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c.1000 NAQSH-I-RUSTAM necropolis 12km northwest of Persepolis.  Oldest relief carved into a cliff, thought to be Elamite, is locally believed to be mythical hero Rostam.  Now badly damaged, it depicts a faint image of a man wearing a long ankle length garment and a forward pointing hat.  It is part of a larger mural, most of which will be removed by Bahram-II.  Finished 515. photo: Roozbeh Taassob

c.1000 AQUEDUCT V technology now exists in northwest Persia. 1000 wikAq
c.970 MARBITI-APLA-USURPRE, last Shutrukid king of Elam from ?, ends. post-978 abasP
970 wapP
omit: KoP
SHUTRUKID DYNASTY of Elam ends.  Began 1205.
c.834 PARSU (Persians in mountains of Kurdistan) first mentioned in Assyrian records.  They pay tribute to Shalmanezer-III king of Assyria 859-24. 837 NLEM 309 836 WPOT 313
c.820 SHAMSHI-ADAD-V king of Assyria 823-11, invades PARSU (Persian) country. 820 WPOT 313
c.800  Avesta , collection of religious texts about archaic Indo-European beliefs, created in Persia. 800 vrb
c.800 ECBATANA Media, founded by Semiramis, legendary wife of legendary king Ninus of Assyria, according to Ctesias.  Rebuilt 678. 800 ISBE 2-11
c.760 HUMBAN-TAHRAH-I becomes king of Elam until 742. 760 RAI3, hifiE     no date: abasP, wapP     omit: KoP, taP
c.750 ELAM, under Babylonians from 1100, becomes independent until 639. 750 vrb
c.742 HUMBAN-TAHRAH-I king of Elam from 760, ends.  Son HUMBAN-NIKASH-I succeeds to 717. 744 CAH 3.2     743 wikE
742 B76 9-831, ISBE 2-50, RAI3, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wapP
c.737 Assyrians invade PARSUA (Persia). 737 WPOT 313
c.728 Son of Phraortes DEIOCES (Diaukku) elected king of Medes until 675. 728 B76 9-832, abasP, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP     708 NLEM 309
700 LEWH 53
DEIOCID DYNASTY begins until 550.
c.721 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, marches against MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II east of Tigris, defeated by Elamite army at Der, returns to Assyria.  Leaves Babylon alone until 710. 721 B76 11-984, LEWH 52, Sag 720 ISBE 2-50, RAI2 258
c.717 HUMBAN-NIKASH-I, son of Humban-Tahrah-I, king of Elam from 742, ends.  Son SHUTUR-NAHUNTE-I succeeds to 699. 717 CAH 3.2, ISBE 2-50, 3-325, RAI3, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wikE, wapP
c.714 Zagros Mountain captives deported to Assyria by Sargon-II. 714 B76 9-832, irch
c.710 SHUTUR-NAHUNTE-I attacked and routed by Assyrians under Sargon-II. 710 ISBE 2-51, wikE
c.708 SHUTUR-NAHUNTE-I attacked and routed again by Assyrians under Sargon-II. 708 wikE
c.703 MARDUK-ZAKIR-SHUMI, king of Elam for 1 month, deposed by MARDUK-APAL-IDDINA-II, king of Babylon. 703 ISBE 4-394
c.702 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, campaigns against Elamite vassals in Zagros Mts. 702 B76 11-985, 16-542
c.700 MEDIA becomes a kingdom in Persia. 700 vrb
c.700 Elamites support Marduk-Apal-Iddina-II, sheikh of the Bit-Yakin. 700 ISBE 2-51, RAI2 266, RAI3 321
c.699 SHUTUR-NAHUNTE-I, son of Humban-Nikash-I, king of Elam from 717, deposed by bro HALLUSHU-INSHUSHINAK-II, who succeeds to 693. 699 CAH 3.2, ISBE 2-51, LEWH 52, RAI3, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wikE, wapP
c.694 HALLUSHU-INSHUSHINAK-II king of Elam 699-93, crosses Tigris into Babylonia, while Sennacherib's troops are in south.  Captures Senacherib's son Ashur-Nadin-Shum, viceroy of Babylon at Sippar. 694 LEWH 52
693 RAI2 267, Sag1 120, wikE
Assyrian biremeBIREME of Sennacherib probably used for attack on Elam. photo GNU FDL

700-692 wikAW
c.694 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylon 705-681, sea attack on ELAM.  Secures beach head, raids and destroys Elamite cities, captures remnant of Bit-Yakin tribe. 695 RAI2 266
