New Testament books

c.65/6 The newly finished temple already shows signs of the foundation sinking.  Agrippa-II, at great expense, imports wood from Lebanon to underpin it. 65/6 BNTH 347
c.66 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, visits Alexandria to congratulate new prefect Ti. Julius ALEXANDER, an apostate Jew. Wars 2:15:1
66 Gessius FLORUS, procurator 64-66, goads the Jews at Jerusalem to acts of sedition, then ravages Jerusalem, and massacres 3,600 persons. Wars 2:14:9 66 GHH
66 CAESAREA, under Judea from 41, is put under Greek administration by Nero. Wars 2:14:4
66 CAESAREA:  Greeks begin construction work so as to hinder Jews access to synagogue.  John the publican gives Florus 8 talents to stop the construction.  Florus takes the money, and leaves for Sebaste (Samaria). Wars 2:14:4 66
66 CAESAREA:  On a sabbath, a Greek sacrifices birds at the entrance to the synagogue, thus defiling it by Jewish law.  Young Jews start a fight.  Jews take their Torah, and move to Narbata. Wars 2:14:5
65 HRRP 4.2-624 66 B76 17-951, GHH, MCAW, MUTC 27
66 John the publican and 12 notable Jews go from Narbata to Sebaste, complain to Florus about the bird incident.  They are arrested and imprisoned for taking the Torah out of Caesarea. Wars 2:14:5
c.66 Gessius FLORUS, procurator of Judea 64-6, confiscates 17 talents from the temple treasury, allegedly for back taxes of Caesareans.  Jerusalem Jews riot, mockingly take up a collection for Florus as though he needs money. Wars 2:14:6 66 CAH 10-855, JZ 129
c.66 Gessius FLORUS marches army from Sebaste to Jerusalem.  Wars 2:14:6
c.66 Jerusalem Jews go out to receive Florus submissively.  Florus sends a centurion, who tells them to stop their hypocritical submission and fight.  Jews retreat to their homes in confusion.  Wars 2:14:7
c.66 Gessius FLORUS, procurator of Judea 64-6, sets up hqs at palace at Jerusalem, orders all who reproached him to be delivered.  Jews say they don't know who did it, beg forgiveness.  Wars 2:14:8
Jerusalem at the time of the revolt 66CE           G J Goldberg
c.66 FLORUS orders a cohort to plunder the upper market place, and kill any Jews who resist.  the cohort does so, enters homes, kills people including women & kids, bring many before Florus, whom he scourges and crucifies 3,600, including Jewish Roman citizens. Wars 2:14:9 66 CAH 10-760, 855, ENBD 281, JZ 128
c.66 Dau of Agrippa-I, BERENICE-II, in Jerusalem fulfilling a Nazirite vow she made when she was sick, tries to placate Florus, fails, flees to the palace with her guards. Wars 2:15:1
65 DGRBM 1-483
66 BAA 434, BBA 457, Jud 4-601, OCD 165
c.66 Gessius FLORUS, procurator of Judea 64-6, disappointed that the Jews would not fight, orders 2 cohorts coming from Caesarea to pick a fight with the Jews he sent to greet them.  More killing. Wars 2:15:3
c.66 Fortress ANTONIA (aka the citadel):  Jews demolish the cloisters that allow access from the fortress to the temple.  Florus does not object. Wars 2:15:6
66 TIBERIAS is split between Zealots and the upper class, who are loyal to Romans until 67. 66 Jud 15-1132
c.66 Gessius FLORUS leaves 1 cohort to reinforce the garrison in Jerusalem, withdraws to Caesarea, sends message to Cestius Gallus in Syria that the Jews had rebelled. Wars 2:15:6, 16:1
66 CAH 10-855
66 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, at Alexandria, learns of Jerusalem revolt, rushes to Judea. Wars 2:16:1
66 Jud 2-417
66 July Tribune NEAPOLITANUS from Syria and tetrarch AGRIPPA-II from Alexandria meet at Jamnia. Wars 2:16:1
66 Cestius' inspector, Neapolitanus, and Agrippa-II go to Jerusalem to inspect the siege.  Neapolitanus is given a full account of events, and a tour of significant sites. Wars 2:16:2 66 GHH, IDB 2-592, jos2
c.66 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, speaks to Jews at Jerusalem, asks them to be submissive, pay tribute, rebuild the cloisters connecting the citadel to the temple. Wars 2:16:4 66 jos2
c.66 Jews comply with Agrippa-II, scrape up 40 talents in back taxes, pay off Romans, rebuild the cloisters.  Neapolitanus returns to Syria. Wars 2:17:1 66 jos2
66 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, advises the Jews to be obedient to Florus.  Jeered by Jews.  Some stone him. Wars 2:17:1 66 jos2
66 ELEAZAR ben Ananias, captain of the temple 63-70, gets popular support against leaders, persuades priests to stop the 2 daily sacrifices for the emperor & Roman people.  This action signals rebellion.
Jewish War with Rome begins until 70.
