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c.200 HANNIBAL, accused by Carthage govt. of misconducting the war, forgiven, appointed suffete (civil magistrate). 200
B76 8-627
c.200 Sp. Lucretius, Gn. Octavius Rufus, and C. Terentius Varro are sent from Rome to Africa to visit Carthage, Masinissa, and to negotiate peace with Vermina son of Syphax.  Varro returns same year. 200 DGRBM 2-828, 3-6, 1222
c.200 Gn. NAEVIUS, Roman epic poet and dramatist of the Old Latin period, in Utica from 204, dies. 204 cslGN    201 about, wikGN     200 brit
199 B76 15-1098
c.200 CYRENAICA, under Ptolemies from 204, comes under Numidia until 149. 200 rcNA
c.199 Romans make treaty with Masinissa. 199 GHH
c.198 Carthaginian captives and slaves revolt crushed (location not specified). 198 bk
c.196 HANNIBAL, with the support of the voters against the entrenched oligarchs, elected suffete at Carthage until 195. 196 CAH 8-143, Dur 3-54, MCAW, hifiC
c.196 HANNIBAL, suffete at Carthage, overthrows oligarchic faction, makes democratic reform. 196 B76 8-627, CAH 8, MCAW
196/5 HANNIBAL rallies the populace against the Tribunal of 104.  He proposes a one year term for the 104 as part of a major civic overhaul. Nobles of Carthage go to Romans, accuse Hannibal of inciting Antiochus-III against Rome. 196/5
B76 8-627, hifiC
c.195 Roman envoys including Q. Terrentius CULLEO sent to Carthage with extradition ultimatim, because of a noble's accusations against Hannibal.  They get assurance of obedience from Carthaginian senate. 195 CAH 8-143, DGRBM 1-900, LdHR 2-36, MCAW, OCD 301
c.195 HANNIBAL, suffete at Carthage from 196, flees by night from Carthage to Thapsus, then sails for Tyre.  He is succeeded by Pro-Roman HASDRUBAL HAEDUS until 160. 195 CAH 8-143, Dur 3-54, LdHR 2-36, MCAW, hifiC
c.195 TUNISIA, coast of central North Africa, where the sea turns south toward Libya, comes under pro-Roman Hasdrubal Haedus until 160. 195 rcNA
c.193 Praetor C.(2) FLAMINIUS enroute from Italy to Spain, is detoured by a storm to Africa.  He recruits veterans who had settled there, and proceeds to Spain. 193 wikRCH
c.193 SCIPIO AFRICANUS, M. Minucius Rufus, and C. Cornelius Cethegus are sent from Rome on embassy to Africa to mediate between Masinissa and Carthage.  They achieve nothing.  Possibly they also go to the east. 193 B76 16-397, DGRBM 1-675, 3-675, 746, LdHR 2-117
c.193 Hannibal, now at Ephesus, sends Ariston of Tyre on a secret mission to Carthage.  There is still a Barcid faction at Carthage, but it is not strong enough to inspire anti-Roman policies, even if it wanted to.  Appearance of an emissary from Hannibal sends the government into such distress that it sends a mission to report the matter to Rome. 194 BHS 2-57, 193 CAH 8-144, atl2
c.193 Hannibal, with 5 ships, sails from Ephesus, lands on Cyrenaic coast to incite Carhtage against Rome and to summon his bro Mago to join him.  Mago does so.  But Punic authorities banish Mago as they had banished Hannibal.  The attempt had failed, so Hannibal returns to Ephesus. 193 BHS 2-61
c.193 Masinissa invades the coastal district called Emporia which skirts the Syrtis Gulf.  Carthaginians appeal to Rome. 193 GHH, SORH, atl2
c.191 CARTHAGE offers to pay off the whole 50 year Roman indemnity in advance.  Rome refuses in order to maintain control over Carthage. 191 CAH 8, MCAW
c.188 CARTHAGE pays off the whole Roman indemnity, an amount equivalent to 187.2 million sesterces. 188 Dur 3-54
c.188 Romans hand over 2 men including L. Minucius Myrtilus to Carthage, because they had assaulted some Carthaginian envoys. 188 atl2
187 DGRBM 2-1132
c.182 MASINISSA invades Carthage, seizing an area (unidentified) which for a time had supposedly been his father's. 182 CAH 8-145, GHH
c.182 MASINISSA siezes the coastal district called Emporia which skirts the Syrtis Gulf. 182 GHH
c.182 3 Roman envoys, including Q. Terrentius Culleo, mediate in a dispute between Carthage and Masinissa, but do not reach a decision. 182 atl2
181 DGRBM 1-900
c.174 Masinissa attacks Punic territory until 172. 174 CAH 8
c.174 M.(1) Porcius CATO is envoy to Carthage to inquire into complaints against Masinissa. 174 GHH
c.172 Carthaginians send envoys to Rome to complain about attacks by Masinissa. 172 CAH 8
c.171 Roman envoys, including L. Postumius Albinus, are sent to Carthage and Masinissa, to raise troops for war against Perseus. 171 DGRBM 1-92
c.171 GULUSSA, 2nd son of Masinissa, sent to Rome.  He and a Punic embassy make more accusations against each other before the senate.  Gulussa promises Numidian troops to help Romans in Macedonia. 172 DGRBM 2-315
171 DGRBM 2-315, atl2
c.171 MISAGENES, son of Masinissa, is appointed to command forces sent to Greece to help the Romans against Perseus  He remains until 168.. 171 DGRBM 2-1092
c.170 Embassies from Carthage and Masinissa, appear before senate. 170 DGRBM 2-828, atl2
c.170 LIBYA, under Ptolemies 323-96, comes under Ptolemy Euergetes until 164. 170 rcNA
c.168 Embassy from Masinissa sent to Rome. 168 atl2
c.164 LIBYA, under Ptolemies 323-96, under Ptolemy Euergetes from 170, comes under Egypt until 145. 164 rcNA
164 GABES (Qabis), under Carthage from 6th cen., comes under Numidia until 46. 164 rcNA