694 Sag2 113, bk
no date: Sag1 120
c.693 HALLUSHU-INSHUSHINAK-II, son of Humban-Nikash-I, king of Elam from 699, ends.  Son KUTIR-NAHHUNTE-IV succeeds to 692. 693 CAH 3.2, ISBE 2-51, LEWH 52, RAI3, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wapP
c.692 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria, overlord of Babylon 705-681, attacks ELAM from Der province.  Climatic conditions prevent him from penetrating Elam. late 693 Sag2 114
692 B76 9-831, Sag1 121
c.692 SENNACHERIB, fights KUTIR-NAHHUNTE-IV at Halule. 691 LEWH 52 690 ISBE 4-394
c.692 KUTIR-NAHHUNTE-IV, son of Hallushu-Inshushinak-II, king of Elam from 693, ends.  Bro HUMBAN-NIMENA-III succeeds to 688. 693 LEWH 52     692 CAH 3.2, RAI3, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wapP, wikE
c.689 HUMBAN-NIMENA-III, king of Elam 692-88, invades Babylonia in effort to reinstate Mushezib-Marduk as king.  Defeated by Sennacherib at Halule on Diyala RiverReturns to Elam to handle internal disputes in family. 691 wikE
no date: Sag1 121, Sag2 114
c.688 HUMBAN-NIMENA-III, son of Hallushu-Inshushinak-II, king of Elam from 692, is sick for 10 months and dies.  Son SHUTUR-NAHHUNTE-II succeeds and ends.  HUMBAN-HALTASH-I succeeds to 681. 689 CAH 3.2, LEWH 52, Sag, hifiE, KoP, taP, wikE 688 ISBE 2-51, abasP, wapP     687 MRDK, RAI3
c.681 HUMBAN-HALTASH-I, king of Elam from 688, ends.  Son HUMBAN-HALTASH-II succeeds to 675. 681 CAH 3.2, ISBE 2-51, LEWH 52, MRDK, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wapP, wikE     680 RAI3
c.680 SHILHAK-INSHUSHINAK becomes joint ruler of Elam until 653. 680 hifiE
no date: taP
c.679 Scythians invade northeast Assyrian Empire. 679 Jud 6-852
c.678 ECBATANA, founded 800, rebuilt by Deioces king of Medes 728-675 as capital of Media until 550. 700 ISBE 2-11 678 brit
no date: irch
c.675 Son of Phraortes, DEIOCES ends.  King of Medes from 728.  Son PHRAORTES succeeds to 653. 675 B76 9-832, ISBE 3-778, abasP, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP 670 MRDK
c.675 ACHAEMENES (maybe same as Teispes) becomes king of Persia and vassal of Medes until 640. 728 B76 9-832     708 NLEM 309 700 ISBE 3-778, LEWH 53, MRDK, anan     675 B76 IX-866, FLAP 193, RAI3, hifiE, hifiP
c.675 ANSHAN comes under Achaemenids, who become called kings of Anshan until 522. 675
B76 I-403
c.675 HUMBAN-HALTASH-II king of Elam 681-75, raids central Babylonia. 675 RAI2 270, Sag2 118
c.675 HUMBAN-HALTASH-II, son of Humban-Haltash-I, king of Elam from 681, co-king from 680, ends by contrivance of Esarhaddon, who gets his pro-Assyrian bro URTAK-INSHUSHINAK intalled as co-king, rules peacefully to 664. 676 hifiE, KoP, taP
675 B76 11-986, CAH 3.2, MRDK, RAI2 271, RAI3 327, abasP, hifiE, wapP, wikE
674 ISBE 2-51, LEWH 52, RAI3
c.664 URTAK-INSHUSHINAK, son of Humban-Haltash-I, co-king of Elam from 675, dies.  Bro TEMTI-HUMBAN-INSHUSHINAK-I succeeds as co-king to 653. 664 B76 11-986, CAH 3.2, LEWH 52, hifiE, KoP, taP, wikE
663 MRDK, RAI3, abasP, wapP
c.664 ELAMITES attack Babylonia. 665 ISBE 2-51     664 B76 11-987, bk
c.656 ELAM makes secret alliance with SHAMASH-SHUM-UKIN, king of Babylon 668-48 against Assyria. 656
B76 11-987
c.655 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, invades Elam, takes capitals Madaktu & Susa. 655 Sag1 131, Sag2
c.653 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31, defeats Elamites at battle of the Ulai. 653 wikE
c.653 SHILHAK-INSHUSHINAK co-king of Elam from 680 and TEMTI-HUMBAN-INSHUSHINAK-I, son of Humban-Haltash-I, co-king from 664, both deposed by Ashurbanipal, who installs pro-Assyrian members of royal house in their places.