Wars 2:17:2     66 B76 X-868, BAA 11, BI+N 199, BNTH 95, 139, 348, CAH 10-754, 865, CDCC 474-5, ENBD 523, IR 62, JZ 58, LEWH, jos1
no date: Jud 6-585
66 mid Jewish notables at Jerusalem try to persuade the dissidents to resume sacrifices for the Emperor.  Failing this, they send envoys Simon ben Ananias, Costobar, Saul and Antipas to Florus and Agrippa-II, ask them to send armies before the riot gets uncontrolable.  Florus does nothing.  Agrippa-II sends 3,000 cavalry under Darius and Philip. Wars 2:17:4 66 jos1
66 Temple mount and lower city taken by Zealots and Eleazar ben Ananias.  Upper city taken by pro-Roman party, including hp Matthias ben Theophilus, Jewish notables, and Agrippa-II's troops. Wars 2:17:5
no date: Jud 6-585
66 Ag/Sp 7 days of battles between the rebels and pro-Roman parties in Jerusalem.  Eleazar and the rebels hold the lower city and Temple.  The notables and Agrippa's troops and Roman garrison hold the upper city and try to take the Temple. Wars 2:17:? 66 jos1
66 Sep Jewish Nationalists burn houses of Ananias ben Nedebeus (former hp), Agrippa-II, and Berenice-II, burn public archives containing record of debts.  Pro-Roman party, including high priest, Jewish notables, Agrippa's troops driven out of upper city by Zealots and sicarii, flee to upper palace. Wars 2:17:6 66 IDB 1-386, JZ 56, jos1
no date: Jud 6-586
66 Sep Herod's palace is besieged by rebels. Wars 2:17:6 66 jos1
66 Sep JOSEPHUS fears being mistaken for one of the pro-Roman party, flees to the Temple. Life: 20 66 jos1
66 PTOLEMAIS (Acre) inhabitants massacre 2,000 Jews. Wars 2:18:5 66 Jud 2-222
66 BERENICE-II tries to pacify rioters, but they burn the palace.  She flees and joins bro Agrippa-II. 66 Jud 4-601, OCD 163
c.66 Legions X Fretensis and V Macedonica are sent from Alexandria to Ptolemais to deal with the revolt.  These are the first legionary troops in Judea since 6CE. 66 BBA 202, wikXF
66 AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, gives up trying to restrain the rebels, decides to let Florus handle it, hurries home to Caesarea Philippi until Sep. to consolidate his tetrarchy.  Remains there until 66. 64 B76 V-3
66 jos1
66 JOHN the Essene is made commander of Timnah (Thamna) province (which includes Emmaus). 66 IDB 4-649
66 MACHERUS Perea, occupied by a Roman garrison from 44, evaccuated at the start of the war.  Comes under nationalist Jews until 71. 66 ENBD 764
66 mid MASADA fortress, under Romans from 6 CE, siezed by Menahem ben Judas and Zealots until 73Roman garrison is annihilated. Wars 2:17:2, 8     65 ISBE 2-923     66 CAH 10-856, IDB 3-294, ISBE 3-274,5, Jud 11-1078, JZ 61, 131, MCAW, jos1
66 mid MENAHEM ben Judas, leader of Zealots, breaks into the armory at Masada, gives arms to his own people and to the "robbers". Wars 2:17:8 66 jos1
66 mid MENAHEM ben Judas, leader of Zealots, leaves relative Eleazar ben Jair in charge of Masada until 73, goes to Jerusalem, takes command from Eleazar ben Simon (Ananias). Wars 2:17:8 66 JZ 131, BNTH 95, MUTC 41, jos1
66 mid When war breaks out, apostle JOHN goes to Ephesus. 66 Qlb 48
66 Free city, ASKALON attacked and partly destroyed by Jews. Wars 2:18:1 66 IDB 1-253
66 Askalonites fight and defeat Jews, massacre 2,500. Wars 2:18:5 66 Jud 3-714
66 Sep Fortress ANTONIA (aka the citadel) at Jerusalem besieged by Menahem ben Judas, leader of Zealots.  They undermine and topple a tower, only to find that Eleazar and his party had built another wall behind it. Wars 2:17:7 66 jos2
66 Sep Troops of Agrippa-II are allowed to leave fortress Antonia and Jerusalem. Wars 2:17:8 66 jos2
66 Roman garrison in Fortress ANTONIA (aka the citadel), in an untenable position, break and run for royal towers (Hippicus, Phasael, Mariamne).  Again besieged by Menahem b. Judas. Wars 2:17:8 66 Jud 2-924, jos1
66 Sep Fortress ANTONIA (aka the citadel), under a Roman garrison from ?, taken by the Zealots.  Under Jews until 70. Wars 2:17:8 66 BI+N 220, Jud 3-164, jos1
66 Sep Former hp, ANANIAS ben Nedebeus and bro Hezekiah die.  They hide in an aqueduct, discovered by Zealots, dragged out, murdered.  Menahem ben Judas now regards himself king of the Jews. Wars 2:17:9     66 BAA 409, BBA 425, BI+N 221, BNTH 67, jos1
no date: Jud 2-923, 6-585
66 Sep Eleazar ben Ananias and supporters argue to the populace that if the Romans were overthrown because the Jews were to have "no master but the Lord", then Menahem b. Judas, should not rule, as he is low class. Wars 2:17:9 66 jos1
66 7th procurator of Judea from 64, Gessius FLORUS dies.  Former high priest Annas ben Annas, assumes control, until M. Antonius JULIANUS becomes 8th procurator until 70?. 65 DGRBM 2-178
66 BAA, CAH 10-752, 754, GHH, IDB 2-264, 3-893, Jud 7-526, jePr, rcHL, wikJRP
66 3rd son of Judas the Galilean, MENAHEM ben Judas dies, Leader of Zealots, runs to a place called Ophla; but they took him alive, tortured and murdered him by instigation of ELEAZAR ben Ananias, who now leads the rebellion.  Zealots escape to Masada, have no more central leadership. Wars 2:17:9 66 BNTH 116, GHH, JZ 132-3, jos1
66 Josephus leaves the Temple and rejoins the high priests and leading Pharisees.  Seeing no alternative, they join the rebels. Life 21 66 jos1
66 Sep Roman troops under Metilius, besieged in the royal towers by Eleazar b. Ananias, surrender on Eleazars promise to allow them to leave.  Eleazar then massacres them - on a SabbathMetilius converts to Judaism, and is spared. Wars 2:17:10 66 BNTH 379, GHH, Jud 2-924, JZ 133, jos1, jos2
66 On the same day and hour, all Jews of Caesarea, 20,000, are slaughtered. Wars 2:18:1
66 fall Egyptian GRAIN shipments diverted from Italy to legions in Palestine. 66 CAH 10-738
66 Samaritans coerced into cooperation with Jews.  Roman garrison at Sebaste is taken. 66 JZ 135
66 Jews destroy Syrian cities & villages: Philadelphia, Sebonitis (Heshbon), Gerasa, Pella, Scythopolis, Gadara, Hippos, and places in Gaulonitis.  Syrians respond likewise. Wars 2:18:1 66 BBA , JZ 134
Jews massacred:  Caesarea 20,000, Ptolemais (Acre) 2,000, Askelon 2,500. Wars 2:18:5
Jews massacred:  Damascus 10,000 Wars 2:20:2
Jews massacred:  Scythopolis 13,000 Wars 2:18:3
66 SIDON is spared from the massacre of Jews, because they are numerous enough to resist. 66 Jud 14-1507
66 Desperation and subsequent massacre of Jews, thruout Syria, Asia, Egypt, and other provinces. 66 GHH
66 JOHN of Giscala becomes a leader of the rebellion. THs 5:12
66 Jud 10-164
66 fall Simon bar Giora, commander of Acrabatene, is accused of ransacking the houses of the wealthy and evicted from Jerusalem by Annas. Simon and his "following of women" take refuge with the Sicarii at Masada. Wars 4:9:3 66 jos6
66 Sep AGRIPPA-II, tetrarch 53-93, in Caesarea Philippi from 44, leaves Noarus in charge, goes to Cestius Gallus at Antioch. Wars 2:18:6 66 jos2
