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See corresponding pages with references in World Chronology Babylonia


All emotions and emotion based mindsets impair probability judgment.
Emotion based mindsets include: optimism & pessimism, faith & cynicism.

The Bible never says Nebuchadnezzar the Second (hereafter Neb-2) conquered Egypt.  The idea Neb-2 conquered Egypt would never have been considered a serious historical possibility, but for 4 facts:

  1. Jeremiah & Ezekiel both predicted that Neb-2 would conquer Egypt.
  2. Jeremiah & Ezekiel are both considered true prophets.
  3. According to Deut. 18:22, true prophets are never wrong about a prediction.
  4. a. Jesus said (Mat 5:18) "One jot or one tittle shall in no way pass from the law until all be fulfilled."
    b. Paul said (2Tim 3:16) "All scripture is given by inspiration of God,"
    Both of these verses are erroneously interpreted by many Christians as meaning the entire Bible contains no errors.

If you disagree with the preceding statement, the rest of this essay will be irrelevant to you, because you will be judging all historical evidence by its conformity to the Bible.  This makes you literally not worth talking to outside of the company of others who do the same.  Such Christians to try to muddy historical evidence that contradicts the Bible.  e.g.  One proposed that there were two Nebuchadnezzars, the second being Cambyses:  http://www.biblestudyguide.org/comment/calvin/comm_vol24/htm/xiii.ii.htm
(Actually there were two Nebs, but the first ruled Babylon c.1124-1104BC.)  This essay is based on the assumption that the historical parts of the Bible should be judged for accuracy by the same rules as any other ancient historical document.

If Neb-2 had conquered Egypt, it would have been his greatest conquest in the minds of everyone at the time.  Not only would he and his Babylonian successors have left record of it, but other historians of the time and later would have referred to it, as they did to the actual conquest of Egypt by the Persian, Cambyses-2, 37 years after Neb-2's death.

Below is a historical timeline of relevant & semi-relevant events following conventionally accepted dates (approximations in some cases). The most relevant events are in RED. After the timeline are some references to the real conquest of Egypt in the most ancient sources.

