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c.200 4 LEAF CLOVER made sacred by Druid priests in Britain, who think a person who has one can sight demons and thwart them by incantations. 200
c.200 DAIRE, king of Ulster from 272, ends.  EADHNA-I succeeds until 195. 200 rcI
c.200 Carn Euny CARN EUNY iron age village in Cornwall: first timber huts there are built. photo Andy Wright

200 wikCE
c.200 BELGAE begin settling on south coast of Britain until 43CE. 200 wikPB
c.200 SHIPS in Scandinavia, still don't have sails, oarlocks, or outriggers. 200 Dur 3-20
c.200 Teutons to MainTEUTONS, Germanics between the Rhine & Elbe from 1000, reach the Main tributary to the Rhine.
Marcomani will do same c.100.
LEWH 157
c.200 HEMP grown in the Rhine valley is traded to the Mediterranean coast for ropes to use on ships. 200 B76 15-1145
c.200 Western SARMATIA, northwest of Black Sea, under La Tene Celts from 280, comes under the Bastarnae until 50. 200 rcEB
c.200 BASTARNAE, living between the Carpathian mountains and the Dnieper 1st appear on lower Danube. 200 OCD 162
c.200 DACIA, under La Tene Celts from 300, comes under Dacians (Getae?) until 106CE.  Exists as a state until 31. 200 rcEB
by 200 ZALMODEGICUS, king of the Getae, has authority as far west as Istria. by 200 wikGt
c.200 Area presently called MOLDAVIA, northwest of Black Sea, under La Tene Celts from 280, comes under Sarmatians until 50. 200 rcEB
c.200 WALLACHIA (southeast Dacia), under Le Tene Gauls from 300, comes under Dacia until 106CE. 200 rcEB
c.200 DACIA extends from Tlsza river to lower Danube until 31. 200 B76 2-615
c.200 CELTS of Vltava River valley from 500, end. 200 B76 14-944
c.186 Transalpine Gauls move into Istria peninsula until 181. 186 OCD 90
c.186 About 50,000 CARNI, part of the Taurisci (Norici) confederation of Gauls in Noricum, cross the Alps from Veneti territory in Noricum to Veneti territory in Italy. 186 hifiCrn
c.183 3 Envoys including L. Manlius Acidinus, Q. Minucius Rufus, are sent from Italy to Transalpine Gaul. 183 DGRBM 1-13, 3-675
c.183 12,000 Celtic TAURISCI migrate west to Akileja, future site of Aquileia. 183 wikAq
c.183 Praetor L.(1) Julius CAESAR is sent to Cisalpine Gaul, and ordered to prevent the Transalpine Gauls from building Akileja. 183 DGRBM 1-537
c.183 Gauls in Istria from 186, are ordered to leave by consul M.(5) Claudius Marcellus, who confiscates any movable property they had brought with them.  He says their property will be returned when they are about to leave Italy. 183 DGRBM 3-606,
DGRG 1-944, LdHR 2-56, atl2
They quietly cross the Alps under the inspection of 3 senators (including L. Furius Purpurio), who are well received by the Transalpine Gauls.
c.183 Consul M.(5) Claudius Marcellus in Venetia writes and asks permission of the senate to lead his legions into Istria, which is occupied by weak Transalpine Gauls. 183 DGRG 1-944, LdHR 2-56
Without waiting for reply, he marches into Istria.  Then he gets permission.
