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c.100 AFRICA PROVINCE, corresponding to modern Tunisia from 146, extended west to near the present Algeria border. 100 B76 I-123
c.100 BOCCHUS, king of Mauretania 110-80, goes on expedition to Western Ethiopians. 100 atl1
c.100 Arabian CAMEL introduced to Sahara. 100 PW 17, TAWH 18
c.100 EUDOXUS of Cyzicus 3rd voyage, he tries to circumnavigate Africa. 100 atl1
c.100 Hellenistic Jew, JASON of Cyrene flourishes.  Wrote a 5 volume history down to the victory over Nicanor 2Maccabees  is a sumary of it.  Glorifies the temple, attacks Jewish Hellenizers, though his own style is Hellenistic. after 162 DGRBM 2-555
100 B76 10-313, wikJoC
c.96 Son of P-8 Physcon, Ptolemy APION dies. King of Cyrene from 116, dies bequeathing Cyrene to the Roman people.  The senate refuses the legacy, and declares the cities of the Cyrenaica free. 96 AΨΨ 371, B76 VIII-283, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 9-316, DGRBM 3-568, GHH, IDB 1-754, ISBE 3-1050, Jud 5-1183, MCAW 238, OCD 307, atl1, rcNA, wikKC
c.96 CYRENAICA, under Ptolemies from 149, under Apion from 110, becomes free under Roman influence until 74. 96 AΨΨ 371, B76 III-329, 8-386, GHH, ISBE 1-845, Jud 5-1183, OCD 307, rcNA, wikLbR
c.96 LIBYA, under Ptolemies from 323, under Egypt from 116, comes under Rome until 37/6. 96 rcNA
c.91 BOCCHUS-I ends.  King of Mauretania from 110.  Sons BOCCHUS-II and BOGUD do not succeed until 49. 91 B76 II-108
91-81 Brit     80 rcNA, wikMrt
c.88 P. SEXTILIUS becomes governor of Africa province until 87. 88 hifiC, wikAf, rcNA
88 GAUDA dies.  King of Numidia from 105.  Kingdom is divided into a larger eastern kingdom and a smaller western kingdom.  Son HIEMPSAL-II succeeds in east until 84.  MASTEABAR succeeds in west until 81. 88 rcNA, wikH2, wikKNm
c.88 MARIUS flees from Rome, tries to land near Carthage in Africa province, but is forbidden by P. Sextilius governor of Africa. 88 DGRBM 3-810, GHH, atl1
c.88 MARIUS moves to Numidia, and begins to gather his friends and supporters. 88 atl1
c.88 CASSIUS DIONYSIUS flourishes in Utica.  Writes  Georgica , 20 books on agriculture, botany and medicine. 88 B76 II-616
c.87 P. SEXTILIUS, governor of Africa province from 88, returns to Rome.  Q.(6) Caecilius METELLUS PIUS succeeds 86-84. 87 CAH 9-177, atl1, hifiC, wikAf, rcNA
C. Fabius HADRIANUS governs Africa province 87-4. DGRBM 2-323
c.87 Consul L.(2) Cornelius CINNA, besieged in Nola by the force left by Sulla, notifies C. Marius in Africa. 87 CAH 9-175, LEWH 106, OCD 746, atl1
c.87 C. MARIUS, leader of populares, in Africa from 88, returns, (P. Cornelius Cethegus accompanies), lands at Telamon Etruria. 87 CAH 9-175, DGRG 2-1121, Dur 3-124, OCD 224, atl1, wikSl
87/6 winter Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS with 6 ships sails from Crete to Cyrene, finds feuding neighbors and petty tyrants, restores order temporarily, sails to Egypt. 87 CAH 9-153, DGRBM 3-596 87/6 CAH 9-390, DGRBM 2-832     86 CAH 9-390, atl1
c.86 Fimbria assassinates Flaccus in Numidia. 86 GHH
84 HIEMPSAL-II ends.  King of Numidia from 88.  IARB succeeds until 82. 84 rcNA
c.84 M.(3) Licinius CRASSUS, in Spain from 87, goes to Africa, joins MetellusHe soon disagrees with Metellus and joins Sulla. 84 wikMLC
c.84 Q.(6) METELLUS PIUS, Sullan governor of Africa from 86, defeated by C. Fabius Hadrianus, populare governor of Africa.  Metellus returns to ItalyC. FABIUS HADRIANUS governs Africa until 82. 84 DGRBM 2-1060, OCD 678, atl1, rcNA
82 Populare consul Gn.(2) Papirius CARBO sails from Italy to Africa, then learns of Pompey attacking populares in Sicily, so he goes to Sicily. 82 DGRBM 1-612, OCD 204
82 Gn.(5) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, populare, proscribed by Sulla, flees from Rome to Africa, joins others there for the same reason. 82 DGRBM 1-85
c.82 C. FABIUS HADRIANUS, populare governor of Africa from 84, is burnt to death in a riot at Utica. 82 CAH 9-191, atl1
82 IARB ends.  King of Numidia from 84.  MASSINISSA-II succeeds and ends.  HIEMPSAL-II succeeds until 81. 82 rcNA
81 HIEMPSAL-II, king of Numidia from 82, driven out by Numidians themselves, or by Hiarbas, ruler of part of Numidia, supported by Gn.(5) Domitius Ahenobarbus. 81 wikH2
c.81 Sullan POMPEY, sails from Sicily to Africa to oppose Gn.(5) Domitius Ahenobarbus, governs until 79. 81 CAH 9-196, DGRBM 2-449, 3-478, wikH2