605 Jun NEB-2, co-king of Babylon with father Nabopolassar, 606-5, allies with Medes & Syrians.  Attacks NECHO-2 near CARCHEMISH.  Heavy loses both sides.
Egyptians flee south in disorder.
NEB-2 burns Carchemish, chases Necho-2 down coast.
605 DAMASCUS & all SYRIA, under NECHO-2 from 609, taken by NEB-2.  Under Babylon until 541.
605 PALESTINE, under NECHO-2 from 609, taken by NEB-2.  Under Babylon until 588.
605 JEREMIAH (25:1) gets word from God.  JUDAH was warned & didn't repent.  Therefore NEB-2 will come.
70 years captivity to follow.
NEB-2, co-king of Babylon with father Nabopolassar, 606-5, halts at border of EGYPT.  Turns to deal with Egyptian vassal, JEHOIAKIM.  Conquers JUDAH.  Robs TEMPLE.
605 JEREMIAH (36:1) dictates scroll to BARUCH.  Summarize all prophesies against Judah from days of Josiah.  Tells Baruch to read it in Temple court on next fast day.
NABOPOLASSAR, Chaldean King of Babylon, from 626, DIES.
Son, NEB-2 sole rule until 562.
Quickly returns to BABYLON across Arabian desert.
605 1st DEPORTATION to BABYLON, (Dan 1:2) Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah taken.
Sep 6
NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, CROWNED in BABYLON.  First official year begins April 2, 604.
604 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, secures recognition as king from all formerly Assyrian towns.
604 JEHOIAKIM, King of Judah 608-597, hopes for help from EGYPT.
Asks advice of JEREMIAH.
604 May-Jun NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, returns to PHOENICIA to get tribute from PHOENICIA, ASKELON, & JUDAH.
Marches victoriously until Nov.
603 JERUSALEM besieged by NEB-2.
603 JEHOIAKIM, King of Judah 608-597, besieged by NEB-2, quits hoping for aid from Necho-2.  Submits to NEB-2 & become vassal.
Siege of Jerusalem lifted until 597.
601 NECHO-2, 2nd PHARAOH of 26th dyn 609-595, severely defeats NEB-2 at border of EGYPT.
601 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, returns to Babylon to rest & re-equip army.
c.599 JEHOIAKIM, King of Judah 608-597, ignores warning of JEREMIAH.
Allies with NECHO-2.  Rebels against NEB-2.
599 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, campaigns against Arabs of SYRIA.
598 Dec LACHISH destroyed by NEB-2.
597 Jan JERUSALEM besieged by NEB-2 until Mar 16.
Feb 11
JEHOIAKIM, King of Judah from 608, either abdicates to son JEHOIACHIN (age 8 or 18), or makes JEHOIACHIN co-king.
JEHOIACHIN reigns to Apr 22.
Mar 16
JERUSALEM besieged by NEB-2 from Jan., FALLS.
597 2nd DEPORTATION to BABYLON: 10,000 taken including EZEKIEL.  Officers, craftsmen, & smiths taken, leaving only poor people.
Apr 22
JEHOIACHIN, King of Judah from Feb, & mother & wives & son Jeconiah DEPORTED to Babylon by NEB-2.  Imprisoned until 561.
His uncle, Mattaniah, age 21, is appointed king by Neb-2 until 586.  Mattaniah changes name to ZEDEKIAH.
597 Jeremiah chapter 24
595 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, subdues palace revolt.
595 NECHO-2, 2nd PHARAOH of 26th dyn from 609, ENDS.
PSAMTIK-2 succeeds to 588.
590 PSAMTIK-2, 3rd PHARAOH of 26th dyn 595-88, send naval expedition to Phoenicia to harass NEB-2.
588 JEREMIAH (34:1) tells ZEDEKIAH Jerusalem shall fall to NEB-2 & burn.
ZEDEKIAH will see Neb-2 & be taken to Babylon & die in peace.
588 PSAMTIK-2, 3rd PHARAOH of 26th dyn from 595, DIES.
Young & belligerent son HOPHRA succeeds to 569.
588 HOPHRA, 4th PHARAOH of 26th dyn 588-69, sends naval expedition to subjugate Phoenicia.  Takes Sidon.
588 HOPHRA, 4th PHARAOH of 26th dyn 588-69, invades PALESTINE.  Makes anti-Babylonian alliance with many including ZEDEKIAH.  Drives Babylonian troops from Jerusalem.
588 JEREMIAH (37:11) Travels from Jerusalem to Benjamin.  ARRESTED on charge of collaborating with Babylonians.  Brought before princes of Judah.  IMPRISONED in house of Jonathan the scribe.
588 ZEDEKIAH, King of Judah 597-86, rebels against NEB-2.
588 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, besieges JERUSALEM until 586.
588 ZEDEKIAH, King of Judah 597-86, takes JEREMIAH from prison at house of Jonathan.  Asks for word from God.
JEREMIAH gives same reply.  JEREMIAH imprisoned again, this time in court of the prison.
Jan 7
EZEKIEL (29:1) 5th vision.  Prophesy against EGYPT because of their pride.  EGYPT to have 40 years desolation.
Apr 29
EZEKIEL (30:21-26) 6th vision.  BABYLON to conquer EGYPT.
EGYPT to be broken & scattered, specifically by the king of Babylon.
