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Royal Road
c.500 ROYAL ROAD built from Sardis to Susa with posting stations.  Connects capitals of Persia, Elam, and Assyria, to Gordium and Sardis.  Crosses the Tigris at Amida. 500
PW 16
c.500  Story of Ahikar  (Ahiqar), based on a real person, written in Aramaic.  Has several variations.  Ahikar, vizir of Sennacherib (or Esarhaddon), adopts his nephew Nadan, takes good care of him, and tells him proverbs   Nadan wants to supplant Ahikar, and has him condemned to death.  The executioner owes Ahikar a favor, kills a eunuch and tells the king it's Ahikar.  Big lacuna follows.  When the king regrets having lost such a counsellor, Ahikar is restored alive.  Ahikar is reinstated and Nadan is killed.   (Elephantine mss) 500
AΨΨ 719
c.500  Isaiah ch 24-27  written by a disciple of 2nd Isaiah. 500 B76 2-916
c.500 Babylonian JUDAISM is influenced by Babylonian religion and probably Zoroastrianism.
Angels, until now ambivalent beings, sometimes indistinguishable from God or men, now become individuals with names.
Satan, until now a common noun meaning adversary, now becomes a particular being who is able to oppose angels.
Pre-exilic 2Sam 24:1 says God induced David to take a census, for which God punished him.  Post-exilic 1Ch 21:1 says Satan induced David.
Light vs. darkness, a theme in the Avesta, shows up more in post-exilic Judaism.
c.500 ARAMAIC V language and script becomes the standard for doing business in Medo-Persian Empire.   (See  Greek 750, Latin 620, Zapotec 500, Oscan 480, Levant 444) 500 wikAA, wikAL
c.498 The 19-year intercalation cycle (Metonic cycle) was fixed in Babylonian calendaric notation during the first 3rd of the 4th century, having been known and followed with rare deviations since 498BC. 498
CAH 6-257
c.498 XERXES, 1st son of Darius-I becomes satrap of Babylon. 498 ISBE 4-1161
491 Apr 25 ECLIPSE seen in 31st year of Darius-I. 491 Apr 25 doth
c.490 HANANIAH ben Zerubabel, Exilarch from 510, ends.  BIRCHIAH ben Meshullam succeeds to 485. 490 hawa, rcHL
486 late DARIUS-I HYSTASPES dies.  King of Medo-Persia, and Babylonia from 522 dies in Persepolis.  1st son XERXES-I succeeds to 465. 486 B76 9-835, 11-989, 17-447, 19-1057, CDCC 258, Dur 2-722, FLAP 195, GRG 299, Grim, HCC, IDB 1-769, 4-922, ISBE 1-867, 3-778, 4-1161, LEWH 51, 53, MNHK, OCD 4, 1144, OHG, RAH, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-136, SHWC 39, SOTS 244, 246, anan, bivu, bk, frN, KoP, wikP     485 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-942, Dur 2-237, GHH, MCAW 108, hifi, hifiE, hifiP
c.485 BABYLONIA:  prices have increased 200% from 560. 550 Sag1 148
c.485 BIRCHIAH ben Meshullam, Exilarch from 490, ends.  Bro HASADIAH ben Meshullam succeeds to 480. 485 hawa 470 rcHL
c.484 Revolt in Babylon led by local Babylonian nobles Bel-shimanni and Shamash-eriba, suppressed. 484 lvA
c.484 Temple of Nabu at Borsippa destroyed during suppression of revolt against Xerxes-I. 484 wikA1
c.482 BABYLONIA, under Medo-Persia 539-331, rebels under Bel-Shimanni and Shamash-Eriba. Belshimanni 484 CDCC 117
482 B76 9-835, ISBE 1-390, RAI2 342, RAI3
c.482 Aug. ZOPHYRUS, Medo-Persian satrap of Babylonia from ?, killed by order of Bel-Shimanni. Aug. 482 RAI2 342
c.482 MEGABYZOS, bro-in-law of Xerxes-I, sent to quell rebellion in Babylonia, takes and burns Babylon. 482 B76 VI-753, 9-835
c.482 Gold statue of Marduk in Babylon, taken by Megabyzos, melted down.  Ziggurat destroyed. 482 ISBE 1-390, LEWH 753, SOTS 247     478 Sdl 1-437
never happened: CDCC 117
c.482 ESAGILA temple destroyed by Megabyzos. 482 LEWH 753, SOTS 247
c.480 HASADIAH ben Meshullam, Exilarch from 485, ends.  YESHAIAH ben Hananiah succeeds to 475. 480 hawa
c.475 YESHAIAH ben Hananiah, Exilarch from 480, ends.  HEZEKIAH ben Hasadiah succeeds and ends.  REPHAIAH ben Yeshaiah succeeds until ?. 475 hawa
c.465 XERXES-I dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Babylonia from 486, murdered in Persepolis by Artabanus, captain of bodyguard.  1st son DARIUS succeeds.  Artabanus tells Xerxes' 2nd son Artaxerxes that Darius murdered Xerxes.  Artabanus kills Darius.  ARTABANUS usurps throne until 464. 465 B76 9-835, 19-1058, CDCC 957, Grim, IDB 4-922, MCAW 116, MNHK, OCD 4, 1144, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-187, Shaw, SOTS 246, TToH, WPOT 326, anan, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
464 HCC, OCD 126, OHG, RAH, bihi, bivu
c.464 ARTABANUS dies.  Usurper of Medo-Persia from 465, killed by Xerxes 2nd son Artaxerxes, who recovers throne.  ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS succeeds until 424. 465 GHH, IDB 1-241, MRDK, WPOT 327, frN     464 B76 9-835, OCD 126, RAI2, RAI3, SOTS 246, bihi, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.460 CLAY TABLETS written in cuneiform, until now used for Achaemenid administrative documents, replaced by PARCHMENT written in Λ ARAMAIC V.
