidates kingdom of Bosporus, by attacking neighboring nations. 50 atl1
c.50 KABUL, under Sakas from 125, comes under Suren (a Parthian vassal state) until 20. 50 rcCAS
c.48 PHARNACES-II, client king of Pontus and Bosporus 63-47, takes advantage of Roman civil war to attack neighboring countries including Anatolia. 48 CAH 9, atl1, wikKPn
c.47 ASANDER, regent of Bosporus for bro-in-law Pharnaces-II, revolts, hoping for Roman support. 47 DGRBM 1-379, atl1
c.47 Son of Mith-6, PHARNACES-II dies.  Client king of Bosporus and Pontus from 63, escapes from Pontus to Bosporus, assembles a small force of Scythians and Sarmatians, with which he gains control of a few cities, but is attacked and killed by former governor Asander.  Dau DYNAMIS & husband ASANDER succeed under Roman protection until 17. 47 B76 VII-928, Dur 3-110, 188, CAH 9, GHH, LEWH 109, OCD 164, TTPC, atl1, frH, wikBsp, wikCRE, wikKCB, wikLPΦ
44 MRDK 272
c.47 BOSPORUS, under Pontus from 107, under Pharnaces-II from 62, comes under Rome until 62CE.  Given by Caesar to Mithradates of Pergamum until 44.  ASANDER becomes ruler until 17. 47 atl1, rcCrm, wikCRE
no date:
OCD 176
c.47 ARISTARCHUS, dynast in charge of Colchis from 65, ends.  COLCHIS is ravaged by Pharnaces-II, son of Mith-VI. 47 wikCl
c.47 CRIMEA, under Pontus from 66, comes under Sarmatians (Roxolani) until 270CE. 47 rcCrm
c.46 CHERSONESE, vassal of Bosporus from ?, goes independent until 20. 46 rcCrm
c.46 Mithridates of Pergamum is defeated by Asander, while trying to seize kingdom of Bosporus. 46 atl1
c.44 MITHRIDATES of Pergamum co-king of Bosporus from 47, ends.  ASANDER continues 47-17. 46 wikCRE
c.44 Sarmatian IAZYGES, in the Steppes from 200, move to near the Dacian steppe between the Danube and Tisza rivers. 44 wikIzg
c.40 MOLDAVIA, at northeast corner of Black Sea, under Dacia from 50, comes back under the Bastarnae until 225CE. 40 rcEB
c.40 LIJIEN (Alexandria Colonia?) small military outpost in north Chinese Turkestan, under Khanate of Jsh Jsh from ?, comes under China until 190CE. 40 rcCAE
c.36 CHIH CHIH, chief of west Xiongnu from 51, dies.  Western Xiongnu disolve. 36 B76 9-597
c.30 PHARNABAZUS-II Bartom, Artaxiad ruler of Iberia from 63, ends.  Nimrodid MIRVAN-II succeeds until 20. 30 hifiEU
c.30 BACTRIA, under Parthia from ?, goes independent under VONONES and SPALIRISES.  People are called Pahlavas.  KUSHAN state begins until 230CE. 30 LEWH 141, rcCAS
c.30 BACTRA, capital of Bactria from 256, comes under Kushans until 230CE. 30 rcCAS
c.30 HERAT, city and fertile region in northwest Bactria, under Scythians from 130, comes under Kushans until 230CE. 30 rcCAS
c.25 CRIMEA granted autonomy by Augustus until 14. 25 CAH 10-268
c.20 CHERSONESE, independent from 46, comes under Rome until 375. 20 rcCrm
CONFUSION ALERT!  CHERSONESE / CHERSONESUS means peninsula.  Crimean Chersonese means Crimean peninsula.  A city of the same name (later contracted to Cherson) is on the south end of it, later called Sevastopol.