c.163 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon is made king of Cyrene until 116.  There is some resistance. 169 bk     163 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-284, Jud 5-603, MRDK 290, SORH, lvPt6, lvPt8
c.163 CYRENAICA, under Ptolemies 248-96, ruled by Ptolemy-VIII Physcon until 116. 163 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8-284, Jud 5-603, wikKC
c.163 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon persuades senate to award him a larger share of Ptolemaic territories. 163 atl2
c.162 Masinissa tries to seize the Gabes Gulf from Carthaginians, and is supported by Roman senate. 162 atl2
c.162 Rome sends a leader for the rebels in Cyrene (Ptolemy Sympetesis), but Ptolemy-VIII is able to overcome the insurrection. 162 lvPt8
c.162 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon is defeated by people of Cyrene while trying to take possession of their city. 162 atl2
c.161 Senate confirms token support for Ptolemy-VIII Physcon concerning Cyprus and sends his ambassadors home. 161 atl2
c.160 Carthage, under suffetes 205-146. Pro-Roman HASDRUBAL HAEDUS ends.  Suffete from 195.  CARTHALO the Boetarch succeeds until 152. 160 hifiC
c.160 TUNISIA, coast of central North Africa, where the sea turns south toward Libya, under pro-Roman Hasdrubaal Haedus from 195, comes under democrat Carthalo the Boetarch until 152. 160 rcNA
c.157 Senate sends an embassy including M.(1) Porcius Cato to arbitrate between Masinissa and Carthage.  Results are unknown. 157 CAH 8-149, SORH, TTPC, atl2
c.156/5 An attempt to kill Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, is foiled. 156/5 lvPt8
c.156/5 Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, makes his will, and makes Rome inheritor of his realm. 156/5 lvPt8
c.154 CARTHALO, commander of Carthaginian auxiliaries, a leader of the "democratizers" faction - opponents of appeasement -organizes some attacks, which stop short of regular warfare. 154 CAH 8-149
c.154 Ptolemy-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene, accuses Ptolemy-VI Philometor of attempted murder.  Takes his complaint to Rome. 156/5 wikP8 155/4 lvPt6
154 CAH 8-284
c.154 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon king of Cyrene until 163-16, with Roman permission military attempt on Cyprus also fails. 154 B76 VIII-281, DGRBM 3-593-4, DGRG 1-731, lvPt6, lvPt8
c.154 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon launches a building program in Cyrenaica (surnamed Euergetes-II, "Benefactor"). 154 lvPt6, lvPt8
c.153 M. Porcius CATO becomes ambassador to Carthage, sees their new prosperity, fears Carthage as a potential threat, returns to Rome. 153 B76 II-645, CAH 8-149, OCD 215     152 atl2
151 LdHR 2-117
c.153 Another Roman commission is sent to arbitrate between Masinissa and Carthage.  This is essentially a spying mission. 153 CAH 8, atl2 153/2 CAH 8-149
c.152 Another Roman embassy, led by Scipio Nasica Corculum, is sent to Carthage.  Gisco Son of Hamilcar harangues against the Romans, so effectively that the ambassadors flee from the city. 152 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-269 151 atl2
c.152 CARTHALO the Boetarch ends.  Suffete of Carthage from 160, ends.  HASDRUBAL succeeds until 148. 152 hifiC
c.152 MASINISSA, king of Numidia, forced to withdraw from Punic territory by Scipio Nasica Corculum. 152 OCD 963
c.152 TUNISIA, coast of central North Africa, where the sea turns south toward Libya, under democrat Carthalo the Boetarch from 160, comes under Hasdrubal until 146, without title until 148. 152 rcNA
c.151 CARTHAGE:  Popular party gets control, and expells chiefs of the oligarchy, who happen to support Masinissa.  Masinissa at once prepares for war. 151 LdHR 2-117, MCAW, atl2
150 DGRBM 2-969, LdHR 2-118
c.151 CARTHAGE breaks 201 treaty with Rome by declaring war on Masinissa of Numidia for boundary infractions and repeated raids. 151 B76 15-1095, MWΦ 130, SORH
c.151 Masinissa sends his sons, Gulussa and Micipsa, to demand restoration of his exiled partisans; but Gulussa and Micipsa are refused admission within the gates by the party headed by Hasdrubal the general.  As they retire, Hamilcar attacks them, and kills many followers of Gulussa, who escapes with difficulty. 151 DGRBM 2-331
150 DGRBM 2-969, 1082
c.151 Roman envoys visit Africa, decide nothing. 151 CAH 8-149, LdHR 2-117
c.151 Roman embassy returns to Rome from Africa with Gulussa, 2nd son of Masinissa. 151 atl2
c.150 Masinissa invades Carthaginian territory, and besieges Oroscapa (location unknown). 150 DGRBM 2-969
c.150 Hasdrubal, with a large army, marches against Masinissa at Oroscapa.  Hasdrubals army soon swells by the desertion of some Numidian chiefs, and others to 58,000 men.  Numidians win first engagement, but it is not decisive. 150 DGRBM 2-969, atl2
c.150 Senate orders Carthaginians to abandon Carthage and move inland. 149 CAH 8
c.150 MASINISSA, king of Numidia 202-148, attacked by Carthaginians, defeats them. 150 CAH 8, Dur 3-, LEWH 102, OCD 654, atl2
c.150 Carthage sends 2 embassies to Rome to defend their action against Masinissa. 150 CAH 8-151
149 DGRBM 2-269, atl2