(See return 538, Bagoas 407)
460 PW 16
c.460 HERODOTUS visits Babylon.
"It surpasses in splendor any city in the known world."
460 ISBE 1-390, RAI2, RAI3
450 OCD 157
c.458 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, authorizes EZRA to return to Jerusalem, refurbish temple, and restore Jewish worship. 458 GHH, IDB 1-241, 2-214, rcHL
c.458 Mar. EZRA ben Seriah, scribe, and party of Jews depart from Babylon, stop at Ahava River 3 days, send back for some Levites, fast, entrust money and furnishings to 12 priests. Ezr 7:9, 8:15, 1Esd 8:6, Antiq 11:5:2     458 rcHL
c.458 Apr. EZRA and Jews depart Ahava River for Jerusalem. Ezr 8:31, 1Esd 8:61
c.450 NABURIMANNU, Chaldean astronomer, mathematician, flourishes.
Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Developed a system of calculating solar system ephemerides (table of values that gives the positions of astronomical objects in the sky at a given time or times).  Calculates length of a lunar month.
(See Mahavira 468, Oenopides 450, Anaxagoras 450, Meton 432)
600-300 wikNbr
500 TToH, aleph
c.447 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, agrees to demands of Megabyzos rebelling satrap of Syria, grants him independence . 447 GHH
c.445 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS, king of Medo-Persia 464-24, OKs NEHEMIAH's mission to Jerusalem. 445 GHH,
IDB 1-241, ISBE 1-848
c.445 NEHEMIAH ben Hacaliah given permission by ARTAXERXES-I to return and rebuild walls of Jerusalem.  Appointed satrap of Judah until 433.
Beginning of Daniel's 70 weeks.
Neh 5:14, 2:8
445 B76 7-128, IDB 1-241,
Jud 8-619
c.430 Land lease Murashu Archive :  879 tablets covering 3 generations of the "Murashu & Sons" banking house of Nippur, contain commercial and legal documents covering years 454-04.  The example on the right is a land lease.  Place names suggest Anatolians Syrians, Phoenicians, Egyptians, and others living in agricultural areas of Nippur. photo Sodabottle

CAH 6-234
c.424 ARTAXERXES-I LONGIMANUS killed.  King of Medo-Persia and Babylonia from 464 murdered in Susa.  Son XERXES-II succeeds 45 days. 425 B76 9-835, X-780, 9-835, DGRBM 1-371, 3-856, 1307, IDB 1-241, anan     424 late CAH 6-49, ISBE 1-306, OCD 4, OHG, IDB 4-922, MCAW 132, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-187, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP     423 HCC, bihi, bivu
c.424 King of Medo-Persia 45 days, XERXES-II killed in a drunken party by half-bro son of a concubine of Artaxerxes-I, SOGDIANUS, who succeeds. 424 B76 9-835, Grim, IDB 4-922, LEWH 53, MNHK, MRDK, OCD 313, RAI2, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, WPOT 327, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP
423 HCC, OCD 4, hifiE, hifiP, wikP
c.423 King of Medo-Persia, SOGDIANUS murdered by bro, either Ochus or Darius.  A son of Artaxerxes-I and a Babylonian concubine DARIUS-II NOTHUS succeeds to 404. 424 LEWH 53, OHG
423 BNTH 1, IDB 1-770, OCD 4, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.419 Cuneiform HOROSCOPE at Babylon is the oldest record of Zodiac signs. 419 B76 2-227 410-01 TTS
c.410 Capital of Medo-Persia, Susa from ?, moved to Babylon. guess
c.405 CYRUS, son of Darius-II, commander of Anatolia from 407, summoned back to court because of father's illness. 405 DGRBM 1-924, 3-1155, LEWH 74
c.404 DARIS-II NOTHUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Egypt from 423 dies of illness in Babylon.  Son ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON succeeds to 359. 405 BNTH 1, GHH, Grim, MNHK, OCD 313, RAI3, Shaw, TToH, anan, frN     404 B76 9-835, CDCC 88, DGRBM 1-924, HCC, IDB 1-241, 770, Jud 3-647, LEWH 53, MCAW 143, OCD 4, 126, OHG, RAI2, Sdl 5-202, SOTS 247, WPOT 96, 329, bihi, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP
