c.440 BYZANTIUM, under Athens from 475, joins Samos in rebellion until 439. 440 CAH 6-490, DGRG 1-657, OCD 186
c.440 Sparta votes for war with Athens, but is outvoted at a 2nd meeting of allies. 440
OHG 147
c.440 TIMOCLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 441, ends.  MORYCHIDES succeeds until 439. 440 wikEA
c.440 Pilos helmetSimple conical Pilos helmet.  Worn by some Macedonian infantry. photo: pub dom

450-425 wikGHP
Pericles Diomedes
Athenian sculptor CRESILAS flourishes.
Marie-Lan Nguyen right
Albani Collection

450-30 OCD 186
c.440 Athenian painter/sculptor MICON flourishes.  Associated with Polygnotus of Thasos, in conjunction with whom he adorns the Stoa poikile at Athens, with paintings of the Battle of Marathon and other battles.  He also paints in the Anakeion at Athens.  His daughter is painter, Timarete. mid 5th wikMcn 441 GHH

LEUCIPPOS, founds a school in Abdera Thrace.
Writes:   On Mind ,  The Great World Systems 

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  "Nothing happens without a cause.  Everything has a cause and is necessary."
(See Hippasus 445, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

Matter is homogeneous, but consists of small indivisible particles [a contradiction] that are constantly in motion.  Compounds are formed by their collisions and regroupings.
(See Xenophanes 480, Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)
450 LEWH 76
445 Dur 2-244
440 OHG
440-30 wikLcp
435 MCAW 129
430 TTPC
424 GHH
no date: B76 VI-172, KPHP 17, OCD 600

DIOGENES of Apollonia, philosopher of Athens, flourishes.
Wrote  On Nature , possibly including  Against the Sophists ,  Nature of Man .

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  Agrees with Anaximenes 545:  AIR is Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM.  (See Hippasus 445)  Air is God, SOUL V (See Alcmaeon 490, Philolaus 400), intelligent.  "Air, as the origin of all things, is necessarily an eternal imperishable substance, but as soul it is necessarily endowed with consciousness."
(See Empedocles 444)

COSMOLOGY V:  There is an infinite number of worlds in an infinite void.  Earth is round, supported in the middle, and received its shape from the whirling of warm vapors.  Its concretion and hardening comes from cold.
(See Empedocles 444, Philolaus 400)

ANATOMY V:  Described blood vessels, according to Aristotle.
(See Hippo 450, Empedocles 444, Hippocrates 400)
500-400 B76 III-558
440 or 430 OCD 347
425 wikDA
c.440 LENAEA festival begins.  A festival (also to Dionysos) at the Lenaea sanctuary west of the Acropolis on the 12th of Gamelion (Jan.-Feb.).  Λ COMEDY is first.  Tragedy 432. 442 CAH 5
pre-440 OCD 269, OHG 180     440 OCD 230
no date: OCD 594
c.440 Athenian law forbids attacking persons by name in dramatic comedy.  Repealed 3 years later. 440 DGRA 344, DGRBM, Dur 2-420
c.440 Athenian law forbids areopagites to write comedy.  Repealed 437. 440 DGRA 344, GHH
c.440 THEAETETUS, son of Euphronius, becomes disciple of Socrates. 440 DGRBM 3-1021
c.440 Athenian treasury has 9,700 talents. 440 Dur 2-266
c.440 PHIDIAS, Athenian sculptor, painter, architect, flourishes. 480-30 wikΦd
450-30 CAH 5
c.440 Artist Agatharchos writes a treatise on perspective as a means of creating a theatrical illusion. 440
Dur 2-317
c.440 PRODICOS of Ceos, sophist philosopher, comes to Athens as ambassador of Ceos. 465-30 wikPrd

Roman copies of missing or damaged Polykleitos originals

pub dom
c.440 POLYKLEITOS (Latinized Polyclitus), Athenian bronze sculptor, flourishes.  Called the Elder when it is necessary to distinguish him from his son, a major architect but minor sculptor.  Said to be unsurpassed in making images of men as Phidias was of gods.  Called "The Sicyonian" by some authors relying on an error of Pliny the Elder in conflating another more minor sculptor from Sikyon. 5th cen. wikPlk
450-30 CAH 5
450s-10 CDCC 704
430 LEWH 76
430-21 MCAW 133
420 CAH 5, Dur 2-244, TToH
440/39 Athenians Thucydides, Hagnon, and Phormio bring 40 ships to reinforce Pericles blockading Samos. 440 DGRBM 2-325, 3-345, 1111     440/39 lvG
c.439 BYZANTIUM, rebelling against Athens from 440, back into Athenian League until 411. 439
OCD 186
c.439 MORYCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 440, ends.  GLAUKINOS succeeds until 438. 439 wikEA
c.438 EURIPIDES' play  Alcestis  (his earliest extant tragedy) wins 2nd prize.  King Admetos is fated to die unless someone else dies in his place.  His wife Alcestis makes the sacrifice, but is rescued by Heracles.  Admetos persuades the gods to let them both live. 438 B76 I-208, 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRA 1145, DGRBM 2-107, Dur 2-244, MCAW 129, OCD 419, OHG, bk
c.438 Old Comedy poet PHERECRATES wins 1st victory.  Immitates style of Crates, whose actor he had been. 438 DGRBM 3-258
c.438 GLAUKINOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 439, ends.  THEODOROS succeeds until 437. 438 wikEA
c.438 Athena Parthenos PARTHENON, under construction 447-32, temple dedicated during Panathenaic festival.  Statue of ATHENA PARTHENOS by sculptor Phidias, begun 447, is placed in it.  Statue is 36 ft high assembled on a wooden core, covered with shaped bronze plates covered in turn with removable gold plates, save for the ivory surfaces of the face and arms.  The gold weighs 44 talents, (1,100 kg), and lasts until 296.  Statue remains in Parthenon until 5th cen. CE. Drawing pub dom