66 Oct Cestius GALLUS, governor of Syria 63-7, marches legion XII Fulminata & auxiliaries south to Ptolemais.  Auxiliaries: Antiochus: 3,000 inf, 2,000 cav, 3,000 archers; Agrippa-II: 3,000 inf, 1,000 cav; Sohaemus: 4,000 troops. Wars 2:18:9 66 BNTH 381, GHH, Jud 5-315, 11-619, jos2
66 Oct Cestius GALLUS & auxiliaries go from Ptolemais to Caesarea. Wars 2:18:10 66 jos2
66 Oct Cestius GALLUS sends Legion XII to Galilee.  Sepphoris, strongest city of Galilee, greets them willingly.  Other cities remain peaceful.  Rebels flee Sepphoris to nearby mountains, and are soon flushed out by Romans, who kill over 2,000 of them Wars 2:18:11 66 jos2
66 Nov Legion XII returns to Caesarea, rejoins Cestius.  They march on Antipatris, dispersing Jewish forces in the tower of Aphek. Wars 2:19:1 66 jos2
66 Nov CABOLO (Cabul) Galilee, on the road to Acre, attacked and burnt by Cestius GALLUS. 66 Jud 5-2, 315, 11-619, jos
66 Nov Cestius GALLUS despaches troops to take Joppa, Narbata, Lydda, defeats rebels in Galilee.  Joppa & Narbata are plundered and burnt, 8,400 Joppans killed. Wars 2:18:10 66 BNTH 381, Jud 11-619, jos
66 Nov Cestius GALLUS marches from Antipatris to Lydda, finds it nearly empty because most are in Jerusalem for Feast of Tabs, burns Lydda, and kills 50 Lyddans. Wars 2:19:1 66 ISBE 3-151, jos2
66 Nov Cestius GALLUS advances with XII Fulminata thru the pass at Beth Horon and camps at Gabao.  Contrary to standard tactics, he puts his baggage train in the rear, where it is attacked by SIMON bar Goira.  Cestius is badly defeated. Wars 2:19:1-2
66 BI+N 221, Jud 4-220, 5-316, JZ 135, jos2, wik12F, wikTt
66 Nov After Beth Horon, Cestius GALLUS with whole army attacks Jews, chases them to Jerusalem, camps northeast of it at Mt. Scopus, siezes suburbs, stays 3 days to collect food from local villages. Wars 2:19:4
65 DGRG 1-778 66 Jud 5-316, JZ 135, wikTt, jos2
66 Nov BEZETHA, north suburb of Jerusalem occupied by Cestius GALLUS. 66 BNTH 381
66 Nov AGRIPPA-II and sis Berenice, flee from Jerusalem to Galilee. 66 wikTt
66 Nov JERUSALEM besieged by Cestius Gallus.  Nationalists retreat to inner city and temple. Wars 2:19:4
66 Jud 5-316, JZ 135
66 Nov ANNAS ben Jonathan dies.  Leader of pro-Roman party in Jerusalem, invites Cestius GALLUS inside the walls.  Cestius suspects a trap, and declines.  Annas is thrown from the wall by nationalists. Wars 2:19:5 66 jos2
66 Nov JERUSALEM:  Romans assault north quarter of temple, and are driven back.  They undermine the wall.  Jews inside consider surrender. Wars 2:19:5-6 66 Jud 5-316, JZ 135
66 Nov Cestius GALLUS with legion XII besieging Jerusalem, withdraws for unknown reason north to Mt. Scopas.  Next day, attacked by Jews on 3 sides, he goes further north.  Tribune Longinus and troop commander Emilius Secundus are killed.  They lose 6,000 men and much baggage before reaching Gabao (Gibeon), where they stay 2 days. Wars 2:19:7
66 HRRP 4.2-626, ISBE 2-462, Jud 5-316, 6-598, JZ 135, 137, jos2
When Roman generals do crazy stuff, it is often due to bad religious omens.
66 Nov Cestius GALLUS retreats from Gabao to the passes at Beth Horon where the Jews hold the high ground.  The Romans are easily cut down.  Nightfall prevents their capture; under cover of darkness Cestius and the army slip away, leaving 400 men behind as a deception.  At dawn, these are quickly slain by the rebels.  5300 inf and 380 cav are killed.  The rest are chased to the camp at Antipatris.  Jews carry off weapons, war engines, and supplies, and sing on their way back to Jerusalem. Wars 2:19:9 66 BI+N 221, Jud 4-220, 5-316, JZ 135, jos2, wik12F, wikTt
66 Nov The unexplainable withdrawal of Cestius Gallus from Jerusalem echoed the sudden withdrawal of Sennacherib in the time of Hezekiah.  And Gallus defeat at Beth Horon, where Joshua defeated the Ammonites, and Judas Maccabee defeated the Syrians provokes cries of "miracle" from the Jews.  The pro-Roman faction is completely silenced. 66 jos2
66 Nov DAMASCENES hear of the retreat of Cestius Gallus, kill 10,000 Jews. Wars 2:20:2
66 Nov? Palestinians hear of the retreat of Cestius Gallus, ALL join the rebellion, even previous pro-Romans. 66 JZ 138
66 Nov? After Cestius Gallus leaves, JOSHUA ben Sapphas and ELEAZAR ben Nedebeus emerge as leaders in Jerusalem. 66 Jud 10-277
66 Nov JOSEPHUS (Joseph ben Mathias), intellectual philo-Roman of Hasmonean descent, made commander of Galilee by Jewish govt., which means they probably want to conclude peace, rather than fight to the end.  Simon and Gamaliel-I oppose this appointment. Life 7, Wars 2:20:5 66 Jud 10-251, wikJs
66 Dec JOSEPHUS, commander of Galilee, can muster only 350 cavalry. Wars 2:20:8 66 IDB 4-692
66 Dec Priests, JOSEPHUS, Joazar, and Judas, are sent to Galilee to collect weapons, coordinate activities, and keep Galilee peaceful.  Josephus goes to Sepphoris. Life 7:28-9 66 jos4
66 JOSEPHUS, commander of Galilee, has more trouble from rival partisans than from Romans.  e.g. John ben Levi, leader of Zealots at Ciscala; Agrippa-II partisans; Justus ben Pistus, a moderate in Jerusalem; and pro-Roman cities. 66 CAH 10-857-8, Jud 10-252
66 Dec? Cestius GALLUS with legion XII abandons all unnecessary equipment, and withdraws from Gabao (Gibeon) to Beth Horon. Wars 2:19:8 66 ISBE 2-462
66 Dec? Cestius GALLUS with legion XII trapped by Jews at Beth Horon, leaves 400 men to deceive Jews, sneaks away.  Jews slaughter the 400. Wars 2:19:9
66 Dec? Cestius GALLUS and legion XII still pursued by Jews, abandon siege equipment and retreat to Antipatris, having lost 5,300 inf and 380 cav.  Returns to Antioch. Wars 2:19:9
66 Dec? Jews who had been pursuing Cestius Gallus and legion XII stop to collect spoils, and return to Jerusalem. Wars 2:20:3 66 ISBE 2-462
66 Dec JERUSALEM, now free of oppression, appoint Joseph ben Gorion high priest and former hp Annas ben Annas rulers.  Agrippa-II's authority to appoint high priests from 49 is ignored. Wars 2:20:3 66 ISBE 3-718, Jud 2-919
66 Official governor of Galilee, JOSEPHUS fortifies JOTAPATA. Wars 2:20:6
66 Jud 10-300
66 Dec JOPPA, destroyed by Cestius Gallus in Nov, rebuilt until 67 by nationalist Jews who build ships and become pirates. Wars 3:9:2
66 Dec JOSEPHUS at Bethmaus tells Tiberians the Jerusalem council ordered him to demolish Herod's palace because of its pagan animal decorations. This is supported by Justus ben Pistus, reluctantly agreed to by the pro-Roman aristocrats led by Capellus; but when Jos leaves Bethmaus for Upper Galilee, the lower-class Tiberias party led by Joshua ben Sapphas (joined by some Galileans) burns the palace, loots it, murders Greek residents in Tiberias. Life 12:64-7 66 jos4
66 Dec ZEALOTS in Jerusalem under Eleazar ben Simon and Zachariah ben Phalek gain dominance over Annas & party until 67.  Zealots persecute conciliators. 66 BBA 41, 117, Jud 2-919, JZ 58, 140
CONFUSION ALERT!  ELEAZAR ben Ananias, ben Simon, and ben Jair are 3 different men.  Josephus often fails to distinguish between b. Ananias, and b. Simon.