c.20 MIRVAN-II, Nimrodid ruler of Iberia from 30, ends.  Son ARTAXIAS-II succeeds until 1 CE. 20 hifiEU
c.20 MAUES-II becomes chief of Sakas until 22 CE. 20 HCIP 2-127
c.20 SAPADBIZES, 1st documented Yuezhi prince rules in Gandhara. 20 wikGB
c.20 KUJULA KADPHISES becomes ruler of Kushans until 30 CE. 25 MRDK 394     20 rcCAS 25CE CHEIA 163
30CE wikKK
Data for KUSHAN rulers is contradictory.
c.20 BONON, king of Margiana from 58, ends.  SPALYRIS succeeds until 1. 20 rcCAW
c.20 GANDHARA (Kabul), Parthian vassal state from ?, but in unknown condition from 60, comes under Kushan Empire until 230CE.   But see 75 CE. 20 rcCAS
c.20 SOGDIANA, under Scythians from 130, comes under Kushan Empire until 227CE. 20 rcCAW
c.20 SAMARKAND, under Scythians from 130, comes under Kushan Empire until 227CE. 20 rcCAW
c.20 GONDOPHERNES (Gondophares)-I becomes Parthian satrap of Sistan (Sakastan) until 20 CE. 20 wikPsk
c.20 SPALYRIS ends.  King of Margiana from 20.  ORTAGN succeeds until 20CE. 20 rcCAW
c. 18/7 ASANDER dies.  King of Bosporus from 44, upon seeing his troops defect to usurper Scribonius, starves himself to death, age 93.  Widow DYNAMIS succeeds until 16, and is forced to marry Scribonius. 18/7 CAH 10-267
17 MRDK 272, OCD 176, frH, rcCrm, wikBsp, wikCRE, wikKCB
16 DGRBM 3-758, HRE 109
c.16 DYNAMIS ends.  Queen of Bosporus 18/7-14, displaced by husband SCRIBONIUS, who usurps until 16. 16 frH 17 wikCRE
c.16 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, commander of east, orders Scribonius killed. 16 wikP1Pn
c.16 POLEMO-I of Pontus & Cilicia, at request of M. Agrippa and with approval of Augustus, marries Queen Dynamis of Bosporus, becoming ruler of Bosporus, Pontus, and Cilicia until 8.  He is charged with reducing Bosporus, which had been usurped by Scribonius. 16 DGRBM 3-434, wikBθP, wikBsp, wikP1Pn 14 CAH 10-151
c.16 SCRIBONIUS dies.  Ruler of Bosporus 16, is killed by Bosporans before Polemo arrives. 16 DGRBM 3-434, wikCRE
c.15 BOSPORAN KINGDOM, under usurper Scribonius from 16, conquered by POLEMO, king of Pontus 37-8, but he needs help holding it. 16 MRDK 272, wikCRE
15 OCD 850, frH, wikHCr 14 CAH 10-151, MRDK 272, rcCrm
c.14 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, commander of east, sails to Sinope, threatens to attack Bosporans, who surrender.  BOSPORUS becomes client kingdom until 62/3CE 16 DGRBM 1-79 14 CAH 10-268
c.14 DYNAMIS dies.  Queen of Bosporus from 18/7.  Husband POLEMO is sole ruler until 8. 17 frH     14 wikBsp, wikCRE, wikKCB, wikP1Pn
7CE MRDK 272     7/8CE CAH 10-269, OCD 176
8CE wikDyn
c.14 CRIMEA, autonomous from 25, placed under Bosporus by Agrippa until 62/3CE 14 CAH 10-268
c.8 POLEMO dies.  King of Pontus from 37, Bosporus from 14, Colchis from ?, pretends friendship with Bosporan rebels.  He is discovered, captured, and killed.  2nd wife Pythodoris of Pontus retains possession of Pontus and Colchis until ??CE.  Ti. Julius ASPURGUS is accepted by Augustus and succeeds in Bosporus until 37/8. 8 CAH 10-152, 269, OCD 176, 850, frH, rcCrm, rcT, wikBθP, wikBsp, wikCl, wikCRE, wikKCB, wikP1Pn
c.5 MAUES-II, chief of Sakas 20BC-22 CE, makes son-in-law AZES-I co-chief until 30 CE. 5 HCIP 2-127

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