438 B76 II-462, VII-774, 935, 2-266, 13-565, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-244, DGRG 1-270, Dur 2-244, LEWH 76, OCD 141, 785, 812, OHG, RAH 272, TToH, TTT, lvG     437 MCAW 129
437 SIRRAS becomes king of Lyncestis until 423. 437 wikLRI
437 PROPYLAEA, monumental gateway serving as entrance to the Acropolis, designed by architect Mnesicles, construction begun until 432.  Constructed entirely of Pentelic marble, covered the whole west end of the Acropolis, which was 168 feet wide, and cost 2000 talents. 437 B76 VI-952, CAH 5, CDCC 104, DGRBM 3-463, DGRG 1-268, Dur 2-244, LEWH 76, OCD 141, OHG, RAH 280     436 GHH
c.437 THEODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 438, ends.  EUTHYMENES succeeds until 436. 437 wikEA
c.437 GRABUS becomes king of the Illyrian Taulantii until 423. 437 wikGr
c.437 Hoping to relieve Athens from dependence on Sicily, PERICLES sails into BLACK SEA to thwart a Scythian / Thracian alliance and solidify commercial ties.  He establishes good relations with princes of Panticapaeum, from whom he needs grain exports.  He expells a local tyrant at Sinope and repopulates the area with 600 Athenians.  Remains until 436. 438 CAH 6-491
437 LEWH 70, MCAW 128, RAH 232
436 B76 8-356
c.437 PHORMIO expedition into Gulf of Corinth, makes alliances with some Acarnanians. 438 CAH 5     437 LEWH 70
c.437/6 Ennea Hodoi, a timber-rich site on coast of Thrace east of Chalcidice is taken by Athenians under Hagnon son of Nicias, renamed AMPHIPOLIS, and colonized.  It is a base for gathering minerals and timber, and controls the mines at Pangaeus and the only bridge over the Strymon River.  Receives an Athenian garrison until 424. 437 CDGRA 189, DGRBM 3-196, DGRG 1-126, GHH, IDB 1-121, LEWH 70, OCD 800, OHG 143, RAH 232, TToH, wikAm     437/6 CAH 5, OCD 54, 775, lvG
436 B76 8-356, MCAW 128, OCD 799
c.436 EUTHYMENES, eponymous archon of Athens from 437, ends.  LYSIMACHOS succeeds until 435. 436 wikEA
c.436 PERICLES, in Black Sea from 437, returns to Athens. 436 CAH 6-491
c.436 Comic poet CRATINOS wins 1st prize. 436 DGRBM, GHH
c.436 20 Athenian ships under Andocides and Glaucon sent to Corcyra to protect it from Corinthians. 436 DGRBM 1-168
c.435 EPIDAMNOS Illyria, held jointly by Corcyra and CORINTH from 625:  Commoners overthrow oligarchs, who then besiege it.  Commoners ask Corcyra for help.  Corcyra refuses.  Commoners ask Corinth for help.  Corinthians reinforce democracy in power.  Corcyrans recapture Epidamnos and begin hostilities with Corinth. 436 GHH, lvG, bk
435 B76 8-356, CAH 5, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 289, 392, OHG, bk, wikCrf
c.435 Corcyran fleet defeats Corinthian fleet at Leucimme (low promontory protruding north, on southeast coast of Corcyra), sinks 15 Corinthian ships. 435 B76 8-356, CAH 5, Dur 2-244, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 289, 392, OHG, bk, wikCrf
c.435 LYSIMACHOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 436, ends.  ANTIOCHIDES succeeds until 434. 435 wikEA
c.435 CYLLENE, seaport town of Elis, burnt by Corcyrans for furnishing ships to the Corinthians. 435
DGRG 1-724
c.435 CORINTH begins building new fleet to punish Corcyra. 435 B76 8-356
c.435 Zeus Statue of ZEUS completed by Phidias of Elis at Olympia for the temple of Zeus there.  It is 13m tall, ivory plates and gold panels over a wooden frame, and represents Zeus sitting on an elaborate cedar throne ornamented with ebony, ivory, gold and precious stones.  It lasts until 5th cen. CE.  A Roman copy survives. photo
Sanne Smit

435 CAH 5, TTPC, wikSZO 431 MCAW 129
430 B76 X-878, OHG
c.434 CORCYRA V, under Corinth from 470?, rebels, asks Athens for help.  Joins Athenian League until 410. 435 B76 III-149, CAH 5, Dur 2-440
434 B76 8-356
433 GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 289, 392, 800, OHG
c.434 ANTIOCHIDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 435, ends.  KRATES succeeds until 433. 434 wikEA
c.434 Lysippos, Old Comedy dramatist, flourishes.  Only 3 titles of plays survive. 434 GHH 400 bril
c.434 Athenian treasury deposited in the Parthenon. 434 Dur 2-266
c.434/3 EISPHORA TAX:  an emergency levy on capital wealth for military purposes, is first attested in the financial decrees of Callias. 434/3
CAH 6-546
c.433 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, is strengthened by immigrations, receives territory from Macedon. 433
OCD 751
c.433 PERDICCAS-II king of Macedon 452-13 fights Athenians, (who had supported one of his dynastic rivals) until 431. 433 lvG
c.433 CORCYRA, in Athenian League 434-10, sends envoys to Athenian Assembly, asking for help.  A Corinthian envoy happens to be present.  Both present arguments.  Athens offers Corcyra a "defensive only" alliance, the 1st entirely defensive pact in Greek history. 433 CAH 5, DGRBM,
bk, lvG
c.433 KRATES, eponymous archon of Athens from 434, ends.  APSEUDES succeeds until 432. 433 wikEA
c.433 CORINTH appeals to SPARTA for help against Athens.  Megara and Aegina back Corinth. 433 TTPC
433 fall Athens sends 10 ships to Corcyra, with orders not to fight the Corinthians unless they try to land on Corcyra.  20 more ships under LACEDAEMONIOS, son of Cimon arrive soon after. 433 LEWH 72, OCD 240, 289, 392, 800, TTPC, lvG fall 433 OCD 796
c.433 Corinthian fleet (90 ships + 60 allied ships) builds a base on the mainland, southeast of Corcyra.  Corcyrans counter by sending 110 galleys to SYBOTA (a tiny island off Epirus opposite south Corcyra).  The 30 Athenian ships keep the Corinthians in check, but would not begin the attack themselves because of orders.  The Corcyrans lose 70 ships.  Corinthian allies lose 30 ships.  Corinthian fleet goes home.  Both sides claim victory. 433 CAH 5, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, lvG
no date: B76 8-356
c.433 Athens orders POTIDAEA Chalcidice, a Corinthian colony in the Athenian League, to quit receiving Corinthian magistrates, to tear down its seaward wall, and to send hostages to Athens. 433 B76 8-356-7, LEWH 72, MCAW 128     432 lvG
c.433 ANACTORIUM Acarnania, founded 630, colonized jointly by Corinthians and Corcyrans from ?, taken by fraud by Corinthians until 425. 433 bk
432 DGRG 1-128
c.432 spring ChalcidiceAssured of Peloponnesian aid, POTIDAEA, (a Corinthian colony in Chalcidice that is also in Athenian League from 479), rebels against Athens, allies with Perdiccas and the Corinthians, besieged and blockaded by Athens until 430.   Socrates is among Athenian soldiers. 433 B76 8-356-7, GHH
432 B76 8-357, CAH 5, DGRBM, DGRG 1-560, Dur 2-365, 441,
LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 796, 870, 987, OHG, TTPC, bk, rcSB2
c.432 APSEUDES, eponymous archon of Athens from 433, ends.  PYTHODOROS succeeds until 431. 432 wikEA
c.432 MEGARA has been cultivating land consecrated to Demeter, and now kills an Athenian herald. 433/2 lvG
c.432 MEGARA is barred by Pericles'  Megarian Decree  from all markets of Athens and all harbors in the Athenian Empire, which Megara had been guaranteed in the 30 Year Treaty of 445.  This ruins Megara's economy. 433/2 B76 14-20, bk, lvG
432 CAH 5, 6-488, LEWH 72, MCAW 129, OCD 665, 801
c.432 Athenian architect PHEIDAS dies. 432 IDB 1-308, Dur 2-326
c.432 LENAEA festival, specializing in comedy from 440, now produces tragedy. pre-432 OHG 180
c.432 Congress at Lacedaemon. 432 GHH
c.432 Corinthian XENOCLEIDES sent with a fleet to Corcyra. 432 DGRBM 3-1289
c.432 Athenian astronomer METON flourishes.