c.404 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria, goes to Babylon, accuses CYRUS, son of Darius-II, of plotting murder of Artaxerxes-II.  Because of his pleading mother, Parysatis, Cyrus is forgiven, and restored to command in Anatolia. 405 DGRBM 3-1155
404 B76 III-330, 9-836,
DGRBM 1-924,
LEWH 74, OCD 308
c.404 TISSAPHERNES and CYRUS return to Anatolia. 405 DGRBM 3-1155
c.403 MURASHU family of bankers at Nippur from 455 ends. 404 CAH 6-234     403 RAI3 411
c.401 Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria arrives in Babylon, announces revolt of CYRUSStatira, wife of Artaxerxes-II is loudest in opposition to queen-mother Parysatis, mother of Cyrus. 401 DGRBM 3-900, OCD 308, 1079, lvA
c.401 CLEARCHOS, Spartan mercenary commander of right wing for Cyrus at Cunaxa, defeats Thracian mercenaries working for Artaxerxes. 401 wikCS, wikθW
c.401 ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON king of Medo-Persia 404-359 defeats rebelious bro CYRUS, satrap of Anatolia, at CUNAXA 70km northwest of Babylon.  Cyrus is killed in battle. 401 B76 III-294, 9-836, mid CAH 6, CDCC 252, Dur 2-244, IDB 1-241, LEWH 53, 76, MCAW 142, OCD 301, OHG, TTPC, bk, lvG, wikCun     400 GHH
c.401 PeltaPELTASTS first mentioned by Xenophon at battle of Cunaxa.  Originally Thracian mercenaries, armed with 3 javelins and a pelta (crescent shaped shield).  Later any troops with these armaments will be called peltasts. 401 wikPl
c.401 Queen-mother Parysatis, mother of Cyrus, even now urges clemency for the former followers and mercenaries of Cyrus. 401 DGRBM 3-900
c.401 Greek mercenaries offer to put ARIAEOS, lieutenant of Cyrus on Persian throne.  Ariaeos wisely declines, accompanies the Greeks westward, then secretly negotiates with Artaxerxes-II, abandons the Greeks, and helps deliver Greek generals to the Persians. 400 DGRBM 1-283
c.401 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria 408-395, appointed satrap of all Anatolia by Artaxerxes-II. 400 MCAW 144, OCD 308, 1079
c.401 CLEARCHOS, Spartan mercenary commander for Cyrus from 403, holds troops together after Cunaxa, arrested at a conference with Tissaphernes, delivered to Artaxerxes-II, executed.  Athenian mercenary, XENOPHON is elected to replace him. 401 DGRBM 3-900/1, LEWH 76, MCAW 142, OCD 248, RAI2 343, wikCun
c.401 TISSAPHERNES, satrap of Caria 408-395, in Babylon at court of Artaxerxes-II, given satrapy of Lydia also until 395, returns to Anatolia. 401 OCD 308, 1079, lvA, rcT
c.401 Athenian XENOPHON and 10,000 Greek mercenaries Begin retreat westward. 400 GHH
c.400 STATIRA, wife of Artaxerxes-II, poisoned by queen-mother Parysatis.  Artaxerxes-II does not punish his mother Parysatis, but executes her maid Gigis, who had been her accomplice. 400 wikStt
no date: DGRBM 3-901
c.400 KIDINNU (Kidinu, Kidinas), Chaldean astronomer, mathematician, flourishes.  Discovers procession of equinoxes, slow rotation of Earth axis which causes fluxuation in year length.  Known only by what later people said of him. 480 aleph
400-300 wikKdn 379 B76 V-800
c.400 CTESIAS of Knidos, Greek geographer, physician to Artaxerxes-II, writes  Persica , history of Assyria & Persia down to 398 in 23 books, in Ionic dialect, professedly founded on Persian royal archives.
Writes  Indica , records beliefs of Persians about India, includes much fable.
Both works regarded as unreliable.
OCD 463 no date: wikC
c.395 TISSAPHERNES dies.  Satrap of Caria from 408, loses satrapy, returns to Babylon, executed by Artaxerxes-II at instigation of his mother Parysatis. 395 B76 X-6, Dur 2-752, OCD 1079
c.380 Λ Babylonian Calendar V calculated by Kidinu to a near perfect lunisolar cycle of 19 years.  Each year has 12 months, but 7 extra months are inserted at regular intervals in the cycle.