HUMBAN-NIKASH-II, son of Urtak-Inshushinak, becomes co-king until 651.
TAMMARITU, son of Humban-Nikash son of Humban-Haltash-I, becomes co-king until 649.
655 LEWH 52
653 CAH 3.2, MRDK, RAI3, abasP, hifiE, KoP, taP, wapP, wikE
no date: Sag1 131
Above disagree on some parts.
c.653 PHRAORTES, king of Medes 675-53, allied with Cimmerians, attacks Assyria. 653
WPOT 314
c.653 Son of Deioces, PHRAORTES dies.  King of Medes from 675, killed in premature attack on Nineveh.  CYAXARES succeeds, but does not rule until 625. 653 B76 9-832, ISBE 3-778, abasP, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP, wikE
c.653 Media conquered by Scythians.  MADIUS the Scythian becomes king of Media to 625. 653 B76 9-832, abasP, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP, wikE
c.653 The PARSU tribe of Anshan, united with Medes from ?, is now separated. 653 wikE
c.652 Elamite army invades north Babylonia while Shamash-shum-ukin attacks cities held by Assyrian garrisons.  Ashurbanipal defeats Elamites. 653 B76 11-987 652 Sag1 132
c.651 HUMBAN-NIKASH-II, son of Urtak-Inshushinak, co-king of Elam from 653, murdered by cousin.  TAMMARITU sole rule until 649. 653 RAI3     652 CAH 3.2 651 ISBE 2-51 LEWH 52, abasP, hifiE, taP, wapP
c.649 ELAM:  Civil war breaks out.  3 claimants to throne all seek support of Ashurbanipal, but anti-Assyrian party siezes control. 649
Sag1 132
c.649 TAMMARITU, son of Humban-Nikash son of Humban-Haltash-I, co-king of Elam from 653, sole ruler from 651, deposed by anti-Assyrian INDABIBI, who succeeds to 648.  Tammaritu flees to Nineveh. 649 CAH 3.2, ISBE 2-51 LEWH 53, MRDK, abasP, hifiE, taP, wapP
c.648 ASHURBANIPAL marches fron Assyria to Susa, intervenes in royal succession of Elam but achieves no permanent settlement. 648
Sag1 133
c.648 INDABIBI, king of Elam from 649, ends.  HUMBAN-HALTASH-III succeeds to 644. 648 CAH 3.2, LEWH 53, MRDK, RAI3, abasP, taP, wapP     647 hifiE
c.647 ELAM refuses to extradite an Aramean prince to Assyria. 647 B76 11-987
c.644 Susa sackedSUSA sacked again, demolished and burnt by Assyria.  ELAM is devastated and depopulated.  photo

647 wikE, wikMHNAE
646 CAH 3.2, FLAP 193, wikE
645 BI+N 75, Jud 14-1483
644 RAI3
639 B76 2-145, MCAW 72, RAH 102, Sdl 4-303, vrb, bk
c.644 HUMBAN-HALTASH-III, king of Elam from 48, deposed by TAMMARITU, who is then taken prisoner by Assyrians.  HUMBAN-HALTASH-III resumes until 640. 647 CAH 3.2, wikE
645/4 abasP, wapP
644 ISBE 2-52, MRDK, RAI3, hifiE, taP
c.642 ASSYRIAN ARMY begins looting and destroying all ELAM until 639. 642 Sag1 133 639 MCAW 72
c.640 Achaemenid Falcon ACHAEMENES dies.  (maybe same as Teispes) king of Anshan and vassal of Medes from 675.  Son CYRUS-I succeeds in Anshan to 600.  Other son ARIARAMNA succeeds in Parsa to 615.