Λ ASTRONOMY V:  Observes the summer solstice.  Calculates comparative chronology of solar and lunar cycles.
(See Naburimannu 450, Oenopides 450, China 350)

Λ CALENDAR V:  Proposes METONIC CYCLE.  Assuming 235 lunar months = 19 solar years.   235/12 = 19.583.  19 x 12 = 228.   235 minus 228 = 7.   Therefore he proposes adding 7 months every 19 years.  There is no evidence that it was ever used for the civil calendar.
(See Chinese 444, Zoroastrian 441, Mayan 400, Babylonian 380)
432 B76 3-599, CDGRA 131, DGRA 229, DGRBM 2-1069, MCAW 129, 4nel
CDCC 157
430 B76 3-597, OHG
no date:
OCD 679
c.432 PARTHENON, begun on Acropolis 447, is completed with the finishing of the sculptures.  432 B76 VII-774, CDCC 104, LEWH 76, OCD 141, TTT, lvG
431 B76 II-462, Dur 2-244
PROPYLAEA             Photo by Ricardo Andre Frantz
c.432 PROPYLAEA, the monumental gateway to the Acropolis, begun 437, finished. 432 CDCC 104, DGRBM 3-463, LEWH 76, OCD 141, OHG, RAH 431 B76 VI-952
c.432 ChalcidiceCities of CHALCIDICE, in Athenian League from ?, rebel, establish a common capital at OLYNTHOS, begin CHALCIDIAN LEAGUE until 379. 432 B76 II-711, CDCC 181, OCD 320
432/1 OCD 225 392 rcSB2
c.432 OLYNTHOS on mainland of Chalcidice, in Athenian League from 454, independent until 379. 432 rcSB2
c.432 PERDICCAS-II, king of Macedon 452-13, encourages Olynthos to join together of to form a single community with its neighbors. 432
CAH 6-454
c.432 Athens sends fleet and army to Macedonia to help Philip and Derdas against Perdiccas. 432 DGRBM 3-188
c.432 Callias and 4 other Athenians command forces sent against Perdiccas and the rebelling Chalcidians. 432 DGRBM 1-567
Macedonia Thrace
c.432 BEROEA Macedonia attacked unsuccessfully by Athenians under Callias. 432 DGRG 1-393
c.432 THERME on northwest corner of Chalcidice, under Macedonia from ?, taken by Athens, under Athens until 431. 432 DGRBM 2-1217, wikNA
c.432 ECONOMY V:  Athens has 9,000 talents in gold and silver reserves, which equals 54,000,000 drachmas.  1 drachma is a hoplite's daily wage.  A third of a drachma = 2 obols = daily subsistence money.  Athens spends 800 talents per year on its fleet.  Building costs of 447-425 total 8,000 talents.  It assesses subject states 460 talents per year. 432
Dur 2-439, OCD CDCC 587
c.432 Citizens of AMPHILOCHIAN ARGOS, allies of Athens, expelled by Corinthians from Ambracia.  The Acarnanians, in order to restore the expelled Amphilochians, ask Athens for help.  Athens sends Phormio, who takes Argos, expells the Ambracians, and restores the town to Amphilochians and Acarnanians. 432 DGRG 1-10, 119, 207
c.432 AMBRACIA north of Bay of Actium, allied to Corinth from ?, destroyed by Athens, allied to Athens until 343. 432 rcSB2
c.432 Athenian Phormio sent with reinforcements to help Callias blockade Potidaea Chalcidice. 432 B76 VII-961, DGRBM 3-345
c.432 PHIDIAS, friend of Pericles, accused of embezzling gold intended for the statue of Athena, also accused of impiously portraying himself and Pericles on the shield of the statue.  The first charge is disproved, but for the second Phidias is imprisoned until death 432. 432 DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, SHWC 79
no date: wikPer, wikΦd
c.432 ASPASIA, mistress of Pericles, accused of corrupting women of Athens in order to satisfy Pericles' perversions.  Prosecuted by comic poet Hermippos, acquitted thanks to a rare emotional outburst of Pericles. 432 DGRBM, Dur 2-254, GHH
no date: wikPer
c.432 Prosecution of Anaxagoras, Aspasia, and Phidias at Athens;  Anaxagosas retires to Lampsacus, Aspasia is acquitted, and Phidias dies in prison. 432 rcSB2
c.432 DACHOS becomes king of Thessaly until 405. 432 rcSB2
c.432 Corinthians and other members of Peloponnesian League send reps to Sparta to get action against Athenians.  They say Athens' actions violates the 30 Years Peace of 445.  King Archidamos urges caution.  Majority wants war.  Corinth, Megara, and Aegina force Sparta to take action against Athens. 433 B76 I-489, 14-20
432 B76 8-357, CAH 5,
c.432 Athenian envoys to Sparta defend their empire:  "It has always been the law that the weaker should be subject to the stronger. ... no one has ever allowed the cry for justice to hinder his ambition when he had a chance of gaining anything by might." 432
Dur 2-295
432 fall Over objection of king Archidamos-II, the Spartan assembly declares the 30 Years Peace of 445 violated by Athens.  Peloponnesian League assembles.  Influenced mainly by speech of ephor Sthenelaidas, it votes for war with Athens. 432 B76 8-357, CDCC 67, DGRBM 3-910, LEWH 72, MCAW 128
432 fall PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE sends 3 envoys (including Melesippos, Rhamphias) with ultimatim to restore independence of all Greek states to Pericles.  Fruitless negotiations follow. 432 B76 8-357, DGRBM 2-1017, 3-647, OCD 795, bk     431 OCD 796
c.432 Peloponnesian volunteers sail to Potidaea Chalcidice, attack Athenian blockade. Chalcidice 432 B76 14-20
c.432 fall ALCIBIADES, fighting for Athens at Potidaea Chalcidice, wounded, rescued by Socrates. 432 B76 1-436, DGRBM 3-848, MCAW 129, bk
c.431 Mar. PLATAEA Boeotia (ally of Athens) claimed by Thebes as a member of Boeotian League, and besieged. 431 CAH 5, RAH 233, bk
c.431 A band of Thebans enters Plataea (the only ally of Athens in Boeotia) by treachery.  Plataean leader Naucleides opens the gates.  The band is persuaded to surrender, then killed.  Civilians are then evacuated by Athenians. 431 B76 14-21, DGRBM 2-1143, 3-199, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 839, wikPlat