(See Chinese 444, Zoroastrian 441, Metonic 432, Mayan 400, Eudoxos 370, Roman 304)
B76 V-800 380
B76 I-710, 3-605
c.369 Troops are sent on a campaign to Razaunda, evidently in Media. Apr 369 CAH 6-239
c.367 Royal forces are engaged in battle at an uncertain location. May-Jun 367 CAH 6-239
c.359 ARTAXERXES-II MNEMON dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Babylonia from 404 dies.  Son Ochus returns from west.  ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS succeeds to 338.  He starts murdering relatives and causes revolts, delaying his actual reign until 354. 359 B76 9-835, CDCC 88, Grim,
IDB 1-241, Jud 3-647, MNHK, OCD 4, RAI3, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, bihi, frN, hifiE, hifiP     358 LEWH 53, MCAW 158, OCD 126, Sdl 5-202, WPOT 330, anan, KoP, taP, wikP
c.350 BARAIAH ben Shemaya-I, Exilarch from ?, ends.  Bro NEARIAH succeeds to 325. 350 hawa
c.345 A chronicle fragment alludes to Artaxerxes-III's suppression of a rebellion in Phoenicia, recording the arrival of prisoners from Sidon at the king's palace in Babylon.  No Babylonian corroboration is available. fall 345
CAH 6-239
c.338 ARTAXERXES-III OCHUS dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Babylonia from 359, poisoned by physician on orders of eunuch vizier Bagoas.  Most of his family are also killed.  Youngest son ARSES succeeds as a puppet of Bagoas until 336. 338 B76 9-836, CDCC 88, IDB 1-241, LEWH 53, MCAW 166, MNHK, OCD 4, 126, OHG, RAI3, Sdl 5-202, Shaw, SOTS 247, TToH, WPOT 330, anan, frN, bihi, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, lvA, taP, wikP
c.336 MAZDAI satrap of Cilicia from 361, leaves to become governor of Babylon until 331. 336 rcT
c.336 ARSES dies.  King of Medo-Persia and Babylonia from 338 poisoned by eunuch Bagoas, who engineers succession of his 45 year old cousin Artashata, a former satrap of Armenia, who succeeds as DARIUS-III CODOMANNUS to 330. 336 B76 9-836, BNTH 1, IDB 1-770, Jud 5-1304, LEWH 53, MCAW 166, MNHK, OCD 4, RAH, Shaw, frN, hifiE, hifiP, KoP, taP, wikP   335 OHG, RAI3
c.333 DARIUS-III in Babylon gathers a formidable army, including 30,000 Greek mercenaries!  He also mobilizes all Persis and Media. 333
CAH 6-805
c.333 DARIUS-III begins march northwest.  Hampered by a baggage train with treasure and his harem, he goes to Thapsacos on the Euphrates. mid 333
CAH 6-805
c.333 Possibly in effort to keep his treasure safe and accessible, DARIUS-III puts it and his women under the care of Cophen, son of satrap Artabazus and sends it to Damascus. 333 DGRBM 1-850
333 Nov 5 ISSUS
c.333 DARIUS-III leaves his family and dependents at Issus, flees to Babylon. 333 B76 8-374, TTPC 22
c.333 DARIUS-III at Babylon sends letter offering to cede everything west of EuphratesAlex-III, now at Tyre, demands unconditional surrender. 333 B76 1-469, LEWH 79, RAH 331
c.332 MARI, under Medo-Persia from 539, comes under Macedonia until 323. 332 rcS
c.331 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Persia from 550, comes under Macedonia until 312. 331 rcM
Sep 20
LUNAR ECLIPSE occurs as ALEX-III approaches Nineveh.  Interpreted as a bad omen for Darius. 331 Sep 20 MCAW 167, lvLx, hbar, nasaS
331 Sep. ALEX-III marches from Syria down Tigris to Gaugamela, Darius' chosen battle ground. 331 lvLx
331 Oct ATROPATES, satrap of Media commands Medes, Cadusii, Albani, and Sacesinae at Gaugamela. 331 DGRBM 1-408
331 Oct. ALEX-III defeats DARIUS-III (using 15 Indian elephants) at GAUGAMELA between Tigris and Upper Zab Rivers, 100km west of Erbil, for which the battle is often wrongly called the Battle of Arbela.  Darius flees to Erbil (Arbela). Oct 1, 331 B76 III-380, 8-375, CAH 6-813-15, CHJ 2-42, 117, DGRBM 1-120, GHH, IDB 2-83, ISBE 3-778, LEWH 79, RAH 335, RAI3 412, lvG     331 B76 I-470, 8-375, BCoC 411, CDCC 129, 307, 381, CHJ 2, Dur 2-458, LEWH 53, MCAW 168, OHG 366, RAI2 345, bk, KoP, lvLx, wikLx, wikP
331 Oct Phrataphernes, Achaemenid governor of Parthia remains loyal to Darius-I. 331 wikPr
331 Oct ALEX-III goes to Erbil (Arbela), siezes much Persian treasure.  Darius with his royal guard, the surviving Greek mercenaries and Bactrian cavalry under Bessus, escapes to Ecbatana Media with Atropates satrap of Media.  The rest of the survivors disperse, most falling back to Babylon with Mazaeus. 331 B76 8-375, CAH 6-815, IDB 2-478, LEWH 79, RAH 335, hmLx, lvLx
331 Oct ALEX-III chases the largest group south, (possibly not knowing that Darius is going to Ecbatana) from Arbela to Sippar, says he would spare the houses of the Babylonians. 331
CAH 6-815, lvLx
c.331 Another ALEXANDRIA founded. 331 B76 I-227
c.331 STATEIRA, sis/wife of Darius-III in camp of Alex-III, dies.  Alex gives her a great funeral, and sends an envoy to inform Darius-III, who offers their dau, also named Stateira, to Alex as a wife, thereby bequeathing his kingdom to Alex. before Arbela 331 DGRBM 3-901
no date: B76 8-374
c.331 A community of Carian deportees from 200 years before is discovered near Nippur by Macedonians. 331 E2LM 5
c.331 ALEX-III goes from Sippar to Babylon. 331 B76 I-470, CAH 6-815,
Dur 2-458, ISBE 1-390, MCAW 168, lvLx, wikLx
c.331 BABYLON, under Persian satrap Mazdai from 336, surrenders to ALEX-III, who enters unopposed.  Mazdai is called Mazaios and reappointed Macedonian satrap until 328.  Babylon is under Macedonians until 245.