Pic is Achaemenid Falcon symbol used by Cyrus.
pic: Sodacan
645 OCD 4     640 B76 IX-866, 9-832, FLAP 193, ISBE 3-778, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-11, WPOT 314, abasP, anan, hifiE, hifiP, taP, wapP
655 NLEM 309
647 LEWH 53
c.640 DER (Dur Untash) Elamite city from 1240, destroyed by Ashurbanipal.  Abandoned.  Now called Chogha Zanbil. 640 wikCZ
c.640 HUMBAN-HALTASH-III, king of Elam from 644, overthrown by Ashurbanipal.  Flees to mountains.  3 or 4 people are reported as co-kings or successors. 646 CAH 3.2     640 wapP
639 RAI2 278, Sag1 133
c.639 SUSA sacked and destroyed by Assyrians. 639 B76 2-145, MCAW 72, RAH 102, Sdl 4-303, vrb, bk
c.639 ELAM, independent from 750, loses independence. 639 vrb
c.639 Ashurbanipal writes:
"Susa, the great holy city, abode of their gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed...I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa...  I smashed its shining copper horns... I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur... I devastated the provinces of Elam and on their lands I sowed salt..."
639 wikE
c.639 The series of Assyrian campaigns into Elam from 692 ends.  The final campaign from 642 ends. 639 B76 9-831, RAI3 334, Sag1 133
c.615 ARIARAMNA, son of Achaemenes, king of Parsa and vassal of Medes from 640, dies. 615 FLAP 193, MRDK
c.615 late CYAXARES-II king of Medes 625-585 takes Assyrian border city ARAPKHA to establish a base of operations. 615 B76 9-833, 11-988, MCAW 74, RAI3 375, Sag1 138, irch
c.610 ELAM is divided between Babylonians and Medes. 610 RAI3
c.600 Son of Achaemenes/Teispes, CYRUS-I dies.  king of Anshan and vassal of Medes from 640.  Son CAMBYSES-I succeeds to 559. 602 OCD 4     600 FLAP 193, ISBE 3-778, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, Sdl 5-11, anan, hifiE, hifiP     580 abasP, KoP, taP, wapP
c.600 ZOROASTER (Zarathushtra) begins prophetic activity.   (See Gathas) 600 B76 9-837, SHWC 42
590 MCAW 83     558 TAWH 17
c.600 OLD PERSIAN language period begins until 300.  Subdivisions:  Old Persian, Avestan, Aramaic.  Achaemenid language becomes official. 600 IDB 3-740, wikOP
c.588 ZOROASTER, age 40, converts VISHTASPA, probably king of Chorasmia south of Aral Sea in central Asia. 590 MCAW 83
B76 19-1169
Vishtaspa is also called Hystaspes, but is not necessarily father of Darius-I.
c.585 Son of Phraortes, CYAXARES-II dies.  King of Medes from 625.  Son ASTYAGES succeeds to 550. 585 B76 III-318, 9-833, GRG 329, HCC, ISBE 3-778, LEWH 53, MRDK, RAI2, Sdl 5-11, WPOT 315, abasP, hifi, irch, KoP, taP, wapP     584 Jud 11-1177
c.583 ZOROASTER age 77, prophet of Ahura Mazda, killed by a Tuanian. 583 KPHP 44, NLEM 312
553 MCAW 89, TToH
551 B76 X-895, 19-1170
c.559 Son of Cyrus-I, CAMBYSES-I dies.  King of Anshan and vassal of Medes from 580.  Son Cyrus quickly siezes father's position in Median Confederation, CYRUS-II succeeds to 530. 560 SHWC 30
560/59 GRG 329
559 B76 I-56, 9-833, FLAP 193, ISBE 1-845, MRDK, OCD 4, RAI2, RAI3, Sag, SOTS 240, TTT, abasP, anan, bk, hifiE, hifiP, vrb, KoP, wapP     550 taP
Achaemenid Dynasty of Persia begins until 330.