66 Dec JOHN the Essene is put in charge of expedition against Askalon, aided by Niger of Perea, deputy gov of Idumea; and Silas the Babylonian.  JOHN the Essene and Silas the Babylonian are killed at Askalon.  Niger of Perea survives until 68. Wars 3:2:1 66 ISBE 3-718, Jud 10-162
66 Dec JOSHUA ben Sapphas and ELEAZAR ben Ananias are appointed to command Idumeans.  Niger of Perea serves under Joshua. 66 Jud 10-273
no date: Jud 6-585
66/7 ANNAS ben Annas, head of govt. at Jerusalem, tires to retain power when his policy of conciliation to Romans loses popularity. 67 Jud 2-919
67 Jan Priests, Joazar, and Judas, colleagues of Josephus in Galilee from Dec. return to Jerusalem, as they had wanted to do as soon as they had collected enough tithes. Life 14:77 66 jos4
67 Jan JOSEPHUS gets arms, fortifies towns, hires brigands as mercenaries, makes 70 Galilean authorities as alliess and judges, so they would be hostages for the loyalty of the district.  But he avoids bribes. Life 14:77-9, Wars 2:20:5 66 jos4
67 Jan Official governor of Galilee, JOSEPHUS levies army of 100,000 young men, readies 60,000 inf, 350 cav, 4500 mercenaries, and a personal bodyguard of 600.  These are maintained in the towns. Wars 2:20:6-8 67 jos4
67 Feb JOSEPHUS at Cana has the loyalty of Galilee, which makes John ben Levi jealous.  John asks to go to Tiberias for the baths, but really to plot against Josephus. Wars 2:21:6, Life 17:87 67 jos4
67 Feb CANA Galilee becomes hqs of Josephus. Life 86
67 Jud 10-733, jos4
67 Feb JOHN ben Levi seeks loyalty of Tiberians, and gets some including Justus and his father Pistus.  Josephus is warned of this by governor Silas.  Josephus and 200 march to Tiberias overnight, met by the populace at dawn.  Addresses them from a parapet in the stadium; John ben Levi sends an assassin to kill Josephus, who escapes to Taricheae. Wars 2:21:6, Life 17:87-96 67 jos4
67 Feb Official governor of Galilee, JOSEPHUS goes to Sepphoris.  Sepphorans, now loyal to Rome, pay brigand chief Joshua ben Sapphas with 800 men to attack Josephus, who hears of it from a deserter, and captures Jesus in the market-place of Sepphoris; then gets his loyalty. Life 22:104-111, Wars 3:4:1 67 jos4
67 Mar JOHN ben Levi tries to win the 3 chief cities of Galilee: Tiberias, Sepphoris, and Gabara.  Sepphoris stays pro-Roman.  Tiberias stays with Josephus.  Gabara goes over to John's side under John's associate Simon.  People of Gabara dread the Galileans, so keep the defection quiet. Life 25:122-5 67 jos4
67 Mar By now Josephus has fortified:  Gaulanitis (which had revolted from Agrippa-II as far as Solyma): Gamala, Seleucia, Sogane;
Upper Galilee:  Jamnia, Ameroth, Acharabe;
Lower Galilee:  Taricheae, Tiberias, Sepphoris, villages of the cave of Arbela, Beersubae, Selame, Jotapata, Kapharath, Komus, Soganae, Papha, and Mt. Tabor. All are stocked with arms and grain.
Life 37:187-8 67 jos4
67 Mar Agrippa-II sends a force under Aequus Modius to destroy Gamala, but only a siege is begun. Life 24:114-21 67 jos4
67 Legions X Fretensis and V Macedonica at Ptolemais from 66, are transferred to Caesarea. 66 wikXF
67 T. Flavius VESPASIAN travels by land to Antioch, meets Agrippa-II. Wars 3:1:3 67 IDB 2-592
67 Ap/My T. Flavius VESPASIAN, with legion XV Apollinaris (and promise of 2 more) comes from Antioch to Ptolemais (Acre), which becomes his hqs for operations against Galilee.  Agrippa-II accompanies. Wars 3:1:3, 2:4     67 B76 10-278, 19-95, BI+N 222, CAH 10, IDB 2-866, Jud 2-222, 10-251, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 1080, 1115, TTPC, jos4
67 T. Flavius VESPASIAN besieges Tarichaea Galilee. 67 IDB 4-640
67 TIBERIAS Galilee, split between Zealots and pro-Romans from 66, opens gates to Vespasian. 67 IDB 4-640, ISBE 4-847, Jud 15-1132
67 SEPPHORIS Galilee willingly submits to Vespasian, sends envoys to Ptolemais to surrender, accepts a Roman garrison. Wars 3:2:4
67 Tribune PLACIDUS with 1,000 cav, and 6,000 inf auxiliaries sent by Vespasian, to Galilee.  His infantry is stationed in Sepphoris.  His cavalry remains in the plain. Wars 3:4:1
67 Tribune PLACIDUS with auxiliaries marches against Jotapata, supposing he could take it by surprise, but is routed.  Wars 3:6:1
67 Official governor of Galilee, JOSEPHUS with 3000 men, goes from Tiberias to Jotapata Galilee, having already fortified it. Wars 3:7:3     67 IDB 2-987, TTPC, jos4
67 TITUS, son of Flavius Vespasian, with legions V Macedonica and X Fretensis, marches from Egypt up the coast of Palestine to Ptolemais. Wars 3:4:2 67/8 DGRG 1-47
67 May T. Flavius VESPASIAN, with legions V Macedonica, X Fretensis, XV Apollinaris, 1,000 legionaries of XXII Deiotariana, and 15,000 auxiliaries from Eastern allies, totaling 60,000 men, marches from Ptolemais to Galilee. Wars 3:6:2-3
67 CAH 10-756, 895, GHH, TTPC, jos5, wik22D, wikTt
67 BERENICE-II, dau of Agrippa-II, develops relationship with TITUS son of Vespasian. 67 Jud 4-601
67 Official governor of Galilee, JOSEPHUS quarrels with other Galilean leader JOHN of Giscala.  67 wikJs
67 CABOLO Galilee becomes hqs of Josephus. Life 43     67 Jud 5-2
