bk    hifiC    lvG    lvS    rcSI    wikAg    wikDS 

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c.500 SARDINIA invaded by Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians. 500 TToH
c.500 SARDINIA annexed by Carthage, but its interior is not pacified.  under Carthage until 238. 500 OCD 952
c.500 Carthaginians become main power in west Mediterranean until 241, but are 2nd to Greeks in east Mediterranean. by 500 SHWC 53
c.500 Spartan colony at Mt. Eryx 510, overcome and destroyed by combined forces of Carthage, Segesta, and Phoenicia. no date: B76 8-346, MWΦ 196
c.500 Ionian Greeks of Miletos and Samos, oppressed by Persians, begin migrating to ZANCLE. 500 B76 VI-824
c.500 CATANA, on east coast of Sicily, under oligarchy from 729, no longer under oligarchy. 500 rcSI
c.498 CLEANDROS tyrant of Gela from 505, murdered by a Gellan named Sabyllus.  Bro HIPPOCRATES succeeds until 491. 498 CAH 4, DGRBM 1-778, 2-480, DGRG 1-984, GRG 237, 326, OCD 518, lvG, rcSI
497 GHH
c.496 HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela, campaigns in east Sicily until 495. 496 CAH 4
c.495 CAMARINA, desolate from 553, refounded and colonized by Hippocrates of Gela, who obtained it by treaty with Syracuse. 498 GHH
DGRG 1-486
c.495 SYRACUSE:  The gamoroi (land owning aristocrats) are overthrown by the demonata (alliance of plebs and enslaved Sicels) until 485. 497 GHH
495 Dur 2-172
c.495/4 NAXOS Sicily, Chalcidian city from 734, taken by HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela. 495/4 OCD 725
c.494 LEONTINI Sicily, Chalcidian city from 729, taken by HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela, under Gela until 466. 498 DGRG 2-158
495 rcSI
494 OCD 596
c.494 SYRACUSE, Corinthian city from 734, about to be destroyed by HIPPOCRATES, tyrant of Gela, is rescued by Corinthians. 494
MCAW 104
c.494 DIONYSIUS of Phocaea attacks Etruscan and Carthaginian shipping from north Sicily. 494 CAH 7.2
c.494 Refugees from Samos & Miletos are invited by Greeks of Zancle to colonize Calacte on north coast of Sicily. 494 DGRBM 3-762, DGRG 1-475
c.494 Scythes engages in hostilities against the Sicels, and the Samians are persuaded by Anaxilas of Rhegium to take advantage of his absence, and occupy Zancle. 494 DGRBM 3-762
c.494 Refugees from Samos & Miletos arrive at Locri. 494 DGRBM 3-762
c.493 ZANCLE Sicily, under tyrant Cadmos from ?, siezed by Samian refugees.  SCYTHES becomes tyrant of Zancle until 490. 497 DGRBM 1-525
494 DGRBM 3-762
493 CAH 7.2     494-89 CAH 4
c.492 L. Geganius Macerinus, bro of consul Macerinus, is sent from Rome to Sicily to get grain. 492 DGRBM 2-884
492/1 SYRACUSE, under oligarchy 734-485, besieged by Hippocrates tyrant of Gela, who defeats Syracusans at Helorus river. 492 CAH 4 492/1 lvG
c.491 CAMERINA Sicily annexed by Hippocrates of Gela. 491 CAH 4
c.491 HIPPOCRATES tyrant of Gela from 498, killed besieging Sicel town of Hybla on south slope of Mt. Etna.  Sons Cleander and Eucleides succeed under regency of cavalry commander GELON until 490. 491 B76 8-352, CAH 4, DGRBM 2-480, DGRG 1-984, MCAW 104, OHG, rcSI     491/0 GRG 326, OCD 460, 518, lvG, lvS
c.491 The GAMOROI (conservative land owners) expelled from Syracuse, appeal to Gelon for help. 497 GHH
491 CAH 4
c.491 Corinth mediates between Gela and Syracuse. 491 OCD 290
c.491 ERGETIUM in the plain of Catana besieged. 491 CAH 4
c.491 GELON of Gela sends famine relief grain to Rome. 491 SORH
c.490 Massilia Gaul defeats Cathaginian fleet off Cape Nao. 490 CAH 7.2
c.490 ZANCLE Sicily, under Samian refugees from 493, siezed by ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium.  Samians in Zancle, having made a pact with Hippocrates of Gela, are expelled by Anaxilas, who replaces them with other Greek colonists, mainly Messenians.  Therefore its name is changed to Messene, which is corrupted to MESSANA.  Under Rhegium until 461. 490 rcSI
OCD 61, 675
489 CAH 4, 7.2
no date:
B76 VI-824
c.490 SCYTHES tyrant of Zancle from 493, flees to Himera, thence to Anatolia. 490 DGRG 1-1065
no date: DGRBM 3-763
c.490 GELON, regent of Gela 490, dispossesses Cleander and Eucleides, sons of Hippocrates, becomes master of Gela and its holdings, but not its tyrant until 485. 491 DGRBM 1-778, 2-236, wikG
490 OCD 460
c.490 GELON of Gela and Syracuse fights Carthaginians in Sicily until 486. 490 CAH 7.2
c.489 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium allies with Terillus of Himera. 489 CAH 7.2
c.488 ACRAGAS Sicily, under Aristocratic Republic from 510, comes under tyrant THERON-II until 472, under tyranny until 409. 489 CAH 4     488 B76 8-352, DGRG 1-75, Dur 2-66, LEWH 71, MCAW 108, OCD 1061, rcSI
c.485 SYRACUSE, under Corinthian oligarchy from 734, taken with little resistance by GELON of Gela, in behalf of the gamoroi (aristocrats exiled in 495).  Gelon becomes tyrant of Syracuse until 478. 491 bk, rcSI     485 ISBE 4-686, brit, DGRBM 2-236, GHH, TToH, wikG
c.485 GELON, regent of Gela from 491/0, becomes tyrant of Gela until 478. 485 CAH 5, DGRG 1-984, Dur 2-172, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 108
c.485 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78, leaves bro HIERON in charge of Gela, moves to Syracuse. 485 DGRBM 2-236, Dur 2-66 LEWH 71, MRDK, OCD 460
c.485 Comedian EPICHARMUS of Cos, in Megara from ?, moves to Syracuse. 485 Dur 2-420 483 GHH
c.485 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78, transfers inhabitants of Camarina to Syracuse. 485 DGRG 1-486
c.484 CAMARINA, under Gela from 495, destroyed until 461 by GELON tyrant of Syracuse and Gela. 484 DGRG 1-486, OCD 198
c.483 MEGARA Sicily, under Greeks from 728, destroyed by GELON tyrant of Gela and Syracuse. 483 CAH 7.2, OCD 665
c.483 Depopulation of Gela, Camarina, Megara Hyblaea. 483 CAH 4
c.483 TERILLUS tyrant of Himera from ?, expelled by THERON tyrant of Acragas (ally of Syracuse).  HIMERA under Acragas until 461. 483 CAH 4, 7.2, CDCC 426, LEWH 71, OCD 1061     482 DGRBM 3-1098     481 DGRG 1-537
no date: OCD 515-6
c.481 Athenian envoys ask GELON tyrant of Syracuse for aid in upcoming war against Persians.  Gelon promises 28,000 men and 200 ships if he is appointed commander of either the Greek navy or army.  Athenians refuse. 481
CAH 4, wikG
c.480 TERILLUS, tyrant of Himera Sicily, asks Carthage for help. 480 LEWH 71, OCD 1061
c.480 HAMILCAR-I, 3rd Magonid ruler of Carthage 510-480, with 300,000 (disputed) men including many mercenaries with the professed object of restoring Terillus, sails to counter Greek coalition on Sicily.  Loses ships carrying horses and chariots to a storm.  Sends some ships to Sardinia to get grain. 480 DGRBM 2-326, 3-1098, DGRG 1-1066, MCAW 113, MWΦ 120, 209, OHG, RAH 213, hifiC     479 HAG
c.480 300,000 (disputed) Carthaginians under HAMILCAR land at Panormus with mercenaries from Phoenicia, Libya, Iberia, Liguria, Sardinia and Corsica, marches toward Himera. 480 CAH 7.2-494, DGRBM 2-326, DGRG 1-537, HRRP 1.1-198, MWΦ 120, wikG
c.480 SELINUS Sicily, alligns with Carthage. 480 OCD 972
c.480 Theron, terrified at the magnitude of the Carthaginian army, shuts himself up in Himera, and sends to Gelon for help. 480 DGRBM 3-1098
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78 sends a treasure ship under Cadmos to Delphi, with orders to give the treasure to the Persians if they win, and bring it back if the Greeks win.  Cadmos obeys completely. 480 DGRBM 1-524
c.480 Underground drainage channels cut by Phaeax to drain Acragas.  Still extant. 480 CDGRA 272
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78 leads 50,000 inf + 5,000 cav to Himera. 480 wikG
c.480 GELON, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 485-78 defeats Punic/Etruscan fleet. 480 LdHR 1-19
c.480 ANAXILAS tyrant of Rhegium 493-76 supports Carthaginian HAMILCAR against GELON of Gela and Syracuse. 480 OCD 61
c.480 HAMILCAR-I is defeated and killed by GELON and THERON at HIMERA, leaving sons Himilco, Hanno, & Gisco.  GISCO flees to Selinus.  Carthaginian ships are burnt, troops killed or enslaved.  Carthage is forced to pay 2,000 talents indemnity.  Greeks dominate Mediterranean until ?. 480 B76 I-146, IV-871, 8-353, 13-147, 17-918, CAH 4, 5, 6-373, 7.2-506, DGRBM 1-959, 2-237, 268, Dur 2-241, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 113, MWΦ 120, OCD 6, 208, 486, 516, 985, 1061, OHG, RAH 213, SHWC 64, TToH, bk, hifiC, lvG     479 HAG
Temple Athena Syracuse plan
Temple Athena Syracuse recon
Temple Athena Syracuse duomo
Giovanni Dall'Orto
ruins of duomo
c.479 Temple of Athena built at Syracuse by Gelon after his victory over Hamilcar at the Battle of Himera 480.  A hexastyle Doric temple surrounded by a portico with columns, 6 on the short sides and 14 on the long sides. 500 ISBE 4-686     5-400 wikTAS
c.478 Tyrant of Gela and Syracuse from 485, GELON dies of dropsy, leaving an infant son, but handing an effective government to bro HIERON-I, who succeeds to 467/6.  Gelon bequeaths his widow Demarete, dau of Theron, in marriage to Polyzelus along with command of the army. 478 B76 V-32, 8-353, CAH 4, 5, DGRBM 2-237, 454, 3-472, Dur 2-438, CDCC 914, GHH, GRG 237, ISBE 4-686, LEWH 71, MCAW 115, OCD 460, 514, OHG, MRDK, bk, lvG, lvS, rcSI, wikG
c.478 HIERON-I, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 478-66, invites poets Aeschylus, Pindar, and Bacchylides to Syracuse. 478 TToH
c.478 Disputes between Hieron and his bro Polyzelus, who had married Demarete widow of Gelon, cause a rupture between Hieron and Theron.  Acragas and Syracuse war until 477. 478 CAH 5,
DGRBM 3-1098
c.477 HIERON-I, tyrant of Gela and Syracuse 478-66, invades south Italy. 477 OCD 514 476 CAH 7.2
c.476 Greek poet BACCHYLIDES of Ceos, in Greece from ?, goes to Sicily at invitation of Hieron. 477 GHH
476 CAH 4, OCD 158
c.476 At invitation of Hieron-I, playwrite AESCHYLUS goes from Greece to Sicily until ?. 478 GHH
476 CAH 5, Dur 2-383
c.476 Playwrite AESCHYLUS performs  Aetnaeae  at Etna. 476 CAH 5
c.476 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos, in Athens from 490, goes to Syracuse at invitation of Hieron-I, in Sicily until death 468. 476 B76 8-351,
CAH 4, GHH, OCD 158, 991
c.476 Carthaginians defeat Etruscans at sea. 476 GHH
c.476 PINDAR of Thebes, lyric poet of Cynoscephalae, at invitation of Hieron-I of Syracuse, moves to Sicily until 475.  Welcomed by Theron of Acragas and Hieron. 477 GHH     476 B76 14-466, CAH 4, OCD 833, wikPnd     473 DGRBM 3-368
c.476 PINDAR:   Olympian Odes 2 & 3  in honor of Theron. 476 CAH 4, 5
c.476 Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse tries to Doricize NAXOS, a Chalcidian city under Gela from 495/4. 476 OCD 725
c.476 GELA, under Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse, put under governor Polyxelos until 466. 476 rcSI
c.476 HIMERA resettled. 476 CAH 5
c.476/5 CATANA on east coast of Sicily, under Greeks of Naxos from ?, population removed to Leontini by Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse, who replaces it with 10,000 Dorian mercenaries.  Under Syracuse and renamed ETNA until 461. 476 B76 VI-153, CAH 5, DGRG 1-567 2-158, OCD 17
475 OCD 214, 515, rcSI
c.475 ΛMt. ETNA V Sicily errupts. 475 CAH 5, OCD 20
479 or 475 DGRG 1-61
c.475 Theron tyrant of Acragas begins a new row of temples along the south wall of Acragas.  Building continues after his death. 475 MCAW 115
c.475 TEMPLE of OLYMPIAN ZEUS   Model left,  Ruins right.