c.150 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS is sent by Lucullus from Spain to Africa to get elephants from Masinissa.  Polybius accompanies.  Scipio arrives at the camp of Masinissa, intervenes to reconcile the 2 parties, but to no effect. 151 CDCC 703 150 B76 16-394, LdHR 2-118
c.150 Masinissa insists on surrender of Numidian deserters, to which the Carthaginians refuse.  Hostilities resume.  Masinissa surrounds the army of Hasdrubal, and cuts off his supplies.  Most of his troops die by famine and disease.  Hasdrubal saves the rest by capitulating.  Even then, some are killed while unarmed and retreating. 150 B76 IV-938, DGRBM 2-969
c.150 Roman army sent to Africa because Carthaginians attacked Masinissa of Numidia. 150 CAH 8, LEWH 102
c.149 Consuls Manius MANLIUS (Manilius) and L. MARCIUS CENSORINUS, arrive in Africa, Manlius commands army; Marcius commands fleet. 149 CAH 8, DGRA 683, DGRBM 1-664, 2-918, LdHR 2-119, OCD 643, csm, wikCon
c.149 SCIPIO AEMILIANUS, now a tribune with an army, returns from Spain to Africa. 149 B76 16-394, DGRBM 3-749, TTPC
c.149 UTICA Tunisia, having sided with Masinissa in 150, sends an embassy to Rome to make formal submission. 150 CAH 8-152, SORH 149 CDCC 916, atl2
c.149 Carthaginians send envoy HANNO GILLAS to consul Censorinus, before the war. 149 DGRBM 2-346
c.148 HASDRUBAL ends.  Suffete of Carthage from 152.  HASDRUBAL the Boetarch succeeds until 146. 149 DGRBM 2-360, hifiC
c.149 3rd PUNIC WAR with Rome begins until 146. 150 DGRG 1-547, Dur 3-20, bk
149 B76 15-280, CAH 8-191, CDCC 734, DGRBM 2-969, GHH, MCAW, MWΦ 130, OCD 696, OHG, atl2, bk, wikHR, wikTAR
c.149 5 Punic envoys sent to Rome to try to avert war.  Envoys include Hamilcar, Mago.  On arrival they find that the senate had already passed a decree for war, and would not negotiate.  They offer unqualified submission.  300 highborn hostages are required, as a proof of sincerity.  The envoys return to Carthage. 149 CAH 8-152, DGRBM 2-331, 904, LdHR 2-119, atl2
c.149 Carthaginians hand over 300 noble hostages to consuls at Lilybaeum. 150 CAH 8     149 CAH 8-152, LdHR 2-119, SORH, atl2
c.149 Consul Manius MANILIUS commands an 80,000 inf and 4,000 cav sent to Africa, while consul L. MARCIUS CENSORINUS supports him with the fleet docked in Utica harbor.  Carthage has 200,000 troops and 2,000 catapults. 149 CAH 8-157, DGRBM 1-664, LdHR 2-119
c.149 P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (later Serapio) and Gn. Scipio Hispallus are sent to order the Carthaginians to surrender their arms. 149 DGRBM 3-751, LdHR 2-120
c.149 Carthaginians hand over their weapons, including 2,000 catapults, to Scipio Nasica. 150 CAH 8
149 LdHR 2-120, atl2
c.149 Consuls order all 700,000 Carthaginians to abandon Carthage, and rebuild homes elsewhere, but not within 10 miles of the sea. 149 CAH 8-156, MCAW, atl2
c.149 Carthaginians decide that war is inevitable.  They execute their leaders who surrendered, and all Italians in the city.  Exiled general Hasdrubal, who has been plundering Punic territory with 20,000 men, is invited back to Carthage, and appointed commander outside the wall.  Hasdrubal grandson of Masinissa and a Himilco are new leaders.  They send an embassy to the consuls, requesting 30 days armistice to send an embassy to Rome. 149 CAH 8, DGRBM 2-359, 360, LdHR 2-121, MCAW, atl2
c.149 Consuls Manius MANILIUS and L. Marcius CENSORINUS delay attack, thinking Carthage will surely surrender.  Every day the Carthaginians make 100 shields, 300 swords, 500 pikes and javelins, 1,000 catapult bolts. 149 LdHR 2-121
c.149 Consuls Manius MANILIUS and L. Marcius CENSORINUS assault Carthage. 149 atl2
c.149 Consul L. Marcius CENSORINUS returns to Rome. 149 LdHR 2-124, atl2
c.149 African cavalry commander Hamilcar PHAMEAS attacks Roman foraging parties. 149 atl2
c.149 CYRENAICA, under Numidia from 200, comes under Egypt until 116. under Ptolemies until 96. 149 rcNA
c.149/8 Manius MANILIUS makes 1st expedition to attack Hasdrubal's supply camp at Nepheris Africa.  Saved from disaster by tribune SCIPIO AEMILIANUS with 300 cav, who rescues 3 cohorts which are trapped after fighting. 149 atl2 149/8 OCD 643
c.148 Negotiations between Scipio Aemilianus and African cavalry commander Phameas. 148 atl2
c.148 Manius MANILIUS commander in Africa informs a senatorial commission of the remarkable achievements of Scipio Aemilianus. 149 atl2
c.148 Masinissa returns some huge tusks which were stolen from a temple in Melita (Malta). 148 atl2
c.148 M. Claudius MARCELLUS(3) enroute to visit Masinissa in Africa, shipwrecked, drowns. 148 DGRBM 2-932, OCD 646, atl2
c.148 BITHYAS, Numidian commander of 800 cavalry under Gulussa, defects to Carthaginians until 146. 148 DGRBM 1-490, LdHR 2-125, SORH
c.148 Reverses sustained by the Romans compel the senate to send a fresh embassy to Masinissa, with a more urgent demand for reinforcements, but before the embassy arrives, Masinissa dies. 149 LdHR 2-124 148 DGRBM 2-969