c.81 C. FABIUS HADRIANUS, populare governor of Africa from 84, defeated by POMPEY. 82 rcNA, wikAf
81 DGRBM 3-478
81 Gn.(5) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, populare, and ally Numidian chief Hiarbas, defeated by Pompey near Utica.  Only 3,000 of Domitius' 20,000 survive. 82/1 DGRBM 1-85 81 DGRBM 2-449, atl1     80 GHH
c.81 Sullan POMPEY invades Numidia and establishes HIEMPSAL-II as king until 60. 81 atl1, wikH2, wikKNm
81 MASTEABAR ends.  King of west Numidia from 88.  MASINISSA-II succeeds until 46. 81 rcNA, wikH2, wikKNm
c.81 Sullan POMPEY persuades his army not to mutiny after they are ordered by Sulla to return to Italy. 81 atl1
c.81 Populare Gn.(5) Domitius AHENOBARBUS is killed by Pompey when his camp is stormed, or soon after. 81 CAH 9-196, DGRBM 1-85, 3-478, atl1
c.81 Q. SERTORIUS, in Nearer Spain from 83, driven out by C Annius Luscus, sails to Mauretania, defeats Ascalis and captures Tingis, after which he digs up alleged remains of Antaeus.  He tries to settle, but is forced to leave, goes to Pityussa island off coast of Spain. 81 GHH, atl1, rcIb 80 MCAW 244
c.81 Sullan POMPEY rewards Hasdrubal of Gades and several others with Roman citizenship for their services in Africa. 81 atl1
c.81 Sullan POMPEY is named Magnus by his troops. 81 CAH 9-197, atl1
81/0 Numidian chief HIARBAS, delivered to Pompey, executed.  His chiefdom is given to Hiempsal-II. 81 wikKNm 81/0 DGRBM 2-449, 3-478
81/0 Pompey secures Africa province for Sulla. 81 CAH 9, ttpm
c.80 Pompey receives letter from Sulla ordering Pompey to disband his army except for 1 legion, with which to wait till his successor arrives. 81 CAH 9-196
c.80 Pompey in Africa.  Utica is his base for campaign against Populares. 81 CAH 9, CDCC 916
c.80 POMPEY, Sullan governor of Africa from 82, collects many elephants and lions in Numidia to grace his anticipated triumph, and returns with his army (contrary to Sulla's orders) to Rome. 81 CAH 9-197
80 DGRBM 3-478 79 wikAf
80 Q. Sertorius, in Africa from ?, lands in Spain until 72 to support a Lusitani rebellion. 80 B76 IX-74, CAH 9-206, Dur 3-136, OCD 980, LEWH 107, atl1, wikRCH, wikTAR
c.77 L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS sails from Rome, becomes governor of Africa until 76/5. 77 rcNA, wikAf, wikLcl
c.76 Aretaphila frees Cyrene from tyrants Nicocrates and Leander. 76 atl1
c.76/5 L. Licinius LUCULLUS, governor of Africa from 77, returns to Rome, succeeded by A. Manlius TORQUATUS until 67. 76 rcNA     76/5 wikAf     75 wikLcl
75 C. Aurelius COTTA formally confirms Hiempsal-II's right to some disputed territory. 75 atl1
75 P. Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER is sent from Rome to organize Cyrenaica as a province. 75 atl1, wikKC
74 CYRENAICA, under Rome from 96, annexed as a senatorial province under a quaestor until 37/6. 75 rcNA     75/4 CAH 9-319     74 B76 6-483, CAH 9-390, IDB 3-941, Jud 11-199, LEWH 107, OCD 307, wikHLb, wikLb, wikLbR
69 Gn. PLANCIUS serves with A. Manlius TORQUATUS in Africa. 69 atl1
67 CRETE is attached to senatorial province of Cyrenaica.  Cyrene is capital. 67 B76 III-328
67 CYRENAICA, senatorial province 74-37, shows evidence of much administrative activity under Gn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus. 67 CAH 10-621
67 A. Manlius TORQUATUS governor of Africa from 76, returns to Rome.  Optimate L. Sergius CATILINE becomes propraetor of Africa until 66. 67 B76 II-644, DGRBM 1-629, OCD 214, atl1, rcNA, wikAf, wikCat
67/6 PTOLEMAIS on coast of Cyrenaica is made a home for former pirates by Pompey. 67/6 CAH 10-625
66 L. Sergius CATILINE, governor of Africa from 67, returns to Rome. 66 B76 II-644, rcNA, wikAf, wikCat
c.63 P. SITTIUS, in Spain from 64, goes to MauretaniaHis property in Italy is sold to pay his debts.  He continues in Africa, selling his mercenary services to one prince after another. 63 DGRBM 3-844
62/1 Q. Pompeius RUFUS sent from Rome, becomes proconsul of Africa until 60/59.  M. Caelius accompanies to learn how to administer a province, and to look after his father's property. 62 rcNA, wikAf
61 DGRBM 3-476, 671, atl1
60 HIEMPSAL-II dies.  Client king of Numidia from 82.  Son JUBA-I succeeds until 46. 60 B76 13-150, OCD 743, rcNA, wikKNm, wikNm 63-50 B76 V-621