67 JOSEPHUS, camped at Garis, deserted by his troops before Romans arrive, flees east to Tiberias. Wars 3:6:3
67 IDB 2-987
67 JOSEPHUS, at Tiberias, destroys the palace on the acropolis and strengthens the defenses. no date: IDB 4-640
67 GADARA, now nearly empty, taken by Vespasian, burnt, inhabitants killed. Wars 3:7:1
67 Vespasian rebuilds a road to get cavalry to Jotapata. Wars 3:7:3
67 JOSEPHUS goes from Tiberias to Jotapata.  Vespasian learns of it and sends Placidius with 1,000 cav and Ebutius to surround Jotapata.  Next day Vespasian follows with his whole army. Wars 3:7:3-4
67 Jun Josephus in JOTAPATA Galilee besieged 47 days by VESPASIAN, Placidius and Ebutius using using catapults, ballistas, and a ram.  Jews use bags of chaff to deaden effects.  Romans use scythes to cut down the bags. Wars 3:7:4-30 67 CAH 10-859, ISBE 2-1132, MCAW, jos5
c.67 MATTHIAS ben Theophilus, high priest from 65, deposed before the siege because he is an aristocrat.  PHINEHAS of Habta succeeds until 70. 66 BAA 118
67 CBCNT 71, IDB 3-301, Jud 13-470, rcHL     68 BAA
c.67 TRAJAN, commander of legion X Fretensis sent to take Jaffa (not Joppa), kills most of its able men in 1st battle, notifies Vespasian so he can send Titus to take credit for victory.  Together they take Joppa. Wars 3:7:31
c.67 CERELAIS, commander of 5th legion sent to subdue Samaria, surrounds Samaritans on Mt. Gerizim, offers them life if they surrender.  Refused.  Massacres them all - 11,600. Wars 3:7:32
67 ENBD 1132, pre-70 ISBE 2-448
67 Jul JOTAPATA Galilee, after 6 month siege, and a loss of 40,000 persons, falls to Vespasian. Wars 3:7:36
67 B76 19-95, GHH, ISBE 2-1132, Jud 10-253, MCAW, jos5
67 Jul At fall of Jotapata, Josephus and 40 others hide in a cave.  Josephus suggests they drew lots and kill each other, one by one, counting to every 3rd person.  The last 2, including Josephus surrender to legion XV Apollinaris and become prisoners. Wars 3:8:1-7
67 CAH 10-737, CBCNT 53, GHH, ISBE 2-1132, MCAW, jos5, wikJs
67 JOSEPHUS claims to have foretold the fall of Jotapata to the exact day, and now predicts that Vespasian will be emperor, thus saving his skin.  He is imprisoned until Jun 69. Wars 3:8:9
67 CAH 10-859
Johanan ben Zakkai made this prediction.  Josephus falsely claims credit. jud 10-152
"In Judaea, Vespasian consulted the oracle of the God of Carmel and was given a promise that he would never be disappointed in what he planned or desired, however lofty his ambitions.  Also, a distinguished Jewish prisoner of Vespasian's, Josephus by name, insisted that he would soon be released by the very man who had now put him in fetters, and who would then be Emperor."
(Suetonius: The Twelve Caesars, Vespasian 5
67 Galilee reduced; 30,000 Taricheans sold as slaves by Titus. 67 GHH
67 Japha and Mt. Gerizim taken by Romans. 67 jos5
c.67 VESPASIAN, having subdued Galilee, returns to Ptolemais, then goes to Caesarea, where he garrisons 2 legions (apparently legion XV has been split), and stations legions V Macedonica & X Fretensis at Scythopolis. Wars 3:9:1
67 Aug News of Josephus' capture reaches Jerusalem.  He is reviled as a coward and traitor. Wars 3:9:5-6 67 jos6
67 JOPPA, a nest of nationalist Jew pirates from Dec., destroyed by Romans. Wars 3:9:3 67 jos5
68 BAA 212
c.67 VESPASIAN and son Titus goes from Caesarea to Galilee, camps at Sennabris, continues to Caesarea Philippi, spends 20 days being entertained by Agrippa-II. Wars 3:9:7
67 B76 V-3, IDB 2-592, Jud 14-1161
c.67 TITUS sent by Vespasian from Caesarea Philippi to Caesarea on the coast to bring the army there to Scythopolis.  Then Vespasian goes with 3 legions to Tiberias. Wars 3:9:7
67 Dreadful condition of Jerusalem; universal discord; robberies, murders, wars between factions, the zealots seize the temple. 67 GHH
67 Aug? TIBERIAS Galilee opens gates to Vespasian. Wars 3:9:8
67 CAH 10-859, jos5
67 Sep TARICHEAE Galilee conquered by Titus & Trajan.  Some Jews escape by ship.  All killed. Wars 3:10:1 67 jos5
67 Oct? Vespasian camped at Emmaus from ?, moves to Giscala. Wars 4:1:3
67 Oct TITUS sent by Vespasian with 1,000 cav to take Giscala, but can't surround it.  Wars 4:2:1
67 Oct GAMALA Galilee:  Vespasian undermines and topples a tower.  Some Jews escape by ship.  All killed.  Nationalist leader JOSEPH of Gamala is killed in battle, CHARES dies of illness, or is murdered.  Many suicide. Wars 4:1:9
67 ISBE 4-653, Jud 5-338, 10-246
67 Oct VESPASIAN withdraws legion X Fretensis to Scythopolis, then returns with 2 legions to Caesarea.  Wars 4:2:1
67 Nov Civil war thruout Judea between young and reckless warhawks and old and prudent peaceniks.  Guerilla and bandit groups ravage country and town. Wars 4:3:2
67 jos6
67 Nov GAMALA Galilee, under nationalist leaders Chares and Joseph of Gamala, besieged by Vespasian.  1st attack is repulsed. Wars 4:1:1
67 Jud 7-295, 10-246, jos5
67 Nov GAMALA taken by Vespasian and Titus.  23rd day of Tisri, leaving only Giscala unconquered in Galilee. Wars 4:1:10
67 Nov Vespasian sends Titus with 1,000 cav against Giscala, withdraws legion X to Scythopolis, returns with the other 2 legions. to Caesarea. Wars 4:2:1