c.431 spring ARCHIDAMOS marching to Attica, sends envoy Melesippos to Athens to negotiate.  Athenians don't even listen to him. by 431 DGRBM 2-1017
c.431 PYTHODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 432, ends.  EUTHYDEMOS succeeds until 430. 431 wikEA
431 spring 2nd PELOPONNESIAN WAR begins until 404.  Called ARCHIDAMIAN WAR until 421.
PELOPONNESIAN LEAGUE under ARCHIDAMOS and BOEOTIANS invade Attica, ravage deserted land for a month and leave.  Pericles with 13,000 troops watches from the walls of Athens.  His strategy is to control the sea and raid the Peloponnesian coast in spring and fall while Spartans are sowing and reaping.
431 B76 8-357, 14-20, 21, 68, CAH 5, CDCC 100, 144, 658, Dur 2-244, GHH, GRG 282, IDB 1-770, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 140, 290, 795, OHG, RAH 237, 239, RAI3, Sdl 5-188, SHWC 67, TAWH 17, TToH, TTPC, bk, lvA, lvG
431 BCE
c.431 Athenian CAVALRY numbers 1,000.   Men provide their own horses. by 431 OCD 517
c.431 Aeginetans are expelled from their island by Athenians.  Spartans allow them to settle in the Thyreatis, which contain 2 towns, Thyrea and Anthene or Athene, both of which are made over to the fugitives. by 431 DGRG 1-726
c.431 Doric inhabitants of Argolis and Aegina expelled. 431 CGS 682
c.431 EVARCHOS tyrant of Astacos Acarnania, expelled by Athenians, until restored that winter by Corinthians. 431 DGRBM 2-60
c.431 Perdiccas-II king of Macedon 452-13 fighting Athens from 433, makes peace, but immediately quarrels with Methone, an Athenian ally on coast of Thessaly. 431 lvG
c.431 OdryssiansSPORADOKOS, bro or son of Teres-I, main Odrysian power in Thrace from 445, ends.  SITALCES, (not Sitacles) son of Teres-I, becomes king of Odrysians of Thrace until 424. 440 CAH 6-488 431 wikLRTD, wikStl
430 rcSB2, wikOK
c.431 NYMPHODOROS of Abdera, whose sister married Sitalces, king of Odrysians 431-24, is reconciled with Athens, which wants alliance with Odrysians. 431 wikNA
c.431 SITALCES, king of Odrysians, is persuaded by Nymphodoros ruler of Abdera Thrace, whose sister Sitalces had married, to ally with Athens.  Nymphodoros negotiates agreement between Athens and Perdiccas, where Perdiccas regains Therme. 431 DGRBM 2-1217, 3-188, 843, GHH, OCD 1, wikPrd2
c.431 Athenian PHORMIO still blockading Potidaea Chalcidice, joined by Perdiccas in some operations against Chalcidians. 431 DGRBM 3-345
c.431 THERME on northwest corner of Chalcidice ceded by Athens to Peridiccas. 431
OCD 799
c.431 CRANNON, and other Thessalian towns, send troops to help Athens. 431 DGRG 1-699
c.431 AEGINA island, autonomous tributary of Sparta from 445:  Doric inhabitants of are expelled by Athenians and replaced with Athenians who set up a cleruchy until 405. 431 B76 I-108, 4-21, CDCC 30, LEWH 72, MCAW 128, OCD 252
c.431 Argolis30 Athenian triremes raid coast of Opuntian LOCRIS, in Peloponnesian League, Garrisons ATLANTE Island in Euboean Channel. 431
B76 14-20, 21
c.431 150 Athenian triremes under 3 commanders sail from Piraeus, raid Peloponnesian coast. 431 B76 14-21, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-847
c.431 Athenians PROTEAS and 2 others sent in command of 100 ships around the Peloponnese. 431 DGRBM 3-553
c.431 CEPHALONIA Island outside mouth of Corinthian Gulf won over by Athenian fleet, becomes ally of Athens until ?.  Athenian base established. 431 B76 4-21, DGRG 1-699, OCD 799
c.431 CLEON the Tanner, Athenian politician, attacks Pericles until 430. 431 B76 8-357, OCD 251
c.431 PERICLES lists Athenian temple funds as Athenian resources, but specifies that the Athenians should only touch these in an emergency and should replace eventually anything used up. 431 CAH 6-555
c.431 Λ ECONOMY V:  45% V of the Athenian electorate are property owners. 431
Dur 2-465
c.431 ECONOMY:  Number of Athenian citizens with comfortable income has doubled since the end of the Persian war in 480.  Citizen class in Attica is 43,000. 431
Dur 2-286, 468
c.431  Constitution of Athens :  oligarchic pamphlet written by an unknown critic of the Athenian democracy. 431
OCD 1143
c.431 EUPHORION, son of Aeschylus, wins 1st prize at Dionysia over Sophocles and Euripides. 431 B76 1-149, 6-1032, OCD 419, TTPC
c.431 EURIPIDES' play  Medea  wins 3rd prize at Dionysia.  Portrays a wife discarded for a younger rival.  She kills her rival and her children by faithless husband.  Message:  Divorce is not honorable to women.  Challenges conventional morals and religion. 431 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-107, MCAW 131, OCD 419, OHG, TToH, TTPC, bk
c.431 Athenian sculptor/painter,architect PHIDIAS dies. 435 TToH     431 LEWH 76 430 wikΦd
c.431 Thucydides'  History  begins. 431 OHG
c.431 Sparta, pressed by Corinth, agrees to liberate Greece from Athenian oppression. 431 OHG 154
Aug 3
Partial SOLAR ECLIPSE during Peloponnesian War.
"The same summer, at the beginning of a new lunar month, the only time by the way at which it appears possible, the sun was eclipsed after noon.  After it had assumed the form of a crescent and some of the stars had come out, it returned to its natural shape."
(Thucidides:  History of the Peloponnesian War 2-28)
431 hbar, mrec, nasaS
c.431 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid of Sparta 469-27 leads Peloponnesian army invading Attica. 431 CAH 5, OCD 98
431/30 Perdiccas-II king of Macedon 452-13, collaborates with Athenian Phormio. winter 431/0 lvG
c.431/0 EVARCHOS tyrant of Astacos Acarnania, expelled that year, restored that winter by Corinthians under Eumachos and Timoxenos. 431 DGRBM 3-1151 winter 431/0 DGRBM 2-60, 87
c.430 OPTICAL TELEGRAPH used by Greeks.  Combination of 5 torches on hilltops indicates each letter of alphabet. 430-21 TTS, TTT