60 Q. Pompeius RUFUS, governor of Africa from 62, ends. 60 rcNA     60/59 wikAf
58 T. VETTIUS JUDEX sent from Rome to become governor of Africa until 57. 58 rcNA, wikAf
57 T. VETTIUS governor of Africa from 58, ends. 57 wikAf
56 Q. VALERIUS ORCA becomes governor of Africa and ends same year. 56 rcNA, wikAf
52 P. Attius VARUS comes from Italy to Africa, becomes governor until 51. 56 rcNA
52 wikAf     49 atl1
c.51 P. Attius VARUS, governor of Africa from 52, returns to Rome.  C. Considius LONGUS succeeds until 50. 51 wikAf 50 rcNA
50 C. Considius LONGUS, governor of Africa from 51, leaves legate Q. Ligarius in charge of Africa, while he returns to Rome to run for consul. 50 DGRBM 2-786, wikAf     49 rcNA
49 Jan P. Attius VARUS, proconsul of Africa with 12th legion, sails to Italy. 49 Dur 3-182, OCD 1108
49 Mar Pompeian L. ATTIUS VARUS sails from Brundisium to Africa.  Q. Ligarius turns over the province to him.  Varus runs Africa province until 48.  Sextus Quintilius Varus joins him. 49 DGRBM 2-786, 3-1229, 1231, OCD 1108, rcNA, wikAf
49 L. Aelius TUBERO is assigned by senate to Africa, shows up at Utica, but Varus won't let him land.  He sails away. 49 DGRBM 2-786, 3-1230
c.49 MASTANESOSUS, king of Mauretania from ?, ends.  Son of B-I, BOCCHUS-II, becomes king of east Λ Mauretania until 38.  Bro BOGUD becomes king of west Mauretania until 38.  Both support Caesar, Bogud until 44. 49 B76 II-109, DGRBM 1-498, DGRG 2-298, OCD 171, wikMrt
49 JUBA-I, client king of Numidia 60-46, allies with Pompey until 46. 49 B76 V-621
49 L.(6) JULIUS CAESAR, son of L.(5) legate of Caesar, turns Pompeyan and sails from Italy to Africa, and is assigned command of Clupea. no date: DGRBM 1-538-9, wikLJC
c.49 Pompeyan Q. or L. NASIDIUS, sails from Massilia to Africa, where he commands the Pompeian fleet. 49 DGRBM 2-1142
c.49 M.(6) Porcius CATO, conservative chased out of Sicily by C.(4) Scribonius Curio, sails to Africa until 49/8. 49 CAH 9, Dur 3-183, OCD 502
49 mid Praetor C.(4) Scribonius CURIO and C.(1) Asinius POLLIO are sent by Caesar with 2 legions from Sicily to Africa to stop Pompeyan Juba-I of Numidia. 49 B76 III-302, V-621, DGRBM 2-635, unrvCS, wikGAP, wikGSC
c.49 Pompeyan C. CONSIDIUS LONGINUS returns to Africa until ?, holds Adrumetum with 1 legion. 49 DGRBM 1-827
49 P. Attius VARUS, Pompeyan proconsul of Africa 49-8, defeated by Caesarean praetor C.(4) Scribonius CURIO at Utica, before Juba-I can help him. 49 DGRBM 2-635, OCD 1108, wikCCW, wikGSC
49 C.(4) Scribonius CURIO, at approach of Juba-I, retreats to Castra Cornelia, a strong position on the coast.  Juba-I pretends to withdraw to the interior leaving only a small force under general Sabura to relieve Utica.  Curio buys it, and attacks. 49 DGRBM 2-635
49 Praetor C.(4) Scribonius CURIO, Caesarean from 50, wiped out except for a few cohorts of cavalry by general Sabura, helped by Attius Varus, at 2nd Battle of Bagradas River, CURIO dies, killed or suicides.  Wife from 52 Fulvia will marry Antony 47/6.  Survivors of his army are executed by Juba-I, over objection of Attius Varus. 49 B76 III-302, V-621, CAH 9-431, DGRBM 1-585, 2-188, 635, 3-691, 1230, MCAW 256, atl1, wikCCW, wikGSC
49 FLAMMA, prefect of Curio at Utica, learns of defeat at Bagradas River, makes no effort to help fugitive Romans, sails away with his division of the fleet. 47 DGRBM 2-168
49 JUBA-I, client king of Numidia 60-46, is rewarded with independence by Pompey and his senators until 46, and declared a public enemy by Caesar and his senators. 49 DGRBM 2-635
c.49/8 M.(6) Porcius CATO, conservative, in Africa from 49, sails from Africa to Greece until 48.  Joins Pompey at Dyrrhachium. 49 DGRBM 1-649, Dur 3-183, MCAW 256, OCD 215
48 Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO, dad-in-law of Pompey, escapes from Pharsalus to Corcyra to Africa until ?. 48 B76 VI-836, DGRBM 2-1063, OCD 678, atl1, wikMS
48 Pompeyan L. Manlius TORQUATUS sails from Corcyra? to Africa. 48 DGRBM 3-1165
48 Pompeyans M.(6) Porcius CATO and T. LABIENUS sail from Corcyra to Cyrene.  Cato takes over Pompey's remaining forces there. 48 DGRBM 1-649, 2-697, OCD 215, atl1, wikTLb
48 CORNELIA, widow of Pompey, and son Sextus, sails from Cyprus to Cyrene.  She is pardoned by Caesar and returns to Italy. 48 DGRBM 1-855, 3-489
48 Pompeyan M. PETREIUS, sails from Achaea to Africa. 48 DGRBM 3-214, wikPtr
