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54 Oct 13 CLAUDIUS dies.
54 Oct 13 Empire 54CEAGRIPPINA-II, wid of Claudius, orders the palace and capital sealed, witholds news of his death, because her astologer says the timing is bad.  She gets Burrus and the Praetorian Guard to accept her 16 year old son Claudius Augustus Germanicus Nero, who promises them 15,000 sesterces each.  Burrus escorts him from the palace to the Praetorians.  He is hailed imperator and accepted by the senate.  NERO succeeds until 68. 54 B76 I-148, 12-965, 15-1112, BAA, BBA 379, CAH 10-696, 702, CDCC 611, DGRBM 2-1162, Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 3-537, IR 61, Jud 12-964, LEWH, MCAW, TToH, TTPC, wikAY     55 DGRBM 1-517, wikNr
54 Claudius is promptly deified by the senate, after the customary testimony of a senator who saw him ascend to heaven. 54 CAH 10-501
54 Emperor NERO is counselled by philosopher SENECA and Praetorian Prefect BURRUS until 62. 54 LEWH, MCAW, wikSY
54 Emperor NERO begins with mildness and modesty.  Refuses title "Pater Patriae" because he's too young.  Refuses to permit statues in his honor.  Refuses to change the calendar to begin with the month of his birth (Dec.).  Halts 2 prosecutions for maiestas. 54 CAH 10-704
54 MONEY:  Coinage begins and continues to be adulterated. 54 B76 12-350
54 Senate votes a statue of Nero to be put in temple of Mars Ultor equal in size to that of Mars. 54 CAH 10-501
54 SENECA the Younger & BURRUS, advisors to Nero, prepare for reconquest of Armenia, strengthens legions in Syria notify Antiochus-IV of Commagene and Agrippa-II to prepare for war. TAn 13:7 54 CAH 10-759
54 War against the Parthians begins until 63.  Gn. Domitius Corbulo sent to Syria 51 Dur 3-452 54 CDCC 611, GHH
c.54 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  Pumpkinification of the Divine Claudius , a satire. 54 B76 16-531, wikSY
54 late NARCISSUS dies.  Freedman secretary of Claudius, forced to suicide by Nero on insistence of Agrippina.  He had been Vespasian's benefactor. 54 B76 19-95, BNTH 394, DGRBM 3-101, britVs
Suicides in prison. 54 B76 VII-193
Nero exempts Vetus from customary oath of subordination to the princeps, thereby winning popular approval.
55 CAH 10-704, DGRBM 2-1162, 3-1252, FHBC 84, OCD 75, about, wikCon
55 early Freedman financial secretary PALLAS, favorite of Agrippina, fired by Nero, replaced by freedman PHAON. TAn 13:14     55 BAA 428, BBA 449, BNTH 346, CAH 10-709, LEWH
55 NERO, married to Octavia 53-62, has affair with Anatolian free woman Claudia ACTE.  Mom, Agrippina-II scolds him for it.  Nero takes cronies Otho and Senecio into confidence.  Advisor Seneca encourages Nero to take Acte as mistress, lest he debauch women of rank. TAn 13:12
55 OCD 7, no date LEWH
55 Junia SILANA accuses Agrippina of having intended to marry Rubellius Plautus, and then to replace Nero with Plautus.  But Agrippina is strong enough to make it backfire, and Silana is banished until ?. 55 DGRBM 3-818
55 Agrippina-II, to get Nero away from Acte, begins to favor stepson Britannicus, son of Claudius and Messalina. 55 MCAW, wikAY
55 Nero envies Britannicus for having a better singing voice. 55 MCAW
55 Feb Son of Claudius and Messalina, and bro of Octavia, wife of Nero, BRITANNICUS dies age 14.  (48) poisoned at a banquet. TAn 13:16     55 Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 3-537, IR , LEWH, MCAW, wikAY, wikNr
Tacitus erred in Annals 12:25, saying Britannicus was 2 years younger than Nero.  Annals 13:15, says Brit was murdered at beginning of 55, a few days before he had completed his 14th year. DGRBM 1-505
55 Property of Britannicus is given to Seneca and Burrus. 55 HRRP 4.2-468
c.55 Younger dau of L. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Antonia Major, DOMITIA LEPIDA the Younger dies.  Aunt of Nero, accused by Agrippina-II of attempted murder by magic, disturbing the peace, and failing to control her Calabrian slave-gangs.  She is executed, age 59, by order of Nero.  Older sis of same name dies 59. TAn 11:37 54 wikDLY     55 DGRBM 1-1060
55 COHORTES VIGILUM, a city watch, begun with 600 slaves in 22 BC, is completed at a strength of 3,920 men.  Fire prevention is their main duty 55 CAH 10-794
c.55 Faenius RUFUS is appointed Prefect annonae (man in charge of grain supply), and does a good job of it until 62. TAn 13:22 55 DGRBM 3-674
c.55 Senate, celebrating initial success against Parthia, has the statue of Nero (54) carried to the temple of Mars Ultor, declares Nero equal to Mars, an association granted no living person since Julius Caesar. 55 CAH 10-707
c.55 Pedanios DIOSCORIDES publishes  De Materia Medica  in 5 books, containing effect of @600 medicinal plants plus nutritional & medicinal value of various animal products.  Describes how to make several mineral remedies, e.g. copper sulfide "burnt copper".  Mercury extraction is described. 55 TTPC
77 B76 III-563
no date: OCD 354, SHT 2-371
no date: SHT 2-371
c.55 PLINY the Elder begins  Historia Naturalis  until 77. 50-59 TTS
55 L. Anneas SENECA writes  On the Constancy of the Wise Man  addressed to Serenus. post 47 B76 16-531 55 wikSY
c.55 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  On the Brevity of Life , addressed to prefect Paulinus, saying any length of life is sufficient if lived wisely. 49 wikSY 55 B76 16-531, OCD 476
55/6 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  On Clemency  dedicated to Nero. 55 Dur 3-210
55/6 B76 III-426, 16-531, OCD 976     56 wikSY
56 Jan 1 CONSULS:  Q. Volusius SATURNINUS and P. Cornelius SCIPIO
suffetes: L. Annaeus Seneca (the Younger), P. Claudius Thrasea Paetus
56 DGRBM 3-726, 754, FHBC 84, OCD 976, 1066, about, wikCon, wikSY
c.56 NERO, princeps 54-68, disguised as a slave, roams the streets at night with a gang of punks.  Steals stuff, beats people up. TAn 13:25
56 B76 12-965
c.56 Senate forbids tribunes to usurp judicial functions of higher magistrates.  Power to fine tribunes and aediles is limited. 56 LEWH
c.56 Helvidius PRISCUS, son-in-law of Thrasea Paetas, becomes pleb tribune. 56 DGRBM 3-527
c.56 PALLAS & BURRUS are accused by Paetus of aspiring to replace Nero with Cornelius Sulla.  Acquitted. TAn 13:22
56 DGRBM 3-101
c.56 Freedman PALLAS, treasury secretary from ?, and ally of Agrippina, fired by Nero and dismissed from the palace. 55 wikNr
56 DGRBM 3-101
c.56 Cestius Proculus accused of repetundae, but acquited. TAn 13:30
56 DGRBM 1-674
c.56 Neph of Aulus Plautius, Plautius LATERANUS, former paramour of Messallina, out of senate from 48, reinstated by Nero. 56 DGRBM 2-724
56 Priscilla & Aquilla, in Asia from 52, return to Rome. 56 BAA 349