67 GISCALA Galilee is besieged by Titus.  Bandit leader JOHN tricks Titus into not fighting on the Sabbath, while John and his men flee by night toward Jerusalem. Wars 4:2:2-5
67 jos5
67 GISCALA Galilee, besieged by Titus, surrenders. Wars 4:2:5
67 jos5
67 Nov JOHN b. Levi of Giscala and his arrive in Jerusalem, cooperates with Annas ben Annas, urge the Jews to persevere in their resistance. Wars 4:2:4-5, 3:1 67 CAH 10-756, GHH, Jud 10-164, jos5, jos6
67 TITUS leaves a garrison at Giscala, and returns to Caesarea. Wars 4:3:2
67 JAMNIA and AZOTUS taken by Vespasian . Wars 4:3:2
67 ZEALOTS in Jerusalem under Eleazar ben Simon and Zachariah ben Aphek, dominant from 66, go too far in executing royalty, lose popularity to Annas & conservatives.  Zealots retreat to the temple and fortify it. Wars 4:3:5-7
67 Dec ZEALOTS in Jerusalem appoint an illegitimate high priest by lot: farmer PHINEHAS ben Samuel.  Causes uproar among priestly class. Wars 4:3:7 67 Jud 13-470
67/8 VESPASIAN winters in Caesarea. 67/8 CAH 10-859
67/8 Guerilla groups make their way to Jerusalem to join the forces already there, are welcomed by the populace. Wars 4:3:3 67/8 jos6
68 SIMON bar Giora of Gerasa raids Hebron for supplies. Wars 4:9:7
68 IDB 2-576
68 Zealots arrest relatives of Agrippa-II for traitorous conversations with Romans, beginning with Antipas, a prominent man.  Like Eleazar b. Ananias, Antipas was one of the public treasurers, and so a rival for control of public funds.  Also arrested are royal relatives Levias and Sophas ben Raguel. Wars 4:3:4 68 jos6
68 Antipas and the others are sentenced to death by the Zealots for treason, and executed by John ben Dorcas and 10 other men. Wars 4:4:5 68 jos6
68 Nationalist leader, NIGER of Perea executed on suspicion of wanting to negotiate with Romans. Wars 2:520, 566, 3-11-27 68 Jud 12-1156
c.68 IDUMEA, under Judea from 60, under NIGER of Perea from 66 comes back under Romans, and gradually assimilated into general Jewish population. 68 rcHL
68 SIMON bar Giora of Gerasa camps at Tekoa, sends Eleazar ben Ananias to the Idumean garrison in Herodium (3 miles northeast) to demand surrender.  Idumeans kill Eleazar ben Ananias, and send James to determine Simon's strength.  James visits Simon's camp, returns to the Idumeans, at Alarus, and under-represents Simon's strength.  Simon approaches Alarus, and the Idumeans flee. 68 IDB 4-528
68 JerusalemANNAS ben Annas, conservative leader in Jerusalem, tries to incite people against Zealots, condemns Zealots for ordaning a false high priest, stirs men to take the temple courtyard.  Zealots fall back into the inner court of the Temple and bar the gates as moderates seize the outer court. G J Goldberg

Wars 4:3:12
66 Jud 2-919     68 jos6
68 ZEALOTS, besieged in the inner court, are told by John of Giscala that Annas had invited Vespasian to take Jerusalem.  John advises them to ask aid of Idumeans. Wars 4:4:1
66 Jud 2-919, 10-164, JZ 140 68 jos6
68 Annas, seeing the strong Zealot position and not wanting to enter the Temple without purification, selects 6,000 armed men by lot to guard the porticoes (though the rich hire lower class members to take their place).  Zealots are surrounded. Wars 4:4:12 68 jos6
68 John of Giscala helps Annas, makes friends of the prominent men, and takes an oath of allegiance to "the people". He is chosen as ambassador to the Zealots. Wars 4:3:13 68 Cjos6
68 John of Giscala in the Temple, betrays Annas, tells zealots Annas has invited Vespasian to take the city, and that Annas is planning another attack. Wars 4:3:14 68 Cjos6
68 Zealot leaders Eleazar b. Simon and Zacharias b. Phalek decide to send to Idumea for help. Wars 4:4:1 68 jos6
68 On receiving the message, 20,000 Idumeans under John, Jacob b. Sosas, Simon b. Thaceas (or Cathlas), and Phineas b. Clusoth come to Jerusalem.  They are locked out by Annas, and camp around the city. Wars 4:4:2 68 CAH 10-756, jos6
68 ENGEDI destroyed and burnt by sicarii from Masada.  700 women and kids killed. Wars 4:7:2
68 Jud 6-742-3
68 During a storm at night, the Zealots let the Idumeans into Jerusalem. Wars 4:4:7 68 jos6
68 On advice of the Zealots, the angry Idumeans march thru the city and attack the guards surrounding the Temple, as the rest of the Zealots attack from within.  At daybreak 8,500 are dead. Wars 4:5:1
68 jos6
68 spring By spring Vespasian's troops had subdued Perea, west Judea, and Idumea. 68 BI+N 222
68 Disciple of Hillel, JOHANAN ben Zakkai, leader of conciliators at Jerusalem, escapes in a coffin carried by Eliezer ben Hyrcanus and Joshua ben Gamala.  Johanan goes to a Roman camp. 68 CAH 10-861, 865, Jud 10-152 70 B76 10-229, TTPC
68 TIMNAH (Thamna) province taken by Vespasian. Wars 4:8:1 68 IDB 4-649
68 JerusalemZEALOTS, backed by Idumeans, take over Jerusalem, massacre all collaborationists including 20,000 guards and nobles.
Former hp ANNAS ben Annas executed.
High priests JESUS ben Gamala and MATTHIAS ben Theophilus executed.  Corpses are mocked and thrown outside the city without burial.