48 Republican M.(6) Porcius CATO learns of Pompey's death, marches his troops west from Cyrene across the desert for 6 days to join other republicans in Africa province, where he yields command to Q.(10) Metellus Pius Scipio. 48 CAH 9-435, atl1 47 DGRBM 1-649
48 P. Attius VARUS, Pompeyan proconsul of Africa from 49, yields supremacy to Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO until 46. 48 DGRBM 2-1063, 3-1230, OCD 1108, rcNA, wikAf, wikMS
48 As soon as Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO takes command, he tries to destroy the important town of Utica, to gratify Juba, but Cato talks him out of it. 48 DGRBM 2-1063, atl1
47 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, sails from Corcyra for SpainOnly now learns from his bro Sextus of the death of their father, sails first to Africa until 47. 47 DGRBM 3-488-9
47 Republican M.(6) Porcius CATO fortifies Utica. 47 atl1
47 Republican M.(3) OCTAVIUS flees from Dyrrhachium to Africa. 47 DGRBM 3-9
47 Caesareans Q. COMINIUS and L. TICIDA captured by Pompeyan commander Virgilius near Thapsus when crossing to Africa. 47 DGRBM 1-816, 3-1126
47 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, sails west from Africa, but lands in Mauretania, attacks town of Ascurum (location unknown) in Mauretania unsuccessfully. 47 DGRBM 3-489 46 DGRBM 1-498
47 T. LABIENUS creates confidence in the republicans by claiming that Caesar had received a mortal wound at Pharsalus. 47 wikTLb
c.47 Republican C. CONSIDIUS LONGINUS commander of Adrumetum, attacks Acholla, a free town favoring Caesar, repulsed, returns to Adrumetum. 47 DGRBM 1-827
c.47 TISDRA (Tusdro, Thysdrus) taken by republican C. CONSIDIUS LONGINUS commander of Adrumetum. 47 DGRBM 1-827
47 Oct CAESAR with 7 legions, totaling 30,000 men and 2,600 cav sails from Lilybaeum for Africa to deal with partisans and sons of Pompey, lands 3,000 men near Adrumetum in Dec. 47 CAH 9, DGRBM 1-215, 424, 552, 2-635, DGRG 1-70, GHH, atl1, sjsu, unrvCA, vrm, wikCCW
P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella accompanies. DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
c.47 Dec Republican C. CONSIDIUS LONGINUS commander of Adrumetum, receives a letter from Caesar via a captive, whom Considius kills because he referred to Caesar as imperator. 47 DGRBM 1-827
46 Jan 1 CAESAR retreats from Adrumetum and establishes a new camp at Ruspina.  He then moves to Leptis. 46 atl1
46 Jan SALLUST (C. Sallustius Crispus) the historian, Caesarean, is made praetor, and sent from Rome to Africa. 47 GHH
46 GHH, MCAW 259, wikSls
46 Jan 3 CAESAR moves back from Leptis to Ruspina. 46 atl1
Both sides play a game of feints, skirmishes, and capturing towns.  Caesar has supply problems.  Republicans suffer defections, and are mostly content to disrupt Caesar rather than attack with full force. 46 unrvCA
46 Jan 4 Republicans T. LABIENUS and M. PETREIUS attack Caesar and are narrowly defeated at RuspinaNearly 1/3 of Caesar's army is killed.  Labienus then joins Scipio and becomes his legate. 48 wikCCW, wikBR 46 DGRBM 2-697, 3-214, atl1, wikTLb
46 Jan Republican M. PETREIUS is wounded at Ruspina.  He ends up at Thapsus. 48 DGRBM 3-214
46 Jan 25 CAESAR beats back another attack by Labienus. 46 atl1
46 Feb Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO, commander of republicans, assembles 14 legions and 15,000 cav north of Thapsus. 48 B76 IX-923
46 Feb? CAESAR avoids battle with Metellus Scipio until reinforcements arrive. 46 atl1
46 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is summoned again from Rome to Africa in pursuit of Cato and Metellus Scipio. 46 DGRBM 3-437, wikGAP
46 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS fails to gain support of king Bogud in Mauretania, and sails to Balearic Islands until later 46. 46 atl1, wikGnPm
46 L.(1) Munatius PLANCUS accompanies Caesar in his African campaign and tries unsuccessfully, to induce republican commander C. Considius to surrender to him the town of Adrumetum. 46 DGRBM 3-382
46 CAESAR sends C. Sallustius to island of Cercina. 46 atl1
46 Inconclusive skirmishes between Caesar and Metellus Scipio, near Uzitta. 46 atl1
46 CAESAR receives further reinforcements, but dismisses Avienus and Fonteius, 2 disloyal tribunes. 46 atl1