587 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, leaves NEBUZARADAN in charge of siege at Jerusalem with instructions to keep JEREMIAH unharmed.  Goes to besiege RIBLAH, Lebanon.
587 (Jer 38:4) Princes of Judah go to ZEDEKIAH.  Ask permission to kill JEREMIAH because he weakens the soldiers.   ZEDEKIAH gives permission.
Princes of Judah throw JEREMIAH in dungeon of Malachijah.
Jun 21
EZEKIEL (31:1) 7th vision:  Rebukes PHARAOH for pride.
EGYPT shall be brought down like Assyria.
Feb 12
EZEKIEL (26:1) 8th vision.  NEB-2 to conquer TYRE.
TYRE to be scraped clean.
586 (Jer 38:7)  EBED MELECH, Ethiopian eunuch, asks ZEDEKIAH permission to remove JEREMIAH from dungeon.   ZEDEKIAH agrees & gives him 30 men.
EBED MELECH takes JEREMIAH back to prison court.
586 (Jer 38:14)  ZEDEKIAH, King of Judah 597-86, summons JEREMIAH to temple.
JEREMIAH repeats same message.
ZEDEKIAH orders JEREMIAH to tell princes of Judah that JER begged not to be sent back to dungeon of Malachijah.
586 (Jer 52:6) JERUSALEM famine.  No more bread.
Jul 18
JERUSALEM, besieged from 588, FALLS to NEBUZARADAN.
ZEDEKIAH flees to Jericho.  Captured.
586 July JEREMIAH (39:11, 40:1) removed from prison court by Babylonian officers, taken in chains to detention camp at Ramah.
586 July JEREMIAH (51:59) at RAMAH, writes scroll (Babylon shall be destroyed & desolate.).  Gives scroll to SERIAH ben Neriah, tells him to take it to Babylon & read it, then tie it to a rock & throw it in Euphrates.
Aug 14
586 (Jer 39:8, 52:29) 3rd DEPORTATION to BABYLON: 832 taken.
Poor people left to be vine dressers & husbandmen.
586 (Jer 39:8, 52:29) DEPORTATION to RIBLAH by Nebuzaradan.  Includes; ZEDEKIAH, High Priest SERIAH ben Azariah & son JOZADAK, 2nd Priest ZEPHANIAH, Prince SERIAH ben Neriah, GEDALIAH ben Ahikam
586 (Jer 39)  at RIBLAH:  NEB-2 kills sons of ZEDEKIAH before him.  Blinds ZEDEKIAH, & sends him to Babylon.
Appoints GEDALIAH ben Ahikam governor of Judah.
586 GEDALIAH, gov. of Judah 586, returns to MIZPAH.  Encourages submission to Babylon.
586 JEREMIAH (Jer 40) released from detention at RAMAH by Nebuzaradan.  Goes to MIZPAH & joins GEDALIAH.
586 BABYLON: 3rd DEPORTATION arrives.  Tells Jews of fall of Jerusalem.
586/5 (Jer 40:14)   ISHMAEL ben Nethaniah, (related to royalty of Judah) intrigues with BAALIS, King of Ammon.   Plots to kill GEDALIAH.
Mar 3
EZEKIEL (32) Receives word of YHWH against PHARAOH.  (32:11) "The sword of the king of Babylon will come against you."
(32:12) "They will shatter the pride of Egypt, and all her hordes will be overthrown."
But it doesn't specifically say the Babylonians will do it.
Mar 17
EZEKIEL (32:17) more lamentation for EGYPT
"Son of man, wail for the hordes of Egypt and consign to the earth below both her and the daughters of mighty nations, with those who go down to the pit.  19 Say to them, 'Are you more favored than others?  Go down and be laid among the uncircumcised.'  20 They will fall among those killed by the sword.  The sword is drawn; let her be dragged off with all her hordes.  21 From within the grave the mighty leaders will say of Egypt and her allies, 'They have come down and they lie with the uncircumcised, with those killed by the sword."
May 28
SOLAR ECLIPSE predicted by Thales.
EUSEBIUS of Caesarea says this happens in the 8th or 12th year of HOPHRA, which conflicts with modern research, which puts in his 3rd year.
585 Sep/Oct (Jer 41) GEDALIAH, gov. of Judah 586, at MIZPAH, KILLED by ISHMAEL ben Nethaniah, who also kills the Jews & Chaldeans with him.  ISHMAEL gathers captives to take them to Ammonites.
585 (Jer 41:11) ISHMAEL ben Nethaniah, overtaken at GIBEON by JOHANAN ben Kareh & pro-Babylonian Jews.  Flees with 8 men to Ammonites.
585 (Jer 42) JOHANAN ben Kareh & remnant of Jews ask JEREMIAH for direction from God & swear to obey it.
10 days later JEREMIAH gets instructions, tells remnant of Jews to stay in Judah & not fear the Babylonians.  Remnant of Jews don't believe JEREMIAH & decide to flee to EGYPT.
585 JOHANAN ben Kareh & remnant of Jews & JEREMIAH go to EGYPT, stay at TAHPHANES in delta.