Temple of Olympian ZeusBegun at Acragas, largest Doric temple ever built - but never finished.  112.7m x 56.3m at the stylobate, by 20m tall, made of small stone blocks.  Front has 7 semi-columns, an archaic feature that precluded the addition of a central door.  The long sides have 14 semi-columns.  Between the columns are atlases, stone figures 7.5m tall.
left Clemensfranz
right Josť Luiz

no date: wikTOZA
c.475 Theron tyrant of Acragas and Hieron-I of Syracuse, at odds from ?, make peace thru mediation of Simonides. 475 Dur 2-130
c.474 Campanian Greeks, with aid from HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse 478-66 and ARISTODEMUS of Cumae, destroys Etruscan fleet off CUMAE Italy. 475 vrb     474 B76 V-32, 1-148, 8-350, 15-1087, BCoC 480, CAH 5, 7.2, DGRBM 2-454, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 112, OCD 199, 204, 301, 410, 515, 856, OHG, bk, lvS, rcSI
c.474 PITHECUSAE on island of Ischia west of Cumae founded by HIERON-I tyrant of Syracuse as a port for his galleys. 474 lvS
c.472 Tyrant of ACRAGAS from 488, THERON-II overthrown & killed.  Son THRASYDAEUS succeeds to 470.  He immediately gets in a war with HIERON-I of Syracuse until 471. 474 DGRBM     472 B76 8-353, CAH 4, 5, DGRBM 2-454, DGRG 1-75, 1066, Dur 2-66, GHH, LEWH 71, MCAW 115, OCD 515, 1061, rcSI
c.471 THRASYDAEUS and HIERON-I, at war from 472.  Hieron wins. 471 CAH 5
no date: LEWH 71
c.471 Mercenaries begin warring in territory of Gela and Acragas. 471 CAH 5
c.470 AESCHYLUS goes from Greece to Sicily 2nd time at invitation of Hieron-I. 470 Dur 2-383
c.470 THRASYDAEUS tyrant of Acragas from 472 expelled by people of Acragas and Himera, who are persuaded by philosopher Empedocles to set up a democracy at Acragas, which lasts until 406. 472 OCD 382
471 CAH 5
470 B76 I-146, bk, rcSI
no date: LEWH 71
c.468 SIMONIDES, lyric poet of Ceos, perfecter of the elegy and epigram, in Sicily from 476, at court of Hieron-I, dies age 89, buried at Acragas. 469 Dur 2-129     468 CAH 5, CDCC 826, LEWH 76, OCD 158, 991, TToH, wikSm     467 DGRBM 3-835
c.467 2 sons of Anaxilas of Rhegium visit Syracuse on invitation of Hieron-I, who persuades them to oust Micthyos and rule Rhegium.  They return to Rhegium. 467 DGRBM 2-1084
467/6 Himera sends a force to help Syracuse overthrow Thrasybulus. 466 DGRG 1-1066
467/6 Tyrant of Gela and Syracuse from 478, HIERON-I dies at Etna.  Youngest bro THRASYBULUS succeeds for a year, but is incompetent. 467 B76 8-353, CDCC 914, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, ISBE 4-686, MCAW 119, bk, lvG, lvS     467/6 CAH 5, GRG 237, OCD 515     466 B76 V-32, LEWH 71, MRDK, OHG
c.466 THRASYBULUS, cruel and incompetent tyrant of Syracuse from 467/6, expelled.  Anarchy until 465. 467/6 OCD 515, lvS     466 B76 17-918, DGRBM, DGRG 1-984, 2-158, GHH, ISBE 4-686, LEWH 71, MRDK, RAH 286     465 rcSI
c.466 Civil war begins at Syracuse until 461. 466 CAH 5
c.466 FAMILY of Gelon d.478 expelled from Syracuse. 466 DGRBM 1-1090
c.466 CORAX of Syracuse treatise  The Art of Words  to guide citizens wanting to address an assembly or jury. 466 Dur 2-430
c.466 GELA, under tyrants from 505, under Hieron-I tyrant of Syracuse, and governor Polyxelos from 476, comes under democracy until 405. 466 rcSI
c.466 LEONTINI Sicily, under Gela from 494, independent under democracy until 422. 466 DGRG 2-158, rcSI
c.466/5 DUCETIUS, a Hellenized Sicel, unites the Sicels of central Sicily into one state. 466/5 DGRBM 1-1090
c.465 SYRACUSE, in anarchy from 466, comes under democratic republic until 405. 465 TToH, rcSI 463 CAH 5
c.465 Festival of Liberty at Syracuse. 463 CAH 5
c.465 Battle of Crastus (location unknown):  Acragas vs. inhabitants of the town of Crastus and their allies from Himera and Gela.  Results unknown. 471 CAH 5
465 hwbc, wikhst
c.461 MESSANA Sicily under Rhegium from 490, expells sons of Anaxilas, sets up independent democracy until 396. 461 CAH 5, rcSI
c.461 ETNA (Catana), Syracusan colony on east coast under Dorian mercenaries from 476/5, mercenaries expelled.  Original name CATANA restored.  Refugees go and found city of INESSA (also called Etna). 461 CAH 5, DGRG 1-567, OCD 20, 214, rcSI
c.461 Civil war at Syracuse from 466 ends. 461 CAH 5
c.461 DUCETIUS leads some Sicels against CATANA until 460. 461 CDCC 292
c.461 NAXOS, under Syracuse from 476, restored. 461 CAH 5
c.461 NAXOS opposes Syracuse until 403. 461 OCD 725
c.461 HIMERA Sicily, under Acragas from 483, independent until 409. 461 OCD 516
c.461 DUCETIUS, a Hellenized Sicel, helps Syracuse overthrow the mercenaries of their X-tyrants, organizes a territorial state. 461 CAH 5, OCD 366, lvS
after 461 OCD 725
460 B76 III-688
c.461 CAMARINA Sicily, destroyed from 484, refounded by Gela. 461 CAH 5, DGRG 1-486, GHH, OCD 198, 459
c.460 HIMILCO-I of Carthage rules the Carthaginian settlement in Sicily until 410. 460 hifiC
c.460 PANORMUS Sicily, under Phoenicians from 8th cen., comes under Carthage until 254. 460 rcSI
c.460 RHETORIC first becomes formally studied in Sicily by Corax and his pupils Tisias and Gorgias. 460 B76 10-1093
c.459/8 Ducetius' home village of Menai is enlarged to create a new city called MENAINON. 459/8 CAH 5, CDCC 292, howD
c.459/8 MORGANTINA, under Sicels from ?, taken by Ducetius. 459/8 CAH 5, CDCC 292, howD
c.459/8 SICELS unite under DUCETIUS.  Sicel movement begins until 450. 459/8 CAH 5, LEWH 71
453 CDCC 292
c.458/7 SEGESTA and HALICYAE Sicily ally with Athens. 458/7 CAH 5, 7.2     458/7 or 454/3 OCD 970     453 LEWH 70, 71
c.458/7 AESCHYLUS, Athenian religious aristocrat and playwright, sails from Greece to Sicily 3rd time until death 456. 458 wikAe
457 DGRBM 1-42
c.456 AESCHYLUS, in Sicily from 457, dies age 69 of an accident at Gela.
Produced 80 known titles, won 52 prizes.
456 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-42, DGRG 1-985, Dur 2-383, 710, GHH, GRG 238, LEWH 76, MCAW 99, 123, OCD 17, OHG, RAH 219, SHWC 77, TAWH, TToH 17, wikAe
456/5 B76 1-149, CDCC 16
c.454 MENAENUM founded by DUCETIUS, who helps somebody establish a capital there.  Under Sicels until 396. 459 bril
454 OCD 366
c.454/3 SEGESTA and LILYBAEUM begin war. 454/3 CAH 5
c.453 SEGESTA and HALICYAE Sicily begin war with SELINUS. 453 LEWH 71
c.453 DUCETIUS, ruler of Sicels, founds a capital at PALICE until 450. 459/8 LEWH 71     453 CDCC 292 453/2 CAH 5, howD
c.453 ILVA (Aethalia, Elba) island, a nest of Etruscan pirates off coast of Etruria, ravaged by Syracusan fleet under Phaylus. 453 DGRBM 3-243, DGRG 2-40
c.453 In response to Etruscan piracy, Syracusan fleet under Phaylus ravages coasts of Etruria and Corsica (now under Etruscans). 453 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-861
c.453 Phaylus bought off by pirates, returns to Syracuse, condemned, exiled. 453 DGRBM 3-243
c.453/2 DUCETIUS tyrant of Palice unites almost all of interior Sicily in a new federation. 453/2 lvG
c.451 INESSA (Etna), Syracusan city from 461, taken by DUCETIUS, Hellenized ruler of Sicels. 451 OCD 20
c.451 MOTYCA taken by DUCETIUS, Hellenized ruler of Sicels, who defeats Syracusans at Motyca same year. 451 CDCC 292 451/0 CAH 5
c.451 Syracuse and Acragas ally against Ducetius, and are defeated by him. 451 lvG
451/0 CAH 5
c.450 DUCETIUS tyrant of Palice defeated by Syracuse and Acragas at Nomae, exiled to Corinth until 446.  Sicel unity collapses. 450 B76 III-688, CDCC 292, LEWH 71, bk, lvG
450/49 CAH 5
c.450 1st AMPHITHEATER at Syracuse built by architect Damokopos Myrilla.  Still stands, but ruins reflect later renovation c.230. 500-400 wikGTS
c.450 MIME introduced as a dramatic form by Sophron at Syracuse. 450 TToH
c.450 EPICHARMUS, comic poet of Cos. in Syracuse from 485, dies.  He wrote comedies, in which philosophical views were occasionally satirised; but some of the alleged quotations are obvious forgeries. 450 Dur 2-725 443 GHH
440 B76 III-920
no date: sctx
World of Herodotus
The world according to Herodotus     Pub Dom
c.446 DUCETIUS, exiled to Corinth from 450, returns to Sicily, restores SICEL federation until 440/39, founds Cale Acte. 448/7 lvG
446 B76 III-688, CAH 5, CDCC 292, LEWH 71, 366
c.446 ACRAGAS defeated by Syracusans at Himera river. 446 DGRG 1-1068, GHH
c.446 ACRAGAS defeated by DUCETIUS at Himera river. 446 DGRG 1-75
CONFUSION ALERT!  The ancients appear to call 2 rivers Himera, and even assert that they joined in the middle of the island !   DGRG 1-1068
c.445 Syracuse and Acragas fight over spoils from their victory over Sicels in 450.  Syracuse wins. 446 CAH 5 445 LEWH 71


EMPEDOCLES of Acragas, Pythagorean philosopher, statesman poet, physiologist, healer, miracle man, claimer of divinity, father of rhetoric, flourishes.

METAPHYSICS:  The "all" is a sphere composed of 4 elements:  Earth, air, fire, water.
All is DUALITY (contradicting Parmenides 460):  Love and strife interact to bring together and separate the 4 elements.
Accepts Eleatic contention that "being" is permanent.  e.g. Matter cannot be created or destroyed.  All things are transformed depending on the ratio of the 4 elements.
(See Heraclitos 500, Xenophanes 480, Anaxagoras 450, Leucippos 440, Diogenes 440, Democritos 400)

(See atomic theory 450, Leucippos 440, Democritos 400)

COSMOGONY begins with separation of the 4 elements beginning with air & fire.
(See Anaxagoras 450, Hippo 450)
LIFE originated with trees.  Sexes became distinguishable only after strife entered.  When love was ascendant, separate limbs arose, heads without necks, arms without shoulders.

COSMOLOGY V:  2 hemispheres:  Fixed stars are embedded in one of them.  Bright and dark revolve around a SPHERICAL EARTH V.  The sun is the rays of the bright hemisphere focused back from Earth.
(See Anaxagoras 450, Diogenes 440, Phaedo 370)

ANATOMY:  Bodies contain 4 HUMORS:  blood, bile, black bile, phlegm.  HEART is the seat of intelligence.  Blood is the seat of thought and innate heat.
(See Alcmaeon 490, Hippo 450, Diogenes 440)

Λ REINCARNATION:  Those who sin suffer 30,000 reincarnations.  Escape requires purification, including vegetarianism.
(See Upanishads 500 Meno 386)
Dur 2-244
CDGRA 486, GHH, OHG, bk
MCAW 125
LEWH 76, OCD 382
no date:
B76 III-879, KPHP 14-15, OCD 58
431 TTPC
c.443 RHEGIUM, and LEONTINI, (possibly also Catana and Naxos) fearing the power of Syracuse, ally with Athens. 443 CAH 5, LEWH 71
c.440 DUCETIUS dies.  Back in Sicily and leader of Sicel federation at Palice from 446, gets sick during attempt to unite northern Sicily, dies.  Sicel federation collapses.  Syracuse then destroys Palice and dominates the Sicels. 440 B76 III-688, CAH 5, CDCC 292, DGRBM 1-1090, GHH, MCAW 131, OCD 66, lvG
440/39 LEWH 71
c.435 TEMPLE of CONCORDIA   Floorplan left,  Ruins right.
Temple of ConcordiaBuilt at Acragas, largest and best-preserved Doric temple in Sicily.  Base is 39.42m ◊ 16.92m, with 6 x 13 columns, 6m tall, tapering at tops and swelling around middles.  .  .  .