c.148 Son of Gaia, MASINISSA dies.  King of Numidia from 202, age 95, summons Scipio to manage his legacy, and dies, (leaving a 4 year old son!).  His territory extends from Mauretania to Carthaginian territory, and southeast as far as Cyrenaica.  Scipio divides Kingdom between sons.  MICIPSA until 118, with GULUSSA until 145.  Youngest legit son Mastanabal is given administration of judicial affairs. 149 DGRBM 2-315, 638, GHH, LdHR 2-124, LEWH 102, SORH 148 B76 V-629, VI-668, VII-441, CAH 9-28, CDCC 561, DGRBM 2-971, 1082, DGRG 1-69, Dur 3-105, MCAW, OCD 653, 743, atl2, rcNA, wikKNm, wikNm
c.148 GULUSSA, with a large body of troops joins Consuls 149 LdHR 2-124
c.148 Manius MANILIUS commander in Africa 149-8 captures Tezaga and other towns. 148 atl2
c.148 Manius MANILIUS makes 2nd expedition to Hasdrubals supply camp at Nepheris, more cautiously, but still unsuccessful. 149 LdHR 2-124 149/8 OCD 643
148 DGRBM 2-475
c.148 Seeing that the Numidians are with Romans, African cavalry commander HAMILCAR PHAMEAS defects to Scipio Aemilianus.  Most of Phameas' troops go with him.  They meet Manlius returning from Nepheris. 149 LdHR 2-125 148 DGRBM 2-475, atl2
c.148 Manius MANILIUS commander in Africa from 149 relieved.  SCIPIO AEMILIANUS succeeds until later 148. 148 OCD 643
c.148 Consul L. Calpurnius PISO CAESONIUS is sent to Africa.  His legate L. Hostilius Mancinus is fleet commander. 148 DGRBM 2-914, 3-372
c.148 PISO and Hostilius Mancinus attack coastal towns unsuccessfully. 148 LdHR 2-125, SORH
c.148 After arrival of Piso, Scipio Aemilianus returns from Africa to Rome with African cavalry commander Hamilcar Phameas.  Many soldiers in Africa write to their friends at Rome, saying that Scipio alone could conquer Carthage. 148 B76 16-395 DGRBM 2-475, 3-749, atl2
c.148 L. Calpurnius PISO CAESONIUS is repulsed from Aspis (Hippo?).  He does little, and the Romans become discontented with his conduct. 148 DGRBM 2-360, 3-372, atl2
c.148 L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus is repulsed from Hippagreta. 148 atl2
c.148 HASDRUBAL, governor of Tunisia from 152, becomes Boetarch until 146. 148 rcNA
c.148 HASDRUBAL, grandson of Masinissa, is murdered at Carthage. 148 atl2
c.148 L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, with discontented troops, withdraws to early winter quarters at Utica. 148 LdHR 2-125
c.147 L. HOSTILIUS MANCINUS captures part of Carthage shortly before Scipio arrives.  Hostilius is 1st Roman commander to force his way into Carthage. 147 CAH 8-159, atl2
c.147 Praetor MANCINUS with the fleet takes the sea wall of Carthage by assault, but is in danger of being cut off. 147 LdHR 2-126
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS made commander of Africa and returns to Utica with fresh army.  Friends Polybius and C. Laelius accompamy.  M. Atilius Serranus commands fleet. 147 B76 15-280, 16-395, DGRBM 2-359, 3-749, GHH, LdHR 2-126, SORH
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS wins a naval victory off Carthage, by anchoring the stern, thus obviating the necessity of exposing the ship's weak points to the Carthaginians when turning around. 147 BBA 490
c.147 Praetor MANCINUS is rescued by Scipio Aemilianus, who then camps commanding the isthmus of Carthage. 147 LdHR 2-126, atl2
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS succeeds L. Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus. 147 B76 15-280, 16-395, DGRBM 2-359, 3-749, GHH, LdHR 2-126, SORH
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS boots out the camp followers, restores discipline to African legions. 147 CAH 8-159, DGRBM 3-372, LdHR 2-126, OCD 963 atl2
c.147 A Rhodian squadron helps Romans against Carthage. 147 CAH 8-381
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS besieges the suburb south of Carthage called Megara.  C. Laelius Sapiens is his legate.  Gulussa acts as mediator. 148 DGRBM 2-315 147 B76 V-984, LdHR 2-126
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS breaks into Megara district of Carthage.  Ti. Gracchus and C. Fannius Strabo are 1st over the wall of Megara.  They open the gate to their comrads. 147 LdHR 2-126, atl2
c.147 HASDRUBAL, Boetarch of Tunisia 148-6, tortures and kills Roman prisoners in the sight of the Romans in Megara. 147 LdHR 2-126, atl2
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS cuts off Carthage by land so that no supplies can enter. 147 LdHR 2-126, OCD 963, atl2
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS builds a mole 100 ft wide in the bay to prevent supplies reaching Carthage by sea, and builds an embankment across the harbor. 147 LdHR 2-127, MCAW, OCD 963, atl2
c.147 Carthaginians start digging a canal thru the isthmus so as to have access to the sea.  They also begin building 50 ships.  Both efforts are completed by the end of the year. 147 LdHR 2-127
c.147 GULUSSA, son of Masinissa, negotiates with Scipio Aemilianus. 147 OCD 963, atl2
c.147 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS completes blocking the harbor, but the Carthaginian canal breaks thru, and the 50 ships sail into the sea. 147 LdHR 2-127
c.147 The whole Roman fleet defeats the 50 Punic ships in a sea battle. 147 BBA 490, LdHR 2-127, OCD 963, atl2
147 late Town of NEPHERIS taken by Laelius and Gulussa, cutting off the last supplies to Carthage. late 147 CAH 8-159, LdHR 2-128, OCD 963, atl2
147/6 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS continues as proconsul.  Siege operations are suspended in winter. 147/6 LdHR 2-128