585 (Jer 43:8)  In Tahpanhes the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah:  9 "While the Jews are watching, take some large stones with you and bury them in clay in the brick pavement at the entrance to Pharaoh's palace in Tahpanhes.  10 Then say to them, 'This is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, says:  I will send for my servant Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and I will set his throne over these stones I have buried here; he will spread his royal canopy above them.  11 He will come and attack Egypt, bringing death to those destined for death, captivity to those destined for captivity, and the sword to those destined for the sword.  12 He will set fire to the temples of the gods of Egypt; he will burn their temples and take their gods captive. As a shepherd wraps his garment around him, so will he wrap Egypt around himself and depart from there unscathed. 13 There in the temple of the sun in Egypt he will demolish the sacred pillars and will burn down the temples of the gods of Egypt.'"
(Jer 44:30)  This is what the LORD says: 'I am going to hand Pharaoh Hophra king of Egypt over to his enemies who seek his life, just as I handed Zedekiah king of Judah over to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the enemy who was seeking his life.' "
Note that the verse names the pharaoh, HOPHRA, who is not the one who was named in the fragment below, which records Neb-2 making war on Egypt.
583 ARCESILAUS-1, Greek King of Cyrene from 600, DIES.
Son, Battus-2 succeeds to 560.
582 (Jer 52:30) 4th DEPORTATION to BABYLON:  745 captives
580 CYRUS-1, King of ANSHAN at SUSA, vassal of Medes, from 600, ENDS.
Son, CAMBYSES-1 succeeds to 559.
573 TYRE, besieged by NEB-2 from 586, SURRENDERS.  ITTOBAAL, King of Tyre, surrenders.  Mainland TYRE is under Babylon until 539.  Everything of value has been moved to ISLAND, which remains independent until taken by ALEX-3 in 332.
Apr 26
EZEKIEL (29:17)  VISION:  Son of man, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon drove his army in a hard campaign against Tyre; every head was rubbed bare and every shoulder made raw. Yet he and his army got no reward from the campaign he led against Tyre.  19 Therefore this is what the Sovereign LORD says: I am going to give Egypt to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, and he will carry off its wealth.  He will loot and plunder the land as pay for his army.  20 I have given him Egypt as a reward for his efforts because he and his army did it for me, declares the Sovereign LORD.
571 EZEKIEL (30:10) I will also make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon.  (11) He and his people with him, the terrible of nations, shall be brought to destroy the land; and they shall draw their swords against Egypt, and fill the land with the slain.
570 HOPHRA, 4th PHARAOH of 26th dyn 588-69, at request of natives of Cyrene, sends large army to evict Greeks.  Disastrously DEFEATED at Well of Thetis in Irasa.  Few return.
c.570 According to JOSEPHUS (Ant X-IX-7), NEB-2 invaded EGYPT at this time and killed the king.  This is likely a misunderstanding of the events of 570-66.
c.570 Vizir AHMOSE proclaimed king by army in opposition to Hophra.
c.570 HOPHRA deposed, flees north to Babylonians in Levant until 567.  Vizir AHMOSE-II usurps until 526.
569 Egyptian troops rebel against Ahmose-II.
Only one piece of evidence exits for this:  Babylonian Chronicle BM 33041.
"In the 37th year of Nebuchadrezzar, King of Babylon, he went to Mizraim [Egypt] to make war.  AMASIS, King of Mizraim, collected [his army] and marched and spread abroad."
Note that the fragment names the pharaoh, AMASIS (AHMOSE), not Hophra (Apries) who fled to the Babylonians.
567 AHMOSE-II asks and receives Ionian mercenaries of Cyrene for help against Babylonians.
c.567 HOPHRA, now working for Babylonians with Babylonian army, attacks AHMOSE-II, and routs his Ionian mercenaries.
c.566 AHMOSE-II defeats Babylonian invasion of Egypt.  Former pharaoh Hophra is captured by Egyptians.  Sources conflict on whether he is executed or allowed to live.  No further Babylonian attempts on Egypt are recorded.
566 3 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, INSANE according to Dan 4:31.
His own inscriptions show a 4 year suspension of interest in state affairs.
565 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, 605-562, builds defensive wall north of BABYLON (against Medes?).
562 NEB-2, Chaldean King of Babylon, from 605, DIES.
561 AMEL MARDUK (Evil Merodach) son of Neb-2, becomes 3rd Chaldean King of Babylon to 560.
Apr 2
JEHOIACHIN, former king of JUDAH in 597, imprisoned from 597, RELEASED by AMEL MARDUK, allowed to eat at his table.