map: G J Goldberg

Wars 4:5:2 67 GHH     68 BNTH 64, 66, CAH 10-756, jos6 69 Jud 10-278-9
68 Zealots and Idumeans murder and arrest opponents among the young nobility who would not join them.  12,000 killed.  Zacharias b. Baris is killed after a mock trial. Wars 4:5:3-4 68 jos6
68 A Zealot meets secretly with the Idumeans and explains that Annas had actually not been a traitor and that the Idumeans were duped into helping the Zealots, whom they should no longer support.  Idumeans release 2000 citizens from prison. Wars 4:5:5-6:1 68 jos6
68 20,000 Idumeans under John, Jacob, Simon, Phineas in Jerusalem go home, to everyone's surprise. Wars 4:6:1 68 jos6
68 With the Idumeans gone, the Zealots murder all possible opponents and notables, including Gorion b. Joseph and Niger the Perean, who was a hero of battles against the Romans. Wars 4:6:1
68 jos6
68 JOSEPHUS, imprisoned 67-9, compiles  History of the Jewish People  68 TTPC
68 VESPASIAN spends the year restoring order in Judea. 68 MCAW
68 GOPHNA, occupied by Vespasian and garrisoned. 68 Jud 7-691
68 VESPASIAN sends Placidus with 500 inf and 3,000 inf to mop up fugitives from Gadara, and returns with rest of his army to Caesarea. Wars 4:7:3-4
68 Jews of Perea flee from Placidus to the village Bethennabris. Wars 4:7:4
68 Village, Bethennabris is taken by Placidus and burnt.  Fugitives run for Jericho, but the Jordan is not fordable because of rain.  15,000 are killed, and 2,200 taken prisoner. Wars 4:7:5
68 PLACIDUS reduces Perea; takes Abila, Julias, Bezemoth, and all as far as Macherus. Wars 4:7:6 68 GHH
68 Legion X Fretensis dispached to Jericho area, occupies Jericho. 68 ENBD 1070, MUTC 48
68 Jun 9 or 11 NERO dies.   Year of 4 emperors begins until 69.
68 Jun 21 JERICHO destroyed by legion X Fretensis. 68 wikVs
68 Essene community at QUMRAN (level 1B) from 103, occupied from 4 BC, hides scrolls in caves, departs.  Some make common cause with refugee Christians.  Last of the  Dead Sea Scrolls  66-73 ENBD 300     68 B76 III-412, DBANE 171, ENBD 1070, MUTC 48     70 BBP 106     100 MUTC 49
taken by Roman soldiers 68 DBANE 195
68  Qumran Scrolls  say the 'teacher of righteousness' who was killed by his enemies was the Messiah, and will be resurrected to rule the world. 68 DBANE 177, JZ 178
Some say this is an exaggerated interpretation, and that his death may not have been violent.
68 VESPASIAN, governor of Judea 67-9, hears of Vindex revolt in Gaul, decides to hurry up his campaign, takes army to Antipatris, occupies it, burns all neighboring villages, garrisons other cities and villages, rebiulds some cities for defectors. Wars 4:8:1
67 ISBE 1-148
68 ENBD 43
68 VESPASIAN, governor of Judea 67-9, begins encircling Jerusalem, occupies Samaria, Perea, Idumea, Lydda, Judean coast. Wars 4:8:1
68 CAH 10-756, 859-60, Jud 11-619
68 LYDDA surrenders to Vespasian, who, populates it with foreigners. Wars 4:8:1
68 ISBE 3-151
68 JAMNIA (Jabneh) surrenders to Vespasian, who, populates it with foreigners. Wars 4:8:1
68 ISBE 3-151
68 VESPASIAN, governor of Judea 67-9, goes from Emmaus thru Samaria, camps at Corea, next day arrives at Jericho.  Trajan joins him from Perea. Wars 4:8:1
68 VESPASIAN, governor of Judea 67-9, fortifies all places around Jerusalem, builds citadels at Jericho and Adida, and garrisons them. Wars 4:9:1 68 JZ 61, 62
68 VESPASIAN sends L. Annius to Gerasa, probably sends a detachment to Qumran, encircles Jerusalem, returns to Caesarea to get the rest of his army. Wars 4:9:1
68 DBANE 171, JZ 61, 62
c.68 QUMRAN Community destroyed by legion X Fretensis. 68 IDB 1-794, LEWH, wikXF     68/9 ISBE 1-887     73 MCAW
68 SIMON bar Giora, at Masada from Nov 66, hears of death of his enemy Annas ben Annas, leaves Masada with troops, gathers a band of renegades. Wars 4:9:3 68 GHH, jos6
68 Jun? VESPASIAN, governor of Judea 67-9, at Caesarea, learns of death of Nero, decides to halt operations in Judea, and wait until his command is confirmed by Nero's successor. Wars 4:9:2
68 B76 19-95, CAH 10-757, 861, Jud 10-253
68 Feasts of Ascension, and Pentecost, are instituted by the Ctn church. 68 GHH
68 ELEAZAR ben Simon, leader of Zealots at Jerusalem from 66, loses place to JOHN ben Levi of Giscala.  Much rivalry. Wars 4:9:3 68 Jud 10-164,
68 Some of those ousted from power by John of Giscala and the Zealots leave Jerusalem to join Simon bar Giora. 68 CAH 10-757
68 Simon bar Giora takes control of Acrabetene and many parts of Judea.  His success attracts many citizens, not just brigands.  Establishes headquarters at Nain and storage caves at Pheretae, preparing for assault on Jerusalem. Wars 4:9:4 68 jos6
68 Zealots of Jerusalem make pre-emptive attack on bandit leader Simon bar Giora, defeated and driven back. Wars 4:9:5
68 jos6
68 With covert aid of an Idumean general, SIMON bar Giora, with 20,000 troops & 40,000 followers, marches into Idumea unopposed, takes Hebron, then ravages the country, fights Idumeans to a stand still. Wars 4:9:5-7 68 jos6 69 CAH 10-757
68 In an ambush, the Zealots of Jerusalem capture Simon bar Giora's wife.  Simon quits fighting Idumeans, and advances on Jerusalem vowing to break down the walls unless his wife is returned.  Zealots send her back, and Simon cools down. Wars 4:9:8
68 jos6
c.68  Epistle of Jude  written by a man claiming to be a bro of an unspecified James from an unknown location to unknown recipients to counter heresies and general immorality.  2Peter uses it. 60-79 CBCNT 128, GSNT 531     68 Sco 1349     65-80 NIV 1918     70-80 ISBE 2-1154     100-120 IDB 2-1010
68 Dec AGRIPPA-II and TITUS, son of Vespasian, are sent to Rome to confirm Vespasian's command and congratulate Galba.  They sail first to Achaea. Wars 4:9:2
68 B76 19-96, CAH 10-861, DGRBM 3-1159, ISBE 2-697, Jud 2-417
69 Jan TITUS returns from Achaea with news that Galba is dead. Wars 4:9:2     69 ISBE 2-697, Jud 2-417
69 Feb? VESPASIAN, with legions V Macedonica, X Fretensis, XV Apollinaris, sware allegiance to Otho. THs 1:76
69 Feb VESPASIAN and son TITUS resolve to challenge for the principate, but make no move until later 69. 69 wikVs