Hellenistic period begins in Babylonia until 129.
331 B76 I-470, Oct 20 CAH 6-815, Dur 2-458, ISBE 1-390, Jud 4-36, LEWH 79, MCAW 168, OCD 157, OHG, RAI2 340, hmLx, lvLx
obvious typo 321 CDCC 117
c.331 BAGOPHANES, commander of the citadel at Babylon, surrenders it with all treasures to Alex-III. 331 DGRBM 1-454
c.331 ALEX-III sacrifices to Bel-Marduk, and is invested as king of Babylon. 331
CAH 6-815
c.331 Λ ASTRONOMICAL diary of the Esagila (temple of Marduk in Babylon), discovered by Macedonians.  Its more accurate Λ  Babylonian Calendar  V is recognized by Macedonian scholars.   (Astronomy: see China 350, Heraclides 338, Callipos 330, Autolicos 320) 331 lvLx
c.331 ALEX-III begins reconstruction of BABYLON. 331 Sdl 1-437
c.331 ALEX-III orders restoration of Marduk temples. 331 B76 11-989
c.331 HARPALUS, childhood friend and present paymaster of ALEX-III, cripple, entrusted with treasury at Babylon until 325. 331
OCD 488
c.331 Macedonian reinforcements arrive at Babylon. 331 lvLx
c.331 RESEN (called Larissa by Xenophon) on southeast Tigris, under Persia from 539, comes under Macedon until 312. 331 rcM
c.331 ALEX-III leaves Babylon for Susa. 331 B76 8-375, CAH 6-815, MCAW 168, Sdl 1-437, hmLx, lvLx, lxtl, wikLx
c.330 PARMENIO remains at Ecbatana when Alex-III moves east. 330 OCD 782, RAH 338
c.330 ALEX-III invades MEDIA. 330 wikMd
c.330 DARIUS-III dies.
c.330 Λ ARAMAIC LANGUAGE is gaining ground because of the importance of Aramaic in Persian imperial administration and commercial contacts. 330 CHJ 2-111
c.328 ATROPATES, former general of Darius-III made satrap of Media by Alex-III. 328 wikMd
c.328 MAZDAI, Persian governor of Babylon from 336, under Alex-III from 331, dies. 328 rcT
c.327 HARPALUS, treasurer of Alex-III at Babylon 331-25, begins gross extravagance and misappropriation of funds. 327
OCD 489
c.325 NEARIAH ben Shemaya-I, Exilarch from 350, ends.  Bro SHAPHAT succeeds and ends.  ELIOENAI ben Neariah succeeds until ?. 325 hawa
c.325 Much gold, which Alex-III took from India, arrives in Babylon.  Some is used to make a crown for Marduk. Aug 325 lvLx
c.325 HARPALUS, treasurer of Alex-III at Babylon from 331, corrupt from 327, learns that Alex is returning, flees west with 5,000 talents and 6,000 mercenaries. 325 B76 1-471, DGRBM 1-986, lxtl
c.324 OPIS, Babylonian city on Tigris, under Alex-III from ?, troops rebel. 324 CAH 6, fall wikOp
c.323 spring ALEX-III, in Persia from 324, returns to Babylon, meets delegations from various states on the borders of his empire wondering what he plans to conquer next.  Alex begins plans to make Babylon his new capital and to explore and colonize Arabia and Caspian area. 324 DGRBM 1-122 323 BCoC 413, CAH 6, MCAW 172, RAH 347
c.323 body of HEPHAESTION given a 10,000 talent funeral at Babylon. no date: DGRBM 2-383
c.323 PEUCESTAS, with 20,000 Persian troops, joins Alex-III at Babylon.  323 wikPc
c.323 CASSANDER son of Antipater joins Alex-III at Babylon.  They dislike each other, because Alex had ordered Antipater to appear in person. 324 OCD 210
323 lxtl, wikCas
no date: hwD
c.323 CRATERUS is sent west by Alex-III for Europe at the head of returning veterans.  He has secret orders from Alex to replace Antipater. 323
CAH 7.1-27
c.323 MENANDER, satrap of Lydia 331-21, summoned by Alex-III to conduct reinforcements to Babylon, Arrives before Alex' illness. 323 DGRBM 2-1030
c.323 Reinforcements from Caria under PHILOXENOS arrives at Babylon before Alex' illness. 323 DGRBM 3-331
c.323 Alex-III explores Pallacopas Canal; takes a boat-trip thru the marshes. 323 lxtl
323 Jun ALEX-III dies, age 32 in palace of Nebuchadrezzar in Babylon.  Gets fever after long banquet and drinking bout, leaving wife from 327 ROXANA pregnant with a son.  Macedonian officers, championed by general Perdiccas, want to make Roxana's unborn child ruler (if it is male).  PTOLEMY advocates collective leadership.  The army, championed by general Meleager, prefers a Macedonian, the imbecile son of Philip-II, PHILIP-III Arrhidaeos, also present at Babylon.  Generals MELEAGER and PERDICCAS vie for power.  Meleager supported by the army, favors Arrhidaeos.  Perdiccas favors Roxana's unborn child if it is male.  It is decided that PHILIP-III Arrhidaeos will rule under regent Perdiccas, whose disputed regency lasts until 321.