c.56 AERARIUM SATURNAE (senatorial treasury), under quaestors from 44, put under 2 praetorian prefects chosen from X-prefects by emperor for 3 year terms. 56 CAH 10-712, LEWH, wikArr
56 ITURIUS, client of Junia Silana, accuses Agrippina-II of trying to marry Rubellius Plautus and make him emperor. TAn 13:19,21,22, 14:12 55 DGRBM 3-411
56 DGRBM 2-634-5
56 ANTISTIUS SOSIANUS becomes pleb tribune. TAn 3:28
56 DGRBM 3-880
56 Conflict between praetor Vibullius and pleb tribune Antistius Sosianus over whether to keep imprisoned some disorderly audience members.  Senate rules against Antistius.  L. Calpurnius PISO Licinianus proposes that tribunes no longer be permitted to try cases in their own houses. 56 wikLCP57
56 Freedman ATIMETUS dies.  Paramour of Domitia, aunt of Nero, accuses Agrippina-II of plotting against Nero.  Agrippina gets Nero to kill Atimetus. TAn 13:19, 21 56 DGRBM 1-406
c.56 AGRIPPINA-II is forced by Nero to move out of the palace, but she still has influence over Nero, and often participates in government until mid 56. 56 wikAY
56 mid AGRIPPINA-II is forced by Nero out of active participation in government, but she continues to do so secretly. 56 wikAY
c.56 A senator says, 'Most of the equites and many of the senators are descendants of slaves.' 56 Dur 3-364
56 Aulus PLAUTIUS marries Pomponia Graecina. 56 EBRB
56 L. Volusius SATURNINUS dies, age 93. 56 DGRBM 3-726
57 Jan 1 CONSULS:  NERO (2nd) and L. CALPURNIUS PISO Licinianus   suffete: Decennnius Geminus 57 CAH 10-706, DGRBM 1-662, 2-1162, FHBC 84, OCD 837, about, wikCon, wikLCP57
c.57 NERO, princeps 54-68, revises Roman games to resemble Greek.  No combat to death (People boo.), Senators and equites must participate (People cheer.). 57 CAH 10-717
57 Quaestor Obultronius SABINUS, a treasury official, accused of exploiting the poor by pleb tribune Helvidius Priscus.  Charge of public documents, under quaestors from ?, transferred to prefects by Nero. TAn 13:28
56 DGRBM 3-527
57 DGRBM 3-2
57 Wife of Aulus Plautius, POMPONIA Graecina, charged with a "foreign superstition", (Christianity?).  According to Roman law, she is tried by her husband before her kinsmen, and acquitted. 57 wikAP
57 AGRIPPINA-II is forced by Nero to move out of Rome.  She moves to Misenum.  When she visits Rome, Nero sends people to annoy her. 57 wikAY
57 Governors of Asia and Cilicia are recalled for misgovernment. 57 MCAW
c.57 Wooden AMPHITHEATER of NERO built to compensate for dissatisfaction over amphitheater of Statilius Taurus 29BC.  Both are destroyed in the fire of 64CE. 57 wikAST
c.57 Cossutianus CAPITO, former governor of Cilicia, prosecuted by Cilicians helped by Thrasea Paetus, for extortion.  Condemned. 57 DGRBM 3-1106
c.57 T. Clodius Eprius MARCELLUS, a legate in Lycia from ?, returns to Rome, prosecuted by Lycians for extortion.  Acquitted. 57 DGRBM 2-936, OCD 402
57 Q. Sulpicius Camerinus PETICUS, governor of Africa from 56, and predecessor Pomponius Silvanus, return to Rome.  Both are accused by M. Regulus of extortion in Africa, but acquitted by Nero. TAn 13:52
57 wikAf
58 DGRBM 3-826 59 DGRBM 1-590
58 Jan 1 CONSULS:  NERO (3rd) and M. VALERIUS MESSALA Corvinus 58 CAH 10-706, DGRBM 2-1053, 1162, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
c.58 NERO, princeps 54-68, on counsellors' advice, refuses perpetual consulship, eliminates taxes on property and inheritance.  (i.e. on the rich) 58 CAH 10-706, HRRP 4.2-471
c.58 Friend of Messalina, senator P. SUILLIUS Rufus makes a series of public attacks on Seneca the Younger, including charges that, in a mere 4 years of service to Nero, Seneca had acquired 300,000,000 sestertii by charging high interest on loans thruout Italy and the provinces.  Seneca retaliates with a series of prosecutions for corruption against Suillius.  Half of Suillius estate is confiscated and Suillius is exiled. 58 DGRBM 3-677, Dur 3-302 wikSY
c.58 Faustus Cornelius SULLA Felix plots to ambush Nero, returning from his nightly amusements, on Flaminian Way.  Nero goes another way. TAn 13:47
58 CAH 10-711
58 TIGRANES-VI is crowned king of Armenia in Rome.  Nero gives him a guard of 1,000 legionairs, 3 auxiliary cohorts and 2 wings of horses. 58 wikTg6
58 Son of Tig-6, ALEXANDER marries Julia JOTAPA, dau of King Antiochus-IV of Commagene in Rome.  They are crowned client rulers of Cetis, a small region in Cilicia. 58 wikTg6
c.58 Faustus Cornelius SULLA Felix, husband of Antonia d66, charged by freedman Graptus, acquitted, but banished anyway to Massilia until death 62. TAn 13:47
58 CAH 10-711
59 DGRBM 3-944
c.58 Postumia PONTIA promises to marry pleb tribune Octavius Sagitta, then renigs, so he kills her, and is banished to an island for it. TAn 13:44, THs 4:44 58 DGRBM 3-495, 694
c.58 Former governors of Asia, Lycia, and Cilicia are sued by their provinces.  Former governor of Asia is also charged with the murder of his pro-consul.  Eprius Marcellus, Lycian governor 53-56, was prosecuted for misappropriation of funds.  Marcellus is acquitted. 58 lctk
c.58 Thrasea PAETUS speaks in senate on a trivial matter, and is censured by enemies. 58 DGRBM 3-1106
58 POPPAEA SABINA the Younger, wife of Rufius Crispinus, former prefect -51, dumps him to marry M. Salvius Otho, a friend of Nero, who brags about her assets to Nero, which encourages his attention. TAn 13:45-6
58 CAH 10-715, OCD 7
58 POPPAEA SABINA, wife of M. Salvius Otho, uses her husband as a tool to get close to Nero, and begins an affair with Nero. 58 ISBE 3-521, wikAY
58 M. Salvius Otho is made quaestor, and governor of Lusitania until 68, so Nero can have his wife, Poppea Sabina. TAn 13:45, 6     58 B76 VII-621, DGRBM 3-686, GHH, HRRP 4.2-476, wikLst
58/9 CAH 10-716, acOt
58 late AGRIPPINA and some troops and senators try to overthrow Nero, in favor of C. Rubellius Plautus.  Agrippina reveals Nero's relationship with Poppaea Sabina, diminishing his popularity. 58 wikAY
c.58/9 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  On the Happy Life , to his bro Novatus (Gallio) arguing that properly gaining and spending wealth is appropriate for a philosopher. 58 wikSY 58/9 B76 16-531
59 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. Vipstanus APRONIANUS and C. Fonteius CAPITO 59 DGRBM 1-251, 602, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
59 Up to now, Nero's biographers say only good things about his policies. 59 B76 12-965
59 LUDI JUVENALES "Youth Games" instituted by Nero, who establishes corps of Augustiani to recruit young nobles to compete.. 59 CAH 10-717, Dur 3-277, OCD 729
59 Jun Oldest child of Antonia Major and L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, DOMITIA LEPIDA the Elder dies, age 67, of constipation. 59 wikDLE
59 Divorcee of C. Silius from 47, Junia SILANA dies at Tarentum before murder of Agrippina. 59 DGRBM 3-818