left Bjs
right Berthold Werner

440-430 wikTOCA
c.433/2 LEONTINI Sicily renews 443 alliance with Pericles of Athens. 433 TTPC
433/2 CAH 5, OCD 596
c.430 EMPEDOCLES of Acragas dies.  Legend says he jumped into the volcano of Mt. Etna to convince followers of his divinity. post-444 EoΦ 2-496     440-31 TTS 436 CAH 5     435 CDΦ 224
433 OCD 382     430 B76 III-879, Dur 2-724, RAH 285, TToH
dies in Greece 430 KPHP 14
c.427 SICILY:  General war breaks out until 424.  Ionian LEONTINI leads Naxos, Catana, Rhegium, Camarina, and most Sicels ally against Dorian SYRACUSE supported by Gela, Messana, Himera, Lipara Islands, and Locri. 427 Dur 2-446, 486, LEWH 71, OCD 198, 459, 675, 725
c.427 Camarina supports Syracuse (contradicts above) until 424. 427 OCD 459
c.427 Sophist orator GORGIAS of Leontini Sicily sails to Athens for aid, which is granted. 427 CAH 5, Dur 2-360,
LEWH 76, OCD 596, wikGrg
no date: LEWH 71
c.427 20 Athenian ships under Laches and Charoeades sent to help Leontini.  They arrive at Rhegium, which is their base for fighting Syracuse until 424.  Charoeades is soon killed.  Laches is general until 426.  He takes Messana and gets control of Strait of Messana. 427 B76 VI-153, 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 819, DGRBM 2-700, DGRG 2-158, IDB 4-75, OCD 985, 1030, OHG
c.426 ETNA, under Syracuse, repels attack by Athenians under Laches. 426 DGRG 1-60
c.426 Laches, Athenian commander in Sicily from 427, recalled to Athens on a corruption charge.  Pythodoros succeeds until ?. 426 DGRBM 2-700
c.425 ΛMt. ETNA V erupts.  3rd eruption since the Greeks first appeared. 425 DGRBM DGRG 1-61
c.425 40 more Athenian ships arrive in Sicily to join the 20 ships already there. 425 B76 14-22, HAG
c.424 CONFERENCE at GELA called by Hermocrates of Syracuse.  Hermocrates persuades all Sicily to make peace and oppose Athenian intervention. 424 B76 IV-1050, 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-417, LEWH 71, OCD 504, OHG, TTPC, bk, lvG no date: LEWH 71
c.424 SICILY:  After indecisive fighting, the general war from 427 ends. 424 CDCC 819, LEWH 71, 73, OCD 675
c.424 Athenian fleet, in Sicily from 427, returns to Athens. 424 B76 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 819, LEWH 73, OCD 985, 1030
c.423  History  of Antiochus of Syracuse ends here. 424 OCD 73     423 GHH     422 DGRBM 1-195
c.422 LEONTINI Sicily:  Commoners expel oligarchs, but are soon themselves expelled. 422 DGRG 2-158, Dur 2-284
c.422 Oligarchs of Leontini move to Syracuse. 422 CAH 6-124
c.422 LEONTINI Sicily, independent under democracy from 466, comes under Syracuse ruled by local tyrants until 238. 422 DGRG 2-158, rcSI
c.422 PHAEAX, Athenian ambassador to Italy and Sicily, tries to rouse people to help Leontini against Syracuse, makes alliances with the native population and towns like Acragas and Camarina. 422 CAH 5, DGRBM 3-229, OCD 808, lvG
c.420 Theater at Syracuse designed by architect Democopus Myrilla. 420 DGRBM 1-974
c.420 ANTIOCHUS of Syracuse, historian, flourishes.  Wrote a  History  of Italy and of Sicily to 423. 420 Dur 2-712
no date: OCD 73
c.417 Democrats of LEONTINI receive help from Athens. 417 GHH
c.416 SELINUS Sicily attacks SEGESTA, which asks for aid from Athens in accordance with the 453 treaty, and promises to pay for an expedition. 416 CDCC 819, Dur 2-446, LEWH 71, 73, MCAW 136, RAH 251, bk
415 B76 8-358, CAH 5
c.415 Athenians NICIAS, ALCIBIADES, and LAMACHUS with 140 triremes carrying 4,000 hoplites sail from Greece invade Sicily until 413.  Nicias refuses proposal by Lamachus to immediately attack Syracuse.  They win over NAXOS and CATANA, which they use as a base, but accomplish nothing more. 415 B76 IV-1050, VI-153, CAH 5, CDCC 104, 819, Dur 2-244, GHH, HAG, IDB 4-75, LEWH 71, 73, OCD 214, 796, 972, 985, 1030, OHG, TToH, bk, lvG, lvS
c.415 ALCIBIADES recalled from Sicily to Athens to stand charges for statue mutilation.  Sails away. 415 CDCC 33, GHH, HAG, MCAW 136, RAH 253
c.415 Democrats of LEONTINI expelled by Syracuse-supported oligarchs. 415 B76 VI-153
c.415 HERMOCRATES of Syracuse organizes resistance to Athenians, convinces fellow Syracusans to extend their fortifications. 415 B76 IV-1050, OCD 504, lvG
c.415 Syracuse besieged by Athenians until 413. 415 B76 17-918, CAH 5, Dur 2-357, GHH, OCD 198, 459, 675, TToH     414 lvG
c.415 NAXOS and CATANA ally with Athens against Syracuse.  Catana becomes an Athenian naval base. 415 GHH, OCD 214, 425, 725     no date: OCD 425
c.415 CAMARINA, GELA, and MESSANA support Syracuse until 413. 415 OCD 198, 459, 675
c.415 HIMERA supports Syracuse against Athenians. 415 DGRG 1-1066
c.415 DASCON in the harbor of Syracuse taken by Athenians until 413, but is of little use. 415 TTPC
c.415/4 EUPHEMOS sent by Athenian commanders at Syracuse to negotiate alliance with Camarina. winter 415/4 DGRBM 2-97
c.414 HERMOCRATES is elected to command the defense of Syracuse.  He is unsuccessful. 414 LEWH 73, OCD 504
c.414 EUCLES, son of Hippon, is 1 of 3 new commanders of Syracuse. 414 DGRBM 2-75
c.414 CENTURIPA, southwest of Mt. Etna, forced to make treaty with Athenians. 414 DGRG 1-586
c.414 ETRUSCANS help Athenians in a 2nd attack on Syracuse. 414 DGRBM, DGRG 1-861
c.414 Athenians try to block land approaches to Syracuse with a wall. 414 Dur 2-244, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, OCD 733, RAH 253, TTPC
c.414 Spartan general GYLIPPOS arrives with a small force to help Syracuse.  He blocks Athenian ships in Syracuse harbor, siezes the heights of Epipolae north of Syracuse, preventing the Athenians from completing their wall around Syracuse. 414 CAH 5, CDCC 819, DGRBM, Dur 2-448, GHH, HAG, LEWH 73, OCD 484, RAH 253, TTPC, lvG
c.414 Athenian general LAMACHUS is killed in a skirmish during the wall building, leaving NICIAS (who had opposed the expedition) in charge. 414 CAH 5, OCD 516, RAH 253, TTPC, lvG
c.414 fall NICIAS sends a report to the Athenian Assembly asking that the expedition be recalled. fall 414 RAH 253
c.414 Athenian general EUTHYDEMOS sent to help Nicias. 414 DGRBM 2-123
c.414 Supplies from Athens arrive at Catana. 414 DGRBM 2-1186
c.413 NICIAS uses fresh supplies to sieze Epipolae plateau. 413 DGRBM 2-1186
414/3 Athenian general EURYMEDON, with supplies sails from Corcyra to Sicily. 414 GHH     414/3 CAH 5
413 Athenian general EURYMEDON defeated and killed before reaching land. 413 wikErm
413 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES arrives with 73 ships, 15,000 troops to reinforce NICIAS at Syracuse. 413 B76 VII-329, 14-23, CAH 5, DGRBM, LEWH 73, OCD 329, 733, RAH 253, TTPC, lvG
413 Syracusan AGATHARCHUS sent with 12 ships to visit allies and harass Athenians. 413 DGRBM 1-61
413 July Athenian Naval base at Catana is lost to Spartans. July 413 B76 14-23
Athenian DEMOSTHENES attacks Spartan position by night at Epipolae unsuccessfully. 413 DGRBM 3-810, LEWH 73, OCD 329
413 Aug. Syracusan general SICANUS son of Execestus sent with 13 ships to Acragas, to get help, but, before he could reach the city, the pro-Syracusan party there is defeated and driven out. 413 DGRBM 3-810
Aug. 27
LUNAR ECLIPSE seen in Sicily.
"All was at last ready, and they were on the point of sailing away, when an eclipse of the moon, which was then full, took place.  Most of the Athenians, deeply impressed by this occurrence, now urged the generals to wait;  and Nicias, who was somewhat over-addicted to divination and practices of that kind, refused from that moment even to take the question of departure into consideration, until they had waited the thrice nine days prescribed by the soothsayers."
(Thucidides: History of the Peloponessian war 7-50)
413 Aug. 27
B76 VII-329, 14-23, DGRBM, GHH, LEWH 73, MCAW 137, TTPC, lvG, hbar, nasaS
413 Aug. DEMOSTHENES advocates abandoning Sicily, but is prevented by NICIAS, who believes a soothsayer, who says the eclipse is an omen, and he should stay 27 days more. 413 B76 14-23, LEWH 73, OCD 329, TTPC
413 Sep. Athenians, in Sicily 415-13, are defeated twice at sea by Syracuse. 413 B76 8-369, 14-23, 17-918, LEWH 73, MCAW 136, TTPC
413 Sep. Athenian troops hit by plague.  NICIAS and DEMOSTHENES withdraw by land.  Rear guard under Demosthenes is attacked and defeated.  The van under NICIAS is crushed at the Asinarus River by Hermocrates.  Athenian Callistratos fights his way thru and leads his men to Catana.  DEMOSTHENES and NICIAS are executed.  Prisoners are worked at stone quarries then sold into slavery.  Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 ends, having lost over 200 ships, 35,000 crew, 4,000 soldiers. 414 HAG     413 B76 VII-329, 8-369, 14-23, 17-918, BCoC 373, CAH 5, CDCC 104, 819, DGRBM 1-577, Dur 2-244, GHH, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 71, 73, MCAW 136, OCD 329, 733, 796, 985, 1030, OHG, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvG, lvS
c.412 Athenian CALLISTRATOS son of Empedos leads his men from Catana to attack Syracusans plundering the Athenian camp.  Callistratos is killed. 412 DGRBM 1-577
c.412 Coins struck at Syracuse commemorating its deliverance from Athenians. 412 MCAW 137
c.412 HERMOCRATES leads 20 Syracusan and 2 Selinuntine ships to help finish off Athenian fleet. mid 412
CAH 6-126
c.412 A law of Diocles forbids people to bear weapons in the agora under pain of death. This law is popular, and spreads to other city-states in Sicily. 412 wikDS
c.412 HERMOCRATES commands Syracusan squadron sent to assist Sparta.  DIOCLES rules a democracy in Syracuse. 412 B76 IV-1050, OCD 504, lvG
c.412 DIOCLES democratic boss of Syracuse, institutes democratic reforms: new law code, privileges for lower classes, elective offices. 412 DGRBM 1-1010, GHH, LEWH 71, OCD 1030, wikDS
c.411 Anyone in south Italy and Sicily suspected of Athenian sympathies is persecuted. 411 DGRBM 2-865
c.410 HIMILCO-I ruler of Punic settlement in Sicily from 460, ends as ruler, but doesn't die until 406. 410 hifiC
c.410 DIOCLES, democratic ruler of Syracuse, has many oligarchs, including HERMOCRATES, banished.  Diocles is now undisputed boss of Syracuse. 410 DGRBM 1-1010, LEWH 71, 80, wikDS
c.410 QUADRIREMES built by Carthaginians to attack Syracuse.
Diodorus Siculus says they were first thought of by Dionysius-I in 399.
410 DGRG 1-537, TTT
c.409 SEGESTA Sicily, warring with SELINUS (both Greek cities), ask Carthage for aid, comes under Punic domination until 307. 410 B76 13-147, CAH 6-128, OCD 970
410/9 CAH 7.2     409 LEWH 80, MWΦ 124, OCD 985     400 rcSI
c.409 100,000 Carthaginians under HANNIBAL-I MAGO, with Libyan, Iberian, Campanian, and Greek mercenaries sails from Africa to Lilybaeum.  Wars in Sicily until 405. 409 B76 III-560, 8-350, 369, CAH 5, 6-127, DGRBM 2-331, Dur 2-438, GHH, HAG, LEWH 80, OCD 970, MCAW 140, MWΦ 124, OHG, RAH 306, wikMag     408 lvG, lvS
c.409 SELINUS, Greek city from 648, besieged 9 days with siege towers, falls to HANNIBAL until 407.  Inhabitants butchered, over opposition of Syracuse. 410/9 CAH 7.2     409 B76 8-350, CAH 5, 6, CDCC 821, DGRA 1175, DGRBM 2-331, Dur 2-171, GHH, GRG 248, HAG, LEWH 80, MWΦ 124, OCD 970, 972, 985, OHG, RAH 306, bk
408 LEWH 80, lvG, lvS
c.409 DIOCLES boss of Syracuse, is named head of an army of 4000 to relieve Himera. 409
c.409 DIOCLES concentrates 4,000 men in Himera to defend against Carthaginians, but worries that they might sail against unprotected Syracuse, Diocles decides to evacuate Himera.  He moves so fast as to abandon unburied Syracusan bodies, but not fast enough to get his ships back to evacuate the population of Himera before it falls. 409 CAH 6-129
c.409 HIMERA Sicily falls to Carthaginian HANNIBAL, who sacrifices 3,000 POWs where his grandfather Hamilcar had fallen.  Sacked, obliterated, and abandoned.  Refugees settle 7 miles west. 410/9 CAH 7.2     409 B76 8-350, CAH 5, 6-129, 366, CDCC 426, HAG, MCAW 140, OCD 208, 516, 985, OHG, bk     408 DGRG 1-1066, LEWH 80, RAH 306, lvG
c.409 ACRAGAS, under tyranny from 488, falls to Carthaginian HANNIBAL, sacked.  Under democracy until 406. 409 B76 8-350, GHH
c.409 HANNIBAL-I MAGO, with Iberian, Campanian, and even Greek mercenaries, moves north thru Sicily, joined by 20,000 native Sicels and Sicans, evidently eager to shake off Greek dominance. 409
CAH 6-129, 495
c.408 HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries in Aegean from 410, returns to Sicily, picks up 1,000 Himerans, establishes himself at Selinus, builds his force up to 6,000, raids Carthaginian territory. 408 CAH 6-130, OCD 504, wikDS
407 CAH 6
c.408 SELINUS, under Carthaginian Hannibal from 409, recovered by Hermocrates of Syracuse. 408 CAH 6-130 407 B76 8-369
c.408 PANORMUS Sicily, under Carthaginians, ravaged by HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries. 408 CAH 6-130, 7.2
c.408 MOTYA Sicily, under Carthaginians, ravaged by HERMOCRATES commander of Syracusan mercenaries. 408 CAH 6-130, 7.2