News travels quickly to Macedonia, Anatolia,
Jun 323 BCoC 418, BI+N 122, CAH 6, 7.1, CDCC 847, CHJ 2-44,
DGRBM 1-122, 3-186, Dur 2-551, GHH, LEWH 79,88, OCD 39, 157, 799, OHG, RAH 348,
RAI3 413, SHWC 87, lvLx, lxtl, wikArg, wikArrh, wikLx, wikPrd, wikPT, wikWD
at Ecbatana: CDCC 34
323 It is first decided to send the body to Siwah Egypt, where the sanctuary of Ammon is, but this is revised during a delay of nearly 2 years while an elaborate funeral carriage is built. 323
CAH 6-845
323 PERDICCAS party includes:  Attalos - husband of his sis Atlante. 323 DGRBM 1-409
323 Generals ANTIPATER, ANTIGONUS, CRATERUS, and PTOLEMY refuse to accept Philip Arrhidaeos or regent Perdiccas. 323
323 General MELEAGER dies.  Leader of the anti-Perdiccas party, executed by order of Perdiccas. 323 GHH, lvG, lvLx, wikMlg


SATRAPS at death of Alex-III:
Antipater:  Macedon & Greece, also Epirus if he can take it
Antipater or Philo (disputed): Illyria
Lysimachus:  Thrace
Asander:  Cardia
Leonnatus:  Hellespontine Phyrgia
AntigonusGreater Phyrgia (& Pamphylia? (disputed))
Cassander son of AntipaterCaria
Nearchus:  Lycia (& Pamphylia? (disputed))
Menander:  continues in Lydia 331-21
Philotas:  continues in Cilicia 328-21
Eumenes of Cardia:  Cappadocia & Paphlagonia (both unconquered)
Ptolemy:  Egypt
Laomedon:  Syria until 319, Palestine until 320
Neoptolemus or Phratraphernes, until now governor of Parthia, gets Armenia.
Peucestas:  Babylonia to 321
Arcesilas:  north Mesopotamia
Peithon:  Media to 317
Peithon son of Agenor:  Gandhara
Peucestas or Tlepolemus (disputed):  Persia
Neoptolemus or Tlepolemus (disputed):  Carmania
Nicanor:  Parthia
Antigenes:  Susiana
Philip or Phratraphernes (disputed):  Hyrcania
Philip or Scythaeus (disputed):  Sogdiana
Stasanor:  Aria & Drangiana until 321
Sibyrtius:  Arachosia & Gedrosia
Amyntas:  Bactria
B76 8-376, CAH 7.1, DGRBM 3-329, 358, 899,
OCD 415, hwD, wikPr, wikPT, wikPthn, wikWD
c.323 MARI, under Macedonia from 332, comes under Antigonus until 301. 323 rcS
323 ALEXANDER-IV born to Roxana.  A joint rule with PHILIP-III Arrhidaeos is established under regency of CRATERUS.  PERDICCAS is declared Grand vizir of Asia (Anatolia to India). 323 B76 8-376, DGRBM 1-122, GHH, OCD 815
no date: LEWH 79
c.323 Seleucus, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Peithon, and Eumenes, become partisans of PerdiccasSeleucus until 321. 323 B76 16-503, wikSlc
c.323 Thracian general EUMENES of Cardia, former secretary of Alex-III, commands Greek soldiers fighting for Alex-III's son, Alexander-IV. 323 wikEum
c.323 Veterans who had been forced by Alex to live in eastern satrapies, decide to fight a way back to Europe.  They are defeated by Peithon, newly appointed satrap of Media. 321 lvLx
323/2 BARSINE, dau of Darius-III, wife of Alex-III 324, murdered by Perdiccas for fear she might produce a son to compete with that of Roxana. 323/2
DGRBM 1-464
c.322 Body of Alex-III, in Babylon from 323, sent west by Perdiccas, bound for a tomb that had been prepared at Aegae in Macedonia's religious capital, Aegae. Dec 322 lvLx
c.322 PERDICCAS settles affairs in Babylonia, goes from Babylon for Anatolia. 322 CAH 7.1-32 321 atl4
322 Victory coin "Victory coin" of Alex-III, minted in Babylon, following his campaigns in Bactria and the Indus Valley.  Obverse: Alexander being crowned by Nike.  Reverse: Alexander attacking king Porus on his elephant. photo PHGCOM

c.321 Treaty of TRIPARADISUS in North Syria appoints satraps, in effort to hold the empire together.