46 ACHOLLA, a town on the coast, submits to Caesar, and is put under Messius. 46 DGRG 1-20
46 BOGUD, king of west Mauretania 49-38, partisan of Caesar, attacks Pompeyan kingdom of Numidia. 46 DGRBM 1-498
46 CAESAR trains his troops to fight against elephants, and captures Sarsura, then goes to Agar north of Thapsus. 46 atl1
46 C.(1) Asinius POLLIO is sent again to Africa in pursuit of Cato and Metellus Scipio. 46 wikGAP
46 PACIDII, 2 republican generals in Africa under Metellus Scipio, one of whom falls in Battle of Tegea Arcadia? or Crete?. 46 DGRBM 3-80
46 C. VIRGILIUS commands republican fleet at Thapsus. 46 DGRBM 3-1263
46 CAESAR marches from Aggar to Thapsus. 46 atl1
46 Mercenary P. Sittius, working for Bocchus of Mauretania, invades Numidia to draw off Juba. 46 CAH 9-436
46 JUBA-I, king of Numidia, republican ally from 47, with 30,000 men marches to support republican Metellus Scipio with 8 legions and 60 elephants, learns that Numidia has been invaded by Bogud and mercenary P. Sittius, sends only 30 elephants to help Scipio, returns with his army to deal with the invaders.  Outcome unknown.  Juba leaves general Saburra to deal with invaders, and returns with a reduced force to help Scipio. 46 DGRBM 2-635, unrvCA
46 Apr 6 Caesar with 11 legions arrives at Thapsus. unrvCA
46 Fb-Ap THAPSUS seaport: Caesar's troops under C. Caninius Rebilus, without orders, surge forward and defeat republicans under Metellus Scipio and general Saburra, killing 10,000.  FINAL defeat of republicans.  C. Vigilius surrenders Thapsus to Rebilus.  Labienus and Metellus Scipio flee, Scipio to the sea, and with a small squadron steers first for Utica.  Africa province is now under control of Caesar. 46 B76 V-621, VI-836, IX-923, 3-579, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-552, 649, 2-1063, 3-1263, DGRG 1-70, 2-1135, GHH, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, atl1, ttjc, vrm, wikCCW, wikCY, wikJC, wikMS, wikSPm
46 Fb-Ap Caesar's legion V Alaudae, having fought successfully against the Republican elephants at Thapsus, becomes the only Caesarian legion not to have the bull as its emblem, instead being awarded the elephant.. 46 wik5Al
46 Apr 9 News of republican defeat reaches Cato at Utica.  He help people flee. 46 unrvCA
46 Apr 13 M.(6) Porcius CATO dies.  Only remaining champion of traditional morals, republican in Africa from 48, entrusts his son to L.(6) Julius Caesar and suicides, age 49, in Utica, rather than be pardoned by Caesar. 47 Dur 3-110     46 B76 II-645, 15-1106, CDCC 172, DGRBM 1-539, 649, GHH, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, OCD 215, atl1, unrvCA, vrm, wikCCW, wikCY, wikJC
46 After Thapsus Q. LIGARIUS is captured at Adrumetum, spared but banished by Caesar. 48 DGRBM 2-786
46 After Thapsus T. LABIENUS joins Gn.(3) Pompeius in Spain. 48 wikTLb
46 Q.(10) METELLUS PIUS SCIPIO dies.  Governor of Africa province from 47, learns from Cato that there would be no security for him at Utica, tries to flee for Spain.  Contrary winds force him back to Hippo Regius, where he encounters the fleet of Caesarean P. Sittius.  Scipio's small squadron is overpowered, and he stabs himself and leaps into the sea.  Republicans Plaetorius Rustianus and L. Manlius Torquatus are also killed. 48 B76 IX-923, DGRBM 2-1063, 3-381, 752, 1165, atl1, rcNA, wikMS
46 After Thapsus the GAETULIANS defect from Juba-I to Caesareans. 47 DGRBM 2-635
46 Republican M.(6) Porcius CATO, M. Petreius, and JUBA-I flee from Thapsus to Utica, where republican M.(3) Octavius commands 2 legions. 46 B76 II-645, DGRBM 3-9, 214, MCAW 256
46 After Thapsus Republicans FAUSTUS SULLA and L. AFRANIUS try to escape to SpainThey are captured along with their families by Caesarean troops of P. Sittius. 46 wikLA
46 JUBA-I dies.  Client king of Numidia from 60, republican ally from 47, defeated by Caesarean mercenary P. Sittius at Thapsus, deposed, flees with M. Petreius, to Utica, but is expelled by M.(6) Porcius Cato, flees to Zama, which closes gates to him, dies with M. Petreius in a suicide duel in which Petreius kills Juba then himself..  Son JUBA-II is captured and raised in Rome.
NUMIDIA, independent from 202, East Numidia is annexed to Rome, becomes province of AFRICA NOVA until 30C. SALLUSTIUS, the historian, becomes 1st governor of Numidia until 45.  West Numidia not annexed until 40.