c.181 IstriaAQUILEIA (Latinized from Akileja which was destroyed 183) founded as Latin colony by 3 Roman commissioners including C.(2) Flaminius, P.(7) Scipio Nasica, with 3,000 colonists.  They are given unusually large land allotments (pedites 50 iugera, centuriones 100 iugera, equites 140 iugera) to control the Veneti and the passes threatened by the Gauls.  The colony disturbs the Istri. 183 DGRG 1-944, SORH
181 B76 7-960, 15-1096, CAH 8-206, 505, CDCC 53, DGRBM 2-168, 3-751, DGRG 1-170, 2-1273, MCAW, OCD 90, atl2 181/0 wikAq
c.181 Transalpine Gauls in Istria from 186, expelled by Romans. 181 CAH 8, OCD 90
181/0 Praetor Q.(2) FABIUS BUTEO campaigns in Istria near Aquileia. 181/0 wikRGG
c.180 The ARVERNI Confederation in south-central Gaul comes under king LUERNIUS until 167. 180 hifiArv, rcC
c.178 Consul Gn. Manlius Vulso attacks the Istri.  He is ambushed and chased out of his camp, but saved by bravery of tribune C. Aelius.  He then defeats the Istri. 178 CAH 8-116, DGRBM 3-1286, atl2, wikRGG
c.177 TERGESTE Istria comes under Rome. 177 B76 X-121
c.177 Consul C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, comes to Istria, quarrels with prococonsular predecessors, Vulso & Buteo. 177 wikRGG
c.177 IstriaISTRIA, under the Illyrian Istrii from ?, under king Aepulo from ?, conquered by consul C.(4) CLAUDIUS PULCHER, who takes 5,632 prisoners and the equivalent of at least 350,000 denarii.  Istrian towns Nesactium, Mutila, and Faveria are taken.  Istria is annexed by Rome intil 395CE. 178 rcCE     177 B76 V-466, CAH 8-116, DGRG 2-73, 89, 643, LdHR 2-56, SORH, OCD 556, 928, atl2, wikRGG
c.175 Britain southeastSoutheast Britain begins developing advanced pottery-making skills. 175 wikPB
c.169 AQUILEIA colony on north Adriatic from 181, receives 1,500 more families, under supervision of 3 men: M. Cornelius Cethegus, T. Annius Luscus, P. Decius Subulo. 169 DGRBM 1-675, 2-842, 3-930, DGRG 1-170
c.167 LUERNIUS, king of the ARVERNI Confederation in south-central Gaul from 180, ends.  Son BITUITUS succeeds until 121. 167 hifiArv, rcC
c.166 Consuls C.(2) GALLUS (Galba) and M.(7) Marcellus cross southwest Alps into Gaul.  On the west slopes they subdue Gauls and Ligurians. 166 DGRBM 2-229, LdHR 2-101
c.156 DALMATIANS occupy coast lands between Istria peninsula and Illyria. 156 LdHR 2-101
c.156 The Deciates, west Ligurians, besiege Antipolis (Antibes) and Nicaea (Nice). 156 LdHR 2-101
no date: DGRG 1-757, 953
c.154 MASSILIA Gaul, attacked by Ligurian Deciates and Oxybii, asks protection from Rome, which sends some commissioners, who land at Aegitna 3km north of Antipolis in the territory of the Oxybii; but the Oxybii, who heard that they came to order them to raise siege, wounds one of the commissioners. 155 wikOx
154 B76 7-960, CAH 8, 9-23, DGRG 1-757, 953, 2-672,
c.154 NICAEA and ANTIPOLIS on the coast of Liguria, besieged by Ligurian Oxybii and Deciates. 154 DGRG 2-424
c.154 Consul Q. OPIMIIUS is sent from Rome to Gaul to help Massilia.  He fights the Oxybii and Deciatae, Ligurian tribes who live west of the Varus. 154 DGRBM 3-33, DGRG 2-185, wikRGG
c.154 Consul Q. Opimius defeats the Transalpine Ligurian Oxybii and Deciates at Aegitna, and gives part of their country to Massalia. 154 DGRBM 3-33, DGRG 1-757, 2-887, GHH, LdHR 2-101, SORH, atl2, wikRGG
c.152 Roman success in Gaul. 152 atl2
c.150 Metal COINS begin in Britain.  There is now widespread contact with the Continent thru Celtic tribes. 150 brtT, hifiCT
c.150 Druids celebrate start of winter by offering MISTLETOE to their gods.  Mistletoe is hung in homes for good luck.  If enemies under a tree having mistletoe, they are required to disarm and ignore their enmity for a day. 200-100 EOET 68
c.150 Wandsworth ShieldWANDSWORTH SHIELD lost in the Thames at Wandsworth, where it will be discovered in 1849.  Made of bronze 33cm diameter, Celtic La Tène style decoration. photo Johnbod

2-100 wikWnSh