c.321 Peucestas, Macedonian satrap of Babylonia from 323, replaced by SELEUCUS until 316.  Seleucus supports Antigonus against Eumenes. 321 IDB 4-266, ISBE 4-385, OCD 971
321/0 BHS 1-247
320 CDCC 804, frH
c.318 SELEUCUS forces Babylonians to pay for upkeep of his army. 318 atl4
c.318 EUMENES marches east, crosses Tigris despite opposition from Seleucus and Pithon, camps 34 miles from Babylon. 318 atl4
317 BHS 1-44
c.318 Seleucus tries in vain to get the SILVER SHIELDS to desert from Eumenes. 317 BHS 1-45
c.318 Babylon taken by Eumenes until 317. 318 MCAW 174
c.317 Antigonus arrives at Babylon, joins Seleucus and Pithon. 317 BHS 1-45
c.317 Babylon taken (by diverting the Euphrates) by Antigonus, Seleucus and Pithon. 317 MCAW 174, atl4
c.317 EUDEMOS, takes 3,500 men and 125 elephants to support Eumenes against Antigonus. 317 DGRBM 2-76
c.317/6 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus winters in Media. 317/6 BHS 1-46
c.316 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus, now technically ruling everything from Anatolia to Bactria, goes from Susa to Babylon, orders SELEUCUS satrap of Babylonia 321-16 receives him as overlord with all due honors. 316 B76 16-503, wikAntg
315 B76 8-377, atl4, lvD
c.316 PITHON, son of Craterus, satrap of Media from 323, rebels against Antigonus-IMeleager joins Pithon. 316 DGRBM 2-1017
c.316 HIPPOSTRATOS, general of Antigonus-I Monophthalmus, appointed to command army left by Antigonus in Media. after Eumenes dies: DGRBM 2-495
c.316 PITHON, son of Agenor, newly ousted from India, appointed governor of Babylonia by Antigonus until 314. 316 DGRBM 3-378
CONFUSION ALERT!  Sources confuse PITHON, son of Agenor d.312, and son of Craterus d.314.
c.316 HIPPOSTRATOS, general of Antigonus-I Monophthalmus in Media, attacked by Meleager, Menoetas, and others of the party of Pithon, son of CraterusHippostratos and Orontobates repulse them and suppress the insurrection. 316 DGRBM 2-1176
after Eumenes dies: DGRBM 2-495, 1017
c.316 SELEUCUS satrap of Babylonia from 321, called to account by Antigonus for all income from his satrapy, flees until 312, with 50 men to Egypt, finds refuge with Ptolemy. 316 B76 16-503, BI+N 124, DGRBM 3-771, IDB 4-266, ISBE 4-385, OCD 971, RAI2 346, RAI3 413, frH     315 B76 8-377, CAH 7.1-46, CDCC 804, 857, GHH
c.315 3rd War of the Diadochi begins until 311.
CASSANDER, PTOLEMY, and LYSIMACHUS fight ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus until 311.
315 OCD 69, frH, lvD
314 lvD, lvG, wikWD
c.314 PITHON, son of Craterus dies.  Invited to a friendly conference by Antigonus-I Monophthalmus and executed for suspicion of treachery.  Antigonus now puts Media under a local satrap and a Macedonian army commander. 316 BHS 1-47, atl4     315 GHH
314 wikPθ
c.314 PITHON, son of Agenor, governor of Babylonia for Antigonus from 316, recalled to join a council of experienced officers to mentor his son Demetrius, with whom Pithon remains until death 312. 314 DGRBM 3-378
c.312 SELEUCUS, helped by Ptolemy marches from Levant with only 800 inf and 200 cav, joined by reinforcements in Carrhae (Haran), 312 B76 8-377, 11-989, 16-503, BHS 1-53, 251, BI+N 124, CAH 7.1-211, CDCC 804, CHJ 2-47, DGRBM 3-771, GHH, ISBE 4-385, OCD 69, 971, OHG, RAI3 413, wikAntg
Apr-Jun 311 atl4, frH, lvD
enters Babylonia, receives popular support, occupies Babylon with little opposition.  Antigonid governor Diphilus holds out in a palace citadel, but soon falls to assault.  Seleucus controls eastern satrapies until 281.