46 B76 V-621, 13-150, DGRBM 1-802, 2-635, 3-214, DGRG 2-455, LEWH 109, MCAW 256, 259, OCD 946, 994, atl1, rcNA, wikJC, wikKNm, wikNm, wikNmRP, wikPtr, wikSls
46 Republicans Faustus Cornelius SULLA and L. AFRANIUS, prisoners for a few days of P. Sittius, are killed by mutinied men of P. Sittius.  Sulla's widow Pompeia and her children are delivered to Caesar and released.. 48 DGRBM 3-473, OCD 1022, atl1, wikLA
46 Caesarean mercenary P. SITTIUS defeats general Saburra and senatorial remnants. 46 OCD 994
c.46 Caesarean Gn. Domitius CALVINUS, governor of Asia from 47, sails to Africa, besieges Considius at Tisdra. 46 DGRBM 1-585
c.46 After Thapsus, Republican C. CONSIDIUS LONGINUS commander at Tisdra, hears that Gn. Domitius Calvinus is approaching and secretly withdraws with some loot and Gaetulians intending to escape to Mauretania.  He is either killed by the Gaetulians or captured and pardoned by Caesar. 46 DGRBM 1-827, 828
c.46 Republican L.(6) Julius CAESAR is quaestor to Cato in Utica. 46 DGRBM 1-539
c.46 CAESAR spares lives of Q. Ligarius and some others who fought against him in Africa. 46 atl1
46 GABES (Qabis), under Numidia from 164, comes under Rome until 395. 46 rcNA
46 Caesarean C. Caninius REBILUS becomes governor of Africa until 45. 46 wikAf
46 TRIPOLITANIA attached to province of AFRICA NOVA. 46 B76 X-129
46 Caesarean mercenary leader P. SITTIUS captures Cirta, and forces Juba to return home. 46 atl1
46 Caesarean P. SITTIUS and his mercenaries are rewarded by Caesar with Cirta and vicinity. 46 OCD 242, 994
46 MASINISSA-II, king of west Numidia from 81, ends.  P. SITTIUS is governor until 44. 46 wikKNm
46 Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, attacks Caesarean BOGUD king of west Mauretania, then moves into Mediterranean islands. 46 DGRBM 3-488, OCD 171
46 P. LIGARIUS, whom Caesar had pardoned in Spain, and since returned to republican service, is captured by Caesar and executed. 46 DGRBM 2-786
46 Pompeyan A. CAECINA surrenders to Caesar. 46 DGRBM 1-529, OCD 189
c.46 Money lender C. RABIRIUS Postumus is sent by Caesar from Africa to Sicily for provisions. 46 DGRBM 3-512
46 Legate C. DIDIUS sent by Caesar to Spain to fight Pompey's sons Gn.(3) and Sextus Pompeius. 46 DGRBM 3-489, MCAW 257
46 CARTHAGE, destroyed 146, refounded by Caesar as Roman colony JUNONIA.  Finished 27. 49 hifiC
46 PW 17     44 atl1
c.46 BOCCHUS-II, king of east Mauretania 49-38, is given much of Numidia. 46 B76 II-109
c.46 Republican L.(6) Julius CAESAR dies.  Captured and executed. 46 atl1
46 Jul CAESAR sails from Africa to Sardinia, then to Italy before going to Spain in Nov. 46 CAH 9-436, DGRBM 1-552, 3-489, DGRG 2-910, MCAW 256, atl1, sjsu, vrm, wikTAR
P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella accompanies. DGRBM 1-1059, 3-1182
45 early C. Caninius REBILUS, governor of Africa from 46, ends.  C. Calvisius SABINUS becomes governor of Africa Vetus until 44. 45 DGRBM 3-689, rcNA, wikAf
45 End of the African war (46) 45 GHH
45 Caesarian C. SALLUSTIUS, 1st governor of Africa Nova from 46, extorts money from his province, returns to Rome.  T. SEXTILIUS succeeds 44-40. 45 OCD 197, atl1
45 TISDRA (Tusdro, Thysdrus), Punic settlement from ?, refounded by Caesar for his veterans. 45 B76 IX-993
44 P. SITTIUS, governor of west Numidia from 46, ends.  ARABIO becomes king of west Numidia until 33. 44 rcNA, wikKNm, wikNm
44 Caesarean P. SITTIUS and his mercenaries are rewarded by Caesar with Cirta and vicinity. 44 OCD 242, 994
44 Mar On death of Caesar, T. SEXTIUS is governor of Numidia (Africa Nova)Q. CORNIFICIUS is governor of Africa Vetus. 44 DGRBM 3-810
44 mid CYRENAICA is assigned to C. Cassius, but there is no sign that he ever went there. 44 CAH 10-630
44 C. Calvisius SABINUS, governor of Africa Vetus from 45, ends.  Q. CORNIFICIUS, probably by Caesar's appointment succeeds until 43/2. 44 OCD 292, rcNA, wikAf
44 Caesarean P. SITTIUS dies.  Ruler of Cirta from 46, murdered by local chieftain Arabio.  His people (Sittani) retain district identity. 44 OCD 242, 994, atl1
44 Caesarian C. Calvisius SABINUS, governor of Africa Nova from 45, is reappointed by Antony, but nothing comes of it because Antony is outlawed.  Q. CORNIFICIUS remains governor. 45 DGRBM 3-689, OCD 197
c.44 After the tyrannicide, BOCCHUS-II, king of east Mauretania 49-38 supports Octavian.  Bro BOGUD king of west Mauretania 49-38 supports Antony. 44 B76 II-109
43 AFRICA is assigned to Octavian at treaty of Bononia. 43 DGRG 1-70
c.43 L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS, neph of L.(1), quaestor in Spain from 45, absconds from Gades with money intended to pay troops, and flees to Bogud king of west Mauretania. 43 DGRBM 1-457, wikGAP, wikL2Bl
43 Dec? Q. CORNIFICIUS, governor of Africa Vetus 44-42, proscribed by triumvirs. 43 OCD 292
42 Octavian obtains Africa Nova.  T. Sextius is therefore ordered by L. Antonius to hand over Africa Nova to C. Fango, legate of Octavian.  Sextius obeys, but remains in Africa Vetus, hoping that the present harmony between Octavian and Antony will not continue. 42 GRBM 3-811
42 Q. CORNIFICIUS dies.  Governor of Africa Vetus, defeated by T. Sextius near Utica, killed.  T. SEXTIUS becomes governor of Africa Nova until 40.  C. FUFICIUS FANGO governor of Africa Vetus until 41. 42 DGRG 1-70, OCD 292, atl1, rcNA, wikAf
42 Oct PHILIPPI   Oct 3   Oct 23
41 Octavian appoints C. Fuficius FANGO prefect of Africa Nova. 40 DGRBM 2-135
41 "TURKEY":  Antony's aid writes to Fulvia describing banquets.  Mentions quails, ducks, turkeys, and peacocks.  This will mislead food historians in 1525. 41 TTPC 73
41 On beginning of Perusian War, Fulvia and L. Antonius urge T. SEXTIUS to take Africa Nova back from C. FUFICIUS FANGO. 41 DGRBM 3-811
41 C. FUFICIUS FANGO, governor of Africa Vetus from 42, defeated and expelled by T. SEXTIUS, who is restored until 40.  Fango suicides. 41 DGRBM 3-811, rcNA     40 atl1