c.146 Port city COTHON, captured by C. LAELIUS(1) Sapiens. 146 LdHR 2-128, atl2
c.146 UTICA Tunisia, now a free city, becomes a center of Roman trade. 146 SORH
c.146 C. LAELIUS-1 Sapiens, legate of Scipio Aemilianus, leads decisive assault on Carthage.  Upon entry, the Carthaginians set fires while retreating. 146 CAH 8-160, DGRBM 3-922, OCD 576
c.146 HASDRUBAL the Boetarch is compelled to abandon the defence of the port and other quarters of the city, and collect all his forces into the citadel called Byrsa. 146 DGRBM 2-359
c.146 Roman army advances to Byrsa, the citadel of Carthage.  The defenders offer to surrender if their lives are spared.  Scipio Aemilianus consents for all except Roman deserters.  50,000 men surrender. 146 atl2
c.146 HASDRUBAL the Boetarch, with 900 Roman deserters retreat to the temple of Eshmoun. 146 LdHR 2-129
c.146 HASDRUBAL the Boetarch of suffete of Carthage from 148, walks out of the temple and surrenders to Romans.  His wife sees him, kills her 2 children and jumps into the flames.  Most of the 900 deserters die in the fire.  Those who escape are taken to be trampled by elephants. 146 B76 IV-938, 16-395, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-918, 3-749, GHH, LdHR 2-129, MCAW, SORH, atl2, hifiC
c.146 CARTHAGE falls to Scipio Aemilianus. 146 B76 16-395, CAH 8, DGRBM 2-918, 3-749, GHH, LdHR 2-129, MCAW, SORH, atl2
c.146 Greek historian POLYBIUS sails on a journey of exploration along northwest coast of Africa. 146 atl2
c.146 CARTHAGE, oligarchic republic from 308, under suffetes from 204, sacked, burnt for 6 days, and leveled by Scipio AEMILIANUS, who writes to the senate, "Carthage was taken, and the army awaits further orders".  Senate decrees and writes back that the walls be destroyed, and all houses be leveled.  Scipio does so, and places a curse on anyone who builds a town on the same site.  The legend of sowing it with salt is disputed.  Historian Polybius is present, records it all, and hurries back to Greece.  Carthage remains in ruins until 46.  The region is governed from Utica until 122. 146 B76 II-598, 13-148, 15-1095, BI+N 180, CAH 8-160, DGRBM 3-444, Dur 3-20, GHH, IDB 4-104, LEWH 102, MCAW, OCD 853, OHG, SHWC 110, SORH, TTPC, atl2, bk, hifiC, wikHR
c.146 Consul Scipio AEMILIANUS lets his troops run wild for 5 days. 147/6 LdHR 2-129
c.146 3rd PUNIC WAR with Rome from 149 ends. 146 B76 15-280, 1095, CAH 8, DGRG 1-547, Dur 3-20, LEWH 102, MWΦ 130, OHG, WPOT 280, bk, wikHR     138 wikTAR
c.146 BITHYAS, Numidian cavalry commander, with Carthaginians from 148, falls into hands of Scipio Aemilianus, and is taken to Rome. 146 DGRBM 1-490
c.146 TABARCA, port town in far northwest Tunisia, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcNA
c.146 TRIPOLI, port in west Libya, comes under Rome until 442CE. 146 rcNA
c.146 TRIPOLITANIA, a province of Libya, comes under Numidian princes until 46. 146 B76 X-129
c.146 NABEUL (Neapolis) northeast Tunisia destroyed by Romans. 146 B76 VII-157
146 DJERBA island in Gulf of Gades, and KERKENAH islands, under Numidia from 201, come under Rome until 395. 146 rcNA
c.146 SABRATHA, under Carthage from ?, comes under Rome until 27. 146 rcNA
c.146 C.(2) LAELIUS Sapiens, legate of Scipio Aemilianus, returns to Rome to announce capture of Carthage. 146 atl2
c.146 Scipio AEMILIANUS sends back spoils from Carthage to Sicily, without taking any for himself. 146 atl2
c.146 Scipio AEMILIANUS holds victory games, and punishes deserters. 146 atl2
c.146 HUMAN SACRIFICE, i.e. infant sacrifice to Baal Hammon, practiced since the foundation of Carthage 750, made illegal by Romans, but continues illegally. 146 hin, Φnc, wikM
c.146 AFRICA becomes 7th Roman Province.  Area corresponds roughly to modern Tunisia until 100. 146 B76 I-123, 15-1095, CAH 8, DGRG 1-69, GHH, LEWH 102, MCAW, OHG, SORH, atl2
c.146 TUNISIA, coast of central North Africa, where the sea turns south toward Libya, under Hasdrubal from 152, comes under Rome until 395CE. 146 rcNA
c.146 LIBYA comes under Rome until 672CE. 146 wikLbR
c.145 GULUSSA, son of Masinissa, co-king of Numidia from 148, ends.  MICIPSA continues 148-18. 145 rcNA, wikKNm
c.145 LIBYA, under Egypt from 164, comes back under Ptolemy-VIII Euergetes-II until 116. 145 Jud 11-198, rcNA, wikKC
c.145 PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene 163-16, becomes priest of Apollo at Cyrene, gives a magnificent banquet. 145 atl2
c.145 PTOLEMY-VI Philometor, co-king of Egypt & Cyprus with bro P-VII 169-64, 163-45, dies.  Son PTOLEMY-VII Philopator Neos is proclaimed king, but killed by PTOLEMY-VIII Physcon, king of Cyrene 163-45.   CYRENE is reunited with Egypt until ?. 1Mac 11:18       146 AΨΨ 372, DGRBM 1-800, 3-594, IDB 3-966, MCAW, SORH, frH     145 B76 VIII-281, CAH 8, CHJ 2-143, Clay, DMoN, Dur 2-556, GEoP, JIAE, Jud 5-603, LEWH 97, MRDK 290, Murn, Sdl 5-250, Shaw, ae, atl2, bk, crst, frH, ktut, lvPt6, nar, pic, rcE, tig, treg, wikP, wikP6
c.142 MICIPSA sends an auxiliary force to help Romans in Spain against Viriathus. 142 DGRBM 2-1082
c.134 MICIPSA, fearing popularity of nephew Jugurtha, sends him to Spain. 134 B76 V-629, DGRBM 2-638