c.312 SELEUCID PERIOD of Syria / Babylonia begins until 141. 312 B76 8-377, 16-503, CDCC 804, Dur 2-555, ISBE 4-385, OCD 69, 971, lvA, wikAntg     May-Jun 311 atl4, lvD
c.312 GORDYENE (Karkha), region between Armenia and Mesopotamia, under Macedonia from 331, comes under Seleucids until 141. 312 rcM
c.312 PATROCLES becomes Seleucid governor of Babylon until ?. 312 DGRBM 3-139, OCD 790
c.312 HIPPOSTRATOS, general of Antigonus-I Monophthalmus in charge of Media from 316, succeeded by NICANOR. no date:
DGRBM 2-495
c.312 SELEUCIA on the Tigris founded by Seleucus Nicator as capital of his empire.  Lasts until 165CE. 312 CAH 7.1, IDB 4-263, ISBE 4-385, OCD 971
311 atl4     305 MCAW 179
c.312 RESEN (called Larissa by Xenophon) on southeast Tigris, under Macedon from 331, comes under Seleucids until 141. 312 rcM
c.311 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus recognized as satrap of Babylon. Jun 311 lvD
c.311 Nicanor, Antigonus' satrap of Media, and Euagoras satrap of Aria, with 10,000 inf and 7,000 cav, march on Babylon, but Seleucus, with 3,000 inf and 400 cav, surprises them near the TigrisEuagoras is killed in battle.  His men go over to SeleucusNicanor flees to the desert with only a few men, and returns to Media. Jun 311 lvD
no date: BHS 1-54
c.311 SELEUCUS-I gains complete control of Babylonia. 311 atl4
c.311 SELEUCIA on the Tigris becomes Seleucid capital until 300. 311 CAH 7.1-179
c.311 PATROCLES left by Seleucus-I in charge of Babylon. 311 BHS 1-55
c.311 MEDIA, under Antigonus-I Monophthalmus from ?, taken by SELEUCUS-I until ?, under Seleucids until 147. 311 lvD 310 wikMd
c.311 Λ BABYLONIAN CALENDAR revised. 1st continuous numerical dating system originated.  Supercedes Olympic dating. 311 RAI2 346 no date: lvCB, wikBC
c.311 3rd War of the Diadochi from 315 ends with attempted settlement:  Cassander, Lysimachus, & Ptolemy-I agree on status quo with ANTIGONUS-I (now fully controling Anatolia), except that Seleucus is not mentioned.  This allows Antigonus-I to continue fighting SELEUCUS over Syria and Mesopotamia, Cassander to secure Macedonia until 306, and Ptolemy-I to continue expanding in the AegeanBoy king Alexander, son of Alex-III & Roxane, would rule the entire empire when he comes of age, in 305.  Uneasy peace lasts in west until 307. 311
B76 8-377, 16-503, LEWH 90, MCAW 174, OHG, anan, hifi, lvD
c.311 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I, given 15,000 inf and 4,000 cav, sent to Babylon.  Patrocles evaccuates the city except for 2 palaces, sends envoy to tell SeleucusDemetrius takes the palaces, pillages the country, and leaves for Media. 311 BHS 1-55-6
c.310 DEMETRIUS, son of Antigonus-I, arrives in Media to counter Seleucus. Aug 310 lvD
c.310 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus resumes attack on Babylon while Seleucus is still in Media, takes one of two citadels, but is unable to capture all buildings he needs.  He remains until 309. 310 LEWH 93,
MCAW 178, OCD 69, lvBW, lvD, wikWD
c.309 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus leaves one Archelaus as satrap of Babylon to take the other citadel.  Antigonus leaves and keeps fighting Seleucid allies in the countryside until after 10 April. Mar 309
lvD, wikWD
c.309 SELEUCUS attacks ANTIGONUS before dawn, and defeats him. Mar 309 lvBW
c.308 ANTIGONUS-I Monophthalmus makes peace with SELEUCUS, and goes west, leaving all eastern provinces to Seleucus. 309 atl4, lvBW     309/8 CAH 7.1-50 308 lvD     307 MCAW 178
c.306 Antigonus-I in Syria assumes royal title for himself and his son DEMETRIUS-I Poliorcetes.  Therefore the following do likewise:  PTOLEMY-I, SELEUCUS, LYSIMACHUSCASSANDER refrains temporarily. 307 LEWH 90     306 B76 8-378, CDCC 52, 266, 537, DGRBM 3-771, MCAW 178, OCD 69, 632, anan, hifi, hwD, wikAntg
c.305 SELEUCUS, ruler of Babylon from 312, Persia 309-281, claims kingship of Babylonia retroactive to 312.  Rules until 281. 305 B76 8-378, 16-503, ISBE 4-385, LEWH 93, RAI3, frH
c.304 ERASISTRATOS, younger colleague of Herophilos at Alexandria, becomes court physician to Seleucus-I. no date: wikErs
c.304 Book of DANIEL 1-6 alledgedly written in Babylon. 304 Jud 5-1283
c.302 CASSANDER initiates a coalition against AntigonusLysimachus, Seleucus-I, and Ptolemy-I join. 302 DGRBM 2-868, 3-583, 771, atl4
c.302 Seleucus returns to the west.  Antigonus tries to delay him by sending an army to Babylonia, but Seleucus ignores it, knowing that the decisive battle would be against Antigonus himself. no date: lvD

RESULT of IPSUS:  Kingdom of Antigonus-I Monophthalamus is split up.
LYSIMACHUS in Thrace receives eastern Aegean, north and central Anatolia.
Demetrius delivers his wife's bro PYRRHUS of Epirus as a hostage to Egypt.
PLEISTARCHUS, bro of Cassander, gets Lycia and Cilicia until 299.
SELEUCUS-I Nicator gets Syro-Palestine, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Persia as far as Sogdiana and Bactria.
CASSANDER is king of Macedonia, and is declared king of Greece, but DEMETRIUS Poliorcetes holds a fleet, Peloponnese, Aegean islands, Cyprus, Tyre, and some cities in Anatolia.
PTOLEMY gets Cyrenaica, Egypt, south Palestine, coastal Syria, and some parts of Lycia and Pisidia.
North Cappadocia goes to Ariarathes.
B76 8-378, ISBE 4-385, MCAW 183, OCD 69, 632, 1031, MRDK, RAH 378, anan, lvD, rcT
300 lvG
c.301 SELEUCUS, ruler of Babylonia, after Ipsus, gains access to Mediterranean thru Syria. 301 OCD 971
c.301 MARI, under Antigonus from 323, comes under Seleucids until 141. 301 rcS

Mesopotamia 300-201