c.430 HELLANICOS, poet, flourishes. 431 GHH
c.430 AMPHILOCHIAN ARGOS, ally of Athens, attacked by Spartans. 430 B76 14-21
c.430 ZAKYNTHOS island, ally of Athens, attacked by 1,000 Spartan hoplites under admiral Cnemos, ravaged, but remains unconquered. 430 B76 14-21, DGRBM 1-808
c.430 EUTHYDEMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 431, ends.  APOLLODOROS succeeds until 429. 430 wikEA
c.430 PLAGUE hits Attica until 425, kills more than ¼ of Athens. 430 B76 8-357, Dur 2-441, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 26, 796, 801, OHG, SHWC 67, TToH, TTPC     429 CDCC 104
c.430 Plague at Athens.  Physician ACRON of Acragas has people make large fires in the streets to purify the air, which appears to help somewhat. 430 DGRBM 1-15
c.430 Athenian expedition under Melesander to Caria and Lycia.  Unsuccessful. 430 DGRBM 2-921
c.430 Athenian expedition under Hagnon and Cleopompos to Epidauros in Argolis fails, and goes to Potidaea Chalcidice.  Plague infested Athenian soldiers infect Potidaean troops with Plague, then, after losing 1,500 of 4,000 men, return to Athens. 430 B76 8-357, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-325, LEWH 72, TTPC, lvG
c.430 Corinth sends envoys under Aristeas to ask aid of Persian king against Athens.  Aristeas and the rest are intercepted at Bisanthe by Nymphodoros of Abdera. 430 DGRBM 2-1217, 3-693, 843, 1132, wikNA 430/29 CAH 6-451
c.430 Spartans ANERISTOS and NICOLAOS sent as envoys to Persia to get aid for Sparta.  They are siezed in Thrace by Sitalces, king of Odrysians, taken to Athens, and executed. 430 DGRBM 1-117, 2-1192, 3-693, 843
430/29 CAH 6-451
c.430 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid of Sparta 469-27 leads Peloponnesian army invading Attica 2nd time. 430 B76 I-489, 4-21, CAH 5, DGRBM, GHH, MCAW 132, OCD 98, lvG
c.430 Spartans don't get plague, because they kill everybody they catch. 430 TTPC
c.430 HIPPOCRATES of Cos Island, physician, invited to Athens to try to stop the plague. 430
Dur 2-343
c.430 CLEON, Athenian politician, attacks Pericles again.  PERICLES, undisputed ruler of Athens from 445, is convicted of embezzlement, fined, and deposed. 430 CAH 5, Dur 2-244, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 251, 801, lvG
c.430 Athenian embassy goes to Delos to ask Oracle of Apollo how to stop the plague.  Oracle says the cubical altar of Apollo must be doubled.  Athenians double the measurements, but plague continues.  They figure it's because they doubled the dimensions instead of the volume. 430 BHM 71
430-21 TTS
c.430 Athenian PHORMIO blockading Potidaea Chalcidice from 432, leaves, but the blockade continues. 430 DGRBM 3-345
c.430 PLAGUE in Athens causes deterioration of mind and morality as well as body, according to Thucydides. 430
MCAW 133
c.430 MANTINEA Arcadia allies with Sparta until 421. 430 rcPl
c.430 SOCRATES begins teaching in Athens. age 40: KPHP 61
c.430 THUCYDIDES, the historian, gets the plague. 430 Dur 2-432
c.430 EURIPIDES' play  Heracleidae :  Iolaos, Heracles' old comrade, and his children hide from Eurystheos in Athens, ruled by King Demophon, who is descended from Heracles.  As Eurystheos prepares to attack, an oracle tells Demophon that he would win only if a noble woman is sacrificed to Persephone.  Macaria, dau of Iolaus, volunteers, and a spring is named in her honor. 430 OCD 419
c.430 AMBRACIOTS, wanting to recover Ambracia (destroyed 432), march against Amphilochian Argos, unable to take it, devastate its territory and retire. 430 DGRG 1-119, 207
c.430 HERODOTUS publishes final part of his 449  History . 430 MCAW 133
c.430 FLUTES are made unpopular in Athens by criticism of Alcibiades, who says one looks ridiculous playing it, and it is popular in crude Boeotia. 430 MCAW 133
c.430 Oldest extant piece of Attic prose is an anti-democratic essay on the constitution of Athens falsely attributed to Xenophon. 430 B76 10-1090
c.430 late Athenian PHORMIO, with 30 ships, sent to help Acarnanians against Ambracians, who had siezed Amphilochian Argos. 430 DGRBM 3-345
c.430 late ChalcidicePOTIDAEA Chalcidice, besieged by Athenians from 432, starved to surrender.  Athenian cleruchy of 1,000 colonists established until 404. 430 CAH 5, DGRG 1-560, Dur 2-441, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 870, 987, RAH 243, rcSB2
430/29 lvG   429 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 796
430/29 Cult of BENDIS, a Thracian goddess carrying 2 spears, is officially accepted at the Piraeus for benefit of resident Thracians. 430/29 OCD 165
430/29 Athenian admiral PHORMIO sent with 20 ships to prevent Corinthian ships from using the Corinthian Gulf.  He sails to Naupactos in Aetolia, and does so from there. 432 B76 VII-961
430 CAH 5, OCD 827     winter 430/29 DGRBM 3-345, lvG
429 GHH, LEWH 72
429 AMYNTAS, aided by Sitalces, king of Odrysians of Thrace, challenges Perdiccas-II king of Macedonia 452-13 for throne.  But Perdiccas-II gets Thracian Seuthes to mediate a peace, by promising him his sister Stratonice in marriage. 429 DGRBM 1-154, 3-809
c.429 APOLLODOROS, eponymous archon of Athens from 430, ends.  EPAMEINON succeeds until 428. 429 wikEA
c.429 EUPOLIS, Old Comedy poet, first exhibits. 430/29 wikEp     429 GHH
c.429 PHRYNICOS, Old Comedy poet, first exhibits. 430/29 wikEp     429 GHH, wikEp
c.429 PLAGUE continues, takes a third of Athens. 429 SHWC 67, lvG
c.429 Pericles loses a sister and 2 legitimate sons to the plague. 429 Dur 2-442
429 spring PERICLES, despite scandal of 430, is again elected strategos of Athens. spring 429 LEWH 72, OCD 801, lvG     no date: B76 8-357