c.150 TREVERI, a Celtic speaking Belgic tribe who claim Germanic descent, occupy the lower Moselle valley.  Capital at Titelberg (Trier). 150 wikTr
c.150 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS passes thru Massilia and other cities, and makes enquiries about British IslesPolybius accompanies. 150 atl2
c.150 Belgae territory penetrated by Romans. 150 B76 I-944
c.150 Le Tene CELTS between East Carpathians and the Dniester from ?, expelled by Dacians.  La Tene material disappears. 150 wikCiT, wikDc
c.146 POLYBIUS sails in the Atlantic. 146 B76 8-389
c.146 Consul Appius Claudius attacks the Salassi without provocation, and is defeated by them with a loss of 5,000 men. 146 hifiSls
c.129 Massilia sends ambassadors to Rome to intercede for Phocaea, which the senate had ordered destroyed. 129 atl2
c.125 The Deciates Ligurians again join the Salluvii (Salyes) against Massilia. 125 DGRG 1-757, GHH
c.125 Massilia is attacked by the Salluvii. 125 CAH 9-23
c.125 Massilia appeals to Rome for help against the Salluvii. 125 atl2
c.125 Consul M. Fulvius FLACCUS is sent to help Massilia against the Salluvii.  He defeats Salluvii same year. 125 B76 7-960, CAH 9-24, DGRBM 2-155, DGRG 1-954, 2-887, LEWH 103, MCAW, OCD 440, SORH, atl2
c.125 Consul M. Fulvius FLACCUS subdues the Transalpine Ligurians. 125 CAH 9-24, DGRBM 2-155
c.125 Consul M. Fulvius FLACCUS campaign against the Vocontii on the east bank of the Rhone. 125 B76 7-960, CAH 9
c. 125 A Gaul named LUCERIUS (Lucernius) is so wealthy he drives a chariot, scattering gold and silver among the Celts who follow him.  He fenced a space of 12 furlongs square, in which he erected wine-presses, full of expensive liquors.  He prepared so much food that for many days anyone was welcome to enjoy it, being waited on without interruption or cessation.  Once he invited to a banquet, a poet from some barbarian tribe.  The poet came too late and met him on the way, and sung a hymn in which he extolled Lucerius' magnificence, and apologized for having come too late.  Luernius called for a bag of gold, and threw it to the poet as he was running by his chariot. 125 atl2
c.124 Consul Sextius Calvinus advances west over Alps into Gaul land.  War with the Arverni and Allobroges until 121.  Begins ground work for Transalpine Gaul. 124 CAH 9
121 DGRG 1-229
c.124 SALLUVII (Salyes) and allies north of Massilia, defeated by C. SEXTIUS CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul until . 124 B76 7-960, OCD 610, 947 123 DGRBM 1-585, atl2
c.124 C. SEXTIUS CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul, defeats the Allobroges. 124 SORH
c.124 M. Fulvius FLACCUS continues as proconsul until 123, again campaigns against the Vocontii on the east bank of the Rhone. 124 B76 7-960, SORH, wikRGG
c.124 ARELATE, capital of the Salluvii from ?, destroyed by C. Sextius CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul.  Comes under Rome until ?.. 124 OCD 610, 947 123 DGRG 1-196, wikAr
c.124 M. Fulvius FLACCUS defeats the Vocontii, and Salluvii. 124 SORH
c.123 Q.(10) Fabius Maximus campaigns in Narbonensis, defeats the Allobroges, Helvii, and Arverni under King Bituitus. 123 hifiVc, wikNrb
c.123 C. SEXTIUS CALVINUS, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul 123-2, defeats the Vocontii, Salluvii, and Ligurii, drives them back toward Alps. 124 CAH 9-24     123 DGRG 2-185, 887     no date: DGRG 1-169, OCD 197, wikRGG
c.123 ENTREMONT, a Celto-Ligurian hilltop fort from 350? 19 miles north of Massillia in Salluvii territory, is refounded as AQUAE SEXTIAE (later Aix), 1st Roman fort in Transalpine Gaul, by C. Sextius Calvinus, proconsul of Transalpine Gaul. 124 wikGM     123 B76 I-169, OCD 89     122 DGRG 1-169, 954, 2-672, 887, GHH, MCAW, SORH, atl2, wikRGG
no date: DGRBM 1-585, OCD 197
CONFUSION ALERT!  Though Transalpine Gaul is technically all Gaul north of the Alps, the term is often used to mean specifically Narbonensis.
