|WOODLAND PERIOD of eastern North America continues 1000BCE-1000CE. A developmental stage without significant changes, except that POTTERY begins. Continuous development in stone and bone tools, leather working, textile manufacture, tool production, cultivation, and shelter construction. Hunting and gathering remains primary. Some Woodland peoples use spears and atlatls until the end of the period when they are replaced by bows and arrows.
EARLY WOODLAND period (Burial Mound-I) continues 1000-0. True agriculture is absent in much of the Southeast for a couple thousand years after the introduction of pottery.
|Woodland culture continues 200BCE-200CE spreading from Ohio to eastern plains from Oklahoma to North Dakota.|
|Point Peninsula Complex continues 600BCE-700CE: An indigenous Hopewell culture in Ontario and New York. Influenced by the Hopewell traditions of the Ohio River valley until 250CE, its ceramics are first introduced in Canada. Thinner and more decorated than existing ceramics, this new pottery has superior clay modeling, is better fired, and contains finer grit temper.||map: Heironymous Rowe|
|MANASOTA culture continues 550BCE-800CE in Florida. Each settlement contains a few related families. Dead are buried near their home or in nearby cemeteries. No grave goods or indication of differential treatment in death.|
|OHIO HOPEWELL tradition continues 200BCE-500CE along rivers in the northeast and midwest US. They are connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell Exchange System, which at its greatest extent, runs from southeast US to the southeast Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Most items traded are exotic materials received by people in major trading and manufacturing areas, converted into products and exported thru exchange networks.|
|GOODALL FOCUS continues 200BCE-500CE. A Hopewellian culture from Middle Woodland period peoples of Michigan and northern Indiana begins. Extensive trade networks. Ceramics contain expanding and contracting stemmed projectile points and obsidian flakes.||map: Heironymous Rowe|
|Early Basketmaker-II Era continues 1500BC-50CE.|
|TCHEFUNCTE culture continues 1000BCE-200CE. Hunter-gatherers who lived in small hamlets in the Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf Coast. They live in coastal areas and lowlands, usually near slow-moving streams. Food includes clams, alligators, fish but surprisingly not crabs or crawfish which were likely to have been abundant. They also hunt deer, raccoons, and some migratory birds.|
|Havana Hopewell culture continues 200BCE-400CE in Illinois River and Mississippi River valleys in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri. More a system of trading networks among societies than as a single society or culture.|
|ANCESTRAL PUEBLO culture continues 1200BCE-1300CE in Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico. They live in a range of structures including small family pit houses, larger structures to house clans, grand pueblos, and cliff-dwellings. They are called Anasazi "ancestors of enemies" by the Navajo.||map Yuchitown|
|DEPTFORD CULTURE continues 800BCE-200CE near Savannah, Georgia. Elaborate ceremonial complexes, increasing social and political complexity, mound burial, permanent settlements, population growth, increasing reliance on cultigens.||at peak: 500BC-200CE
(changed): Donald Albury
|MOGOLLON culture continues in southeast Arizona mountains 200BCE-1200CE.|
|c.100||TOOLESBORO Iowa: Conical burial mound building begins until 200CE. A group of Havana Hopewell culture earthworks on the north bank of the Iowa River near its discharge into the Mississippi. Site contains Hopewell and Middle Mississippian remains. At one time, there may have been up to 12 mounds. Largest remaining is 100' in diameter by 8' high.||photo Billwhittaker begins 200, ends 100 wikTMG
|c.100||PORTSMOUTH EARTHWORKS: Construction begins until 500CE near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky. A series of rectangular enclosures.
Group A is a large square enclosure with 2 series of parallel walls extending from the northeast and southwest corners. The Old Fort Earthworks consist of several sites, including the Old Fort Earthworks (15Gp1), Mays Mound (15Gp16), Hicks Mound (15Gp265), Stephenson Mound (15Lw139), and several other unnamed mounds and enclosures.
Group B, northern most section, is made of circular enclosures, 2 large horseshoe-shaped enclosures, and 3 sets of parallel-walled roads leading away in different directions. One set of walled roads extends across the Ohio River to Group A.
Group C, aka the Biggs Site (15Gp8), is a large series of concentric circles surrounding a central cone mound, built probably by the Adena culture.
|map: Squier & Davis
100 wikH, wikPE
KANSAS CITY Hopewell culture begins until 700CE in Kansas and Missouri around mouth of Kansas River where it enters the Missouri River. Westernmost variation of the Hopewell tradition. There are 30 recorded sites made up of distinctive pottery styles and impressive burial mounds containing stone vault tombs. It is uncertain whether this culture developed locally when people adopted Hopewell traits, or if westward migrating Hopewell people brought it all with them. Includes:
Cloverdale site (23BN2)
Renner Village Site (23PL1) contains Hopewell and Middle Mississippian artifacts.