c.134 JUGURTHA, neph of the king of Numidia, with 12 elephants and archers and slingers, joins Scipio Aemilianus in Spain. 134 atl2
c.125 PLAGUE breaks out in Numidia. 125 DGRBM 2-1083
c.125 LOCUSTS cause devastation and depopulation in Roman Africa and Numidia. 125 CAH 9-28, MCAW, atl2
c.123 MICIPSA, king of Numidia 148-18, allegedly becomes senile, possibly due to plague, and incompetent to rule. 123 atl2
c.122 Tribune C. Sempronius GRACCHUS goes to Carthage with 6,000 colonists to organize its refounding as JUNONIA.  Bad omens at its foundation give the senate sufficient pretext to annull this and other acts of Gracchus.  Carthage is again abandoned and the region remains governed from Utica. 123 GHH, SORH 122 CAH 9-82, 586, DGRBM 2-166, DGRG 1-547, GHH, atl2, hifiC
c.122 Tribune C. Sempronius GRACCHUS tries to colonize Africa Province, interests Roman farmers and investors. 122 B76 I-123, 598
c.121 MICIPSA, king of Numidia 148-18, probably pressured by Romans, adopts neph JUGURTHA. 149 DGRBM 2-638
121 atl2     120 B76 V-629
c.118 MICIPSA, king of Numidia 148-18, enlarges city of Cirta, and places Greek settlers there. 118 atl2
c.118 Son of Masinissa, MICIPSA dies.  King of Numidia from 148, 2 sons have conference to split up his kingdom.  North is ruled by his bastard neph JUGURTHA until 806.  South is ruled by his sons HIEMPSAL until 117, and ADHERBAL until 112. 118 B76 V-629, CAH 9-28, CDCC 477, DGRBM 1-19, 2-638, 1082, GHH, OCD 566, 743, LdHR 2-224, SORH, atl2, bk, rcNA, wikKNm, wikNm     118/7 MCAW
c.118 Consul M. Porcius CATO arrives in Africa Province, becomes governor. 118 rcNA, wikMPC
c.118 M. Porcius CATO governor of Africa Province, dies. 118 wikMPC 117 atl2
c.117 HIEMPSAL dies.  In the Numidian triumvirate from 118, murdered by soldiers of Jugurtha.  ADHERBAL continues 118-12. 118 GHH
117 CAH 9, OCD 566, atl2, wikKNm 116 SORH     112 rcNA
c.117 JUGURTHA, defeats co-king of Numidia ADHERBAL. 117 atl2
c.116 JUGURTHA, co-king of Numidia with ADHERBAL from 118, gains dominance over Adherbal, who flees to Roman province of Africa, and then to Rome for aid. 117 DGRBM 3-736, GHH
116 CAH 9, OCD 566, SORH
no date: DGRBM 2-638
c.116 JUGURTHA sends envoys with much money for bribes to Rome to counter Adherbal. no date: DGRBM 2-638
c.116 10 Roman senators led by L. OPIMIUS are sent to restore order in Numidia.  Jugurtha promptly bribes them.  Opimius divides Numidia.  JUGURTHA rules west (the bigger and richer part) until 105.  ADHERBAL rules east 118-12. 117 DGRBM 2-638, GHH 116 CAH 9-29, SORH, atl2,     112 DGRBM 3-33 no date OCD 566
c.116 Africa province, under M. Porcius Cato from 118, comes under M. Livius Drusus until 112. 116 rcNA
c.116 LIBYA, under Ptolemy Euergetes from 145, comes back under Egypt until 96. 116 rcNA
c.116 Son of P-V & Cleo-I, PTOLEMY-VIII Euergetes-II Physcon dies.  King of Egypt, 145-31, 229-18, king of Cyrene from 163, dies, willing Cyrene to bastard Ptolemy APION until 96. 117 DGRBM 3-568, DGRG 1-733, SORH     116 B76 VIII-281, 8-386, CAH 9, MRDK 290, bk, lvPt8
c.116 CYRENE, under Egypt from 163, separates.  Ptolemy APION is hereditary ruler until 96, but can't take control until 108. 116 lvPt8, wikKC
c.116 CYRENAICA, under Egypt from 149, comes under Ptolemy APION until 110. 117 GHH 116 rcNA
c.113 JUGURTHA king of west Numidia 115-05, captures Adherbal's camp.  Romans send an embassy to restrain him. 113 atl2
c.113 Consul Gn. PAPIRIUS CARBO sells and leases out land in province of Africa. 113 atl2
c.112 Jughurta of Numidia attacks in Numidia.  Jugurthine War starts. 112 wikTAR
c.112 JUGURTHA king of west Numidia 115-05, besieges ADHERBAL king of east Numidia in Cirta, usurps control of east Numidia until 105.  Adherbal sends letter to Roman senate asking for help. 113 CDCC 477, bk
112 B76 V-629, 15-1101, CAH 9-29, CDCC 18, 477, OCD 566, SORH, atl2
c.112 M. Aemilius SCAURUS heads an embassy from Rome to Numidia, lands at Utica.  He summons Jugurtha to meet him ASAP. 112 B76 VIII-949, DGRBM 3-736, atl2
c.112 JUGURTHA gets the Roman summons, tries to hurry and capture Cirta, fails, goes to Utica, meets Scaurus, refuses to abandon the siege. 112 DGRBM 3-736, atl2
c.112 ADHERBAL dies.  King of east Numidia from 118, besieged in Cirta, on advice of Italians in Cirta, surrenders to Jugurtha, who tortures him to death, then massacres all adult Numidians and traders whom he found armed.  They include some Italians, which gives Rome a pretext for war. 112 B76 V-629, DGRBM 1-19, 2-638, 971, 3-736, GHH, LdHR 2-225, OCD 242, 566, SORH, atl2, rcNA, wikKNm
c.112 MASSIVA, son of Gulussa, flees to Rome. 112 DGRBM 2-971
c.111 JUGURTHA king of west Numidia 115-05, learns that war has been declared, sends his son with more gold to Rome. 111 LdHR 2-226
c.111 JUGURTHINE WAR with Rome begins officially until later 111, ends 105Rome sends consul L. Calpurnius BESTIA and legate M. Aemilius Scaurus. 112 B76, CAH 9, CDCC 477, Dur 3-110, OCD 566, SORH, bk
111 Dur 3-118, GHH, MCAW, OCD 166     no date OCD 958
c.111 JUGURTHA innocently goes to camp of consul L. Calpurnius BESTIA and legate M. Aemilius Scaurus, promises cooperation and leaves 30 elephants as a pledge of good faith.  He then launders some money and buys them back, so as not to look like a bribe.  This buys him a favorable peace. 112 OCD 566, SORH