59 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) and Burrus reluctantly agree that Nero should kill his mom.  Burrus refuses to help him, saying the Praetorians ar bound to protect the whole house of the Caesars. 59 TTPC, wikSY
60 DGRBM 1-517
c.59 NERO, princeps 54-68, invites mom Agrippina-II to a banquet at Baiae.  Afterward puts her on a boat designed to sink on return to Antium. 59 Dur 3-210,
59 AGRIPPINA-II, mom of Nero, escapes from a boat designed to sink, swims to shore, pretends to believe it was an accident, sends a messenger to Nero to tell him she is safe. 59 CAH 10-716, MCAW
c.59 NERO pretends to think the messenger sent by Agrippina is an assassin, sends fleet commander Anicetus and his sailors to kill Agrippina. 59 CAH 10-716, Dur 3-210,
59 Mar 1st dau of Germanicus & Agrippina-I, wid of C. D. Ahenobarbus, AGRIPPINA-II (the Younger) dies.  Beaten to death at Baiae by centurion Anicetus on orders of Nero. TAn 14:8     59 B76 I-148, 12-965, CAH 10-716, CDCC 29, 611, DGRBM 2-1163, 3-687, GHH, IDB 3-537, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 31, TToH, wikAY
60 DGRBM 1-82, 178
All surviving stories of Agrippina's death contradict themselves and each other, and are generally fantastical.       wikAY
59 Nero sends a letter to the senate saying his mom had conspired to kill him, and was justly executed.  Senate congratulates Nero, and votes him honors.  Only THRASEA PAETAS has the moral integrity to speak against them, and then walks out. 59 DGRBM 3-1106, MCAW
59 Livineius REGULUS puts on a gladiator show in which disturbances occur, and is banished. TAn 3:11, 14:17 59 MCAW
59 Nero has become a competent lyre player. 59 MCAW
59 NERO begins giving performances to display his skill at singing, lyre playing, and charioteering.  59/60 B76 12-966
59 NERO returns from a chariot race.  He insists on a stage appearance, which is achieved by summoning a batallion of the Praetorian Guard to his private gardens on the Tibur, and plays the lyre for them. 59 Dur 3-278, MCAW
59 Port built at Antium by Nero. 59 B76 I-436
59 Riot in the amphitheater of Pompeii between Pompeians and newly settled colonists of Nuceria.  Many killed & wounded.  Pompeians are punished by forbidding gladiator and theater shows for 10 years. TAn 14:17
59 B76 14-789, DGRG 2-646
59 Dau of Drusus & Livilla, JULIA dies.  Former wife of Nero 20-30, executed by instigation of Messalina. TAn 13:43
59 DGRBM 2-642
59 Acilius STRABO is accused by people of Cyrene. 59 DGRBM 3-921
59 Gn. DOMITIUS AFER dies of overeating.  Superintendant of water supply from 49. TAn 14:19     59 B76 I-118, DGRBM 3-634, GHH, wikGDA
60 Jan 1 CONSULS:  NERO (4th) and Cossus Cornelius LENTULUS 60 DGRBM 2-733, 1163, FHBC 84, about, wikCon
c.60 "NERONIA" (aka Quinquennalia) established by Nero, 5 year games: musical, oratory, athletic, and equestrian. 60 CAH 10-718, DGRBM 2-808, Dur 3-277, GHH     61 OCD 729
60 Servius Sulpicius GALBA, out of office from 49, appointed governor of Nearer Spain until 68. 60 HRRP 4.2-560, OCD 454, anhiGl
60 Equite, Vibius SECUNDUS accused of Malversation in Mauretania, condemned, banished from Italy. TAn 14:28 60 DGRBM 3-764
60 There is much violent canvasing for praetor's office, which causes Nero to intervene, by compensating the 3 unsuccessful candidates with command of a legion. 60 HRRP 4.2-484
60 COMET appears.  People ask if Nero is dethroned, and if so, who is emperor.  C. Rubellius Plautus is prominent. TAn 14:22
60 DGRBM 2-1163, 3-411
c.60 M. Antonius FELIX, 4th procurator of Judea from 52, recalled to Rome.  Jews of Caesarea charge him with crimes.  His influential bro Pallas gets him released. Ant 20:8:9     56 FHBC 399     58 IDB 3-893 59 BAA, BBA , BNTH 340, 346, 357, ENBD 421, GSNT, IDB 1-605, ISBE 1-43, 3-709, MUTC 30     60 CAH 10-584, GHH, IDB 2-264,5, 593, ISBE 2-298, 923, Jud 6-1218, 1247, OCD 434-5, TTPC, jePr, wikJRP     62 DGRBM 2-143
60 PUTEOLI raised to rank of colony. TAn 14:27     60 CAH 10,
60 Pedius BLAESUS expelled from senate until 70 on complaint of Cyrene for robbing the temple of Aesculapius and for corrupt military levies. TAn 14:18, THs 1:77 60 DGRBM 1-492
60 Rubellius Blandus Plautus, at suggestion of Nero, takes wife Antista, and moves to Asia until death 62. TAn 14:22 60 DGRBM 3-411
c.60 NERO, princeps 54-68, increases judicial power of senate, delegates more cases to senate, requires a deposit from plaintiffs on appeal cases to senate (already required in appeal cases to princeps). 60 CAH 10-705
c.60 L. CALPURNIUS PISO Licinianus becomes curator aquarum until 63. 60 wikLCP57
60 C. Ofonius TIGELLINUS settles in Rome, becomes Urban Prefect of the 3 Urban Cohorts, the city's police force until 62. 60 wikTgl
60 M. Servilius NONIANUS dies. TAn 14:19     60 DGRBM 2-1208
c.60 DOMITIUS AFER, son of Claudia Pulchra, dies. TAn 14:19
60 DGRG 2-54
c.60 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  On Benefits  7 books. post-56 B76 16-531, OCD 976     63 wikSY
c.60 MONEY:  AS, weighing ½oz. copper from 87BC, reduced to ¼oz. 60 Dur 3-330
c.60 1st known GYMNASIUM in Rome built on Campus Martius. 60 CDCC 409
61 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P. Petronius TURPILIANUS and L. Caesennius PAETUS 61 DGRBM 3-85, 216, 1192, FHBC 84, OCD 767, about, wikCon
61 The prefectus urbi, originally a military or police officer, now competes in jurisdiction with the praetor urbanus. 61 LEWH
c.61 M. Tarquitius PRISCUS, governor of Bithynia/Pontus 59-60, condemned for extortion in his province. TAn 12:59, 14:46 61 DGRBM 3-529
61 PAUL & Luke spend 3 days at Syracuse, sail to Rhegium Ax 28: 12-13     59 blbPl
c.61 PAUL & Luke, in custody of centurion Julius, sail from Rhegium to Puteoli. Ax 28: 13 59 blbPl     60 B76 13-1093, BAA, BNTH 361, CBCNT 119, IDB 1-607, ISBE 1-43, 3-709     61 Dur 3-552, ENBD 945, MCAW     62 BBA 511
c.61 PAUL & Luke proceed by Via Appia to Rome.  Remains until 62. Ax 28:14-16     60 B76 13-1093, BAA, BBP 98, BNTH 361, CBCNT 119, 126, 132, IDB 1-607, ISBE 1-43, 3-709, blbPl, gnwd     61 Dur 3-552, ENBD 945, MCAW, civPl, clwa, mtmg     62 BBA 511
61 A senator, several equites, and a quaestor are exiled for forging wills. 61 HRRP 4.2-484
61  Lex Petronia  forbids masters to send their slaves to fight wild beasts, without cause. 61 OCD 604
c.61 Pedanius SECUNDUS, urban prefect from ?, murdered by his own slave.  Law and custom says all slaves in his house (400) be executed.  A senate minority protests.  Popular street demonstrations fail to prevent their execution.
SLAVES have NO rights.  They can be raped or murdered.  They cannot own, inherit, bequeath, or marry.  Their children are all illegitimate, even if the father is free.  The law does not even use ther term persona for a slave.