c.559 CYRUS-II, king of Anshan 559-30, vassal of Medes, and NABONIDUS king of Babylonia, plot against (or attack) ASTYAGES king of Medes. 559 B76 I-609, Sag1 147, Sdl 5-11
556 MCAW 88
c.550 Son of Cyaxares-II, ASTYAGES ends.  King of Medes from 585, anticipates attack by CYRUS-II, attacks, but is disastrously defeated.  CYRUS-II, king of Anshan 559-30, heading a coalition, invades Media.  Astyages troops mutiny, and deliver him to Cyrus-II.  He is taken to Susa. 560 SHWC 39
553 WBH 21     550 B76 I-609, 5-410, 9-833, BHoE 593, HCC, IDB 1-754, Jud 11-1177, LEWH 53, MRDK, Sdl 5-11, SOTS 240, WPOT 315, 593, abasP, bk, hifi, KoP, lvA, taP, wapP     549 CAH 4-2
DEIOCID DYNASTY ends.  Began 728.
c.550 CYRUS-II marches on ECBATANA, capital of Media from 678.  Harpagus defects to Cyrus.  Cyrus takes Ecbatana, unites Media and Persia, becomes CYRUS-II, 1st king of Medo-Persia until 530.  ECBATANA is under Medo-Persia until 330.  Susa remains capital. 550 B76 I-609, 5-410, B76 9-833, HCC, IDB 1-754, ISBE 1-846, LEWH 53, MRDK, OCD 4, SOTS 240, WPOT 315, abasP, hifi, vrb, KoP, taP, wapP 549 ISBE 3-778, OCD 308, RAH 112     548 ISBE 2-11
c.550 URARTU, under Medes from 612, conquered by CYRUS-II, under Medo-Persians until 331. 550 B76 18-1041, lvA
549 LEWH 51, hifi
c.550 ZOROASTRIANISM, after death of Zoroaster, spreads west to Medo-Persia, becomes official religion of Medo-Persia.  1st religion to teach an individual Last Judgment, Heaven and Hell, resurrection of the body, life everlasting for reunited soul and body. 550
PW 16, TAWH 17
c.550 DANIEL at Susa has vision about a ram that conquers everything followed by a one-horned goat that conquers the ram.  Goat horn breaks, followed by 4 rulers.  Angel tells him the ram is Medo-Persia, the goat is Greece, one of the 4 rulers will produce a really bad king who will oppress the "holy" people. Belshazzar yr 3: Dan 8
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of king of Medo-Persia 550-30, marches west. 547 CAH 4-8, SOTS 242
c.546 CYRUS-II, king of king of Medo-Persia 550-30, returns from Babylonia, to Susa. 547 Sag1 150
546 SOTS 239, 242
c.541 SYRIA, under Babylon from 605, acquired by CYRUS-II by bribery and propaganda.  Under Medo-Persia until ?. 541 MCAW 90 540 SHWC 39
c.540 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, begins Babylonian campaign. 540 B76 9-833, CAH 4-11
c.540 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, begins rule in SUSA. 540 wikE
c.539 Medo-Persians control Elam. 539 hifiE
c.539 NEO ELAMITE Period ends.  Began 1100 (migration of Iranians to Iranian plateau).