c.408/7 HERMOCRATES collects unburied Syracusan bones left at Himera by Diocles in 409, and sends them to Syracuse to discredit Diocles.  DIOCLES is exiled, and drops out of history, but Hermocrates is not recalled, because some Syracusans fear a tyranny. 408 DGRBM 1-1010, wikDS 408/7 CAH 6-130 407 DGRBM 2-418
c.408/7 THERMAE HIMERAE founded by Carthaginians where the refugees had settled 7 miles west of former Himera. 408/7 OCD 516
c.407 Son of Hermon, HERMOCRATES dies.  Tries to recover Syracuse, killed in a street fight.  His partisans, including Dionysius and Philistus, are exiled. 408/7 B76 IV-1050
407 B76 8-369, OCD 504, lvG
c.407/6 Carthage, represented by Himilco, makes agreement with Athens. 407/6 OCD 516
c.407/6 HIMILCO son of Hanno and HANNIBAL son of Gisco sent from Carthage to Sicily. 406 DGRBM 2-473
c.406 HIMILCO son of Hanno besieges Acragas. 406 DGRBM 1-938, bk
c.406 HANNIBAL MAGO dies.  5th Magonid king of Carthage from 440, goes to Sicily, joins HIMILCO at siege of Acragas.  Dies of plague.  HIMILCO-II succeeds to 396. 406 B76 8-369,
CAH 5, 6, DGRBM 2-332, MCAW 140, MWΦ 197
c.406 QUADRIREMES built by Dionysius-I. 406 TTS     400 DGRA 785
399 CGS 584
c.406 Historian PHILISTUS promotes interests of Dionysius-I. 406 GHH
c.406 Syracusan general DAPHNAEUS sent with Sicilian and Italian allies against Carthaginian HIMILCO at Acragas.  They defeat a Punic force, but fail to relieve the siege. 406 DGRBM 1-938
c.406 Spartan mercenary DEXIPPUS of Gela opposes Carthaginian Himilco at Acragas.  He is bought off. 406 DGRBM 1-995
c.406 Carthaginian HIMILCO-II buys off Greek generals at Syracuse and Acragas. 406 B76 8-369, LEWH 80, MWΦ 197, OCD 6, 350, 516
406/5 OCD 985
c.406 DIONYSIUS-I, helped by partisans of late Hermocrates, elected strategos with 9 colleagues, recalls exiles, marries a dau of Hermocrates, organizes a plebiscite.  DIONYSIUS-I becomes tyrant of Syracuse until 367. 407 HAG     406 CDCC 276, DGRA 1182 DGRBM 1-1033, GHH, TToH     405 B76 III-560, 8-369, 17-918, CAH 5, 6, Dur 2-439, ISBE 4-686, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 80, MCAW 140, MRDK, OCD 480, 817, OHG, bk, lvS
c.406 ACRAGAS, under democracy from 409, after 8 month siege, sacked by Carthaginian HIMILCO-II.  Under Carthage until 392.  Himilco winters in Acragas. 407 HAG     406 B76 I-146, 8-369, CAH 5, 6-132, 7.2, DGRG 1-75, GHH, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 80, MWΦ 197, OCD 6, 350, 516, lvS, rcSI     406/5 OCD 985 405 CAH 6-134
c.406 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse, at the time of his marriage, gives his sis in marriage to Syracusan noble Polyxenus. 407 DGRBM 3-472
c.406 HYERACLEA MINOA on south coast of Sicily comes under Carthaginianians until ?. 406 B76 IV-1035
c.406 Exiles from Acragas are allowed by Syracuse to move to Leontini. 406 DGRG 2-158
c.406 Syracusan fleet defeats Carthaginian fleet off Eryx in west Sicily. 406 DGRG 1-853
c.405 Himilco-II moves from Acragas to Gela and besieges.  Dionysius-I gets help from Italy, comes with 30,000 inf, 1,000 cav, & 50 ships, tries to cut off Carthaginian supplies.  After 20 days, Dionysius tries a 3-pronged attack which fails, and retreats to inside Gela. 405
CAH 6-134, DGRBM 2-474, GHH
c.405 GELA, ally of Syracuse from 427, under democracy from 466, defeated by Carthaginian HIMILCO-II, abandoned by Dionysius-I, evaccuated, sacked by Carthaginians, independent until 392.  Inhabitants go to Syracuse. 407 HAG
406 OCD 516 406/5 OCD 985
405 B76 8-369, CAH 6-134, 7.2, OCD 459, rcSI
c.405 A large statue of Apollo outside Gela is taken by Carthaginians and shipped to Tyre. 406 DGRG 1-985
c.405 MUTINY in cavalry of Dionysius-I. 405 GHH
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I returns from Gela to Syracuse, accuses the other 9 generals of corruption and treachery.  Appointed sole strategos until ?. 405 spring DGRBM 1-1033
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, hires a body guard. 405 GHH
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, marries Arete daughter of patriot Hermocrates. 405 GHH
c.405 DIONYSIUS-I decides to abandon Camarina also.  His troops are furious.  Some Cavalry rush home, plunder Dionysius's house and so abuse his new wife Arete that she suicides out.  With 100 loyal cav and 600 elite troops, Dionysius follows and suppresses the revolt.  What is left of the cavalry retires to Etna.  The main body of the army arrives next morning, but the Geloans and Camarinaeans are angry with Syracuse, and join the growing settlement at Leontini. 405
B76 8-369, CAH 6-134, GHH, rcSI
404 lvS
c.405 CAMARINA, ally of Syracuse from 415, abandoned by Dionysius-I, defeated by Carthaginian HIMILCO-II, sacked by Carthaginians.  Never fully recovers. 406 OCD 516
405 B76 8-369, CAH 6-134, DGRG 1-486, OCD 198, 459
c.405 HIMILCO-II is about to conquer Syracuse, but disease in his army forces him to make peace treaty with Dionysius-I.  Sicily is split down the middle:  West under Carthage, east under Greeks.  Acragas, Selinus, and Therme together with the Elymians and Sicans are all ceded to Carthage, Acragas, Gela, Himera, Selinus, and Camarina to be tributaries.  None of them can have walls.  Leontini, Messene and the Sicels are autonomous. 405 B76 8-369, CAH 5, 6-135, 7.2, DGRBM 1-1033, DGRG 1-1067, GHH, LEWH 80, MWΦ 125, OCD 516, OHG, bk
c.405 Exiles of Himera, Selinunte, and Acragas, are allowed by the treaty to return to their homes, but must pay tribute to Carthage and not restore their fortifications. 405 DGRG 1-1067
c.405 Exiles of Leontini return to their homes, and declare independence from Syracuse.  Leontini independent until 403. 405 DGRG 2-158
c.405 HIMILCO-II with a treaty and diseased troops, returns to Carthage. 405 DGRBM 2-474
c.405 PHILISTUS the historian, friend of Dionysius-I of Syracuse, made commander of the citadel until 386/5. 405
B76 VII-948
c.405 Sicily is nearly engulfed by Carthaginians. 405 OCD 480
405/4 ORTYGIA island off Syracuse fortified by Dionysius-I of Syracuse, becomes his residence.  None but relatives are allowed to live on it.  Becomes Dionysid residence until 343. 405/4 DGRBM 1-1033
c.404 SYRACUSE:  attempted revolt against Dionysius-I, who is helped by bro-in-law Polyxenus. 404 DGRBM 3-472
c.404 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, fortifies Syracuse, increases navy, extends the franchise, divides escheated lands among freemen, quells the revolt. 404 GHH
c.404 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, extends his rule northward until 402. 404 CDCC 277
c.404 A group of Campanians for which Dionysius-I had no further use does not return to Italy, but goes west and takes Elymian Entella, killing the men and marrying the women.  They remain under Carthaginian control, defying attempts by Dionysius to dislodge them. 404 CAH 6-153
c.403 CATANA Sicily taken and sacked by Dionysius-I.  Under Syracuse until 352.  Citizens enslaved.  Repopulated with Campanian mercenaries until 396. 403 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 1-1034, DGRG 1-60, 567, LEWH 80, OCD 214, rcSI     400 bk
c.403 EPIPOLAE, cliff north of Syracuse, fortified. 403 GHH
c.403 Leontini, independent from 405, whole population transferred to Syracuse. 403 DGRG 2-158
c.403 HERBITA in central Sicily, under the Siculi from ?, besieged unsuccessfully by Dionysius-I.  Inhabitants conclude peace with Dionysius-I.  Arconide, tyrant of Herbita quits the city and founds HALAESA with citizens of Herbita, mercenaries, and other enemies of Dionysius-I. 403 DGRG 1-1052, wikHls
c.403 SYRACUSE:  final attempted revolt against Dionysius-I. 403 B76 8-369, bk
c.403 NAXOS Sicily taken by Dionysius-I.  Destroyed. 403 CAH 7.2, OCD 725 400 LEWH 80, bk
c.400 LEONTINI Sicily, independent from 405, taken by Dionysius-I.  Under Syracuse until ?. 403 CAH 7.2 400 LEWH 80
c.400 ADRANUM, 41km northwest of Catana, founded by Dionysius-I. 400 DGRG 1-25, wikAd 400/399 CAH 6-141
c.400 Λ SPHERICAL EARTH V is gaining credibility. 420 OHG 140
c.400 MALTA occupied by Carthaginians. 400 TToH, wikMalt
c.400 Western Mediterranean dominated by Carthaginians. 400 PW 16
c.399 MOTYA Sicily, under Carthaginians, besieged until 397 by DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367.  ARTILLERY:  Dionysius uses a large crossbow drawn by a mechanical stock. 399 CDCC 89, OCD 128
398 MCAW 144
397 csnt
c.399 Rhegium sends 50 triremes, 6,000 inf, 600 cav to defeat Dionysius of SyracuseRhegium / Syracuse war begins until 387. 399 DGRBM 3-875, DGRG 2-704, GHH
c.399 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, organises a Greek confederacy to expel Carthaginians from Sicily.  GELA, CAMARINA, ACRAGAS, THERMAE, and ERYX ally with Dionysius-I 399 GHH     398 CAH 7.2 397 CAH 6-142, DGRBM 1-1034, DGRG 1-984
c.399 CATAPULT V invented by Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 399 GHH
c.398 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, marries 2 women in 1 ceremony !  ARISTOMACHE dau of Hipparchus, and DORIS of Locris Italy. 397 CAH 6-142
no date: B76 8-369
c.398 Hamilcar in Sicily from ?, returns to Carthage until 396. 398 GHH
c.398 QUINQUEREMES invented by Dionysius-I of Syracuse according to Diodoros. 398 CGS 584
c.398 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, having over 310 warships, sends 200 of them against Motya. 397
CAH 7.2-497
c.398 SEGESTA Sicily, under Punic domination 409-307, besieged by Dionysius-I. 398 GHH
c.398 ENTELLA Sicily besieged by Dionysius-I. 398 GHH
c.398 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, confiscates all Carthaginian property in Syracuse. 398 GHH
c.398 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 sends embassy to Carthage, tells Carthaginians to evacuate Greek towns, lets Greeks plunder Carthaginian property, resumes war with Carthaginians in west Sicily until 392.  Succeeds militarily until 396.
PUNIC / GREEK WAR begins until 392.
398 B76 8-370, 13-147, CAH 7.2, CDCC 277, GHH, LEWH 80, MCAW 144, MWΦ 197, lvS     397 CAH 6-142, DGRBM 1-1034, 2-474, Dur 2-472, OCD 516, RAH 306
c.397 HIMILCO-II sails with a fresh army in 100 triremes to Motya.  DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse, with 80,000 inf, 3,000 cav, and his bro Leptines commanding his 200 warships, 500 supply ships, threaten to encircle Himilco.  Himilco withdraws.  Eryx, Himera and Selinus come to join Dionysius at Motya.  Carthage / Syracuse war begins until 396. 397 B76 III-560, CAH 6-142, DGRBM 1-1034, 2-474, DGRG 1-853, 1067, Dur 2-472, MCAW 144, lvS
396 MWΦ 197
c.397 TORTION Λ CATAPULTS V used by Dionysius-I of Syracuse at Motya.  1st military operation in history to rely heavily on artillery. non-tortion 400 OHG 163
398 GHH    397 TTT
c.397 SIEGE TOWERS on wheels, 1st known in Assyria 863, 1st recorded in west.  6 story towers used by Dionysius-I of Syracuse at Motya. 405 DGRA 1175     397 CAH 6-683
c.397 HALICYAE west Sicily remains loyal to Carthaginians, ravaged by Dionysius-I. 397 DGRG 1-1027
c.397 MOTYA Sicily, under Carthaginians from ?, besieged by DIONYSIUS-I, taken and sacked, inhabitants enslaved, never rebuilt.  A Sicel garrison is put into Motya; Leptines is left with 120 ships to blockade the island, and intercept the Punic fleet.  Dionysius wipes out nearby cities and goes home. 398 CAH 7.2, CDCC 277, GHH, lvS    397 CAH 6-142, 373, CDCC 593, 821, DGRBM 2-771, MWΦ 197, OCD 350, 702
396 CAH 6-364
c.397 MOTYA Sicily (what's left of it), recovered by Himilco-II. 397 lvS     396 CAH 6-143
c.396 LILYBAEUM, westernmost point of Sicily founded by Carthaginians to replace Motya.  Under Carthage until 241. 397 CAH 7.2, MCAW 144 397/6 B76 VI-644, 396 OCD 610
no date: CDCC 593
c.396 ERYX, allied with Dionysius from 397, recovered by Himilco until ?. 396 DGRG 1-853
c.396 ENNA (town in central Sicily) taken by DIONYSIUS-I.  Under Syracuse until 367. 396 rcSI
c.396 MENAENUM, under Sicels from 454, occupied by DIONYSIUS-I.  Under Syracuse until ?. 396 bril
c.396 LEONTINI Sicily, under Syracuse from 403, given by Dionysius-I to 10,000 of his mercenaries. 396 DGRG 2-159
c.396 HIMILCO-II, ruler of Carthage, skirmishes with Syracusan fleet under Leptines, and loses 50 ships and 5,000 men, but lands 100,000 men at PANORMUS, gains control of north coast, advances east along coast, accompanied by his fleet.  Leptines sinks 50 Carthaginian transport ships. 396 CAH 6-143, DGRBM 2-474, 771, MWΦ 197, OCD 516
c.396 HIMILCO-II, makes treaty with Himera and Cephalodium on north coast. 396 DGRG 1-589, 1067
c.396 HALICYAE west Sicily make treaty of alliance with Dionysius-I, which they break on appearance of Himilco-II. 396 DGRG 1-1027
c.396 MESSANA Sicily, independent democracy from 461, conquered by HIMILCO-II ruler of Carthage and destroyed until later that year.  Most of the Sicels of east Sicily go over to Himilco, who sends admiral MAGO with fleet for Catana. 397 B76 8-370, CAH 7.2 396 B76 VI-824, CAH 6-143, DGRBM 1-1034, OCD 675, TToH, rcSI
c.396 ERYX and MOTYA quickly recovered by Himilco-II. 396 DGRBM 2-474
c.396 ASSORUS is only Sicel town that remains loyal to Dionysius-I. 396 DGRG 1-243