c.122 VIENNE on the Rhone in Gaul becomes Roman town, under Rome almost uninterruptedly until 275. 122 B76 X-426
no date: OCD 197
c.122 Consul Gn.(3) Domitius AHENOBARBUS arrives in Transalpine Gaul to fight Allobroges and Arverni until ?. 122 B76 7-960, DGRBM 1-84, SORH
c.122 Consul Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS defeats the Saluvii near confluence of the Rhone and Sorgue  TEUTOMALIUS, king of the Saluvii, flees north to the Allobroges. 122 B76 7-960, DGRBM 3-1015, DGRG 1-954, hifiArv
c.122 Consul Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS demands extradition of Salluvii chiefs.  Allobroges refuse. 122 B76 7-960, DGRG 1-954
c.121 The Allobroges allied with the Arverni and Ruteni are at war with the Aedui. 121 DGRG 1-229
c.121 AEDUI, Gallic tribe in central Gaul, oppressed by the Arverni, Salluvii, and Allobroges, appeal to Rome. 122 SORH, atl2 121 OCD 12
c.121 ALLOBROGES are completely defeated by Gn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and under Rome until 61.  Romans adopt the Greek practice of erecting TROPHIES on the battlefield. 121 CAH 10-523, CDGRA 656, DGRG 1-954, GHH, SORH, wikRGG
c.121 Allobroges and Arverni under Bituitus begin preparations for another war. 121 DGRBM 1-491
c.121 Achaean League sends troops to join Domitius Ahenobarbus(3)' army in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.121 The ARVERNI under Bituitus, the Ruteni and the Allobroges are defeated by Consul Q.(10) Fabius MAXIMUS and proconsul Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS-3, at Vindalium east of the Rhone120,000 Arverni killed.  The Ruteni, Segovellauni, and Vocontii are subjugated at the same time.  Their territory is not made into a province.  This defeat allows the unsubdued Aeduii and Sequani to rise in power. 121 B76 7-960, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-84, 491, DGRG 1-229, 2-860, OCD 36, 128, 429, SORH, atl2, bk, hifiAd. hifiAlb, hifiArv
c.121 BITUITUS, chief of the Arverni from 167, tricked and captured by Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS-3.  His son Congeniatus is also captured.  Both are sent to Rome. 123 hifiArv, rcC
121 B76 7-960, CAH 9, DGRBM 1-491, OCD 36, 128, 429, atl2
c.121 TRANSALPINE GAUL (Narbonese Gaul) between Pyrenees and Alps becomes province of NARBONENSIS under Q. Fabius and Gn. Domitius AHENOBARBUS-3.  Safe land route to Hispania. 122 MCAW     121 CAH 9, GHH, HRE 83, OCD 47, OHG 235, SORH, wikGAq, wikNrb, wikTAR     118 GHH
CONFUSION ALERT!  Though Transalpine Gaul is technically all Gaul north of the Alps, the term is often used to mean specifically Narbonensis.