111 B76 V-629, VIII-949, DGRBM 2-639, 3-736, GHH, LdHR 2-226, atl2
no date: OCD 958
c.111 Africa province, under M. Livius Drusus from 116, comes under L. Calpurnius Bestia 111-10. 112 rcNA
c.111 Praetor L. CASSIUS LONGINUS arrives in Numidia to bring Jugurtha to Rome under promise of safe conduct. 111 DGRBM 2-799
c.111 JUGURTHA king of west Numidia 115-05, charged with bribery by senate, is brought to Rome by L.(2) Cassius Longinus to defend himself. 112/1 CDCC 477     111 DGRBM 1-452, LdHR 2-227, OCD 668, SORH, atl2     110 MCAW
108 DGRBM 2-971
c.111 LEPTIS MAGNA, port city in Libya, under Numidia from 202, comes under Rome until 455CE. 111 B76 VI-160, rcNA
c.111 JUGURTHINE WAR from 111, suspended until 110. no date: OCD 958
c.110 JUGURTHINE WAR suspended from 111, resumes until 105.  Consul Sp.(2) Postumius ALBINUS and bro Aulus invade Numidia. 110 CAH 9-29, DGRBM 1-92, 2-639, OCD 566
c.110 Pretender MASSIVA, son of Gulussa, negotiates with Sp.(2) Postumius Albinus to usurp throne of Numidia.  Jugurtha discovers it and sends loyal agent Bomilcar who murders Massiva.  An accomplice is caught by Romans and tells all.  Albinus indights Bomilcar, who is whisked away into Africa. 111 OCD 172, SORH, atl2
110 GHH, LdHR 2-227
108 DGRBM 1-499
c.110 JUGURTHA king of west Numidia 115-05, delays Sp.(2) Postumius Albinus by constantly promising to surrender. 110 DGRBM 1-92, atl2
c.110 Consul Sp.(2) Postumius Albinus is suspected of taking bribes from Jugurtha.  He is recalled, leaving his bro Aulus(3) in charge. 110 DGRBM 1-92, 2-639, SORH
c.110 BOCCHUS-I becomes king of Mauretania until 91. 118 B76 II-108     111 rcNA 110 Bril, Brit, wikB1, wikMrt
c.110 BOCCHUS-I, king of Mauretania, offers alliance with Romans against Jugurtha.  Spurned by L. Calpurnius Bestia. no date: OCD 170
c.110 Africa Province, under L. Calpurnius Bestia from 111, comes under Sp. Postumius Albinus until 109. 110 rcNA
c.110 Aulus(3) Postumius ALBINUS marches to besiege Suthal, where Jugurtha's treasure is.  Jugurtha bribes him into following him to a desert. 110 DGRBM 1-92
c.110 Aulus(3) Postumius ALBINUS and BESTIA follow Jugurtha into a desert, trapped by Jugurtha, surrenders.  Albinus is forced to pass under a yoke and promise to leave Numidia. 110 B76 V-629, CAH 9-29, 121, CDCC 477, GHH, LdHR 2-227, MCAW, atl2 109 DGRBM 3-33, GHH
c.110 CYRENAICA, under Ptolemy APION from 116, comes under tyrant NIKOSTRATOS, then back under Ptolemy APION until 96. 110 rcNA
c.109 Senate rejects Aulus(3) Albinus' treaty with Jugurtha.  Sp.(2) Albinus returns to Africa, soon to be relieved by Q.(4) Metellus. 109 GHH, atl2
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS is sent to Numidia until 107.  C. Marius is senior legate, and Rutiluis Rufus junior lagate.  They find the army disorganized, and refuse Jugurtha's bribe attempts. 109 B76 VI-836, CAH 9-30, CDCC 477, DGRBM 1-92, 2-639, 1059, LdHR 2-229, MCAW, OCD 648, atl2
c.109 JUGURTHA of Numidia offers to surrender.  Q.(4) Metellus suspects treachery, interviews Jugurtha's envoys separately, gets some to defect, agrees to accept Jugurtha's surrender, while planning for battle. 109 DGRBM 2-639
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS with Marius and Rutilius defeats Jugurtha twice, including at Muthal River, but is stalemated in guerilla war. 109 B76 VI-836, CAH 9, DGRBM 2-1059, OCD 678, SORH, atl2
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS ravages the country, then besieges Zama unsuccessfully. 109 CAH 9, DGRBM 2-639, OCD 678, atl2
c.109 C. MARIUS, legate under Consul Q.(4) Metellus, asks permission to return and run for consul, and is rebuffed.  Marius intrigues against Metellus. 109 CAH 9, OCD 678 108 MCAW, atl2
c.109 C. MARIUS, legate under Consul Q.(4) Metellus, courts popularity with the troops. 109 atl2
c.109 Africa Province, under Sp. Postumius Albinus from 110, comes under Q.(4) Caecilius Metellus Numidicus until 108. 109 rcNA
c.109 Consul Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS returns to winter quarters, remains in Numidia as prosonsul until 108. 109 DGRBM 2-639, atl2 109/8 DGRBM 2-1059
109/8 JUGURTHA is induced to offer unqualified submission, and even surrenders all his elephants, with some arms and horses, and much money.  But when Q.(4) Metellus orders him to personally surrender, he brakes off negotiation, and fights. winter 109/8 DGRBM 2-639, SORH 108 atl2
c.108 APION is hereditary ruler of Cyrene 116-96, gets control of Cyrene. 108 lvC3, lvPt8
c.108 C. Marius, now a subordinate of Q.(4) Metellus, solicits support of equites. 108 CAH 9-89
c.108 C. Annius Luscus is commander of the garrison at Leptis, under Q.(4) Caecilius Metellus. 108 DGRBM 2-842
c.108 Africa Province, under Q.(4) Caecilius Metellus Numidicus from 109, comes under C. MARIUS until 105. 108 rcNA
c.108 T. TURPILIUS SILANUS is appointed by Q.(4) Metellus commander of Vaga, a town in Numidia. 108 DGRBM 3-822, atl2
c.108 VAGA (Vacca) Africa rebels, massacres Roman garrison, with the exception of Turpilius, who escapes to the main Roman army.  The conduct of Turpilius is suspicious, so he is tried before Q.(4) Metellus, and condemned.  Marius, present at the trial, urges Metellus to execute him.  Being a Latin and not a Roman citizen, Turpilius is scourged and executed. 108 DGRBM 3-822, SORH, atl2