c.396 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 marches north from Syracuse, attacks camp of Himilco-II near Catana, defeated, retreats to Syracuse. 397 B76 8-370
396 DGRG 1-722, MWΦ 197
c.396 TAUROMENIUM (close to Naxos) built over a Sicel foundation by HIMILCO-II.  Under Sicels allied to Carthage until 392. 396 CAH 6-145, OCD 1040
c.396 Syracusan fleet under LEPTINES attacks Punic fleet under MAGO.  Leptines advances with 30 ships into the enemy, and is cut off from his main fleet, and escapes by sailing out to sea.  The rest of the Syracusan fleet is defeated, over 100 ships sunk or destroyed.  Leptines and his surviving ships sail back to Syracuse. 397 wikLS
396 DGRBM 2-902
no date:
DGRBM 2-771
c.396 ΛMt. ETNA V Sicily errupts (4th time recorded by Greeks), making the coast road impassable, so that Himilco-II has to march around west of it. pre-396
DGRG 1-61
396 OCD 20, wikME
c.396 CATANA, under Campanian mercenaries and protection of Syracuse from 403, Campanians retire to Etna at approach of Carthginian MAGO.  Under Carthginians until later 396. 396 DGRG 1-567, MWΦ 197
c.396 POLYXENUS, bro-in-law of Dionysius-I, sent to Italy and Greece to get help for Greek Sicily.  He succeeds in getting 30 ships manned with allies under Spartan Pharacidas. 396 CAH 6-143
395 DGRBM 3-472
c.396 HIMILCO-II advances to Syracuse, besieges DIONYSIUS-I in Syracuse. 397 CAH 7.2, MCAW 144     397/6 lvS 396 CAH 6, GHH, OCD 350
c.396 Sanctuary of Demeter-Kore in Syracuse sacked by Himilco-II. 396 CAH 7.2-514
c.396 HIMILCO-II, ruler of Carthage, blockades DIONYSIUS-I in Syracuse with 208 triremes plus countless transports which fill the harbor. 397 MCAW 144     396 CAH 6, DGRBM 2-474, OCD 350, lvS 395 DGRG 1-546
c.396 HIMILCO-II, ravages the country 30 days unopposed.  Dispatches ships to bring grain from Sardinia.  Troops hit by plague. 397 MCAW 144     396 CAH 6, DGRBM 2-474, GHH, MWΦ 125, 209, OCD 350, TTPC, lvS 395 DGRG 1-546
c.396 PHARACIDAS commands 30 ships sent by Sparta to help Dionysius-I against blockading Carthaginians.  He takes 9 Punic ships and sails them into Syracuse harbor, thus contributing moral support, but not much more. 396 DGRBM 3-238
c.396 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, takes advantage of plague in Carthaginian troops, defeats HIMILCO's fleet and escapes, regains control of east Sicily. 396 B76 8-370, GHH, HAG, MWΦ 125, 198
c.396 DAMON, ruler of Centuripa southwest of Mt. Etna, allies with Dionysius-I. 396 DGRG 1-586
c.396 TYNDARIS on north coast of Sicily founded by Dionysius-I for Messenian exiles, who had been driven from Naupactus, Zacynthus, and Peloponnese by Spartans. 396 wikBT     396/5 wikTyn
c.396 Carthage / Syracuse war from 397 ends until 392. 396 B76 III-560
c.396 HIMILCO-II, ruler of Carthage, gives up Sicilian campaign, returns to Africa with a message:  Don't mess with goddess Demeter. 397 MCAW 144
396 B76 8-370, CAH 7.2, GHH, bk
c.396 Hamilcar, in Africa from 398 returns to Sicily until ?. 396 GHH
c.396 CATANA, under Carthginians 396, taken by DIONYSIUS-I, under Syracuse until 352. 396 B76 8-370, CAH 6-144, 7.2, MWΦ 125, 198
c.396 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, rebuilds MESSANA, gives it to Greek allies from Locri. 396 B76 8-370, CAH 7.2, MWΦ 198 no date: CAH 6-144
c.395 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, spends the year repairing devastations caused by the siege. 395 GHH
c.394 Roman envoys including A. Manlius Vulso with an offering bound for the Temple of Apollo Delphi, captured by Liparaean pirates.  They are released by Timasitheus, chief of Lipara island, same year, and allowed to continue their voyage. 394 CAH 7.2, DGRBM 3-1285
c.394 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, begins war with Rhegium until ?.  Dionysius defeats Rhegians and takes Myle Italy. 394 GHH
c.394 TAUROMENIUM (close to Naxos), under Sicels besieged by Dionysius-I, unsucceffully. 394 GHH
c.393 Poet XENARCHUS flourishes in court of Dionysius-I, who employs him to ridicule the Rhegians, as cowards. 393 GHH
c.393 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, succeeds militarily until 392. 393 CDCC 277
c.393 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 establishes control of Sicels at Tauromenium. 395-92 CAH 7.2
c.393 Carthaginian MAGO renews alliance with Sicels. 393 DGRBM 1-1034
c.393 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, defeats Mago the Carthaginian, who had come to aid Rhegium, and devastates the country.  Truce for a year. 393 GHH
c.392 Carthaginian MAGO attacks Messana, but is beaten off. 393 HAG     392 CAH 6, DGRBM 2-902, Dur 2-472, MCAW 144
c.392 TAUROMENIUM, under Sicels allied to Carthage from 396, taken by Dionysius-I, inhabited by Greeks until ?. 392 B76 IX-815, OCD 1040
c.392 MAGO, with reinforcements from Sardinia and Africa, assembles 80,000 men, advances thru central Sicily as far as Chrysas river. 392 DGRBM 1-1034, 2-902
c.392 Dionysius-I allies with Agyrus tyrant of Agyrium, and cuts off Mago's supplies while they are in rough country. 392 DGRBM 1-1034, 2-902, GHH no date: CAH 6-145
c.392 MAGO. in Sicily from 396, out of supplies, forced to make peace with DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse, at CHRYSAS river, accepts Dionysius-I's control of Sicels and Tauromenium, and independence of towns in central Sicily, Mago sails to Carthage. 392 B76 III-560, CAH 6, 7.2, DGRBM 1-1034, 2-902, GHH, LEWH 80, MCAW 144, OCD 350, bk, lvS
c.392 PUNIC / GREEK WAR from 398 suspended until 383.  DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse gets supremacy over Sicels and most of Sicily, but fails to drive Carthaginians out of Sicily. 392 B76 13-147, CAH 7.2, LEWH 80, MCAW 144, OCD 350, RAH 306, lvS
c.392 GELA, independent from 405, under Syracuse until 345. 392 rcSI
c.392 ACRAGAS, under Carthage from 406, comes under Syracuse until 378. 392 rcSI
c.391 Dionysius-I establishes a colony at Messana as a stronghold against Rhegium. 391 GHH
c.390 ECPHANTUS, Pythagorean of Syracuse, flourishes (if he existed).
Λ COSMOLOGY:  Supports heliocentric theory and Λ SPHERICAL EARTH:  "The Earth moves about its own center in an eastward direction.".   (See Dicaearchos 340)
Dur 2-502
4th cen.: wikEc
c.390 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse sends bro LEPTINES ahead to invade south Italy to help Lucanians against Italian Greeks. 390 DGRBM 1-1034, 2-771, wikLS
c.390 LEPTINES, fleet commander of Syracuse from ?, replaced by bro THEARIDES. 390 DGRBM 3-1022
c.390 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, invades south Italy until 388. 391 CAH 6, Dur 2-458, MCAW 144
390 DGRBM 2-771, LEWH 80
c.389 CAULONIA on south coast of Italy taken by Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 389 OCD 217-8 387 Dur 2-458
c.389 THEARIDES, fleet commander of Syracuse, commands an expedition to the Liparaean islands, where he captures 10 Rhegian ships. 389 DGRBM 3-1022
c.389 Dionysius-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, defeats ??? at Helorus river in southeast Sicily. 389 GHH
c.389 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, invades Italy 2nd time until 388. 389 DGRG 1-575
c.388 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, in south Italy twice from 390, returns to Sicily. 379 LEWH 80
c.388 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, grants Spartan request for help in Corinthian War 395-86. 388 MCAW 148 387 CAH 6
c.388/7 DION, relative of Dionysius-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, invites PLATO to Syracuse. 388/7 CDCC 276
c.387 PLATO in Italy studying philosophy with Archytas at Taras, then with Timaeus at Locri, goes to Sicily until 386. 389 GHH     388 CAH 6, MCAW 149     388/7 B76 8-370
387 Dur 2-458, 510, OCD 839
c.387 PHILISTUS, commander of the citadel for Dionysius-I of Syracuse falls from power, exiled until 366. 386/5
B76 VII-948
c.387 DAMON and PYTHIAS:  Pythagorean friends Damon and Pythias move to Syracuse.  Pythias is accused of plotting against Dionysius-I, and is sentenced to death.  Pythias asks to return home to bid his family farewell.  Dionysius-I, of course, refuses.  Damon offers to stand in while Pythias is gone.  Dionysius says if Pythias does not return on time, Damon will be executed in his place.  Damon agrees.  Pythias is released.  The day Pythias promised to return passes.  Dionysius prepares to execute Damon.  Pythias returns, saying how while returning to Syracuse, pirates captured his ship and threw him overboard.  Dionysius pardons them both. 387 GHH
no date:
c.387 Dionysius-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, intervenes in Corinthian war on Spartan side by sending his bro-in-law POLYXENOS with 20 ships from Sicily and Italy to help Antalcidas in the final campaign which blockades the Hellespont. 387
CAH 6-149 385 GHH
c.386 PLATO in Sicily from 387, returns to Athens until 367. 388 GHH     386 Dur 2-510
c.386 500 Roman colonists sent to SARDINIA. 386 CAH 7.2
c.385 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, founds cities in Adriatic - helps Parians found colonies at Issa and Pharos. 387 DGRG 2-68
385 CAH 6
385/4 CAH 6-147
c.385 PHAROS Island in Adriatic off coast of Dalmatia colonized by Greeks helped by Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 387 DGRG 2-68
385 wikDΦ
385/4 CAH 6-148
CONFUSION ALERT!  PHAROS island is in the Adriatic.  PAROS island is in the Cyclades.
c.385 Dionysius-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, suppresses piracy on Etruscan coasts. 385 GHH
c.385 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, sends an embassy to Athens for the Olympic festival. 385 B76 III-560
c.384 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, allies with Spartans. 384 GHH
c.384 Naval base on Corsica established by Dionysius-I of Syracuse. 384 CAH 7.2
c.384/3 PHAROS Island newly colonized by Greeks, native barbarian inhabitants call in help from Illyrians. 384/3 CAH 6-148
c.383 PUNIC / GREEK WAR in Sicily, dormant from 392, resumes until 381.  DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 attacks Carthaginians. 383 CAH 6-148-9, DGRBM 1-1035, Dur 2-472, GHH, LEWH 80, MCAW 148     382 B76 13-147, CAH 7.2, MWΦ 198, OCD 350
c.383 DIONYSIUS-I, tyrant of Syracuse 406-367, defeated by Carthaginians. 383 GHH
c.383 TREATY at Halycus River between Dionysius-I and Carthaginians.  Peace until 368. 383 DGRG 1-984, 1029, GHH, LdHR 1-298
c.381 MAGO dies.  Punic general, in Sicily from ?, defeated and killed in battle by Diontsius-I of Syracuse at Kabala in west Sicily. 383 GHH    381 MWΦ 198 379 HAG, bk     378-5 wikBC     375 CAH 7.2
c.380 DAMOCLES, courtier of Dionysius-I tyrant of Syracuse, tells Dionysius that he is extremely fortunate.  Dionysius then offers to switch places with Damocles, so that Damocles could taste that fortune firsthand.  Dionysius hangs a sword by a hair of horsetail over his own seat at his banquet table, and then has Damocles sit in it.  Damocles does so, but soon begs to be allowed to depart because he no longer wants to be so fortunate. no date: B76 III-363, wikDm
c.379 Carthaginians again invade Sicily. 379 GHH
c.378 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 badly defeated by Carthaginians at CRONIUM.  LEPTINES, bro of Dionysius-I, commands right wing, and is killed in battle. 379 HAG     378 bk 375 B76 13-147, CAH 7.2, OCD 350, wikLS
c.378 PUNIC / GREEK WAR from 383 ends.  Dionysius cedes land west of Halycus River and 1,000 talents to Carthaginians. 381 LEWH 80
379/8 MCAW 152
378 CAH 6
c.378 SARDINIA, under Carthage 500-238Rome sends 500 man colonizing party in violation of the 508 treaty.  Nothing comes of it. 378 CDCC 277, MWΦ 210
c.378 ACRAGAS, under Syracuse from 392, ceded back to Carthage until 352. 378 CDCC 277
c.378 SELINUS, under Syracuse from ?, ceded back to Carthage. 378 CDCC 277
c.374 Pro-Spartan faction in CORCYRA, eager to overthrow the democracy, appeal to Sparta, promise to betray Zakynthos to the Spartans if Sparta would send a fleet.  Sparta sends 22 ships under Alcidas. 374
CAH 6-177
c.374 CORCYRA, in 2nd Athenian League 375-60, besieged by Spartan fleet under Alcidas with Syracusan help until 373.  The Corcyrans appeal to Athens, which votes to help them and the Zakynthian exiles. 374 CAH 6-177, MCAW 152
373 wikCrf
c.374 Athenian CTESICLES sent to ZAKYNTHOS to take command of the exiles. 374 CAH 6
374/3 CAH 6-177
c.373 Athenian TIMOTHEOS is given 60 ships to help Corcyra against Spartans, but he is not enough funds to man them.  He sails among the Cyclades in search of crews and may even have ranged as far as Thrace.  He fritters away the sailing season, and is recalled, to be charged with treason by Callistratos and Iphicrates. 373 mid
CAH 6-177 OCD 1077
c.373 CEPHALONIA Island off west coast of Greece receives an Athenian garrison. 373 OHG 170
c.373 Athenian CTESICLES, at Zakynthos from 374, with 600 peltasts, sent to Corcyra, while Athens prepares for a more serious expedition under Iphicrates.  Ctesicles is successful. 373
CAH 6-179