Trowbridge Site in Kansas City, Kansas.
|map GNU FDL
100 wikAP, wiCl, wikH, wikKCH, wikLH
MARKSVILLE CULTURE of Middle Woodland period begins at Ohio/Miss. River Confluence until 400CE. Includes:
1. Crooks Mound in La Salle Parish, Louisiana, a conical burial mound that was part of at least 6 episodes of burials.
2. Grand Gulf Mound near Port Gibson in Claiborne County, Miss.
|map Herb Roe
100 wikAP, wikLH, wikMC
|c.100||MILLER culture begins in Mississippi until 100CE. Includes Bynum Mound and Village Site on a low ridge overlooking Houlka Creek in Tombigbee River drainage area. 5 mounds, containing artifacts made from non-local materials such as Greenstone, copper, and galena, and distinctive projectile points that did not originate at the site or even in Mississippi.||photo pub dom
100 wikBMVS, wikLH
|MESO-AMERICA: : PRE-CLASSIC Age continues 2000BCE-200CE. Manufacture of ceramics is widespread, cultivation of maize and other vegetables becomes well-established, society starts to become socially stratified. Capacha culture civilizes Mesoamerica, and its pottery spreads widely. Heavy concentration of pottery on Pacific Coast. Maise and pottery in Panama. Unknown culture in La Blanca and Ujuxte, Monte Alto culture, Mokaya culture|
Teotihuacan: Avenue of the Dead and Pyramid of the Sun, from Pyramid of the Moon Photo BrCG2007
|c.100||TEOTIHUACAN, first settled 300, begins to emerge rapidly.||100 hito|
|c.100||CUICUILCO's hegemony over the southeast Valley of Mexico begins decline.||100 wikCui, wikMC|
|c.100||CUICUILCO urban regional center from 150, begins weakening with the increasing rise of Teotihuacan as a cultural and religious center until 1BCE.||100 wikCui|
|c.100||Zapotec MONTE ALBAN culture continues 400BCE-1521. MONTE ALBAN, Zapotec capital, phase 1 from 400 ends. Phase 2 begins until 100CE. Zapotec rulers begin seizing provinces outside the valley of Oaxaca.||100 wikZC|
|NAZCA civilization continues 200BCE-800CE on south coast of Peru in river valleys of Rio Grande de Nazca and Ica Valley. Known for textiles, and geoglyphs.|
|c.100||PARACAS culture ends. In the Paracas Peninsula of Peru from 800. Known for shaft tombs containing elongated human skulls, knowledge of irrigation and water management. Ceramics include incised polychrome. Textiles include many complex weave structures and elaborate plaiting and knotting techniques. Necropolis of Wari Kayan contains two clusters of hundreds of burials set closely together inside and around abandoned buildings on the steep north slope of Cerro Colorado. Burials here continue until 250CE.||200
B76 1-843 100 TTT, wikPC
|c.100||CHANKILLO Peru, founded 350, ends. Chankillo had a fortress, solar observatory, and ceremonial areas. The observatory, called the Thirteen Towers, permits an observer to determine a precise date by observing the position of the sun at sunrise and sunset on the towers.||photo David Edgar
|32 Sep 1||Stela C of the Mayan CALENDAR at Tres Zapotes. Using a modified vigesimal tally, the Long Count calendar identifies a day by counting the number of days passed since a mythical creation date that corresponds to August 11, 3114 BC in the Proleptic Gregorian calendar. The Long Count calendar is widely used on monuments.||photo Maudslay
Sep 1, 32 wikMLC 31 B76 11-939
|c.1||EARLY WOODLAND period (Burial Mound-I) ends. Began 1000. MIDDLE WOODLAND period begins until 500. Settlements shift to the Interior. Local and inter-regional trade of exotic materials greatly increases. SWIFT CREEK culture begins until 400.||1 wikH, wikW|
|c.1||COPENA CULTURE of Middle Woodland period begins until 500.||1 wikAP|
|c.1||ARMSTRONG CULTURE, a Hopewell group in Big Sandy River Valley of Northeast Kentucky and Western West Virginia, begins until 500.||1CE wikH|
|c.1||NORTON Tradition in Western Arctic 1000BCE-800CE:
NORTON Stage from 500 ends. Has refined pottery including Choris-style stamps, plus check stamps applied using ivory paddles. New technology includes stone lamps, stone working, asymmetrical knives, and ground slate projectile points.
IPIUTAK Stage begins until 800. Technology is less advanced (no pottery, oil lamps, or slate artifacts), but they use elegant harpoon heads ornately adorned. Art is mainly ivory carvings of animal and human figures.
|1 wikAP, wikNT|
|c.1||TCHEFUNCTE site in a marsh in east Louisiana occupied primarily by Tchefuncte cultural groups from 500, ends. It contained 2 oval-shaped shell middens (no longer extant).||1 wikTS|
|c.1||CUICUILCO urban regional center, declining from 100, begins recovery until 150.||1CE wikCui|