560 Aug AMEL MARDUK, son of Neb-2, 3rd Chaldean King of Babylon from 560, KILLED by son-in-law of Neb-2, NERIGLISSAR.
560 DAPHNAE, Greek trading port in east delta of Egypt, ABANDONED.  Greeks forced out by AHMOSE-2.
560 BATTUS-2 Greek King of CYRENE from 583, DIES.
Son ARCESILAUS-2 succeeds to 550.
c.560 CYPRUS, independent from c.669, taken by AHMOSE-2.   Under EGYPT until 525.   Governed by EUELTHON of Salamis.
559 CAMBYSES-1, King of ANSHAN at SUSA, vassal of Medes, from 580, ENDS.
Son, CYRUS-2 succeeds to 530.
550 CYRUS-2, King of ANSHAN 559-530, INVADES MEDIA at head of coalition.
550 Median troops mutiny.
550 ASTYAGES, Acheminid King of MEDIA from 585, delivered to CYRUS-2, taken to SUSA.
550 ECBATANA, capital of MEDIA, easily falls to CYRUS-2.  Under PERSIA until 330.
550 CYRUS-2, King of ANSHAN 559-530, becomes 1st King of MEDO-PERSIA until 530.
Capital remains at SUSA.
550 ARMENIA, under Medes from 612, conquered by CYRUS-2.   Under Persians until 331.
550 ANTI-CYRUS-2 policy adopted by Sparta, Lydia, Babylonia, Egypt, & others.
550 ARCESILAUS-2, Greek King of CYRENE from 560, STRANGLED by Learchus.
Son, BATTUS-3 succeeds to 530.
547 CYRUS-2, 1st King of MEDO-PERSIA 550-30, begin operation against BABYLONIA.  Takes part of eastern ASSYRIA.
c.544 AHMOSE-2, 5th PHARAOH of 26th dyn 569-26, marries LADICE, dau of BATTUS-3, King of Cyrene 550-30
541 SYRIA, under Babylon from 605, acquired by CYRUS-2, by bribery & propaganda.
539 BELSHAZAR, son of Nabonidus, CO-REGENT of BABYLON from 553, KILLED.
539 Nov BABYLON, under Chaldeans from 626, FALLS to CYRUS-2, who becomes King with consent of population.
BABYLON under MEDO-PERSIA until 331.
538 CYRUS-2, 1st King of MEDO-PERSIA 550-30, sends detachment to occupy JERUALEM.
538 CYRUS's DECREE: JEW exiles may return to JUDAH under Persian satrap SHESHBAZZAR.
538 Mainland TYRE, under Babylon from 573, voluntarily comes under MEDO-PERSIA until 333.
530 BATTUS-3, Greek King of CYRENE from 550, DIES.
Son, ARCESILAUS-3 succeeds to 515.
530 CYRUS-2, son of Cambyses-1, 1st King of MEDO-PERSIA from 550, KILLED fighting Massagetae of Asia near Aral Sea.
529 CAMBYSES-2, son of Cyrus-2, becomes 2nd King of MEDO-PERSIA until 522.
526 AHMOSE-2, 5th PHARAOH of 26th dyn from 569, DIES.
Son, PSAMTIK-3 succeeds to 525.
525 CYPRUS, under Egypt from 560, taken by CAMBYSES-2.  Under MEDO-PERIA to 479.
525 CAMBYSES-2, 2nd King of MEDO-PERSIA 529-22, begins expedition against EGYPT until 522.  Orders POLYCRATES of Samos to assist.
525 CAMBYSES-2, 2nd King of MEDO-PERSIA 529-22, CONQUERS LOWER EGYPT at MEMPHIS.   HELIOPOLIS holds out for a while.
Persian domination begins until 404.
525 PSAMTIK-3, 6th PHARAOH of 26th dyn. from 526, CAPTURED at Memphis.  26th Dynasty ENDS.
525 CAMBYSES-2, 2nd King of MEDO-PERSIA 529-22, follows father's example in respecting local religion.  Entitles himself "Son of Ra."  Consults oracles. Visits sanctuaries.  Prostrates himself before image of NEITH (& possibly others). Restores former traditions.
525 May CAMBYSES-2 recognized as King of EGYPT.   ANNEXES EGYPT.
525 ARCESILAUS-3, Greek king of CYRENE 530-15, submits to CAMBYSES-2.
CYRENE under Persia until 476.
525 LIBYA submits to CAMBYSES-2.
524 CAMBYSES-2, 2nd King of MEDO-PERSIA 529-22, intends to take Carthage.   Marches west.   Stopped by sandstorm.   Turns back.
Phoenician sailors refuse to fight.
523 THEBES, capital of UPPER EGYPT, taken by CAMBYSES-2.
523 CAMBYSES-2 plans to INVADE ETHIOPIA according to Herodotus, but this is not likely because Egypt was not pacified.
523 fall PSAMTIK-3, former PHARAOH, organizes revolt in LOWER EGYPT.
523 fall CAMBYSES-2, in UPPER EGYPT, learns of PSAMTIK-3 REVOLT.  Returns to LOWER EGYPT.  Takes bloody revenge.
523 PSAMTIK-3, former PHARAOH, taken to SUSA in chains.
522 Mar GAUMATA, a Magian, claim to be SMERDIS, bro of CAMBYES-2, seizes SUSA while CAMBYSES is in EGYPT.  Rules until Sept.
522 CAMBYSES-2 in LOWER EGYPT, learn of insurrection of GAUMATA.  Rushes north.
522 CAMBYSES-2 arrives at MEMPHIS.  Finds people celebrating new APIS.  Mortally wounds the sacred bull & has the priests flogged.  Raids tombs & disturbs mummies.
522 CAMBYSES-2 destroys Egyptian temples at ELEPHANTINE, but spares Jewish temple.  Leaves ARYANDES satrap in charge of Egypt & garrison at ELEPHANTINE.  Goes north.
ARYANDES governs @ 25 years.
522 CAMBYSES-2, 2nd King of MEDO-PERSIA from 529, DIES at Damascus.  (or possibly Haran or Ecbatanna).
General DARIUS-1 succeeds to 486.