OdryssiansSITALCES, king of Odrysians 431-25, and SEUTHES, king of another Thracian tribe, with 100,000 inf and 50,000 cav from independent Thracian tribes invade Macedonia under king Perdiccas-II 452-13 to put Amyntas son of Philip on Macedonian throne.  Sitalces crosses the passes of Mount Cercine, and descends to Doberus in Paeonia.  Perdiccas is unable to oppose him in the field, and allows him to ravage the open country, with little opposition, as far as river Axius.  From there Sitalces advances thru Mygdonia (north Chalcidice) into Chalcidice, laying waste every thing in his way.  But Sitalces is disappointed of the expected co-operation of an Athenian fleetSitalces' army needs provisions, and winter approaches, so he listens to his nephew Seuthes (who had secretly gone over to Perdiccas), and withdraws to his own dominions, after being only 30 days in Macedonia. 429
B76 2-615, 14-21,
CAH 6-447, DGRBM 3-188, 809, 843, OCD 799, 1065, lvG, wikOK, wikStl, wikθW
c.429 Coalition of Peloponnesians, Epirans, and Ambracians, all under Spartan admiral CNEMOS with 1,000 hoplites, invade Acarnania.  Allies fight each other, and are defeated at STRATOS Acarnania by Athenians.  Acarnanians and Athenians fight Ambracians and Peloponnesians until 426.  Cnemos and his hoplites go home. 429 B76 14-21, DGRBM 1-808, 3-346, DGRG 1-120, OCD 2, lvG
c.429 PLATAEA Boeotia attacked and besieged by ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid of Sparta 469-27 until 427. 429 B76 I-489, 14-22, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-267, 2-101, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, OCD 98, 839, OHG, lvG
c.429 Xenophon and 2 other Athenian generals lead an expedition against the Chalcideans and Bottiaeans, but are compelled to retreat to Potidaea. 429 DGRBM 3-1297
c.429 CLEIPPEDES is strategos of Athens until 428. 429 OCD 252
c.429 PERICLES dies of plague.  Democratic strategos of Athens from 443.  Leaving 2 legitimate sons, Xanthippos and Paralos.  Mistress ASPASIA goes to Lysicles until 428.  Opponent and popular demagogue CLEON the tanner succeeds until 422. 429 B76 II-989, 8-357, 14-68, BCoC 368, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-200, Dur 2-421, GHH, LEWH 69, 72, MCAW 132, OCD 131, 796, 801, OHG, RAH 225, 243, SHWC 58, TToH, TTPC, lvG, rcSB3
c.429 MEGARA allied with Corinth from 446, allies with Sparta until 395. 429 rcSB3
c.429 47 Peloponnesian ships + 30 smaller troop carriers under Cnemos sail Corinthian gulf to join Peloponnesian attack on Acarnania.  Intercepted and defeated twice by 20 fast-sailing ships under Athenian admiral PHORMIO off NAUPACTOS in Aetolia. 429 B76 VII-961, 14-21, CAH 5, DGRBM 3-1137, LEWH 72, OCD 796, 827, TTPC, lvG, wikNp
c.429 Timocrates, Brasidas and Lycophron sent to help Cnemos after his defeat by Phormio.  In a 2nd battle, Timocrates, on a Leucadian galley, one of the fast-sailing ships, pursues the Athenians, gets ahead of his squadron.  The hindmost Athenian galley wheels suddenly around a merchant ship lying at anchor, strikes its pursuer in the center, and sinks it.  Timocrates suicides.  His body is washed into Naupactos harbor. 429 DGRBM 3-1137
c.429 PLAGUE at Athens 430-25, inspires drunkenness, gluttony, and debauchery as citizens lose fear of gods and law. 429 TTPC
c.429 Pericles'  CITIZENSHIP RESTRICTION LAW  of 451 repealed.  Citizenship, restricted to those with 2 Athenian parents from 451, re-opened to get more taxes until 403. 429 LEWH 70
c.429 Playwright PHILOCLES wins 1st place over Sophocles. 429 DGRBM 3-301
c.429 SOPHOCLES produces  Oedipus Rex . soon after 430 B76 17-17, OCD 1001, bk     429 Dur 2-244, MCAW 133     429-25 CDCC 834
429/8 Athenian admiral PHORMIO brings help to the Acarnanians, expells several people regarded as unreliable, then returns to Naupactos Aetolia. 429/8 lvG
c.428 SEUTHES, king of a Thracian tribe, marries Stratonice sis of Perdiccas-II, . no date: DGRBM 3-809
c.428 CLEON becomes leader of Athenian radical party favoring war.  NICIAS becomes leader of conservative party opposing war. 428
c.428 EPAMEINON, eponymous archon of Athens from 429, ends.  DIOTIMOS succeeds until 427. 428 wikEA
c.428 CLEON, leader of Athenian radicals, levies a tax on the rich to finance war on Mytilene Lesbos.  1st direct property tax since 510.  It raises 200 talents. 428 CAH 5, CDCC 489, Dur 2-265, bk
c.428 Victorious Athenian admiral PHORMIO sails back to Athens, and retires. 428 lvG
c.428 EISPHORA TAX: an emergency levy on capital wealth for military purposes, first attested 434/3, is now levied for 200 talents, and continues until 377. 428 CAH 6-546, CDGRA 266
c.428 Athenian admiral PHORMIO dies. 428 B76 VII-961
c.428 Athens, with new finances, sends a large fleet under PACHES against Lesbos.  Peloponnesian fleet does nothing.  Lesbos is crushed. 428 LEWH 72, OCD 320, 796
c.428 Spartan fleet under Alcidas goes to Lesbos to relieve Mytilene, but Mytilene had surrendered to Athenians 7 days previous. 428 DGRBM 1-101
c.428 LYSICLES, popular leader in Athens, killed. 428 OCD 131
c.428 100 Athenian ships ravage eastern Peloponnese. 428 B76 14-22