40 CANARY ISLANDS 100km west of Mauretania, discovered by Mauretanians. 40 B76 II-502
40 T. SEXTIUS, governor of Africa Nova from 44, Africa Vetus from 41, ends. 40 wikAf, rcNA
40 ARABIO, king of west Numidia from 44, dies.  Numidia remains under Rome until 30. 40 wikKNm, wikNmRP 33 rcNA
40 NUMIDIA:  East and west parts are united with Tripolitana by Octavian, to create Africa Proconsularis. 40 wikNmRP
40 Sp/Oc Treaty of Brundisium assigns Africa to Lepidus.
40 Oct M. Aemilius LEPIDUS, triumvir in charge of Africa until 36, promotes distribution of land to veterans, possibly in order to build up a network of clients, and appears to have encouraged the Romanization of Tibilis in Numidia. 40 CAH 10-44, atl1, rcNA, wikAf, wikLpd
38 While BOGUD, king of west Mauretania from 49, is in Spain, bro BOCCHUS-II usurps throne until 33.  Bogud flees to Antony in the east until death 31. 38 B76 II-109, DGRBM 1-494, atl1, wikMrt
no date: OCD 171
c.38 BOGUD, king of west Mauretania 49-38, ally of Antony, at suggestion of L. Antonius, attacks Octavian's men in Spain, but forced to return to Mauretania by internal rebellion. 38 DGRBM 1-494, 498     no date: OCD 171
37/6 CYRENAICA, senatorial province under a quaestor from 74, restored to Egypt until 30 by Antony. 37 wikKC 37/6 rcNA
c.37/6 LIBYA, under Rome from 96, back under Egypt until 34. 37/6 rcNA
36 Octavian summons Lepidus for help. 36 CAH 10-34
36 M. Aemilius LEPIDUS triumvir of Africa, raises 14 legions to help subdue Sextus Pompeius. 36 wikLpd
36 UTICA granted municipal status. 36 CAH 10-589
36 M. Aemilius LEPIDUS triumvir of Africa from 40, stripped of all power by Octavian, who appoints T. Statilius TAURUS to govern Africa 35-34.  Lepidus, on Octavian's order, goes on July 1 to Sicily. 36 CAH 10-44, DGRBM 2-768, DGRG 1-70, OCD 1011, atl1, rcNA, wikAf
36 Phoenicia, Cyrene, and Cyprus, bestowed on Cleo-VII by Antony. 36 CAH 10-63, GHH
35 Provinces of Africa (Africa Nova and Fossa Regia) united into province of AFRICA PROCONSULARIS. 35 CAH 10-600
34 T. Statilius TAURUS, Octavian's governor of Africa from 36, returns to Rome.  L. CORNIFICIUS succeeds until 33. 34 CAH 10-47, OCD 1011, atl1, rcNA, wikAf
no date: OCD 292
34 CYRENE, capital of Cyrenaica province, given by Antony to his dau, Cleo Selene until 30. no date: OCD 307
c.34 LIBYA, under Egypt from 37/6, comes under Cleopatra Selene until 30. 34 rcNA
33 BOCCHUS-II king of Mauretania 38-33, tries to punish 30 of his elephants. 33 atl1
33 BOCCHUS-II dies.  King of Mauretania from 38.  Octavian siezes MAURETANIA, makes it a Roman province until 25. 33 B76 13-150, CAH 10-168, 346, 590, DGRBM 1-494, HRE 89, MCAW 260, atl1, wikB2, wikMrt
33 MAURETANIA:  12 Roman veteran colonies are founded from now until 25BC.  After 25, they are attached to Baetica Spain for administrative purposes. 33 CAH 10-350, 591
33 L. CORNIFICIUS, Octavian's governor of Africa from 34, returns to Rome. 33 OCD 292, rcNA, wikAf
32 MAURETANIA does not appear among provinces listed on Octavian's side. 32 CAH 10-168
31 early Cornelus GALLUS sent from Rome by Octavian to Africa to guard against attack from Egypt. 31 CAH 10-99
31 Sep 2 ACTIUM
31 ANTONY, with 40 ships, sails to Cyrene, goes to Praetonium. 31 CAH 10-106 30 CAH 10-107
31 L. Pinarus SCARPUS is left with 4 legions by Antony in Cyrene to govern Cyrenaica and protect Egypt from political disorder. 30 CAH 10-59, DGRBM 3-735
no date: CAH 10-631
31/0 C. Cornelius GALLUS sent with army by Octavian from Samos to Africa, to pursue Antony. 31/0 DGRBM 2-227 30 CAH 10-106
31/0 Antony's legions at Praetonium defect to Cornelius Gallus.  Antony goes to Alexandria. 30 CAH 10-107
31/0 L. Pinarus SCARPUS, renegade Antonine in Cyrene, loses his 4 legions to C. Cornelus GALLUS, then defects to Octavian.  Antony goes to Alexandria pursued by Gallus. 30 CAH 10-107, OCD 456
30 AFRICA NOVA, province from 46, restored as client kingdom of NUMIDIA until 25 under son of Juba-I, JUBA-II. 30 DGRG 1-70, MCAW 264, OCD 743, rcNA     29 B76 V-621
30 CYRENAICA, under Egypt from 37/6, under Antony's dau Cleo Selene from 34, comes back under Rome until 395CE. 30 B76 III-329, rcNA