TAn 14:42 61 Dur 3-397
c.61 PAUL is handed over to a camp commandant, put under house arrest at Rome until 62.  He is allowed much freedom, offends Jewish Christians by insisting that gentiles can become Ctns. Ax 28:17-28     60 BBA, BNTD 13, BNTH 361, CBCNT 127, 132, ISBE 1-36, 489, NIV 1832, WHCC 27, dnt
61 GHH, MCAW, mtmg
62 ENBD 227, TTPC
c.61 PAUL, under house arrest in Rome, writes  Epistle to the Philippians , containing general exhortations to faith, humility, etc.  He expects to be released and to visit Philippi (2:24).  Epistle is carried by Epaphroditus. 53-4 B76 2-964     60 Sco 1280
60-2 WHCC 27     61 CBCNT 17, 128, NIV 1801, blbPl     62 B76 VII-944, CBCNT 132, DGRG 2-599, GHH, GSNT 531, blbPl, civPl, mtmg 62/3 clwa
Ephesus is also a likely place of writing. 54-5 IDB 3-790
ch 1:1-3:1 and 4:10-23 are written now from Rome. 60-61 ISBE 3-699
c.61 PAUL, under house arrest in Rome, writes  Epistle to Colossians  to refute heresies.  Carried by Tychicus and Onesimus. Ax 28:30     60 BBA, BNTD 14, BNTH 361, CBCNT 16, 127, NIV 1811, Sco 1285     60-1 BAA, ISBE 3-699, blbPl     60-2 ISBE 1-733, WHCC 27     61 CBCNT 132, MCAW     61/2 GSNT 530     62 GHH, civPl, mtmg 62/3 clwa
56/7 if written at Ephesus;  61/2 if at Rome IDB 1-660
c.61 PAUL, under house arrest in Rome writes  Epistle to Ephesians  Ax 28:30     60 BBA, BNTD 14, BNTH 361, CBCNT 128, 132, NIV 1789, Sco 1272     60-1 BAA, ISBE 3-699, blbPl     61 ISBE 2-113, MCAW     61/2 GSNT 530
61-3 clwa     62 GHH, civPl, mtmg
not written by Paul 87-92 IDB 2-112
c.61 PAUL, under house arrest in Rome writes  Epistle to Philemon   Paul expects to be released, and to visit Philemon (v.22).  It is delivered by Philemon's escaped slave Onesimus, who had run to Rome. Ax 28:30     60 BBA, BNTD 14, BNTH 361, CBCNT 16, 127, NIV 1855, Sco 1309, blbPl     60-1 BAA, ISBE 3-699     60-2 WHCC 27     61 CBCNT 132, IDB 3-784, MCAW     61/2 GSNT 530     62 GHH, civPl     62/3 clwa 63 mtmg
writes it from Ephesus 53/4 B76 2-967 56 IDB 3-784
The tradition that  Philippians, Colossians, Philemon, & Epesians  were written from Rome is challenged by scholars who prefer Caesarea, or earlier from Ephesus. IDB 4-123
c.61  Book of Acts of the Apostles  written, probably by Luke, and probably in Rome. 60 IDB 1-40, Sco 1160     60-63 GSNT 129     61 CBCNT 128     62 GSNT 531
63 or 70 NIV 1641     70-90 B76 I-71     85-90 ISBE 2-536
61 High priest ISHMAEL ben Phabi-II goes to Rome to protest wall built by Agrippa-II.  Nero permits the wall to stay, and detains Ishmael in Rome, and allows Agrippa-II to depose him. 61 CAH 10-855, no date: Jud 9-86
62 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P. Marius CELSUS and L. Asinius GALLUS   suffetes: Eprius Marcellus and Junius Marullus 62 DGRBM 1-663, 2-967, FHBC 85, OCD 402, about, wikCon
62 Praetorian Prefect from 51, Sextus Afranius BURRUS dies, probably naturally.  Nero is suspected of poisoning him.  Nero splits the prefecture again.  L. Faenius RUFUS succeeds until 65.  C. Ofonius TIGELLINUS succeeds until 68. TAn 14:51     62 B76 II-392, IX-1004, 16-530, BBA , BNTH 362, CAH 10-720, HRRP 4.2-499, IDB 3-537, ISBE 3-521, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 185, 729, wikFR, wikNr, wikPP, wikSY, wikTgl     63 DGRBM 1-518, 2-1163, 3-674, 1126, GHH
62 Ofonius TIGELLINUS sabotages his successive co-prefects, Faenius Rufus and Nymphidius Sabinus, to secure his position as a trusted advisor to Nero. 62 wikTgl
62 Senators, and equites complain privately that Nero is ruining Rome. 62 wikCCP
62 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger), Nero's tutor from 49, takes a hint from Nero, and resigns position at court, retires to private life to avoid the danger apprehended from Nero.  Nero calls him back. 62 BBA , CAH 10-720, Dur 3-303, GHH, IDB 3-537, ISBE 3-521, MCAW, TToH, wikSY
c.62 PAUL in Rome writes  2nd Timothy  (2nd pastoral epistle to Timothy) in Ephesus.  Paul's only remaining companion is Luke (4:11).  Paul expects to be killed soon (4:6), and asks Tim to visit him before winter, and bring John Mark (4:9,11,21). 60-2 WHCC 27     62 gnwd
62/3 NIV 1843     63 CNCNT 17 63/4 CNCNT 128     64-6 blbPl 65 GSNT 531, ISBE 3-699     66/7 mtmg     67 CBCNT 132, Sco 1302, civPl     67/8 clwa
Its a 3rd generation forgery. IDB 4-651
The 3 pastoral epistles: 1Tim, 2Tim, & Titus, are probably not written by Paul, but by a later disciple of Paul c.150.  If they are Pauline, then 2 separate imprisonments in Rome are required. B76 13-1093, IDB 3-669, wikPE
c. 62 PAUL, prisoner from 61, probably tried by Afranius Burrus.  Some conservatives ASSUME that he is released, and goes to either Spain, Macedomia, or Jerusalem in order to allow him to fulfill his stated expectations in Rom. 2Tim., Titus, Phil., Pmon. to visit various places. 61 ISBE 1-37, 489     61/2 BAA     62 BBP 98, BNTD 13, BNTH 362, CBCNT 128, ISBE 1-36, 3-709, NIV 1832, Qlb 47, 57, dnt, gnwd     63 ENBD 945, GHH, GSNT 129, 319, clwa, mtmg     64 ENBD 227
goes to Spain 63 ENBD 945,
He reaches "the boundary of the west" says 1 Clement 5. 63 ENBD 1209
62 After Burrus dies, dau of Claudius & Messalina, OCTAVIA, wife of Nero from 53, is divorced on grounds of barrenness and adultery, then compensated with the estates of Burrus and Plautus, then banished to Campania.  Roman mob riots in protest.  Nero restores her until later 62. TAn 14:60, Ant 20:8:11
62 BBA , CAH 10-721, DGRBM 3-5, Dur 3-279, Jud 13-861, LEWH, MCAW
62 The mob now rejoices, and pours into the palace, destroys statues of Poppaea.  Nero calls in the praetorians to dispurse them.  TAn 14:61
62 Ofonius TIGELLINUS supports Poppaea, encourages and helps Nero in all his profligacies.  no date: DGRBM 3-1126, wikTgl
62 Antistius SOSIANUS becomes praetor. 62 DGRBM 3-880
62 12 days after divorce, NERO marries pregnant mistress POPPAEA SABINA, wife of M. Salvius Otho, until her death 65. TAn 14:60-64     62 B76 12-966, BBA 511, CAH 10-721, DGRBM 3-5, 687, Dur 3-279, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, TToH, acOt, wikAY, wikNr, wikPS     63 DGRBM 3-1126
62 ANICETUS, fleet commander at Misenum, (and murderer of Agrippina) is persuaded by Nero to confess adultery with Octavia, for which he is exiled to Sardinia TAn 14:62
62 CAH 10-721, OCD 65
62 Dau of Claudius & Messalina, OCTAVIA is accused by a servant (induced by Poppaea) of adultery with a slave, banished to Pandataria island until death 62. TAn 14:63 62 DGRBM 3-5, 783
62 Ofonius TIGELLINUS fabricates evidence to justify the murder of Nero's wife, Octavia. 62 wikTgl
62 Jun 9 Dau of Claudius & Messalina, div of Nero, Claudia OCTAVIA dies, age 20.  Banished to Pandataria island 62, murdered by Nero's command.  Her head is brought to Poppaea Sabina. TAn 14:64     62 B76 12-965, CAH 10-721, DGRBM 3-5, Dur 3-210, GHH, ISBE 3-521, MCAW, wikCO
c.62 M. Antonius PALLAS, freedman, former secretary of Claudius, deposed and retired from 55, poisoned on orders of Nero in order to confiscate his wealth. TAn 14:65     62 BBA 449, OCD 837, wikPls 62 DGRBM 3-101
c.62 L. Calpurnius PISO Licinianus, A. Ducenius Geminus and Pompeius Paullinus are appointed by Nero to manage the public revenues. 62 OCD 837, wikLCP57
62 Gn. Julius Agricola, aide to Suetonius in Britain from 60, returns to Rome until 63, marries Domitia Decidiana. 62 CDCC 25, wikAgr no date: DGRBM 1-76
62 Praetor Antistius SOSIANUS writes libelous verses against Nero, and is exiled until 66. 62 DGRBM 3-880
62 Praetor Antistius SOSIANUS is accused of reciting some anti-Nero poetry.  P. Ostorius Scapula defends him.  Acquitted.   (see 64) 62 DGRBM 3-736, HRRP 4.2-485
c.62 Trials for maiestas (treason), abandoned 54, resumed by Nero.  Charges are brought against cultural opponents and wealthy people. 62 CAH 10-720, Dur 3-278, HRRP 4.2-485, OCD 729
62 Valerius Fabianus, Vincius Rufinus, M. Antonius Primus and others charged with trying to impose a forged will on senile Domitius Balbus.  Fabianus and Primus are removed from the senate.  Primus is banished from Rome until 68. TAn 14:40 62 DGRBM 2-131, wikVF'  