Unlike any supposed conquest by NEB-2, the conquest of Egypt by CAMBYSES-2 is well attested.


We possess the autobiography of the admiral of the Egyptian fleet, Wedjahor-Resne.  It is written on a small statue now in the Vatican Museums in Rome.  After the conquest of Egypt, Wedjahor-Resne was Cambyses' right-hand man.

"The great king of all foreign countries Cambyses came to Egypt, taking the foreigners of every foreign country with him. When he had taken possession of the entire country, they settled themselves down therein, and he was made great sovereign of Egypt and great king of all foreign countries.  His Majesty appointed me his chief physician and caused me to stay with him in my quality of companion and director of the palace, and ordered me to compose his titulary, his name as king of Upper and Lower Egypt."

In an inscription on the statue of Udjadhorresnet, a Saite priest and doctor, as well as a former naval officer, we learn that Cambyses II was prepared to work with and promote native Egyptians to assist in government, and that he showed at least some respect for Egyptian religion:

"I let His Majesty know the greatness of Sais, that it is the seat of Neith-the-Great, mother who bore Re and inaugurated birth when birth had not yet been...I made a petition to the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Cambyses, about all the foreigners who dwelled in the temple of Neith, in order to have them expelled from it., so as to let the temple of Neith be in all its splendor, as it had been before.  His Majesty commanded to expel all the foreigners who dwelled in the temple of Neith, to demolish all their houses and all their unclean things that were in the temple.

When they had carried all their personal belongings outside the wall of the temple, His Majesty commanded to cleanse the temple of Neith and to return all its personnel to it...and the hour-priests of the temple.  His Majesty commanded to give divine offerings to Neith-the-Great, the mother of god, and to the great gods of Sais, as it had been before.  His Majesty knew the greatness of Sais, that it is a city of all the gods, who dwell there on their seats forever."