c.108 Q.(4) Metellus recaptures Vaga, ravages Numidia, but without decisive result. 108 DGRBM 3-822, SORH, atl2
c.108 BOMILCAR, together with a Numidian named Nabdalsa, negotiates with Q.(4) Metellus to betray JUGURTHA, who discovers it.  Both are killed.  Jugurtha now suspects all his officers. 108 DGRBM 2-639, LdHR 2-232, atl2
c.108 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS defeats Jugurtha in another battle. 108 atl2 107 GHH
c.108 JUGURTHA is driven out of Thala. 108 DGRBM 2-639
c.108 THALA, a large and wealthy town, where Jugurtha kept the greater part of his treasure and his children, captured by Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS. 108 atl2
c.108 JUGURTHA retires among the Gaetulians, and quickly raises among those wild tribes a fresh army, with which he again penetrates into the heart of Numidia. 108 DGRBM 2-639
c.108 BOCCHUS-I king of Mauretania 110-80 allies with son-in-law Jugurtha until 105. 108 DGRBM 1-494, 2-639, LdHR 2-232, atl2
no date MCAW, OCD 170
c.108 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS retires to winter quarters at Cirta. 108 LdHR 2-232
c.108 C. MARIUS, in Africa from 109, gets permission from Q.(4) Metellus to return to Rome, apparently without telling him he plans to run for consul. 108 B76 11-504, Dur 3-118, LdHR 2-232, LEWH 104, MCAW, atl2
c.108 BOCCHUS-I king of Mauretania 110-80 with a large army, advances on Cirta. 108 LdHR 2-232
108/7 Q.(4) Caecilius METELLUS at Cirta, knows he is about to be relieved by Marius, tries to negotiate with Bocchus unsuccessfully.  Metellus turns the army over to P. Rutilius, and returns to Rome. 108 LdHR 2-234
c.107 Consul C. MARIUS, in Rome from 108, returns to Africa until 104L. Cornelius Sulla is his quaestor.  A. Manlius is his legate. 107 B76 V-629, VI-836, CAH 9-30, DGRBM 2-639, 920, OCD 648, SORH, bk wikGM
c.107 Consul C. MARIUS quickly reduces almost all strongholds still under Jugurtha, including where Jugurtha keeps his treasure. 107 DGRBM 2-639, LdHR 2-234
c.107 Desert town CAPSA Numidia taken by C. MARIUS. 107 CAH 9, MCAW, atl2
c.107 The Gaetuli join Jugurtha. 107 SORH
c.107 Quaestor Gn. Octavius Rufus is sent into Africa with pay for the army of Marius.  He returns to Rome, accompanied by ambassadors, whom Bocchus sent to the senate. 107 DGRBM 3-9
c.107 BOCCHUS-I king of Mauretania 110-80 ally of Jugurtha 108-5, backs off and sends several embassies to negotiate with Marius. 107 DGRBM 1-494, LdHR 2-234
c.107 JUGURTHA with difficulty prevails on the wavering Bocchus, by extensive promises in case of success, to co-operate with him in this enterprise.  With their united forces, they unsuccessfully attack Marius on his march, when he is about to retire into winter quarters. 107 DGRBM 2-639
c.107 C. MARIUS, on his way to winter quarters, is attacked by Jugurtha and Bocchus near Cirta, and defeats them in a 2nd battle. 107 LdHR 2-236     106 atl2 no date: DGRBM 2-639
c.107/6 C. MARIUS forces Jugurtha to the south and west toward Mauretania. 107/6 wikGM
c.106 C. MARIUS in west Numidia. 106 CAH 9
c.106 C. MARIUS captures a fort near river Muluccha. 106 atl2
c.106 Quaestor L. Cornelius SULLA, with reinforcements from Italy, arrives at Marius' camp. 106 atl2
c.106 C. MARIUS defeats joint forces of Jugurtha and Bocchus. 106 atl2
c.106 C. MARIUS sends his quaestor Sulla and A. Manlius to turn or subdue Bocchus. 106 atl2
106/5 MCAW
106/5 C. MARIUS winters in Cirta. 106/5 SORH
c.105 L. SULLA continues negotiations with Bocchus. 105 atl2
c.105 L. SULLA duly forwards the request of Mauretanian king Bocchus for a treaty with Rome thru his proconsul to the Senate. 105 CAH 9-262
c.105 C. MARIUS' soldiers hunt and kill a deadly wild beast called a "gorgon". 105 atl2
c.105 BOCCHUS, king of Mauretania 110-80, ally of son-in-law Jugurtha from 108, persuaded to betray Jugurtha by L. Cornelius SULLA, quaestor of C. Marius. 106 DGRBM 2-954, SORH 106/5 MCAW
105 CAH 9-30, wikGM
no date OCD 170
c. 105 Son of Mastanabal, JUGURTHA ends.  King of west Numidia from 115, all Numidia from 112, defeated by C. Marius, betrayed by ally Bocchus to Sulla, quaestor of Marius.  Jugurtha is lured into a conference and captured by SullaJUGURTHINE WAR from 111 ends.  Jugurtha is sent to RomeGAUDA succeeds over Numidia until 88  Grandson of Masinissa, HIEMPSAL-II succeeds in east Numidia until 84. 107 LdHR 2-237     106 DGRBM 1-494, 2-640, Dur 3-119, GHH, OCD 743, SORH, bk, rcNA     106/5 MCAW     105 B76 V-629, VII-441, 11-504, CAH 9, Dur 3-110, SHWC 116, atl2, wikKNm, wikTAR
104 CDCC 477
c.105 West Numidia given by Rome to ally BOCCHUS king of Mauretania.  Other parts of Numidia go to Hiarbas and Hiempsal. 106 GHH
105 LEWH 105
no date OCD 170
c.105 C. MARIUS rewards the Gaetuli for their assistance. 105 atl2
c.104 Jan 1 C. MARIUS, in Numidia as governor of Africa province from 107, returns to Rome. 105 rcNA
104 LdHR 2-237, by Jan 1 wikGM
104 Jan. Bastard grandson of Masinissa, JUGURTHA dies.  Chief of Numidia 112-05, executed in Rome. 104 OCD 566

North Africa 100-0