c.62 Praetor L. ANTISTIUS VETUS recites anti-Nero poetry at house of Ostorius Scapula.  Charged with treason by Cossutianus Capito.  Sentenced to exile on the contention that it was worse than death. TAn 14:48
c.62 Praetor L. ANTISTIUS VETUS vainly urges son-in-law Rubellius Plautus, now in Asia, to take up arms against Nero. TAn 14:58
62 OCD 715
62 Son of F.C.S. Lucullus and Domitia Lepida, Faustus Cornelius SULLA Felix dies in Massilia. 62 wikDLY
c.62 C. RUBELLIUS PLAUTUS is murdered in Asia, but Vetus escapes until 65. 62 DGRBM 3-411, 1252, wikNr
62 Praetor ANTISTIUS VETUS is accused of writing libelous verses against Nero.  A consul-elect proposes to execute Antistius.  THRASEA PAETUS proposes property confiscation as sufficient punishment.  Senate majority agrees.  Nero expresses disapproval. 62 DGRBM 3-1106
62 Claudius TIMARCHUS former governor of Crete, is accused of malversation.  THRASEA PAETUS speaks against provincial administration in general, proposes remedies, and gets applause. TAn 15:20 62 DGRBM 3-1106, 1135
c.62 Fabricius VIENTO is accused of libeling senators and pontiffs.  Case is tried by Nero personally (unusual).  Viento is banished from Italy, his books burnt. TAn 14:50-2
62 DGRBM 3-1236, OCD 715
c.62 PETER arrives in Rome. 62 CBCNT 132, gnwd
62 Apostle MARK martyred in Venice or Egypt. 62 CAH 10-719, MCAW
62 Nov 24 Etruscan Satirist A. PERSIUS FLACCUS dies, age 28, in Campania.  His works (700 scrolls) are kept by friend L. Annaeus Cornutus, which he revises, and delivers to Caesius Bassus to edit.  6 Satires:
1.  derides popular mythological poetry
2.  attacks seekers of fortune from gods rather than moral works
3.  links immoral acts with bad spirit
4.  urges Alcibiades to seek self-knowledge rather than popularity
5.  eulogizes his teacher; complains about materiality
6.  advises living within one's means
62 B76 VII-891, CDCC 668, Dur 3-210, GHH, wikPrs
63 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. Memmius REGULUS and L. Verginius RUFUS 63 DGRBM 3-677, FHBC 85, OCD 1114, about, wikCon
63 Jan 21 Wife of Nero, Poppaea Sabina bears a dau at Antium.  Child dies 4 months later, and is deified. 63 CDCC 708, DGRBM 2-1164, 3-687, Dur 3-280, wikPS
63 Jan SENATE goes to Antium to congratulate Nero on birth of his dau by Poppaea.  Thrasea Paetas is refused permission to enter Nero's presence. 63 DGRBM 3-1106
63 Feb 5 Mt. VESUVIUS, dormant for all known history, starts rumbling, causes an earthquake, damaging Pompeii & Herculanium, which are quickly rebuilt. TAn 14:27, 15:22     62 B76 14-789, CDCC 295     63 CAH 10-714, DGRBM 2-1164, DGRG 1-1053, 2-646, Dur 3-457, HRRP 4.2-486, 681, JZ 240
63 TITUS Flavius Vespasian, military tribune in Britain from 59/60, returns to Rome. 63 wikTt
63 TITUS Flavius Vespasian marries Arrecina TERTULLA until 65.  She is dau of M. Arrecinus Clemens, a former Praetorian Prefect. 63 wikTt
63 War with Parthia from 54 ends.  Corbulo's solution of a Parthian peace without victory is accepted by Nero. 63 CDCC 611, Dur 3-452, LEWH
63 Annius POLLIO, friend of Nero, accused of participating in Piso conspiracy, and banished. TAn 6:9
63 DGRBM 3-437
63 Parthian embassy politely asks if Tiridates may be accepted as a Roman client king of Armenia.  Nero gives them a vague answer, and prepares for war. TAn 15:24
63 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA becomes quaestor and financial secretary in Asia. 63 CDCC 25, DGRBM 1-76
63 T. Flavius VESPASIANUS, out of public life from 52, appointed governor of Africa Province until 64. TAn 2:97 63 wikVs
63 Consulars Ducennius Geminus, L. Piso, and Pompeius Paulinus are appointed by Nero to superintend public tribute collection, and prosecute predecessors who managed the job badly.  63 DGRBM 2-238-9, 3-145
63 TIRIDATES, bro of Vologases, former king of Armenia 53-60, goes to Naples and Rome to get Nero to accept him as king of ArmeniaRestored as a Roman client until ?. TAn 15:29     63 B76 18-1041, DGRBM 3-1152, OCD 119, wikPE
63 COTTIUS-II, client king of Ligures in west Alps from ?, dies. 63 wikAC
63 3 Alpine provinces are mentioned.  On authority of Dio Cassius (liv. 24), Augustus formed the Alpes Maritimae into a province in 14 BCNero now gives the 3 Alpine provinces Latin rights. TAn 15:32 63 DGRG 967
63 Alpes MaritimaeALPES MARITIMAE, a province in west Alps, from 14 BC under a praefectus civitatium, given Latin rights by Nero, and put under a procurator.  .  Capital is Cemenelum. Map: Milenioscuro

63 wikAM 64/5 CAH 10
63 Alpes CottiaeALPES COTTIAE, a part of Maritime Alps from 14 BC made a separate province by Nero, and put under a procurator.  Capital is Segusio. Map: Milenioscuro

63 wikAC 64/5 CAH 10 '  
c.63 L. CALPURNIUS PISO Licinianus, curator aquarum from 60, no longer so. 63 wikLCP57
63±1 L. Annaeus SENECA writes  On Leisure  addressed to Serenus. 62 wikSY
63-5 B76 16-531
c.63 PETER in Rome dictates  1st Peter  to Sylvanus telling churches in Anatolia to endure suffering and repay evil with good. 60-4 NIV 1886     62-4 Qlb 57, gnwd     63 CBCNT 16, 128     63/4 GSNT 480     65 ODCC 1069, Sco 1332     90 WHCC 43
2nd century letter falsely attributed to Peter. B76 VII-905
63/4 NERO gets interested in religion: e.g. Zoroastrian images, esoteric Judaists, Simon Magus, Apollonius of Tyana, and Paul.  He becomes a devotee of Syrian virgin-mother Atargatis, then of virgin-mother Juno-Canathos.  He also has an eccstatic fit in the Temple of Vesta. 63/4 B76 12-966
64 By senatus consultum, 4 forms of legacy are not entirely abolished, but diminished in importance.  64 ERLG 261
c.64 NERO, princeps 54-68, goes to Neapolis for a singing engagement.  After he and everyone leave the theater, it collapses, hurting no one. TAn 15:34
64 T. Flavius VESPASIANUS, governor of Africa from 63, returns broke to Rome.  Mortgages his home to his bro, and raises mules for a living. 64 wikAf
68 hifiC, rcNA, wikAf
c.64 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  Epistulae Morales , 124 moral Letters to Lucilius Jr.  "All art is but immitation of nature." 63 TTPC     64 wikSY 63-5 B76 III-928, 16-531
64 CANAL begun from Ostia to Lake Avernus by Nero, but abandoned for lack of money. TAn 15:42
64 NERO marries freedman PYTHAGORAS.  Nero, in drag, plays the bride. 64 wikNr
64 D. Junius SILANUS dies.  Great grandson of Augustus thru Julia, boasts descent from Augustus, sought by police, suicides. TAn 15:35     64 CAH 10-720, DGRBM 3-821, OCD 989
64 AEDILES store much grain in Rome, make regulations to insure freshness of meat, fish, produce. 64 TTPC
64 P. Ostorius SCAPULA is accused of something by Antistius Sosianus, whom Scapula defended in 62.  Condemned, suicides. 64 DGRBM 3-736
64 JOSEPHUS, age 29, sails from Judea to Italy, goes to Rome to get release of certain priests sent there by Antonius Felix for trial. Autobio 3     63 BBA, ENBD 660 64 B76 10-278, GHH, IDB 1-50, ISBE 2-1132, Jud 10-251, 13-861
64±1 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  On Tranquility of Mind  addressed to Serenus. 63 wikSY 63-5 B76 16-531
64±1 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) writes  Natural Questions , 8 books on ancient theories of cosmology, meteorology, etc. 63-5 B76 16-531, Dur 3-303, wikSY
64 PARTY (one of many) on Agrippina's lake sponsored by Tigellinus.  Nero and guests ride a raft towed by ornamented ships.  Brothels on one bank are populated by noble women.  Naked whores on the other bank put on shows.  Nero does every gross act he can think of, finishing by marrying a whore and fucking her on stage. TAn 15:37 64 wikTgl
64 PAUL's alleged 2nd visit to Rome, imprisoned. 63/4 CBCNT 128 64 BNTD 14, GHH 68 civPl
c.64 NERO, princeps 54-68, goes to Antium on coast of Latium (to be away from Rome when the fire starts?). 64 B76 12-966, CAH 10-722
64 Jul 18-19 FIRE at Rome begins at night in wooden shop-booths at the end of Circus Maximus that adjoins the Palatine.  Probably an accident.  A full moon that night would have made it a bad night for aarson.  Lasts 9 days. 64 B76 10-145, 15-1069, BAA, BBA 511, BNTH 399, CAH 10-722, CDCC 194, 611, DGRBM 2-1164, Dur 3-280, HRRP 4.2-505, IDB 3-538, IR 61, ISBE 3-522, Qlb 47, TTPC, wikNr     65 B76 IX-1004