c.373 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral sent to Corcyra. 373 OCD 550 372 CAH 6-179
c.373 IPHICRATES defeats Spartan fleet off Corcyra. 373 bk
c.373 Spartan fleet besieging Corcyra from 374 fails, goes home. 373 OCD 289
c.373 TREATY between Dionysius-I and Carthage profitable for Carthage. 373 CAH 6-373
c.373 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 sends 10 ships under Crinippos to help Spartans at Corcyra. 373 DGRBM 1-891
c.373 ZAKYNTHOS Island west of Greece, under oligarchy from 404, back under democracy until 217. 373 rcSB3
c.373/2 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral, sails to Acarnania, helps friendly cities, sails to Cephalonia island with 90 ships and extracts money. 372
CAH 6-179
c.372 IPHICRATES, Athenian admiral sails back to Corcyra. 372 CAH 6
c.372 10 Syracusan ships appear at Corcyra to help Spartans.  They are ambushed by Iphicrates9 ships are captured.  They contain expensive dedications intended for Delphi and Olympia.  Iphicrates, with clearance from home, sells them, attracting an angry letter to Athens with a complaint of sacrilege. 372
CAH 6-150, 179,
CDCC 464
c.371 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 attends peace conference at Sparta. 371 RAH 301
c.369 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 sends more than 20 Syracusan ships to help Sparta. 369 CAH 6-150
c.368 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 sends more help to Sparta. 368 CAH 6-150
c.368 DIONYSIUS-I of Syracuse begins 3rd PUNIC / GREEK WAR until 339. 368 B76 13-147, CAH 6, 7.2, DGRBM 1-1035, Dur 2-472, GHH, LEWH 80, MCAW 154, OCD 350, lvS
368/7 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse sends embassy to Athens, makes alliance. 368 CAH 6
368/7 OCD 350
c.367 DIONYSIUS-I tyrant of Syracuse 406-367 tries to drive Carthaginians from Sicily, occupies SELINUS, ENTELLA, Mt. ERYX, besieges LILYBAEUM.  Sends part of fleet back to Syracuse, remains at Drepana with 130 ships. 368 DGRG 1-829
367 MWΦ 198
c.367 200 Carthaginian ships under Hanno-III arrive at Drepana. 367 MWΦ 198, hifiC
c.367 DIONYSIUS-I defeated by Hanno-III at LILYBAEUM. 368 bk, hifiC
c.367 ENNA (town in center of Sicily) under Syracuse from 396, independent until 307. 367 rcSI
c.367 DIONYSIUS-I dies.  Tyrant of Syracuse from 406, commissions statues of himself as the god Dionysus.  He learns that his play "Ransom of Hector" has won 1st place in Athens, parties so hard that he dies.  Weak and despotic son DIONYSIUS-II succeeds until 357, under regency of uncle DION until 366. 367 B76 III-560, 8-369-70, 17-918, spring CAH 6-151, CDCC 276, DGRBM 1-1035-6, Dur 2-244, GHH, LdHR 1-298, LEWH 80, MCAW 154, 157, MRDK, MWΦ 125, OCD 350, 839, 985, OHG, RAH 307, bk, lvS, rcSI
c.367 DION and Dionysius-II quickly make peace with Carthage.  Neither side gained anything. 367 lvS
366 CAH 6
c.367 DION regent of Syracuse summons PLATO to transform Dionysius-II into a philosopher king.  Plato goes to Syracuse until 365.  Xenocrates accompanies. 367 CAH 6, EoΦ 6-314, KPHP 67, MCAW 155, OCD 839, OHG, bk     367/6 CDCC 276 367 or 61 CHHΦ
no date: B76 14-532, LEWH 80
c.366 DION regent of Syracuse is encouraged by PLATO to go for kingship. 366 GHH
c.366/5 PHILISTUS, exiled from 386/5, recalled to Syracuse by DIONYSIUS-II. 366/5
B76 VII-948
c.366/5 DION, uncle of Dionysius-II, regent of Syracuse from 367, expelled by Philistus and Dionysius-II until 357. 366 B76 III-560, CAH 6, lvS 366/5 OCD 351, 817
c.366/5 PLATO, tutor of DION, from 367, repudiated by Dionysius-II, leaves Syracuse, returns to Athens until 361. 366 B76 III-560, CAH 6, EoΦ 6-314, LEWH 80
366/5 CAH 6-390, OCD 351, lvS
c.365 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse 367-57, helps Sparta. 365 CAH 6
c.363 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse 367-57, invites Plato to visit him again, but postpones the recall of Dion for another year. 363 CAH 6-697
c.361 PLATO, in Athens from 366/5, invited back by Dionysius-II.  Makes 3rd visit & last to Syracuse until 360 to reconcile Dion and Dionysius-II.  Plato accompanied by neph Speusippus.  Dionysius soon showed that he would never put Platonic theory into practice to the extent of renouncing tyranny.  He also becomes increasingly intransigent towards Dion. 367 or 61 CHHΦ
361 B76 IX-416, B76 8-370, 14-532, CAH 6-697, Dur 2-458, EoΦ 6-314, KPHP 68, MCAW 155, OCD 351, 500, 1009, OHG, lvS
361/0 CAH 6-390, OCD 500 360 bk
c.360 PLATO in Syracuse from 361 with Speusippus, fails to reconcile Dion and Dionysius-II, forced to flee, return to Athens. 360 B76 8-370, CDCC 688, EoΦ 6-314, MCAW 155
c.360 DION and Heracleides are banished by Dionysius-II.     DION and bro Megacles flee from Syracuse to Greece until 357. 360 GHH
358 DGRBM 2-1007, GHH
c.358 ANDROMACHUS gathers refugees expelled from Naxos by Dionysius-II to nearby TAUROMENIUM, and becomes its tyrant until ?. 358
OCD 1040, 1074
c.357 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse 367-57, goes to Italy until 347 to visit 2 new colonies in Iagygia. 357/6 OCD 351
c.357 DION, former regent of Syracuse 36-67, at Athens with Plato from 358, recruits 800-1,500 mercenaries from Zacynthos and sails to Syracuse while Dionysius-II is in Italy, lands at Heraclea Minoa on south coast of Carthaginian Sicily, recovers Syracuse, rules as tyrant until 354. 357 B76 III-559, CAH 6, CDCC 276, 853, DGRBM, DGRG 1-984, 1048, Dur 2-458, 474, GHH, LEWH 80, MCAW 158, OCD 349, 817, 839, bk, lvS     356 OCD 1030
c.357 Dion's fleet comprises 2 merchantmen (for the soldiers), 1 ancillary vessel, and 2 triremes. 357 wikDnS
c.357 Agrigentine knights of Ecnomus hill at the mouth of Himera river on south coast of Sicily join Dion against Syracuse. 357
DGRG 1-804
CONFUSION ALERT!  The ancients appear to call 2 Sicilian rivers Himera, and even assert that they joined in the middle of the island !   DGRG 1-1068
c.356 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse from 367, and fleet commander PHILISTUS, defeated at sea by DION, Dionysius-II is deposed.  Philistus continues fight for Dionysius.  DION succeeds as unofficial boss of Syracuse until 354. 357 B76 8-370, 14-532, LEWH 80, bk
356 B76 III-560, DGRBM 3-295, GHH, HAG, MRDK, OCD 817, OHG
c.356 PHILISTUS the historian, tries and fails to recover Leontini for Dionysius-II. 356 DGRBM 3-295
c.356 PHILISTUS the historian, with 60 triremes, fights Dion's fleet reinforced by 20 Peloponnesian ships, gets surrounded, suicides out. 356 DGRBM 3-295, GHH, HAG, OCD 817, OHG
c.356 ORTYGIA island (on which Syracuse is) blockaded by Dion until 355. 356 CAH 6
c.356 NYPSIUS Neapolitan officer under Dionysius-II, arrives in Syracuse to relieve the citadel, which is besieged by Syracusans under Dion.  He arrives in time to prevent the garrison from surrendering the citadel, and, by a sudden night sally, defeats the Syracusans.  Next day, Dion returns and, Nypsius is defeated, and again shut up in the citadel. 356 CAH 6
no date: DGRBM 2-1213
c.356 Brothers DION and MEGACLES besiege the citadel at Syracuse. 356 DGRBM 1-1028
c.356 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse leaves son Apollocrates with a mercenary force in charge of the citadel, sails to Locris Italy. 356 B76 III-560, DGRBM 1-1028
c.356 HIPPARINUS son of Dion, in Syracuse citadel, besieged by Dion. 356 DGRBM 2-478
c.355 DION, ruler of Syracuse from 357, usurps dictatorial power, rules as tyrant until 354. 355 B76 8-370
c.355 Jealousy between Dion and Heracleides, who is murdered. 355 GHH
c.355 ORTYGIA island, blockaded by Dion from 356, falls. 355 CAH 6
c.354 Eudemos, Dion, Timonides of Leucas, and other Academics conspire to overthrow Dionysius-II, now in Italy. 354 CAH 6-617
c.354 DION, ruler of Syracuse from 357, murdered during festival of Persephone (either by his own soldiers or by agents of his follower and fellow Academic, CALIPPUS).  Dion's wife, Arete, his sis Aristomache are imprisoned.  Anarchy follows with Calippus as top dog until 353.  Dionysius-II bides his time in Italy. 356 HAG     354 B76 III-559, 8-370, mid CAH 6-705, Dur 2-458, LEWH 80, MCAW 158, MRDK, OCD 349-50, OHG, bk, lvS     353 CDCC 276, DGRBM 1-278, 574, GHH, wikHg
c.353 Arete bears a son in prison.  Arete and her mother and Dion's sister Aristomache are released and find temporary protection under general Hicetas, who is later persuaded to put them on a ship to Corinth and have them drowned. 353 DGRBM 1-278, 2-449
c.353/2 CATANA, under Syracuse 403-352, besieged by Calippus of Syracuse..  During this time Hipparinus, son of Dionysius-I, seizes Syracuse. 351 GHH
c.353/2 CALIPPUS, honcho of Syracuse from 354, deposed by family and partisans of Dion under HIPPARNIUS.  Anarchy follows until 347 with Hipparinus as top dog until 351/0. 353 B76 8-370, bk 352 CAH 6, DGRBM 2-478, MRDK, rcSI, wikCS     351 GHH
c.352 CATANA Sicily under Syracuse from 403, no longer Under Syracuse until 305.  Under tyrant MAMERKOS until 338. 352 LEWH 80, OCD 214, rcSI
c.352 ACRAGAS, under Carthage from 378, comes under tyrant PHARAX, and is then destroyed by Carthage and semi-abandoned until 338. 352 rcSI
c.351/0 HIPPARNIUS, honcho of Syracuse from 353, dies.  Bro NYSAEUS succeeds in a state of anarchy until 347. 352/1 B76 8-370
351 CAH 6, bk
350 MRDK, rcSI
c.350 Syracusan general HICETAS becomes tyrant of Leontini until 339. no date: wikHg
c.348 Rome / Carthage Λ 2nd treaty V and trade agreement.  Romans will stay away from Sardinia and Libya.  Carthage will not attack Latin cities loyal to Rome.  Contains trade clauses acknowledging the possibility that Roman traders might visit Sicily or Africa, but primarily to protect commercial interests of Carthage, not Rome. 348 Agθ 33, B76 13-149, CAH 7.2-323, DGRG 1-533, LEWH 85, MCAW 163, MWΦ 210, OCD 208, TToH, bk
c.347 DIONYSIUS-II former tyrant of Syracuse 367-6, in Italy from 357, returns to Syracuse.  NYSAEUS, honcho of Syracuse from 351/0, ousted by Dionysius-II, who rules as tyrant until 344.  His opponents flee to Leontini. 347 B76 8-370, GHH, LEWH 80, MRDK, lvS     347/6 GHH, OCD 351, rcSI     346 CAH 6, DGRBM 1-1035, Dur 2-458, MCAW 162, OHG, bk
c.345 Opponents of Dionysius-II in Syracuse call in HICETAS, tyrant of Leontini, to rule them.  They also appeal to mother city Corinth to depose Dionysius-II. 345 B76 8-370, CAH 6, LEWH 80
c.345 HICETAS, tyrant of Leontini 350-39, intrigues with Carthaginians. 345 CAH 6
c.345 GELA, under Syracuse from 392, comes under local oligarchy until 305. 345 rcSI
c.345 HANNO-III with 50,000 inf backed by cav, many chariots, and siege engines, sent from Carthage to Sicily. 344 DGRBM 2-342, hifiC
c.345 ENTELA besieged Hanno-III.  Galaria is the only city that sends aid (1,000 men) to Entela. 345 DGRG 1-926
c.345 ENTELA falls to Hanno-III. 345 CAH 7.2, DGRG 1-926
c.344 Sicilians, including Syracusan exiles, send envoys to Corinth to implore assistance against Dionysius-II. 344 B76 IX-1017, DGRBM 3-1139
c.344 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse 347-44, is blockaded on Ortygia by Syracusan rebels under HICETAS of Leontini aided by Carthaginian fleet. 345 OCD 351 345/4 CAH 7.2
c.344 Carthaginian allies of Hicetas are defeated. 344 GHH
c.344 TIMOLEON of Corinth, with a few hundred mercenaries is sent from Corinth to help Syracuse against Dionysius-II.  He lands at Tauromenium. 345 B76 8-370, 17-919
344 B76 IX-1017, CAH 6, CDCC 853, 891, DGRBM 2-911, 3-1130, 1139, GHH, MCAW 162, OCD 290, OHG, RAH 307
c.344 Andromachus tyrant of Tauromenium receives Timoleon, and is left in power. 344 DGRBM 3-1130
c.344 TIMOLEON of Corinth faces 2 enemies: Dionysius-II of Syracues and Hicetas of Leontini who has Punic help. 344
B76 IX-1017
c.344 HICETAS, tyrant of Leontini 350-39, learns that TIMOLEON is advancing to occupy Adranum, hurries there to oppose him, but is defeated with heavy loss. 344 CAH 6, DGRBM 2-450, GHH, bk, wikHg
c.344 ADRANUM, under Syracuse from 400, taken by Timoleon. 345 DGRG 1-25
c.344 DIONYSIUS-II, tyrant of Syracuse from 347, forced to adbicate by TIMOLEON of Corinth, who becomes tyrant until 337.  Dionysius-II is sent to Corinth, where he fades out of history.  Timoleon restores peace and unity and an oligarchy until 317. 345 B76 17-919     344 B76 8-370, CAH 6, 7.2, CDCC 853, 891, Dur 2-458, ISBE 4-686, OCD 290, RAH 307, bk, rcSI
343 B76 III-560, DGRBM 3-1140, GHH, MCAW 162, 163, lvS
c.343 ORTYGIA island, under Dionysids from 405/4, taken by TIMOLEON of Corinth. 343 DGRBM 1-1037
c.343 MAGO of Carthage, invited by Hicetas, brings a large army to Syracuse. 343
CAH 6-711
c.343 Hicetas of Leontini and Carthaginian Mago try to blockade Timoleon unsuccessfully. 344/3
CAH 7.2
c.343 Corinthian expedition of 10 ships, 2,000 hoplites, and 200 cavalry, is unable to proceed beyond Thurii Italy because it is intercepted by a Carthaginian squadron. spring 343
CAH 6-711
c.343 MAGO of Carthage, and Hicetas are unable to reduce Ortygia.  They both go to attack Catana, the supply source for the besieged.  Meanwhile Neon, commander of the Corinthian garrison, recovers Achradina.  Greek mercenaries of Mago and Hicetas fraternize with those in Catana.  Mago sails home. 343