69 early Sextus CEREALIS, commander of legion V Macedonica under Vespasian, invades Idumea, devastates all of upper Idumea except Herodium, Masada, and Macherus, takes Ethra village, Capharabis, Hebron.  Ethra and Hebron are burnt. Wars 4:9:9
68 IDB 3-294
69 BNTH 382, CAH 10-866, HRRP 4.2-632
69 VESPASIAN returns to Caesarea to hear news from Rome, learns that Otho is dead, and Vitellius is emperor. Wars 4:10:2
69 Jud 10-253
69 TITUS persuades C. Licinius MUCIANUS to side with Vespasian. 69 DGRBM 3-1160
69 Mar VESPASIAN, governor of Judea 67-9, takes most of his army from Caesarea to Antipatris, spends 2 days settling its affairs, then ravages neighboring villages. Wars 4:8:1
69 VESPASIAN goes to Lydda and Jamnia.  When these cities surrender, he goes to Emmaus, leaves legion V there, goes to Bethletephon, burns it, fortifies strongholds around Idumea, takes 2 Idumean villages Betaris and Caphartobas, kills over 10,000 people, and enslaves over 1,000, returns to Emmaus. Wars 4:8:1
69 VESPASIAN goes to Jericho.  Trajan joins him with army from Perea. Wars 4:8:1
69 VESPASIAN leaves Caesarea, establishes authority over Gophna and Acrabatene toparchies, takes Bethel and Ephraim, garrisons them, and moves toward Jerusalem. Wars 4:9:9
69 ENBD 143, ISBE 1-466
69 VESPASIAN goes from Caesarea to Berytus, receives embassies from Syria.  Mucianus with all his officers and the most distinguished of his centurions and soldiers, plus the elite of the Jewish army show up in full uniform. THs 2:81, Wars 4:10:6
69 JOSEPHUS, imprisoned from 67, released by Vespasian. Wars 4:10:7     69 ISBE 2-1132, jos6     70 DGRBM 2-611
69 VESPASIAN goes to Antioch. Wars 4:11:1     69 B76 19-96, LEWH, TTPC, wikLRGS
69 ANTIOCHUS-IV, client king of Commagene, 41-72, helps Romans against Jerusalem until 70. 69 OCD 73
c.69 :VOLOGASES-II, king of Parthia 52-78, offers Vespasian 40,000 horse archers to help in Judea. THs 2:82, 4:51     69 fyf 70 RPar 292
69 Many refugees from Idumea driven to Jerusalem by Simon bar Giora. Wars 4:9:10 69 jos6
69 JERUSALEM encircled by SIMON bar Giora, who kills anyone outside of the walls. Wars 4:9:10 69 GHH
69 JERUSALEM:  Zealot leader John ben Levi of Giscala allows Galilean supporters to rape, rob, and kill indiscriminately.  Wars 4:9:10 69 Jud 4-221, jos6
69 Galilean followers of John of Giscala dress as women and lure men, then kill them.  Wars 4:9:10 69 jos6
69 Idumeans in Jerusalem band together against John of Giscala, driving many of his Zealots into the Grapte Palace and then to the Temple.  Zealots thruout the city advance to the Temple to defend John, threatening a major attack on the city. Wars 4:9:11 69 jos6
69 Apr JerusalemJERUSALEM:  Chief priests led by Matthias, the Idumeans, and the wealthy of Jerusalem decide to overthrow John of Giscala by inviting Simon bar Giora into the city.  Simon accepts.  Moderates open the gates to Simon, and he takes the Upper City and part of the Lower.  map: G J Goldberg

Wars 4:9:11-12 69 Jud 4-221, jos6
69 Apr SIMON bar Giora plunders all the Zealots stores and with the citizens attacks the Zealots in the Temple.  Zealots, having higher ground on the porticoes and battlements, beat them back.  Zealots also have built 4 towers around the Temple on which they post catapults, balistae, archers and slingers.  But Simon is master of Jerusalem. Wars 4:9:12 69 GHH, jos6
69 Jun Gov of Syria, C. Licinius MUCIANUS persuades Vespasian to go for emperor, because there is a general dislike of Vitellius in the east. Wars 4:10:5
69 BBA 179, CAH 10-828, Jud 12-497
69 Jun VESPASIAN advances on Jerusalem, takes areas that had been previously conquered by Simon bar Giora, following a similar path thru Idumea to Hebron. Wars 4:9:9
69 jos6
69 Jun VESPASIAN controls all Palestine except Jerusalem. 69 BI+N 223
69 Jul 1 VESPASIAN is declared emperor by Ti. Julius Alexander prefect of Egypt in Alexandria, then July 3 in Judea while he is in Caesarea, after that in Syria. THs 2:79     69 BAA 196, CAH 10, 11-2, DGRBM 3-1160, GHH, HRRP 4.2-632, LEWH, TTPC, fyf, wikTt, wikVs
69 Legion VI Ferrata, in the east from 54, returns to Judea. 69 wik6Fr
69 Jul 3 Jewish war suspended by Vespasian until 70. 68 CAH 10-757, GHH
69 CAH 10, 11-2, GHH, LEWH
69 Jul VESPASIAN, at invitation of Ti. Julius Alexander, prefect of Egypt takes army and son Titus to Egypt, stays at Alexandria until 70.  Josephus accompanies. Wars 4:11:5 69 B76 19-96, OCD 1115
69 TITUS and army are sent by Vespasian from Alexandria to Judea to take charge of it until 70.  Ti. Julius Alexander and Josephus accompany him.  Route: Raphia > Gaza > Askalon > Jamnia > Joppa > Caesarea, where he now has 4 legions: V Macedonica, X, XII, XV. Wars 4:11:5
69 Jud 15-1135, MCAW, wikTt
no date: wikTJA
69 Dec JerusalemELEAZAR ben Simon, Zealot in Jerusalem, gets sick of leadership of JOHN of Giscala, splits to form a 2nd zealot party, siezes the inner court of the temple.  Now 3 factions rage within the city. map: G J Goldberg

Wars 5:1:1,2 69 CAH 10-861, GHH, jos6
69 Dec JERUSALEM:  3 party rivalry is so intense that grain reserves are burnt.  Would have been enough to withstand a 3 year siege. Wars 5:1:4 THs 5:12 69 CAH 10-861, jos6
69 Dec John of Giscala uses sacred timber to make towers so as to attack Eleazar b. Simon's party atop the Temple. Wars 5:1:5 69 jos6
69 Dec  2nd Esdras  (aka 4 Ezra) ch 13 written.  The man from the sea vision:  Calls the Messiah, 'my son'. 69 IDB 2-142     pre-70 AΨΨ 552     post-70 ISBE 1-159
69 AGRIPPA-II, with news that Vitellius is emperor, sails from Italy to Judea.  THs 2:81
69 Dec 20 VITELIUS dies.  VESPASIAN succeeds until 79.
69/70 ABILENE, under Agrippa-II from 44, is among places taken by Placidius.  It is then annexed to province of Syria. 69/70 DGRG 1-4
69-70 JERUSALEM:  war between Simon bar Giora and John of Giscala continues until Titus arrives in April. Wars 5:1:4 69 CAH 10-757, Jud 4-221
69/70 Ti. Julius ALEXANDER becomes 2nd in command to Titus. 69/70 Jud 15-1135

Levant 70-100