64 Jul FIRE at Rome spreads over the Palatine and Velian hills up to the Esquiline; also spreads thru the Aventine, the Forum Boarium, and the Velabrum, until it reaches the Tiber and the Servian wall.  Destroys 3 of 14 Roman districts and severely damages 7 more. 64 Dur 3-210, GHH, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, wikNr
64 Jul AMPHITHEATERS of Statilius Taurus 29BC and Nero 57, are burnt down. 64 wikAST
64 Jul NERO hears of fire, rushes home from Antium, personally directs the vigiles (fire brigades). 64 CAH 10-722, wikVg
64 Jul NERO watches the fire, reciting lines on the destruction of Troy.  He frets (not fiddles) while Rome burns.  Suspicion falls on Nero, Tigellinus and others.  Nero does much to relieve suffering, institutes relief organizations, opens all public buildings and imperial gardens for housing, and arranges for food supplies to be delivered. 64 GHH, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, wikNr, wikTgl
64 Jul ROME ⅔ destroyed by the fire.  Of the 14 districts, 3 are levelled to the ground, 7 are half burnt ruins, 4 are untouched.  Destroyed buildings include the shrine to Hercules built by Evander, temples of Luna, Vesta, and Jupiter the Stayer, plus much Greek art and other trophies of war. TAn 15:40-1 64 TTPC
65 B76 IX-1004
64 TEMPLE of VESTA, (see 210) Burnt.    Rebuilt and burnt again 191. 64 pnuc
64 In Placentia, a calf is born with its head attached to its leg.  Roman diviners interpret this to mean a new head is preparing for the world, which will be neither mighty nor hidden, as its growth had been checked in the womb, and it had been born by the wayside. TAn 15:47
64 NERO petitions the whole empire for donations to repair Rome.  SENECA the Younger donates most of his fortune. 64 Dur 3-303
64 CURRENCY DEVALUED for the first time in the Empire's history.  Nero reduces the denarius from 3.8 grams to 3.3 grams.  He also reduces the silver purity from 99.5% to 93.5%, the silver weight dropping from 3.8 grams to 2.97 grams.  Nero reduces the weight of the aureus from 7.9 grams to 7.2 grams. 64 wikNr
64 Equite Calpurnius FABATUS is accused by informers of knowing of adultery and magic which are alleged against LEPIDA, wife of C. Cassius.  Fabatus appeals to Nero, and eventually eludes the accusation. TAn 16:8 64 DGRBM 2-130
64 ±1 L. Annaeus CORNUTUS, freedman philosophy teacher at Rome, teacher of Lucan and Persius, exiled by Nero, disappears from history.  64 OCD 292 66 or 8 B76 III-158
64 1st CHRISTIAN PERSECUTION begins until 68.  Nero blames the fire on Christians, tortures and kills many. 64 BAA, Dur 3-210, 552, ISBE 3-709, LEWH, MCAW, Qlb 57, TToH, TTPC, TTT, WHCC 30 65 GHH     67 FBM 19
64 Domus Aurea Nero's DOMUS AUREA "Golden House", begun until 68, on 200 acres of ground burnt by the fire, to link buildings on the Palatine with the Gardens of Maecenas and other properties on the Esquiline and adjoining hills. left: Cristiano64
right: ColdEel

64 CDCC 638, GHH
65 B76 VII-264, MCAW
64 M. Valerius MARTIAL, age 25, educated in Spain, comes to Rome, develops friendship with Seneca and Lucan. 64 MCAW, OCD 652     66 DGRBM 2-964, GHH
65 Jan 1 CONSULS:  A. LICINIUS NERVA Silianus and M. Julius VESTINUS ATTICUS   suffete: C. Licinius Mucianus 65 DGRBM 1-416, FHBC 85, OCD 702, about, wikCon
65 Apr 30 Young republican poet M. Annaeus Lucanus, LUCAN dies.  Neph of Seneca, implicated in plot against Nero, accuses his own mom, Atilla.  Forced to suicide, age 26.  M. Annaeus Mela claims his property, but loses the suit. 65 B76 VI-369, CAH 10-729, CDCC 530, DGRBM 2-807, Dur 3-296, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 620 66 DGRBM 1-406, 2-1010
65 Rome rebuilt on a regular and less congested plan. 65 GHH, MCAW
c.65 NERO, princeps 54-68, begins sculpting a 30m tall bronze COLOSSUS (Apollo statue), with Nero's face, in front of his Golden House.  Architect Zenodorus.   Erected 75. 65 CAH 10-501
no date: wikCN
c.65 NERO, princeps 54-68, gives a singing and lyre playing performance in the theater of Pompey. 65 Dur 3-278
c.65 Dau of M. Arrecinus Clemens, Arrecina TERTULLA dies.  Wife of TITUS Flavius Vespasian from 63. 65 wikTt
c.65 PAUL martyred.  Tried and beheaded on Via Ostia 3 miles from Rome. 61-4 B76 2-948     64 CBCNT 53, 128, CDCC 652, Dur 3-552, FHBC 305, ISBE 3-522
65 BAA, GHH, ISBE 3-709, Jud 13-190, MCAW 64-6 ISBE 1-37     64-8 CBCNT 119     66 Qlb 60, blbPl     66/7 Qlb 47     67 B76 13-955, ENBD 945, TTPC, mtmg     67/8 NIV 1836     68 CBCNT 132, civPl, gnwd
c.65 ARISTARCHUS, 1st bishop of Thessalonica, beheaded with Paul. no date: DDS 71
c.65 PETER in Rome writes  2nd Peter .  Says Jesus is delaying his 2nd coming because he's patient. 63/4 CBCNT 16, 128 64 gnwd, 65 GSNT 531     65-8 NIV 1897 66 Sco 1338
2nd century forgery attributed to Peter. B76 VII-905, 2-970
65 A senate-inspired widespread CONSPIRACY, mostly under Praetorian tribune Flavius Subrius and centurion Sulpicius Asper, to replace Nero with C. Calpurnius PISO.  Subrius proposes killing Nero on stage, or while burning the palace.  Conspirators include Plautius Lateranus. 64 ISBE 3-522     65 B76 IX-1004, 12-966, 15-1112, CAH 10-920, CDCC 611, DGRBM 3-376, Dur 3-282, IR 62, LEWH, TTPC, wikCCP, wikNr 66 DGRBM 2-175, 724
65 Piso's conspiracy is discovered and disclosed to Nero by Milichus, a freedman of Flavius Scaevola (one of the conspirators).  18 out of 41 conspirators executed or forced to suicide.  Flavius Subrius is beheaded. TAn 15:49, 54     65 B76 12-966, CAH 10-728, DGRBM 2-1164, 3-376, GHH, LEWH, OCD 729, TTPC, wikTt
66 DGRBM 2-175, 1085
65 Equite Antonius NATALIS, part of Piso conspiracy, threatened with torture, rats out fellow conspirators, escapes punishment. TAn 15:50, 54-60
66 DGRBM 2-1142
65 M. Cocceius NERVA helps expose the Piso conspiracy, and is favored by Nero, elected praetor, and receives triumphal honors. 65 wikNv
65 C. Calpurnius PISO dies.  Bleeds himself to death.  Adopted son Calpurnius Galerianus survives until 70. 65 DGRBM 2-1164, 3-376, GHH, OCD 837
65 Neph of Aulus Plautius, Plautius LATERANUS executed without being allowed to embrace his kids. 65 DGRBM 2-1164, wikAP
65 Praetorian Prefect from 62, L. Faenius RUFUS dies.   Implicated in Piso conspiracy, deposed, forced to suicide.  Colleague Tigellinus continues 62-68.  C. Nymphidius SABINUS succeeds until 68.  Sabinus works to suppress conspirators. 65 CAH 10-727, DGRBM 3-674, LEWH, wikFR, wikNS, wikPP
65 Praetorian tribune Cornelius MARTIALIS implicated in plot against Nero, deposed. 66 DGRBM 2-964
65 Consul designate, Anicius CEREALIS proposes building a temple to Nero ASAP at public expense. 65 DGRBM 1-672
65 Praetor designate, M. Cocceius NERVA receives ornamenta triumphalia for suppression of Piso conspiracy. 65 OCD 730
65 Writer PETRONIUS ARBITER dies.  Falsely accused by Tigellinus of complicity in plot against Nero, arrested at Cumae, suicides. 65 LEWH     66 B76 14-190, CDCC 671, DGRBM 3-216, Dur 3-210, wikTgl
65 Jurist C. CASSIUS LONGIUNUS exiled to Sardinia until 69 by Nero for having an image of C. Cassius the tyrannicide. 65 B76 II-617, CAH 10-973, GHH, OCD 212     66 DGRBM 2-803, MCAW, wikGCL
65 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger), implicated in conspiracy of Piso. 65 B76 16-530, DGRBM 2-1164, wikSY
65 Centurion Sulpicius ASPER, implicated in conspiracy of Piso, executed. 66 DGRBM 1-388
65 L. Annaeus SENECA (the Younger) dies, age c.70.  Ordered to be bled to death by Nero, opens his veins, dictates farewell letters to a secretary, takes a long and painful time to die.  Corpse is burnt without the usual funeral rites.  His wife from 31 Pompeia Paulina is spared by Nero, but slits her wrists anyway.  Nero has them bandaged up.  She lives a few more years. 65 B76 12-966, BAA 346, BBA 352, BAH 10-729, CAH 10-915, CDCC 808, DGRBM 2-1164, 3-780, Dur 3-306, GHH, Jud 14-1158, LEWH, MCAW, OCD 970, SHWC 147, TToH, TTS, WHCC 7, wikSY
65 Son of M.J.S., L. Junius Torquatus SILANUS dies.  Accused by Nero of treason and incest with aunt Junia Lepida, ordered to exile on Naxos island, but murdered in Bari before departing Italy. 65 DGRBM 3-822, OCD 989