CAH 6-711, 7.2-495
c.343 TIMOLEON of Corinth, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, settles affairs at Syracuse. 343 CAH 6
c.342 TIMOLEON of Corinth, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, raids Carthaginian territory. 342 CAH 6
c.342 TIMOLEON of Corinth, attacks Hicetas in Leontini, repulsed, then attacks Leptines, tyrant of Engyum and Apollonia.  Leptines capitulates at Engyum, and is exiled to the Peloponnese, thence to Corinth. 342 mid
CAH 6-712, DGRBM 2-771
c.342/1 TIMOLEON of Corinth, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, advances into Carthaginian west Sicily, occupies Entella, defeats Carthaginians near Segesta. 343 CAH 7.2, OCD 1074     342/1 B76 8-370, MWΦ 198
c.341 200 Carthaginian warships carrying 70,000 inf and 10,000 cav under Hasdrubal and Hamilcar sail from Africa, land at Lilybaeum Sicily to restore Carthaginian authority in the west. 341 CAH 6-713, OCD 1076
339 DGRBM 3-1140
c.341 TIMOLEON, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, patches up his quarrel with Hicetas, then with only 12,000 men marches into Carthaginian land.  1,000 of his mercenaries mutiny near Acragas and desert. 341 CAH 6-713
c.340 Celt mercenaries mentioned in Sardinia as courageous, impetuous, and fickle fighters. 340 CAH 7.2-495
c.340 TIMOLEON, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, with 11,000 troops, defeats 70,000 Carthaginians under Hasdrubal and Hamilcar at CRIMISSUS River near Segesta, drives Carthaginians west.  But afterward Timoleon's allies rebel. 341 B76 8-370, CAH 6-713, 7.2, LEWH 80, OHG, bk     340 DGRG 1-76, Dur 2-458, MWΦ
339 DGRBM 2-326, 354, 3-1141, DGRG 1-706, GHH, MCAW 166-7, wikBC, wikHg
c.339 Appolloniades, tyrant of Agira Sicily, conquered and expelled by Cornithian general Timoleon.  Some 10,000 ethnic Greeks are settled in Agira, which comes under Syracuse until 289. 339 DGRG 1080, rcSI
c.339 TIMOLEON, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, attacks and defeats Campanian soldiers entrenched in Etna.   Agathocles distinguishes himself in battle. 339
Agθ 39, 98,
CAH 7.1-385
c.339 ETNA, under Syracuse from ?, under Campanian mercenaries from 426, taken by Timoleon.  Campanians are killed. 339 DGRG 1-60
c.339 NICODEMUS, tyrant of Centuripa southwest of Mt. Etna, expelled by Timoleon.  Centuripa is free until ?. 339 DGRG 1-586
c.339 HICETAS, tyrant of Leontini, is totally defeated by Timoleon at river Damurias, and is soon captured with his son Eupolemus. 339 DGRBM 2-1191, DGRBM 2-450, wikHg
c.339 HICETAS, tyrant of Leontini from 350, executed at Leontini, together with his son Eupolemus.  His wife and daughters are carried to Syracuse, where they are executed by order of the people. 339 CAH 6, DGRBM 2-450, wikHg
c.339 LEONTINI again incorporaed under Syracuse, population transferred to Syracuse. 339 DGRG 2-159
c.339 AGIRA comes under Syracuse until 289. 339 rcSI
c.339 TIMOLEON, tyrant of Syracuse 344-37, makes peace with Carthaginians.  3rd PUNIC / GREEK WAR from 368 ends.  Himera and Halycus Rivers are boundary between them.  Timoleon deposes 2 tyrants and establishes a peace that lasts until 317. 339 CAH 7.2, LEWH 80, lvS
338 CAH 6-715, DGRBM 3-1141, MCAW 166, bk
c.338 ACRAGAS, semi-abandoned from 352, refounded by a remnant of its former citizens, who are gathered by Megellus under auspices of Timoleon.  Under Timoleon until 337, under tyranny until 314. 338 B76 I-146, CAH 7.2, DGRBM 2-1009, rcSI
c.338 MAMERKOS tyrant of Catana from 352, defeated by Timoleon at the Abolus, abandoned by Carthaginian allies, tries to enlist support of Lucanians, but is deserted by his own men, who surrender Catana to Timoleon.  Mamerkos escapes and takes refuge with Hippon tyrant of Messana. 338 DGRBM 2-493, DGRG 1-984, rcSI
no date:
CAH 6-715
c.338 TIMOLEON follows Mamerkos to Messana and besieges by land and sea.  Tyrant Hippon tries to escape by sea, but is siezed by Messanans, brought back to the public theater, and executed. 338 CDGRA 625, DGRBM 2-493
c.338/7 GELA resettled by Timoleon. 338/7 CAH 7.2
c.337 TIMOLEON tyrant of Syracuse from 344, retires with great honors from Syracusans.  His oligarchy lasts until 317. 338 OHG     337 B76 8-370, 17-919, CAH 6, LEWH 80, MCAW 169     337/6 B76 IX-1017
c.336 TIMOLEON dies at Syracuse. 337 CAH 7.1-384, DGRBM, Dur 2-475, GHH
336 MCAW 169, OCD 985, RAH 308
331 Sep 20/1 LUNAR ECLIPSE recorded in Sicily and at Arbela.   "But about the first watch the Moon in eclipse, hid at first the brilliance of her heavenly body, then all her light was sullied and suffused with the hue of blood."
(Curtius, History of Alexander)
"Inhabitants of the East do not perceive evening eclipses of the Sun and Moon, nor do those dwelling in the West see morning eclipses, while the latter see eclipses at midday later than we do.  The victory of Alexander the Great is said to have caused an eclipse of the Moon at Arbela at 8pm while the same eclipse in Sicily was when the Moon was just rising... this was because the curve of the globe discloses and hides different phenomena for different localities."
(Pliny, Natural History 77CE)
331 Sep 20/1 CAH 7.2-21, mrec
c.330 Syracusans go to Italy, help Croton against the Bruttii. 330 CAH 7.2
c.330 Carthaginians help Syracusan aristocracy. 330 CAH 7.2
c.330 Power in Syracuse falls to an oligarchic coterie of 600 men from noble families under leadership of Sosistratus and Heracleides. 330
CAH 7.1-384
c.325 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse distinguishes himself in wars against Acragas and the Brutii. 325 OCD 25
c.325 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse marries widow of his patron Damas, a distinguished and wealthy citizen. 325 wikAg
c.325 AGATHOCLES charges leading oligarch of Syracuse Sostratus with treason, fails, and is exiled.  Sostratus carries a decree of banishment against friends of Agathocles, and 1,000 men are forced to leave, their property confiscated.  They are then killed.  Agathocles gathers what forces he can from the downfall of his party, and goes to Italy until 322. 326 Agθ 43-44
325 CAH 6, MCAW 170
c.322 SOSTRATUS oligarch of Syracuse, besieging RHEGIUM Italy from ?, fails, returns to Syracuse, loses his leadership position. 322
Agθ 45
c.322 AGATHOCLES exiled in Italy from 325, returns to Syracuse. 322 CAH 6, 7.1, Agθ 44
c.322 Syracuse, under oligarchy 337-17, Agathocles raises democratic revolt until 317. 323 LEWH 90 322 MCAW 172
c.321 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse rescues a Syracusan force which is attacked by Sostratus at Gela. 321 atl4
c.320 ACESTORIDES of Corinth invited to Syracuse to arbitrate disputes between Agathocles and his opponents - mainly Sostratus.  Remains until 319. 320 wikAcs
c.320 AGATHOCLES expelled from Syracuse by Acestorides.  Flees into the midlands until 317.  He goes to Morgantina, where he is given command of an army. 320 CAH 7.1, atl4
319 Agθ 49
c.319 Acestorides leaves Syracuse.  Oligarch Sostratus becomes leader of Syracuse until 317. 319 atl4, wikAcs
c.319 AGATHOCLES captures Leontini with an army from Morgantina. 319 atl4
319/18 AGATHOCLES tries to recover Syracuse, but it is now guarded by Hamilcar's Carthaginian troops which outnumber him.  So Agathocles negotiates with Hamilcar. 319/18 Agθ 51
319/18 AGATHOCLES appointed general and guardian of the peace at Syracuse, and put in command of fortified positions in Sicily.  The position he had previously usurped in Sicel areas is now legalized. 319/18
CAH 7.1-388
c.318 HAMILCAR negotiates treaty with oligarchs allowing AGATHOCLES to return from Africa to Syracuse.  318 MWΦ 199
no date: Agθ 51-53
c.317 AGATHOCLES is allowed to return to Syracuse, but is bound by oaths at the temple of Demeter to not overthrow the oligarchy, and to keep peace with Carthage.  Hamilcar then leaves 5,000 of his own troops (now mercenaries) under Agathocles, and marches out of Syracuse.  Sostratus flees to Herbita. no date: Agθ 53
c.317 AGATHOCLES with Carthginian mercenaries overthrows the oligarchy at Syracuse set up by Timoleon 344, kills 4,000 oligarchs, banishes 6,000 to Acragas, divides their property among the poor.  AGATHOCLES becomes tyrant of Syracuse until 305/4 supported by lower classes. 318/7 B76 8-371     317 B76 I-313, 8-832, 17-919, CDCC 22, GHH, LdHR 1-299, LEWH 90, MRDK, OCD 25, 1030, 1074, OHG, RAH 383, bk, rcSI, wikAg
317/6 CDCC 853     316 MCAW 174, OCD 194, atl4     no date: Agθ 56
c.317 Bruttians of south Italy, at war with Syracusans from ?, make peace. 317 Agθ 41
c.317 TIMAEOS of Tauromenium exiled from Syracuse by Agathocles, travels widely in Spain and Gaul until ?.  Becomes a Historian. 317 Dur 2-612 315 CAH 7.2, CDCC 889
c.317 AGATHOCLES tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, subjugates most of Sicily until 289. 317 OCD 985 316 OCD 194 316/5 lvS
c.316 AGATHOCLES tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, attacks MESSANA, but fails to take it, sails to Mylae, where the guard, after a short siege, opens the gates.  Returns to Syracuse.  Agathocles besieges Messana again, but an embassy from Carthage lands and orders him to quit siege, because it was contrary to Timoleon's treaty.  He complies, and goes to Abacaenum. 316 Agθ 60-61
315 Agθ 99, atl4
CAH 7.1-390, 7.2
c.316 TAUROMENIUM (close to Naxos) taken by AGATHOCLES tyrant of Syracuse until ?. 316 OCD 1040 315 CDCC 889 312 OCD 1074
316/15 The Syracusan exiles become the driving force in Sicilian history until 306. 316/15
CAH 7.1-390
316/15 AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, elected strategos autocrator. 316/15 CAH 7.1
c.315 Syracusan oligarchs exiled at Acragas get Acragas to declare war, and join with Gela and Messana against Agathocles.  They send an embassy to Sparta for a leader. 315 Agθ 61-62 314 atl4
c.315/4 Acragas, Gela, and Messana ally against Agathocles. 315/4 CAH 7.2     314 CAH 7.1-391
c.314 ACRAGAS, under tyranny from 338, comes under Syracuse until 309/8. 314 DGRG 1-76
c.314 Spartan ACROTATOS-I with a small squadron sails from Taras to Acragas, and is put in charge of coalition army.  He behaves arrogantly, wasting war-funds on amusements.  He has Sostratus stabbed to death while dining.  The allies meet, and depose Acrotatos; then a mob gathers to stone him, so he slips away by night and sails home. 315/4 CAH 7.2 314 Agθ 99, atl4
no date: Agθ 63
c.314 HAMILCAR intervenes in Sicily ostensibly to mediate between the Gela, Messana, Acragas coalition and Agathocles.  Hamilcar takes Heraclea Minoa, Selinus.  The coalition complains to Carthage, which does nothing. 314
Agθ 63, MWΦ
c.314 60 Carthaginian ships come to the aid of Acragas. 314 CAH 7.1-392
c.314 AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, makes peace with Carthaginians:  Heraclea Minoa, Selinus, and Himera to continue under Carthage. 314 DGRG 1-1048, 1067
c.314 AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, makes peace terms with Acragas, Gela, Messana alliance. 314 CAH 7.1-392, 7.2, atl4
c.314 AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, as a result of Hamilcar's mediation, makes peace with Syracusan exiles on basis of status quo.  Messana does not accept the peace and becomes the main rallying point of the refugees.  The peace benefits neither the exiles nor Carthage; but only Agathocles. 314 CAH 7.1-391-2
c.313 HAMILCAR dies.  He is secretly condemned by Punic senate, and dies soon afterward.  No single man is in charge of Punic armies in Sicily until 311. 314 atl4
313 Agθ 64
c.313 By the end of 313 nearly all Greek states are under Agathocles' power. Agθ 65
313/2 AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, in violation of his peace with Acragas 314, besieges Acragas until 312/1. 313/2
CAH 7.1-392
c.312 AGATHOCLES tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, sends general Pasiphilus to attack Messana territory.  Pasiphilus takes much booty and many prisoners, and besieges Messana.  Agathocles arrives with fresh troops.  Messana admits Agathocles and his army into the city and expels the refugees. 312 CAH 7.2, Agθ 65, atl4
CAH 7.1-391
c.312 AGATHOCLES summons all his enemies from Messana and Tauromenium and slaughters 600 of them. 312
Agθ 67
c.312 TAUROMENIUM taken by Agathocles. 312 Agθ 86
c.312 Syracusan general DEINOCRATES champions Syracusan exiles and coalition forces against Agathocles in midland Sicily. 312 Agθ 68
c.312 CENTURIPA, a city under Agathocles, offers itself to Deinocrates, if Deinocrates will free Centuripa.  Deinocrates sends Nymphodorus with a few troops for a surprise attack.  They brake into Centuripa by night, but guards kill Nymphodorus, and those caught within the walls.  Agathocles comes to Centuripa, accuses citizens of treason, has all suspects killed. 312 Agθ 68, atl4