Herodotus (who, to my knowledge, never mentions Nebuchadnezzar by name) describes his Hanging Gardens, but never mentions him in relation to Egypt, though Herodotus does talk about pharaohs Necho, Hophra, Ahmose, & Psamtik.  [Necos, Apries, Amasis, & Psammis] and of course, Cambyses.

Herodotus notes how the Persians easily entered Egypt across the desert.  They were advised by the defecting mercenary general, Phanes of Halicarnassus, to employ the Bedouins as guides.  However, Phanes had left his two sons in Egypt.  We are told that for his treachery, as the armies of the Persians and the mercenary army of the Egyptians met, his sons were bought out in front of the Egyptian army where they could be seen by their father, and there throats were slit over a large bowl.  Afterwards, Herodotus tells us that water and wine were added to the contents of the bowl and drunk by every man in the Egyptian force.

"When Cambyses had entered the palace of Amasis, he gave command to take the corpse of Amasis out of his burial-place. When this had been done, he ordered [his courtiers] to scourge it and pluck out the hair and stab it, and to dishonor it in every other possible way.  When they had done this too, they were wearied out, for the corpse was embalmed and held out against the violence and did not fall to pieces.  Cambyses gave command to consume it with fire, a thing that was not permitted by his own religion.  The Persians hold fire to be a god and to consume corpses with fire is by no means according to the Persian or Egyptian custom."
[Histories 3.16]

MANETHO lists the pharaohs of the 26th dynasty, then cites the Persians as the 27th dynasty.

"Cambyses reigned over his own kingdom, Persia, five years, and then over Egypt one year."


According to king, Darius I's BEHISTUN INSCRIPTION, Cambyses, before going to Egypt, had secretly killed his brother, Bardiya, whom Herodotus called Smerdis.  The murdered prince was, however, impersonated by Gaumata the Magian, who in March 522 seized the Achaemenid throne.  Cambyses, on his return from Egypt, heard of the revolt in Syria, where he died in the summer of 522, either by his own hand or as the result of an accident.

(10) King Darius says: The following is what was done by me after I became king.  A son of Cyrus, named Cambyses, one of our dynasty, was king here before me. That Cambyses had a brother, Smerdis by name, of the same mother and the same father as Cambyses.  Afterwards, Cambyses slew this Smerdis.  When Cambyses slew Smerdis, it was not known unto the people that Smerdis was slain.  Thereupon Cambyses went to Egypt.  When Cambyses had departed into Egypt, the people became hostile, and the lie multiplied in the land, even in Persia and Media, and in the other provinces.


A Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' speaks of Cambyses destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods.

Greek geographer STRABO of Amasia visited Thebes in 24 BC and saw the ruins of several temples said (by local priests) to have been destroyed by Cambyses.


If Jeremiah & Ezekiel were wrong about this, does that make them false prophets?  Yes, according to Deut. 18:22.  Would they not have been denounced for it, if they had been proven wrong?  Only if the Jews of the time cared enough about it.  But after recently having their entire country conquered, and being uprooted, chances are they were less concerned with technical correctness than with comfort & consolation, which Ezekiel provided with promises of future pie in the sky.  And technically Jeremiah & Ezekiel did correctly predict Jerusalem's fall to Neb-2.  After Egypt actually was conquered by the people who occupied Babylonia, Jeremiah & Ezekiel could easily have been forgiven for being just a little off.  In fact, Cambyses' conquest of Egypt probably vindicated Jeremiah & Ezekiel in the minds of most contemporary Jews.

If your faith in God is inextricably tied to faith in inerrant scripture, then you have the right to believe Neb-2 conquered Egypt c.570BC, and cross off the historical evidence as flawed or insufficient.  But if you want to talk history, don't muddle the issue by attacking disassociated statements in ancient documents that are not necessarily correct.  Hardly any statements in ancient documents are necessarily correct.  The best a historian can do is to create the most likely scenario that accounts for all of the evidence that he knows of at the time.  So either present a coherent counter-timeline that better satisfies all the known evidence, or admit that you can't.