c.428 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid king of Sparta 469-27 leads Peloponnesian army invading Attica 3rd time. 428 B76 I-489, CAH 5, DGRBM 1-267, OCD 98, lvG
c.428 EURIPIDES' play  Hippolytos Coronifer  wins at the City Dionysia.  About irreconcilable conflict between sexual passion and asceticism. 428 B76 6-1032, CAH 5, DGRBM 2-104, Dur 2-244, MCAW 135, OCD 418, 549, OHG 191, TTPC, bk
c.427 Envoys from Leontini Sicily including sophist GORGIAS, age 60, sail to Athens for aid, which is granted.  Gorgias stays and introduces rhetoric as an art form. 427 CAH 5, CDCC 400, DGRBM, Dur 2-244, GHH, LEWH 71, 76, MCAW 133, OCD 471, 596, OHG, wikGrg     no date: LEWH 71
c.427 20 Athenian ships under Laches and Charoeades sail for Sicily. 427 B76 14-22, CAH 5, CDCC 819, DGRBM 2-700, IDB 4-75, OCD 985, 1030, OHG
c.427 Oligarchs in Λ CORCYRA V murder 60 democrat leaders, begin civil war with democrats. 427 Dur 2-284, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, bk, wikCrf
c.427 Athenian Nicostratos with 12 ships and 500 Messenians, sails from Naupactos to Corcyra.  He mediates between oligarchs and democrats, quells the rebellion, imprison 400 aristocrats, try and execute 50 of them.    Many oligarchs flee to the mainlandNicostratos achieves an agreement, and defensive alliance with Athenians. 427
DGRBM 2-1200, Dur 2-284, LEWH 72, MCAW 132, bk, wikCrf
c.427 33 Spartan ships under Alcidas intervenes near Corcyra, drives Athenian & Corcyran fleets back to Corcyra.  Alcidas learns of 60 Athenian ships under Eurymedon approaching, sails back home. 428 DGRBM 2-111
427 DGRBM 1-101, lvG
c.427 Corinthian fleet sent to help oligarchs of Corcyra, but are defeated by Athenian fleet. 427
OCD 289
c.427 Corcyran democrats massacre oligarchs, While Athenian Eurymedon is supposedly in charge. 427 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 289, MCAW 132
c.427 DIOTIMOS, eponymous archon of Athens from 428, ends.  EUKLES succeeds until 426. 427 wikEA
c.427 Athenian Assembly, under influence of CLEON, proposes to execute all of Mytilene Lesbos after its rebellion is suppressedA ship is sent with this order.  The decision is reversed the next day.  Another ship is sent in time to prevent execution of women & children, but not the men. 427 B76 II-989, DGRBM 2-75, OCD 251, MCAW 133
c.427 THUCYDIDES to Cleon in the Assembly:  "Your empire is a despotism exercised over unwilling subjects who are always conspiring against you.  They do not obey for any kindness which you do them to your own injury, but only in so far as you are their master." 427 Dur 2-440
c.427 Spartans, this time under Cleomenes and Pausanias, invade Attica again. 427 CAH 5, DGRBM 1-267, 3-159, GHH, MCAW 132
c.427 Athenian NICIAS takes Minoa island near Megara. 427 DGRBM 2-1185
c.427 ARCHIDAMOS-II Eurypontid dies.  King of Sparta from 469, with Pleistoanax from 459.  Son AGIS-II succeeds to 399. 427 B76 I-489, CDCC 23, DGRBM 1-72, MRDK, OCD 27, 1007, TTPC, lvG, rcPl, wikKS     427/6 OCD 27, 98, bk     426 lvG
c.427 PLATAEA Boeotia, besieged by Spartans from 429, starved to surrender.  Half of its garrison had previously escaped.  The rest are executed.  Plataea destroyed until 386. 427 B76 14-22, CAH 5, 6-563, CDCC 821, GHH, LEWH 72, MCAW 132,3, OCD 839, OHG, lvG, wikPlat
c.427 BOEOTIAN LEAGUE restored until 386. 427 rcSB3
c.427 PLATAEA Boeotia destroyed by Thebes!!!!, under control of Sparta until 386. 427 CAH 6-563 426 rcSB3
c.427 ARISTOPHANES begins dramatic career with play  Banqueters , produced by Callistratos.  A profligate son argues with his father and with a virtuous young man.  Satire on his contemporaries educational and moral theories.  Wins 2nd prize. 427 B76 1-1154, DGRBM 1-312, GHH, OCD 113
c.427 ARISTOPHANES produces  Daitals . 427 CAH 5
c.427 Temple to ATHENA NIKE, comissioned 449, construction begins by architect Callicrates on the bastion of the southwest corner of the Acropolis.  Made of pentelic marble in Ionic style.  Finished 424. 430 CDCC 104 427 B76 II-462
c.426 Coast of MEGARA ravaged by Athenian NICIAS. 426 DGRBM 2-1185, lvG
c.426 LOCRIS ravaged by Athenian fleet under NICIAS, who then goes home. 426 DGRBM 2-1185, lvG
c.426 DEMOSTHENES and Procles command 30 Athenian ships sent on annual cruise around Peloponnese. 426 DGRBM 1-979
c.426 EUKLES, eponymous archon of Athens from 427, ends.  EUTHYNOS succeeds until 425. 426 wikEA
c.426 TANAGRA, 25km east of Thebes, ravaged by Athenians Hipponicos and Eurymedon. 426 DGRBM 1-567, 2-111, GHH, lvG
c.426 Ambracian Gulf AMPHILOCHIAN ARGOS, ally of Athens, attacked by Ambracians and Peloponnesians, who are defeated by Athenian DEMOSTHENES at Olpae and Idomene north of Argos. 426
B76 14-22, DGRBM 3-702, DGRG 1-10, 120, 207, OCD 329, TTPC
c.426 Peloponnesians, after the battle of Olpae abandon Ambracian allies and secure their own safety by a secret agreement with Demosthenes.  They are given hospitality by Salynthius, a king of the Agraeans east of Amphilochia. 426 DGRBM 3-702
c.426 DEMOSTHENES deposits loot at Eupalion in Ozolian Locris, where it is soon taken by Spartan Eurylochos. 426 DGRG 1-875
c.426 Earthquake in Attica. 426 GHH