65 Dau of Aemilia Lepida and M. Junius Silanus Torquatus, Junia LEPIDA dies. 65 wikJL
65 SECRET POLICE enlarged by Nero.  Prominent members include Aquilius Regulus and Eprius Marcellus. 65 CAH 10-729
65 Tigellinus's rapacity unbounded. 65 GHH
65 Junius COLUMELLA writes  De Re Rustica . 65 Dur 3-319
65 MONTHS renamed by senate.
April -> Neroneus; May -> Claudius; June -> Germanicus
65 CAH 10-733
65 Temple to DIVUS NERO proposed by senate.  Nero declines. 65 CAH 10-501
c.65 "NERONIA" 5 year games established 60, held again.  Nero acts in tragedies, playing male & female roles. 65 CAH 10-736
65 POPPAEA SABINA dies.  2nd wife of Nero from 62, again pregnant, killed by a kick from Nero.  Deified by senate.  Body is embalmed, given a state funeral, and entombed in an as yet unidentified Tomb of the Julii. TAn 16:6     63 DGRBM 3-897
65 B76 12-965, CAH 10-735, DGRBM 2-1164, 3-687, Dur 3-281, GHH, ISBE 3-521, Jud 13-861, MCAW, OCD 729, acOt, wikNr, wikPS
65 After Poppaea dies, Nero gets a crush on a handsome boy named SPORUS, who resembles her.  He castrates Sporus, dresses him like a woman, and calls him Sabina.  He marries Sporus in 67. 63 DGRBM 3-897, wikNr, wikPS
65 PLAGUE rages thruout Rome and sweeps central Italy until 79. 65 Dur 3-311, GHH, ahcRM
c.65 L. ANTISTIUS VETUS dies.  Escaped from 62, caught, executed by Nero, along with mom-in-law Sextia, and dau Pollutia. TAn 16:10, 11
65 DGRBM 3-810, 1252
65 Banished also include:  Novius Priscus, friend of Seneca,  Flavius Nepos,  Annius Pollio,  Rufius Crispinus (to Sardinia),  Musonius Rufus,  Cluvidienus Quietus,  Julius Agrippa,  Blitius Catulinus,  Petronius Priscus,  Julius Altinus. TAn 15:71
65 CAH 10, DGRBM 1-892     66 DGRBM 3-527,8
65 Stoic Philosopher Musonius Rufus banished by Nero.  He defined philosophy as inquiry into right conduct. TAn 15:71
65 Dur 3-300
c.65  Gospel of MARK  written in Greek by Mark in Italy (probably Rome) from personal statements of Peter, whom he knew, for gentile readers.  The author has no theory of incarnation or appreciation for Pauline writings. 50-65 NIV 1490     60±4 CBCNT 17, GSNT 530, NIV 1490     62 CBCNT 128     65 BNTD 12, CAH 11-259, TToH, TTPC     60-70 B76 VI-633 DDS 386, ISBE 3-254     65-67 IDB 3-268     65-69 B76 2-951     65-70 Dur 3-556, ISBE 2-536     post-70 B76 VI-697, Jud 16-948, JZ 42     60-75 JZ 3, 222
68 NIV 1047, Sco 1047     75-80 WHCC 31, 34     84 TTPC     85 TToH
c.65  Gospel of Luke  written, probably in Rome, possibly in Caesarea, improbably in Achaea or Ephesus.  Scripture is trisected into 1. Law of Moses, 2. Prophets, 3. Psalms. 60-70 BNTD 12     59-63 or 70-90 NIV 1532 60 CBCNT 16, 128, Sco 1075     62 GSNT 530 63-70 B76 VI-384     70-80 IDB 3-186
80 IDB 3-185     80-95 WHCC 31
pre-85 ISBE 2-536     70-90 ISBE 3-183     70-100 ODCC 844     70-115 IDB 3-312
no date: Jud 4-821
Lk cannot have used Mt, nor Mt used Lk, because neither is influenced by the other's distinctive ideas, language, theology, or peculiar sources.  Their only connection is Mk, which both use almost completely. IDB 3-304
Nearly nothing is known of the stages of church life from 65 to 100. ISBE 2-535
65/6 Bro of Seneca, L. Junius Annaeus GALLIO dies.  Suicides, possibly by order of Nero. 65 B76 IV-394, BBA 353, DGRBM 2-221, ENBD 451, wikLJG     66 CAH 10-730
66 Jan 1 CONSULS:  C. Luccius TELESINUS and C. Suetonius PAULINUS 66 DGRBM 3-146, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
66 M. Julius VESTINUS ATTICUS dies.  Betrothed to Statilia MESSALINA, is executed by Nero without accusation (let alone trial) just so Nero can have Messalina. 66 DGRBM 2-1053
66 NERO marries 3rd wife Statilia MESSALINA, dau of T. Statilius Taurus.  She outlives him. 66 CAH 10-733, DGRBM 2-1053, OCD 675, 729
66 Antistius SOSIANUS exiled from 62, recalled because he accused Anteius.  But is exiled again by Nero. 66 DGRBM 3-880
66 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA becomes pleb tribune. 66 B76 I-144, wikAgr
66 APOLLONIUS of Tyana Greek Neopythagorean philosopher, visits Rome until later 66.  66 DGRBM 2-1164
66 APOLLONIUS of Tyana is accused of magic and badmouthing Nero.  He is brought before Tigellinus, and so spooks him with magical powers that Apollonius is released. 66 DGRBM 2-1164, 3-1126
66 King of Armenia, TIRIDATES, Parthian bro of Vologases-I, and 300 nobles comes from Syria to Rome 2nd time to get throne, calls Nero his master, and says "I have come to you, my god, worshipping you as I worship Mithra".  Nero confirms him as king of Armenia, gives him a gladiator show at Puteoli, and pays his traveling expenses both ways.  He returns to Syria in 67. TAn 15:1, 14     66 B76 9-845, CAH 10-734, DGRBM 2-1112, GHH, IDB 3-538, 972, LEWH, OCD 729, wikTr1
66 P. ANTEIUS dies.  Accused of treason by Antistius Socianus, condemned w/o trial, suicide. TAn 16:14       57 DGRBM 1-183, 2-380
66 OSTORIUS SCAPULA dies.  Accused of treason by Antistius Socianus, condemned w/o trial, suicides. TAn 16:14
66 Anicius CEREALIS dies.  Condemned by Nero, suicides. 66 DGRBM 1-672
66 M. Annaeus MELA dies.  Rich, and complicit in the Piso conspiracy, bequeaths his wealth to his friends, and suicides. 66 DGRBM 2-1010-1
66 Λ GATES of the TEMPLE OF JANUS, open from ??, closed by Nero, then opened until 70. 70 MCAW
66 coin 66Roman coin struck in 66 depicting Nero and the gates of the Temple of Janus closed. photo: Classical Numismatic Group
66 Glass bottles used in parts of Italy. 66 GHH
66 Q. Junius Arulenus RUSTICUS becomes pleb tribune. 66 DGRBM 3-680
66 X-consul 61, P. Clodius THRASEA PAETUS, stoic with republican sympathies, impeached by Cossutianus Capito and Eprius Marcellus. TAn 16:23,26,28 66 DGRBM 2-936
66 Tribune Q. Arulenus RUSTICUS wants to veto condemnation of THRASEA, but Thrasea prevents him because it would have brought retribution against Rusticus. 66 DGRBM 3-680, OCD 128
66 THRASEA PAETUS dies.  Ordered to suicide by Nero.  Wife ARRIA is forbidden to die beside him, banished.  Accuser Eprius Marcellus receives 5,000,000 sesterces. TAn 16:21     65 Dur 3-300
66 DGRBM 3-1107, Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 3-538, OCD 122, 402, fyf
66 Stoic philosopher C. Musonius RUFUS, charged with knowing of Piso conspiracy, banished to Gyaros island in Aegean. 66 DGRBM 3-676