c.30 LIBYA, under Egypt from 37/6, under Cleo Selene from 34, comes under Rome until 395CE. 30 rcNA
29 AFRICA becomes an imperial province until 27.  CARTHAGE is made capital by Octavian.  New settlers are sent. 29 B76 II-598, CAH 10-166
29 L. Autronius PAETUS becomes governor of Africa until 28. 29 rcNA     29/8 wikAf
28 L. Autronius PAETUS, governor of Africa from 29, ends. 29/8 wikAf     28 rcNA
27 CARTHAGE, called JUNONIA from 46, and under construction from then, finished. 27 hifiC
27 AFRICA, imperial province from 29, becomes a senatorial province.  Legion-III Augusta remains at Ammaedara. 27 CAH 10-166-7, 601, DGRG 1-70
27 MAURETANIA does not appear among African provinces listed. 27 CAH 10-168
27 CYRENAICA is united with Crete and administered under a praetorian proconsul. 27 CAH 10-631 20 wikLbR
26 CIRTA receives new settlers from Italy. 26 CAH 10-166
25 M. Acilius GLABRIO becomes governor of Africa and ends. 25 wikAf
25 MAURETANIA, Roman province from 33, becomes a client kingdom, formed by union of Africa province and Numidia. 25 B76 2-370, CAH 10-168, wikMrt
25 JUBA-II ends.  King of Numidia from 30.  NUMIDIA is back under Rome until 395CE. 25 rcNA
25 JUBA-II, client king of Numidia from 30, appointed king of Mauretania until 23 CE by Augustus.  He is given parts of Gaetulia to compensate for annexation of Numidia. 25 B76 V-621, 13-150, CAH 10-168, 590, DGRG 1-70, CAH 10-346, DGRBM 2-636, DGRG 2-298, HRRP 4.1-63, MCAW 264, OCD 566, wikMrt
25 Dau of Antony and Cleo-VII, CLEO SELENE, in Rome from 30, given by Augustus in marriage to JUBA-II, client king of Mauretania 25BC-23CE. 25 HRE 90
by 20 OCD 566
25 In addition to restocking Carthage and Cirta, Augustus plants 3 or 4 colonies in Africa Vetus, at least 2 in Africa Nova, and 12 in Mauretania.  He further settles veterans and other colonists in rural districts, the pagi outside the towns. 25 CAH 10-168
22 L. Sempronius ATRATINUS becomes proconsul of Africa until 21. 22 rcNA
21 L. Sempronius ATRATINUS, proconsul of Africa from 22, ends.  L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS succeeds until 19. 21 OCD 160 20 wikAf
19 Mar L.(2) Cornelius BALBUS proconsul of Africa from 21, successful against the Garamantes.  Returns to Rome.  No proconsul of Africa until 14. 20 rcNA     19 DGRG 2-176, HRE 90, OCD 150, 160, wikAf, wikL2Bl
c.15 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS appointed by Augustus as governor of Crete and Cyrenaica. 15 lvPSQ
c.15 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS, proconsul of Cyrene, defeats the Marmadidae of Marmadica in Libya. 15 OCD 908
14 C. Sentius SATURNINUS becomes proconsul of Africa until 12. 14 OCD 465, wikAf 14/3 wikGSS
c.14 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS governor of Crete and Cyrenaica, defeats the Marmaridae, a tribe of desert raiders from Cyrenaica. 14 wikQrn
c.14 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS governor of Crete and Cyrenaica, fights the Garamantes, a tribe south of Cyrene. 15-12 lvPSQ
14 Jews of Cyrene, persecuted by locals, denied permission to send donations to Jerusalem, get their rights restored by Augustus and Agrippa. 14 Jud 5-1184
12 C. Sentius SATURNINUS, proconsul of Africa from 14, returns to Rome.  L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS succeeds until 9. 12 OCD 361, rcNA
9 L.(4) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, proconsul of Africa from 12, returns to Rome.  P. Quinctilius VARUS succeeds until 6. 9 wikAf
8 wikVar7 rcNA
7-6 Cities of CYRENAICA send ambassadors to Augustus, mainly concerning justice in criminal cases, but also relations of Greeks with Roman citizens and also Greeks with Greeks. 7-6 CAH 10-634
6 P. Quinctilius VARUS, proconsul of Africa from 9, ends to become governor of SyriaL. Volusius SATURNINUS, becomes proconsul of Africa until 5. 7 wikVar 6 CAH 10-279, OCD 1109, rcNA 4 wikAf
5 L. Volusius SATURNINUS, proconsul of Africa from 6 ends.  Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS succeeds until 1CE. 6 rcNA

North Africa 0-100