c.426 AGIS-II begins first campaign to Attica, gets as far as isthmus, but stops because of earthquakes - evil omens.  Spartans appoint a guardian for Agis. 426 DGRBM 1-72, 267, lvG
c.426 Agiad prince Cleomenes leads the annual invasion of Attica. 426 lvG
c.426 Sparta offers peace.  Athens refuses. 426 LEWH 72
c.426 3,000 hoplites from Ambracia invade Amphilochian Argos in Acarnania and occupy fort of Olpae.  Acarnanians ask for help from Athenian Demosthenes, and 20 Athenian ships nearby under command of Aristotle and Hierophon. 426 wikBO
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES, with a few troops, goes to Acarnania, raises an army, hoping to invade Boeotia via Phocis. 426 TTPC
c.426 Ambracians ask for help from Eurylochus of Sparta, who marches past the Acarnanians without being observed. 426 wikBO
c.426 Aetolians ask Sparta for help against Messenians of Naupactos Aetolia. 426 DGRBM 2-110
c.426 LACHES, Athenian commander in Sicily, charged with corruption by Cleon, recalled. 426 DGRBM 2-700
c.426 Spartan EURYLOCHOS with 3,000 heavy-armed allies sent to help Aetolians against Messenians of Naupactos, where Demosthenes remains, but without an army.
Spartan MENEDAIOS also sent to help Aetolians.
426 DGRBM 2-110, 1036
c.426 Spartan EURYLOCHOS assembles troops at Delphi, receives submission of Ozolian Locrians, marches thru their land to Naupactos Aetolia, which is rescued by Acarnanians sent by Demosthenes.  Eurylochos withdraws, and remains among allies. 426 DGRBM 2-110
c.426 Demosthenes with his ships, 200 hoplites, and 60 archers, arrives in Ambracian Gulf below Olpae.  He joins the Acarnanian army and camps in a ravine opposite Eurylochos, where both sides make preparations for 5 days.  As the Ambracian and Peloponnesian army is larger, Demosthenes sets up an ambush with 400 hoplites from Acarnania, to be used when the battle begins. 426 wikBO
c.426 Ambracian GulfAmbracians defeat left wing of Acarnanians and Amphilochians, at OLPAE, chasing them back to Amphilochian Argos, but are themselves defeated by the rest of the Acarnanians when they return.  Demosthenes loses 300 men, but wins that night. 426
DGRG 1-74, OCD 51, wikBO
c.426 A 2nd Ambracian army marches towards Olpae.  They camp on the road to the fort at Idomene, having no knowledge of the previous defeat.  Demosthenes pretends his troops are the other Ambracian army, surprises them there at night, and kills most of them.  The rest flee to the hills or the sea where they are captured by the 20 Athenian ships.  Overall, the Ambracians lose about 1,000 men over the 2 days. 426 wikBO
c.426 Spartans EURYLOCHOS and Macarios are killed at Olpae.  MENEDAIOS takes over. 426 DGRBM 2-1036, wikBO
c.426 Spartan MENEDAIOS campaigns at Amphilochian Argos. 426 DGRBM 2-1036
c.426 MENEDAIOS, leader of Ambracians, tries to make a truce with Demosthenes, who would only allow the leaders of the army to escape, just to discredit the Spartans in the eyes of all Greeks. 426 DGRBM 2-1036, wikBO
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES defeats Spartan Menedaios at Amphilochia. 426
OCD 796
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES marches against Salynthius a king of the Agraeans, and compels them to join the Athenian alliance. 426 DGRG 1-74 424 DGRBM 3-702
c.426 Athenian general DEMOSTHENES invades AETOLIA and is defeated by light Aetolian infantry plus slingers ans archers. 426 B76 I-117, CAH 6-681, OCD 21, 329, lvG
no date B76 14-22
c.426 HERACLEA TRACHIS founded 5 miles west of Thermopylae by Spartans including Alcidas.  It has continuous troubles with neighbors and with Thessalians until 400. 426 CAH 6-31, DGRBM 1-101, 2-734, OCD 498
c.426 Pythian priestess of Delphi repeatedly advises Sparta to "bring back the seed of the demi-god, the son of Zeus; else you will plough with a silver plough" no date: DGRBM 3-412
c.426 Interim Agiad king of Sparta from 445, PAUSANIAS steps down.  Father Pleistoanax, exiled in Arcadia from 445, is recalled (on advice of Apollo).  PLEISTOANAX resumes until 409.  But he is accused of colluding with the Pythian priestess, and blamed for any future misfortune of Sparta and not trusted with an army until 421. 427/6 CDCC 690
426 CDCC 653, DGRBM 3-412, OCD 793
444 MRDK
c.426 SOPHOCLES produces  Trachiniae  (Women of Trachis). maybe after 430 B76 17-17 423? TTPC
c.426 EURIPIDES publishes  Andromache .  Attacks Spartan cruelty and duplicity, probably because of Plataea 427. 427 MCAW 135     426 OCD 419 425 bk     419 TTPC
pre-423 B76 6-1032
c.426 ARISTOPHANES publishes  Babylonians , produced by Callistratos in the City Dionysia.  Dionysos is a character.  Portrays Athenian allies as slaves.  Ridicules Cleon, and the system of appointing officers by lot.  Its criticism of Athenian magistrates gets Aristophanes prosecuted by Cleon, apparently unsuccessfully. 426 B76 1-1154, CAH 5, CDCC 76, DGRBM 1-313, Dur 2-421, OCD 113, 251
c.426 POLYGNOTOS of Thasos, painter of large wall murals, in Athens from 462, dies. 440 B76 VIII-97
426 DGRBM 3-463
426/5 Aetolians invite Spartans to join them. winter 426/5 lvG

Balkan Peninsula 425-411