66 Q. M. BAREA SORANUS dies.  He and dau Servilia are accused by Ostorius Sabinus, because of friendship with Rubellius Plautius, and alleged plotting in Asia.  Soranus is condemned on false evidence by Egnatius Celer, executed.  Sabinus is rewarded with quaestorship and money by Nero. TAn 16:21
65 HRRP 4.2-541 66 DGRBM 1-463, 3-691, 793, OCD 161
66 Helvidius PRISCUS, husband of Fannia, dau of Thrasea & Arria, banished from Italy for republicanism, retires with wife Fannia to Apollonia Macedonia until 68. TAn 16:21 66 DGRBM 3-527, GHH, OCD 1066
66 APOLLONIUS of Tyana Greek Neopythagorean philosopher, in Rome from 66, expelled, goes to Gades, Spain. 66 gtbAT
c.66 Apostle LUKE martyred in Rome. 66 B76 11-177
in Bithynia, or possibly Boeotia IDB 3-180
66 Dau of Claudius & Aelia Paetina, CLAUDIA ANTONIA dies. Wid of Faustus Sulla from 62, refuses a marriage offer by Nero, charged with attempted rebellion, executed. 66 DGRBM 1-210, OCD 245, wikCA
66 fall Egyptian GRAIN shipments diverted from Italy to legions in PalestineCauses shortage and discontent in Rome. 66 CAH 10-738
66 Sep NERO leaves Rome under freedmen, among whom is Helius, who acts as prefect.  Nero sails from Italy to Greece, tours Greece until 68.  "The Greeks are the only ones who have an ear for music."   He is accompanied by T. Flavius Vespasian and several thousand Augustiani and praetorians under Tigellinus. 66 B76 12-966, 19-95, CAH 10-735, Dur 3-282, IDB 4-782, ISBE 3-522, MCAW, britVs     67 DGRBM 2-377, IDB 3-538, LEWH, wikTgl
66±2 PETER crucified upside down in Rome. 64 B76 14-153, CBCNT 53, 132, Dur 3-552, FHBC 305, IDB 3-768, MCAW, ODP 5, Qlb 60, gnwd     64-7 GSNT 128     64-8 CBCNT 119, Schaff
66 GHH     67 FHBC 388 TToH 67/8 FHBC 374
...according to:  Ignatius of Antioch, Dionysius of Corinth, Irenaeus of Lyons, Caius of Rome, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Lactantius, Eusebius, Jerome
66±2 LINUS, succeeds Peter as bishop of Rome until 78. 64 IDB 3-136     65 Dur 3-552 66 GHH, ODP 6     67 DDS 361     68 TToH
67 Jan 1 CONSULS:  L. Fonteius CAPITO and L. Julius RUFUS 67 DGRBM 1-602, 3-674, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
67 Curtius MONTANUS accused by Eprius Marcellus of libelling Nero.  Charge is disproved, but Montanus is exiled until ?. 67 DGRBM 2-1113
67 Freedman HELIUS, a temporary prefect of Rome, feels trouble brewing, messages Nero in Greece, asks him to return.  Nero vascillates.  Helius leaves other freedmen in charge, and sails to Corinth. 67 CAH 10-738
c.67 PLINY the Elder appointed procurator in Spain until 72. pre death of Nero DGRBM 3-414
c.67 Christian physician URSICINUS dies.  Converts patients to Cty at Ravenna, tortured and killed by order of C. Suetonius Paulinus. 67 DGRBM 3-1285
67/8 Claudius CIVILIS, ruler of the Batavii, falsely charged with treason by Fonteius Capito, and sent in chains to Rome. 67/8 DGRBM 1-758, wikRob
68 Jan 1 CONSULS:  P. Galerius TRACHALA and Ti. Catius Asconius SILIUS ITALICUS   suffete: M. Plautius Silvanus 68 DGRBM 2-1165, 3-824, 826, 1166, FHBC 85, about, wikCon
68 Claudius CIVILIS, ruler of the Batavii, charged with treason by Galba.  Acquitted. 67/8 DGRBM 1-758
68 Gn. Julius AGRICOLA becomes praetor. 68 B76 I-144, wikAgr
68 Legion I Adiutrix "Rescuer" founded.  Emblem: capricorn, used along with Pegasus. 68 wikIAdt
68 NERO, in Greece from 66, having accumulated 1808 prizes, returns to Rome. 67 DGRBM 2-1165, Dur 3-283 68 CAH 10, IDB 3-538, ISBE 3-522, LEWH, MCAW
68 NERO learns of Vindex revolt in Gaul, says, "I have only to appear and sing to have peace once more in Gaul". 68 B76 12-966
68 Apr 2 Servius Sulpicius GALBA, governor of Hispania Taraconensis 60-68 joins Vindex' revolt. 68 B76 IV-384, 17-404, CAH 10-739, Dur 3-210, GHH, HRRP 4.2-550, 559, IDB 3-538, OCD 454
68 Apr News arrives in Rome that Galba had revolted, and is marching toward Rome. 68 Dur 3-183
68 C. Ofonius TIGELLINUS, praetorian co-prefect from 62, either pressed into resigning by co-prefect Sabinus, or he so disgusts the praetorians that they kick him out, though Nero still likes him.  Colleague Sabinus cintinues 65-68. 68 B76 IX-1004, DGRBM 3-1126, wikPP, wikNS, wikTgl
c.68 L. Verginius RUFUS legate of Upper Germany from 67, accompanies Galba to Italy. 68 CAH 10, DGRBM 3-677
68 M. Fabius QUINTILLIAN, in Spain from ?, returns to Rome as part of the retinue of Galba. 68 wikQnt
68 Ofonius TIGELLINUS defects from Nero to Galba. 68 wikTgl
68 PRAETORIAN GUARD under prefect C. Nymphidius Sabinus learns that the Spanish legions had proclaimed Servius Sulpicius GALBA emperor.  They promise to join him for the right price.  Senate learns of it, declares Galba emperor, and sentences Nero to death.  68 CAH 10-740, Dur 3-183, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, wikGl, wikNr, wikNS
68 Jun NERO orders a fleet prepared to get him to safety (probably Egypt). 68 CAH 10-740, wikNr
68 Jun 8 Praetorian prefect C. Nymphidius SABINUS, accompanied by senators, go to praetorian barrack, tell praetorians Nero fled to Egypt, promises them 30,000 sesterces each for loyalty to Galba.  Officers refuse to follow Nero, and desert soon after midnight. 68 CAH 10-740, wikGl
68 Jun NERO puts some poison in a box, flees from his golden house, asks members of the Guard to help him.  They refuse.  He goes to the Servilian Gardens on the road to Ostia, sends messages to friends to help him.  None reply.  Freedman Phaon offers to hide Nero in his villa on Via Sallaria.  Nero hides in Phaon's cellar.    68 B76 12-966,
CAH 10-740, DGRBM 3-238,
Dur 3-183
68 Jun Phaon informs Nero that the senate declared him a public enemy, punishment for which is beating to death.  Nero tries to stab himself, but finds the dagger distressingly sharp, exclaims, "What an artist dies in me!".  Senatorial soldiers appear outside.  Nero begs his associates to not let them mutilate his body. 68 Dur 3-283-4
68 Jun Princeps from 54, NERO dies, age 30, June 9 or 11, at house of Phaon.  He stabs himself in the neck, but botches it.  Freedman Epaphroditus guides the blade in.  With Nero the house of Caesar expires.  Galba's soldiers refrain from mutilating Nero's body.    His nurses and former mistress Acte bury it in the vaults of the Domitii.  Many Romans rejoice, but the majority mourn, because he had been generous to the poor. 68 Jun Dur 3-284, GHH, HRRP 4.2-557, IDB 3-538, ISBE 2-697, 3-521, LEWH, MCAW, TTPC, fyf     68 B76 15-1112, BAA, CAH 10-740-1, CDCC 611, DGRBM 2-1162, 3-238, GSNT, Jud 12-964, OCD 740, SHWC 131, TToH, wikNr

Italy 68-69