LATE ELAMITE Period begins until 331. (aka Achaemenid period)
539 wikE
c.539 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, invades northern Babylonia. 539 B76 11-989, RAI2 322
c.538  Babylonian Calendar V becomes standard thruout Persian Empire. 538
B76 3-605
c.533 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, crosses Hindu-Kush Mts., receives tribute from Indus Valley cities. 533
c.530 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, makes son Cambyses regent in Babylon, marches to north frontier, attacks west of Caspian Sea beyond Araxes River, wounded in battle. 530 B76 II-478, SOTS 243
c.530 SPARGAPISES, son of Tomyris queen of the Massagetae, a Persian nomadic confederation, invades territory of Cyrus-II, and is surprised and taken prisoner by Cyrus.  He suicides out. 529 DGRBM 3-891
c.530 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30 sends envoys to widow Tomyris with an offer of marriage.  She refuses.  Cyrus then prepared to cross the Araxes, and invade her territory.  Tomyris says she would allow him to cross the river, but would either advance 3 days journey into his territory, or allow him to come as far into hers, that they might battle.  Cyrus chose the latter, and surprises and captures Spargapises, son of Tomyris.  Tomyris demands his restoration.  Cyrus would not release Spargapises, who suicides out.  A battle ensues. 529
DGRBM 3-1162
c.530 Son of Canbyses-I, CYRUS-II dies.  King of Medo-Persia 550-30, marches east of Caspian, killed fighting Massagetae near Aral Sea.  Son CAMBYSES-II succeeds 529-22. 530 BaCh 14, BI+N 101, CAH 4, FLAP 192, GRG 329, HCC, ISBE 1-582, 845, 849, Jud 5-70, MCAW 99, MNHK, OCD 4, 198, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-47, SHWC 30, SOTS 243, TToH, WPOT 320, hifiE, hifiP, wapP     529 B76 9-833, BCoC 221, CAH 4-414, DGRBM 1-922, IDB 1-769, ISBE 3-778, RAH 113, abasP, anan, bk, KoP, taP
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, has bro SMERDIS (aka Bardiya) secretly killed before marching west. 525
CAH 4-419
c.525 CAMBYSES-II king of Medo-Persia 529-22, Marches west from Ecbatana, never returns to Persia. 526
Sdl 5-101
c.523 6,000 Egyptians deported to Susiana. 523 GHH
c.522 GAUMATA, a Magian, claims to be Cambyses-II's dead bro SMERDIS/BARDIYA.  Siezes control of Medo-Persia while Cambyses is in Egypt. 522 B76 IX-283, CAH 4, ISBE 1-867, Jud 5-71, Sdl 5-63, WPOT 321
c.522 OTANES, son of Pharnaspes organizes opposition to Gaumata. 521 DGRBM 3-64
c.522 Son of Cyrus-II, CAMBYSES-II, dies.  King of Medo-Persia from 529.
Dies of unknown causes at Damascus, according to Herodotus.
Accidentally stabs himself while leaping onto his horse at Haran, according to Behistun Inscription.
General Darius hurries to Media and succeeds as DARIUS-I HYSTASPES until 486.
522 B76 II-478, 5-491, 9-833, 11-989, 17-947, BaCh 14, CAH 4-173, FLAP 195, GRG 329, IDB 1-769, ISBE 1-867, 3-778, MCAW 99, MNHK, MRDK, OCD 4, 198, RAH, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-47, Shaw 374, SHWC 39, SOTS 244, TToH, WPOT 321, abasP, anan, bk, KoP, taP, wapP
521 BCoC 226, HCC
c.522 Persian usurper pseudo-SMERDIS/BARDIYA is forced back to mountain fortress Sikayahvatis in Media by Darius and defeated. Sep 29 522 Sdl 5-102
c.522 Persian usurper pseudo-SMERDIS/BARDIYA is executed.  A relative of Cyaxares named Phraortes siezes Ecbatana, Arachosia and palace at Pasargadae.  Tries to restore the Median kingdom until 521. 523 frM, hifiE, hifiP, wikB
522 CAH 4, FLAP 195, GRG 329, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sdl 5-63, abasP, KoP, taP, wapP 521 HCC
c.522 Widespread rebellions in empire until 521. 522 CAH 4, wikPr
522/1 Persian general VAUMISA secures the road to Armenia in a battle near Izala on Greater Zab river. Dec 31, 522 lvA