c.121 VIA DOMITIA begun by consul 122 Gn.(3) Domitius Ahenobarbus from the Rhone to the Pyrenees.' Finished 118. 121 SORH 122-20 wikRGG
c.121 Achaean League sends troops to join Domitius Ahenobarbus(3)' army in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.121 Romans help Contoniatus to establish himself as a chieftain in Gaul. 121 atl2
c.120 VANDALS, Germanics in south Scandinavia from ?, move to south coast of Baltic Sea until ?. no date: OCD 1107
c.120 VANDALS settle in Silesia on the Oder until ?. 120 wikVn
c.118 Narbo Martius (Narbonne 45) refounded by Q. Marius as an exercise in agricultural colonization, for the benefit of Italian civilians.  1st transmarine colony with citizen rights. 118 CAH 10-469, 476, GHH, SORH, wikNrb, wikRGG
c.118 Via Domitia VIA DOMITIA, begun 121 from the Rhone to the Pyrenees, finished.  1st Roman road built in Gaul.  Starts at Briganto, passes thru Arelate, crosses the Rhone at Ugernum, passes thru Nemausus, and Narbo, where the Via Aquitania will soon connect to the Atlantic coast. 118 midi, rmhs, wikVD
c.118 Thibery Bridge THIBERY BRIDGE allows Via Domitia to cross the Herault river.  Has 9 arches with spanning 10-12m each.  Road rests on wide piers, protected on both sides by arched floodways and large cutwaters.  Original length probably 150m, road width 4m. photo: Fagairolles

27BC-14CE wikRBST
c.117 CIMBRIAN FLOOD:  Jutland is flooded by the sea.  Permanently alters the shape of the coastline, and drastically affects the way people live. 120-114 hifiTtn,
c.115 Consul M.(1) Aemilius SCAURUS pushes east across Julian Alps, campaigns against the Taurisci (later Norici), Carni, and others, defeats the Carni and probably the Taurisci, establishes Roman influence. 115 CAH 9-108, DGRBM 3-736, SORH, hifiNT
c.113 More than 500,000 Germanic CIMBRI under Boiorix and TEUTONS under Teutobod in Denmark, have bad living conditions, begin migrating south thru Gaul.  This mass wandering thru western Europe probably causes migrations of Belgae from northern Gaul to Britain. Cimbri migration 118 dndbt   114 MCAW
113 DGRG 2-1133, GHH, atl2, hifiBo, hifiTtn     113-05 hifiKB
c.113 VOLCAE TECTOSAGES of Germany, and AMBRONES & TIGURINI (subtribes of Helvetii) in the Main valley all join the CIMBRI migration. 113 LdHR 2-240, hifiBo, hifiHlv, hifiTtn
CIMBRI are called such by the Romans because "cumfhi" is the Celtic word for a league of tribes. MCAW 233
c.113 TIGURINI (subtribe of Helvetii), 300,000 fighting men, plus women and children, appear in Noricum. 113 DGRBM 2-954
In central Germany, "cimbri" comes to mean robber. LdHR 2-240
c.113 Celtic BOII of Bohemia 191, repel attack by Cimbri. 113 B76 3-1074
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS invade Noricum, home of the Taurisci (Norici), and a major steel producing area.  Taurisci ask Romans for help. 113 wikBN, wikNrc
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS move down the Danube and into Illyria 113 GHH, atl2
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS from east of the Rhine (300,000 fighting men with families, animals, wagons, etc.) move into the Roman Alpine region until 112. 113 Dur 3-118, LdHR 2-240, LEWH 105
c.113 Germanic CIMBRI and TEUTONS first contact Romans in Noricum. 113 ooctA
c.113 CIMBRI and TEUTONS WAR with Rome begins until 101. 113 Dur 3-110, GHH
c.113 Consul Gn. Papirius CARBO crosses Alps against the Cimbri and Teutons. 113 DGRG 1-954
c.113 Consul Gn. Papirius CARBO after coming to terms with the barbarians, treacherously attacks them, but he is defeated by the Cimbri at Noreia (unknown location in Noricum), loses much of his army, and narrowly escapes. 113 DGRBM 1-655, DGRG 1-955, 2-447, Dur 3-118, GHH, LdHR 2-240, LEWH 105, MCAW, SORH     112 wikBN
c.113 Main body of CIMBRI move to west of the Rhine and Jura. 113 LdHR 2-240, SORH
East Europe
c.112 The SCORDISCI of Singidun (Belgrade) attacked by CIMBRI. no date: B76 III-1074
c.112 CIMBRI confederation, in Noricum from 113, move west into what will become HELVETI land until 110.  They are joined by some local Gauls. 112 GHH
no date: OCD 240

Europe 111-101