c.312 Agathocles' enemies in GALARIA invite Deinocrates to save them.  Deinocrates with 5,000 men, expells partisans of Agathocles, then camps outside the walls.  Agathocles' generals Pasiphilus and Demophilus with 5,000 men attack and defeat Deinocrates and kill all Gallarians who had rebelled. 312 Agθ 69, atl4
311 DGRG 1-926
c.312 Carthaginians establish a camp on Mount Ecnomus, chief height on south coast of Sicily, within striking-distance of Gela, and overlooking the road from there to Acragas.  This becomes last refuge of oligarchs against Agathocles. 312
Agθ 70
c.312/1 ACRAGAS, besieged by Agathocles from 313/2, relieved by 60 Carthaginian ships. 312/1 CAH 7.2
c.311 Hamilcar-II with 130 warships, 2,000 Punic troops, many of noble birth, 10,000 Africans, 1,000 mercenaries, 200 chariots from Etruria, and 1,000 Balearic slingers is hit by a storm, loses 60 triremes and 200 grain-ships. 311 Agθ 70-71, CAH 7.1-392, DGRBM 2-326
c.311 ¼ of Hamilcar's troops are Libyan. 311 CAH 7.2-494
c.311 HAMILCAR son of Gisco invades Sicily, takes over the troops already there, recruits until his army totals 40,000 inf and 5,000 cav. 311 Agθ 71, DGRBM 2-326, Dur 2-555, atl4, prsH
c.311 Agathocles / Carthage war begins until 306. 312/11 CAH 7.1     311 OHG
c.311 Agathocles wants to take GELA, which is ambivalent about him.  He sends troops into Gela a few at a time, so as not to arrouse suspicion.  Then he enters, takes charge, slaughters 4,000 Gelans, and orders the rest to deliver all their money.  They do. 311 Agθ 71-2, OCD 459, atl4
c.311 Leaving a strong guard in Gela, Agathocles marches out and camps on Mount Phalarium.  The Himera river now flows between Agathocles and the Carthaginians. 311
Agθ 73
c.311 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse defeated by Carthaginian HAMILCAR-II on HIMERA RIVER500 Carthaginians and 7,000 Greeks killed. 312/1 MCAW 174     311 Agθ 74-6,
Jun CAH 7.1, CDCC 22, DGRBM 2-326, DGRG 1-805, 1068, LEWH 90, OCD 25, atl4, lvS, wikAg     311/0 CAH 7.2
c.311 AGATHOCLES burns his camp and flees to Gela.  Being apprehensive of Gelas defection to the Carthaginians, Agathocles introduces a body of troops into the city, massacres above 4,000 principal citizens, thereby establishing temporary power there. 311 Agθ 83, DGRG 1-984, atl4
c.311 Finding Gela too strong to take, HAMILCAR,-II proclaims freedom and good-will to the Greeks.  Envoys from Camarina, Leontini, Catana, and Tauromenium offer alliance, then from farther-off Messana and Abacaenum.  Agathocles draws his forces together and slips home to Syracuse. 311
Agθ 84-5, atl4
c.311 Syracuse besieged by HAMILCAR son of Gisco.  Carthaginian fleet blockades the harbor. 312/1 MCAW 174     311 Agθ 88,
Jun CAH 7.1, CDCC 22, LEWH 90, wikAg     310 GHH
c.310 All Sicily except Syracuse is now under Carthaginians. 310 MWΦ 199
c.310 HAMILCAR son of Gisco has a Greek pilot who betrays Punic plans to Agathocles.  Hamilcar discovers it and tells the pilot that he plans to surprise Olympieum near Syracuse.  This is passed to Agathocles, who goes to defend Olympieum.  Hamilcar lays an ambush, and kills 7,000 Greeks. 311/10
Agθ 88 310 atl4
c.310 AGATHOCLES helps 1,600 rich men of Syracuse escape the siege, then murders them on the road and takes their money. 310 Agθ 90, MCAW 178
310 Aug. 14 AGATHOCLES leaves bro Antander, with Brymnon the Aetolian, to rule Syracuse, and a son commanding the army in Syracuse.  With sons Archagathus and Heracleides, Agathocles escapes the blockade in 60 ships, does not take the normal southern route to Africa, but sails along the coast of Sicily to deceive the Carthaginians. 310 Agθ 90, B76 I-133, 13-148, CAH 7.1-394, 7.2, DGRBM 1-182, 499, Dur 2-555, GHH, LEWH 90, MCAW 178, MWΦ 126, 199, atl4, bk, lvS, wikAg
Aug 15
SOLAR ECLIPSE on the day after Agathocles escapes.   "Agathocles, who was already at the point of being overtaken and surrounded, gained unhoped for safety as night closed in.  On the next day there occurred such an eclipse of the Sun that utter darkness set in and the stars were seen everywhere;  wherefore Agathocles' men, believing that the prodigy portended misfortune for them, fell into even greater anxiety about the future.  After they had sailed for six days and the same number of nights, just as day was breaking, the fleet of the Carthaginians was unexpectedly seen far away."   (Diodorus Siculus) 310 Aug 15 Agθ 91, 97, CAH 7.1-394, DGRBM 1-64, atl4, hbar, mrec
310 Aug. 20 AGATHOCLES with 60 ships arrives in Africa, holds up until 307. 310 Agθ 90, B76 I-133, 13-148, CAH 7.1-394, 7.2, Dur 2-555, GHH, LEWH 90, MCAW 178, MWΦ 126, 199, atl4, bk, lvS, wikAg
310 The brass prows of Agathocles burnt ships are sent to HAMILCAR-II besieging Syracuse.  He uses them as evidence to the Syracusans that Agathocles' party has been annihilated.  Most believe it.  Syracusans drive out all kinsfolk of the men believed dead, and any others who disliked the government of the regents, 8,000 in all.  Hamilcar shelters them.  Syracusans are divided on the question of surrender.  Hamilcar builds siege-engines to storm the city. 310 Agθ 118
c.310 2 ships from Agathocles under Nearchus elude the Punic blockade, and arrive at Syracuse to inform them of Agathocles' victory at Carthage. 310 Agθ 119
c.310 HAMILCAR-II backs off his siege engines, and sends 5,000 men home to help Carthage. 310 Agθ 119
310/9 HAMILCAR-II spends winter raising fresh troops. 310/9 Agθ 132
c.309 By spring HAMILCAR-II has 120,000 infantry, and 5,000 cav; no doubt including Greek mercenaries. 309 Agθ 132
c.309 HAMILCAR-II dies.  3rd Hannid ruler of Carthage from 330, besieging Syracuse, blunders, and is captured by Syracusans.  He is decapitated, and his head sent to Agathocles in Africa.  The Carthaginians and their Greek allies split under different generals, and the siege of Syracuse lingers on. 309 Agθ 130-36, CAH 7.1-401, atl4, hifiC, wikMC
308 MCAW 181, MWΦ 199
c.309 Carthaginian blockade of Syracuse abandoned. 309 Agθ 132, CAH 7.1
c.309 ERBESUS, somewhere in east Sicily, under a Syracusan garrison from ?, expells the garrison with help of Agrigentines and their allies under Xenodicus. 309/8
CAH 7.2
c.309 ECHETLA Sicily, occupied by Syracusan troops, used as a base to harass cities Camarina and Netum until 308. 309 DGRG 1-803
c.309 HERACLEA MINOA, on south coast, joins Acragantine league until 307. 309 wikHM
c.309 ACRAGAS, under Xenodicus, declares independence, leads south Sicily against Syracuse.  Gela is first to join them. 309 DGRG 1-984 309/8 CAH 7.2
309/8 ACRAGAS, under Syracuse from 314, forms a democracy, and elects XENODIKOS ruler until 307, under democracy until 280. 309 DGRG 1-76, atl4 309/8 Agθ 138     308 rcSI
309/8 ENNA, in central Sicily, independent 367-07, opens gates to Xenodicus of Acragas. 309 DGRG 1-828
c.308 ECHETLA, a Syracusan outpost, harassing cities Camarina and Netum from 309, is stormed by XENODIKOS of Acragas.  The Syracusans are driven out, and a popular government set up. 309/8
Agθ 139
c.308 XENODIKOS of Acragas rescues many Sicilian cities from oppression from both Catrhaginians and Syracusans, but the old Phoenician posts are not touched. 309/8
Agθ 139
c.308 XENODIKOS of Acragas, with 10,000+ inf and 1,000 cav, marches on Syracuse.  Agathoclean generals LEPTINES and DEMOPHILUS, with 8,200 inf and 1,200 cav, defeat Xenodikos, who flees to Acragas, leaving 1,500 slain on the field. 308 Agθ 159, CAH 7.1-402
308/7 ACRAGAS defeated by Syracuse, which regains control of south Sicily. 308/7 CAH 7.2
c.307 HERACLEA MINOA, on south coast, which had been free as a member of the Acragantine league from 309, declares independence from both Carthaginians and Agathocles. 307 DGRG 1-1048
c.307 AGATHOCLES tyrant of Syracuse 317-05/4, in Africa from 310, with 2,000 men and much loot, returns to Sicily, lands at Selinus. 308/7 Agθ 160     307 B76 I-133, fall CAH 7.1, MCAW 178, MWΦ 199, OCD 25, 208, wikAg
c.307 HERACLEA MINOA surrenders to AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, under Syracuse until ?. 308/7 Agθ 160
307 DGRG 1-1048
c.307 SEGESTA Sicily, under Carthage from 409, siezed by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, under Syracuse until 280. 308/7 Agθ 160
307 OCD 970
c.307 CEPHALODIUM on north coast siezed by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, under Syracuse until ?.  Leaving Leptines to hold Cephalodium, Agathocles marches inland to Centuripa, where some Agathocleans are ready to open the gates. 308/7 Agθ 160, DGRG 1-589
c.307 CENTURIPA thwarts a night attack by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse, who loses 500 men. 308/7 Agθ 160
c.307 APOLLONIA taken after 2 assaults by AGATHOCLES of Syracuse. 308/7 Agθ 161
c.307 ENNA (town in central Sicily) independent from 367, comes under Syracuse until 289. 307 rcSI
c.307 DEINOCRATES, now an independent power with 20,000 inf and 1,500 cav, opposes AGATHOCLES, who prefers to retreat toward Syracuse. 308/7
Agθ 161
c.307 The ETRUSCANS (of all people) decide to help Agathocles.  They send 18 ships to Syracuse harbor (still blockaded by 30 Carthaginian ships), sneaking in by night.  Agathocles adds 17 ships of his own, and they outnumber the Carthaginians, capturing 5 ships, and expelling the rest. 308/7
Agθ 167-8, CAH 7.2
307 DGRG 1-861
c.307 General LEPTINES sent by Agathocles to take Acragas, defeats Xenodicus in the field, but then receives orders to go with his army to Africa.  XENODICUS, democratic ruler of Acgagas from 308, is blamed for the defeat, and flees to Gela. 307 Agθ 169-70, rcSI
c.307 AGATHOCLES plays a relaxed drunkard to see who his enemies are, then invites 500 of them to a party in Syracuse and liquidates them, then leaves Leptines in charge of Syracuse, and returns to Africa, where he is unsuccessful. 307 Agθ 171-2,
DGRBM 2-771, OCD 25, MWΦ 199, CDCC 22
c.307 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse flees again from Africa to Sicily with a small band of followers, finds oligarch Deinocrates in charge of most of Greek Sicily, holds up in Segesta, makes peace with oligarchs.  Sicily is again divided with Carthaginians at the Halycus River. 307 Agθ 188, B76 I-133, OCD 25, 208,
late DGRBM 1-64,
306 MWΦ 199, lvS
c.306 Agathocles / Carthage war from 311 ends.  Halycus river is boundary between them.  They are at peace until ?. 307 Agθ 180-1 306 GHH, OHG, wikAg 306/5 CAH 7.1-407-8
c.306 AGATHOCLES evacuates towns he had occupied in Carthaginian area - primarily Heraclea Minoa, Selinus, Segesta, and Thermae.  He receives in exchange 200,000 bushels of grain and 150 Greek silver talents worth of gold. 306 CAH 7.1-404
c.306 AGATHOCLES gets enough supporters in Segesta to stage a coup.  Drives the poor out of Segesta and slaughters them on the banks of the Scamander, rounds up anyone with money, and tortutes them until they give it up. 306
Agθ 189
c.306 Rome / CarthageΛ  3rd TREATY  (the Philinus treaty) renews previous pacts.  Romans to stay out of Sicily, Carthage to stay out of Italy. 306 CAH 7.1-404, 7.2-532, MWΦ 129, atl4, bk
c.306 AGATHOCLES learns of the murder of his sons by Syracusan troops in Africa, sends orders to his bro Antander at Syracuse, to kill all kinsfolk of the guilty soldiers.  Antander does so. 306 Agθ 190
c.306 PASIPHILUS, Agathocles' oldest general, and all men under him, defect to Deinocrates.  Agathocles is so bummed that he sends envoys to Deinocrates to make peace.  Agathocles offers to give up Syracuse to the oligarchs and lay down his own power, if only the towns Thermae and Cephalodium might be left to him.  Deinocrates tells Agathocles to get out of Sicily altogether. 306 Agθ 190-91, DGRBM 3-133
c.305 Agathocles with no more than 5,000 inf and 800 cav, faces Deinocrates with 25,000 inf and 3,000 cav at GORGIUM (site unknown).  But many oligarchs had already pledged themselves to Agathocles.  2,000 of Deinocrates' men defect to Agathocles.  The oligarchs, thinking the defection larger, give way to the Agathocleans, then panic and flee.  At least 4,000 surrender to Agathocles and are massacred. 305 Agθ 197-8, CAH 7.1, 7.2
c.305 DEINOCRATES is forgiven by Agathocles, and given command over part of his army.  Together they set themselves to the final reduction of Sicily, accomplished in 2 years. 305 Agθ 199, atl4
c.305 MESSANA taken by Agathocles, comes under Syracuse until 289. 312 atl4 305 rcSI
c.305 CATANA, under local tyrants from 352, back under Syracuse until 289. 305 rcSI
c.305 PASIPHILUS, holding Gela for the oligarchs is arrested and executed.  GELA, under oligarchy from 345, back under Syracuse until 281. 305 DGRBM 3-133, rcSI
c.305/4 AGATHOCLES, tyrant of Syracuse from 317, assumes title of king until 289. 305 LEWH 90
305/4 CDCC 22, OCD 1030
304 Agθ 202, CAH 7.1-405, MCAW 178, OCD 25, lvG, wikAg
c.304 AGATHOCLES massacres 10,000 inhabitants of Leontini. 305 Agθ 200 304 atl4
c.304 AGATHOCLES attacks Lipara islands, plunders temples as well as people.  When sailing away, a storm hits and sinks 11 treasure-laden ships. 304 Agθ 203-4, CAH 7.1-405, atl4
c.303/2 AGATHOCLES of Syracuse goes to south Italy until ?. 303/2 CAH 7.1

West Mediterranean 300-201