c.521 Armenian mercenary DADARSI, working for Persians defeats Armenians near Zuzza. May 20, 521 lvA
c.521 DADARSI defeats Armenians at Tigra. May 30, 521 lvA
c.521 Persian general VAUMISA continues to Autiyara on Greater Zab river, defeats Armenians. Jun 11, 521 lvA
c.521 Armenian mercenary DADARSI, working for Persians defeats Armenians at Uyama. Jun 20, 521 lvA
c.521 7 Persian nobles (including Hydarnes, Megabyzos) conspire against the Magi. 521 DGRBM 2-533, 1006
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, settles at Susa until 518. 521
IDB 2-71
c.521 New palace built at Susa. 521 ISBE 3-778
c.521 PERSIAN EMPIRE reaches from Libya to Indus River. 521 TAWH 17
c.521 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, claims to be king of the whole Earth as viceregent of god Ahura Mazda. no date:
B76 8-309
Persian Empire
Provinces of Medo-Persian Empire at its peak c.520. History of Persia
c.520 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486 campaigns east of Caspian Sea until 519. 520 CAH 4, lvSk
c.519 SUSIANA (formerly Elam):  a 3rd Babylonian uprising is put down. 519 B76 5-491, MCAW 100
Persepolis stairways
Persepolis stairways photo by Simisa
c.519 PERSEPOLITAN STAIRWAY at Persepolis begun by Darius-I.  Initially planned to be the main entrance to the terrace 20m above the ground.  The dual stairway is built symmetrically on the western side of the Great Wall.  The 111 steps measure 6.9m wide, with treads of 31cm and rises of 10cm. 519 wikPrs
Behistun Inscription photo
Behistun Inscription photo by Aryobarzan
Behistun Inscription drawing
Behistun Inscription drawing {{PD-US}}
c.518  Behistun Inscription , commissioned by Darius-I, written in Old Persian, Akkadian, and Elamite on the side of a cliff by a road connecting Babylon to Ecbatana.  Includes ancestry of Darius-I, battles fought from the time of Cyrus. 520 CMoG2 246
520/19 CAH 4
520-18 HCIP 2-41 516 DGRG 1-370
no date: wikBI
c.518 PARTHIA 1st mentioned in Persian records:  Behistun Inscription. 520 wikPr
c.518 Capital of Medo-Persia transferred from Susa to PERSEPOLIS.  Darius-I begins building Apadana Palace on west side of Persepolis.  It is unfinished at his death 486. 518 B76 19-270, ISBE 3-778
515 ihtAP, wikPAP
c.518 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, sets out for Egypt with army. 519 SOTS 243, WPOT 323
518 5-491
Naqsh-e Rustam tombs
photo by Ggia
Naqsh-e Rustam Panorama.  Tombs from left to right are:
Darius-II, Artaxerxes-I, Darius-I, Xerxes-I.
c.515  Naqsh-e Rustam Inscription  12 km northwest of Persepolis, begun 1000, finished.  Mentions north Punjab as part of Darius' domain. 515
HCIP 2-41
c.515 Navigator SCYLAX of Caryanda commissioned by Darius-I to follow the Indus River south and discover where it leads.  Scylax and crew set out from Gandhara, meaning he entered the Indus at Peshawar.  Scylax sails down the river to the Arabian Sea, then west to the Red Sea, which he explores as far as Suez, before returning.  His voyage takes 30 months.   (See Pseudo-Scylax) 515
c.510 IMPERIAL TREASURY begun by Darius-I.  Not finished until 480. 510 wikPrs
c.510 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, adjusts weights to include fractions, changes imprinted image on coins from celestial lion and ox to the king at war.  Gives his name to a gold piece.
(COINS: see Greece 600, Cyprus 530, China 520, Etruscan 470)
510 OCD 260
c.505 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, leaves ARTAPHERNES satrap of Sardis, returns to Susa. 505 DGRBM 1-942
Royal Road
c.500 ROYAL ROAD built from Sardis to Susa with posting stations.  Connects capitals of Persia, Elam, and Assyria, to Gordium and Sardis. 500 PW 16

Persia 500-301