c.1000 BRITAIN:  Middle Bronze Age ends.  Began 1500.
Early Urnfield; Wilburton-Wallington Phase ends.  Began 1200
Late Bronze Age begins to 700.
Late Urnfield culture begins until 900:  socketed axes, palstaves, lead.
1000 wikBAB
c.1000 ISLEHAM HOARD:  Over 6,500 pieces of worked and unworked bronze buried by a founder in a pit in the English county of Cambridgeshire.  Swords, spear-heads, arrows, axes, palstaves, knives, daggers, armor, decorative equipment (in particular for horses), and many fragments of sheet bronze.  Swords show holes where rivets or studs held the wooden hilts in place.  No evidence of smithing is found. 1000 wikIH
c.1000 CHRISHALL HOARD:  5 bronze axes, 3 swords, 1 ingot, 1 spear-head 13-800 wikLBAHB
c.1000 Carpatho-Danubian countries are inhabited by a northern branch of Thracians. 1000 wikDc
c.1000 Λ SCANDINAVIA V:  COTTON, in India from 2000, becomes abundant.   (See Peru 2000, Sennacherib 705) 1000
SHT 1-424
SPOKED WHEELS, in Greece from 1500, appear in Scandinavia. 1000 TTT
c.1000 Sun Chariot"SUN CHARIOT" made in Scandinavia.  It will be found at Trundholm. 1000
B76 19-281
picture: wikTrn
c.1000 WOOL is now used in central Europe, Notably Hallstatt.  It becomes abundant in Scandinavia. 1000
SHT 1-424, 451
c.1000 WEST EUROPE:  Hill forts appear. 1500 wikPB     1000 PW 15
c.1000 URNFIELD CULTURE in the Rhine/Danube region, begins to expand into valleys of the main rivers.  They branch into:
Proto-Celts in the west along the upper Main, Moselle and Rhone
Slavs in the north from the Elbe to east of the Oder
Italic-speakers in Hungary
Illyrians southeast of rivers Tisza and Muresul.
1000 mxfld
c.1000 Proto-CELTS between Rhine & Elbe Rivers displaced by TEUTONS, who remain until 200. 1000 LEWH 157
c.1000 HALLSTATT, Bavaria:  Proto-Celts engage in salt mining. 1000 MCAW 56
c.1000 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES, spreading from 1425, are spoken over most of Europe and much of south Asia. 1000 B76 9-431
c. 1000 Villena HoardVILLENA HOARD: 59 objects made of gold, silver, iron and amber weighing almost 10 kilos, 9 of them of 23.5 karat gold.  Gold pieces include 11 bowls, 3 bottles, 28 bracelets.  Iron pieces are the oldest found in the Iberian Peninsula and correspond to a stage in which iron is considered a precious metal, photo: GFDL

1000 wikHrd, wikTV
c.975 OATS cultivated in central Europe. 1000-951 TTS, TTT
c.950 ALGARVE (region on south coast of Portugal) receives Phoenician and Punic settlements until 350. 950 rcIb
c.900 BRITAIN:  Late Bronze Age 1000-700:  Late Urnfield culture ends.  Began 1000.  Socketed axes, palstaves, lead.  Next phase 800. 900 wikBAB
c.900 COLLETTE HOARD:  buried in a field near Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, and named after the finder's daughter so as to keep the location secret.  Contains 6 socketed axes, 6 gold lock rings, and various bracelets, rings and pins 1000-800 wikLBAHB
c.900 Hollingbourne Hoard HOLLINGBOURNE HOARD:  12 bronze axes and axe fragments, 2 bronze sword hilt fragments, 6 bronze sword blade fragments, 2 bronze spearhead fragments, 14 bronze ingots photo Creative Commons

1000-800 wikLBAHB
c.900 Rossett Hoard ROSSETT HOARD:  1 faceted axe, 1 tanged knife, 4 pieces of gold bracelet stored inside the axe Photo Creative Commons

1000-800 wikLBAHB
c.900 BRONZE AGE in continental Europe ends.  Began 2000. 1000 PW 15, TTPC, mxfld
800 PW 15, hifiCT
750 CDCC 414
650 B76 6-1061
600 rcCE
IRON V AGE begins until ?.
HALLSTATT period begins until 450, the 1st true Celtic culture.
(See Indus Valley 1300, Crete 1200, Levant 1200, Africa 700, Egypt 670)
c.900 BALSA (Baal Saphon, later Tavira) south Portugal founded by Phoenicians.  Lasts until late 500s. 1000-800 wikTv
c.900 CELTS enter Spain via east Pyrenees, in 1st of 2 waves.  Settle in Catalonia. 900 hifiTtn, wikTpR
c.900 1st CASTRO VILLAGE culture appears in northwest Spain.  Characterized by walled villages and hill forts.  It will expand from south to north and from the coast to the interior of the peninsula during the next centuries.   2nd 450 900 hifiCT, wikTpR
c.875 TARTESSOS (Tarshish) Spain, founded at an unknown location near mouth of Baetis river by Tyrians, under them until 700.  A centralized monarchy trading with the area of modern Algarve, inhabited by the Cynetes or Cunetes, and Portuguese Estremadura. 1000 wikTpR 900/850 rcIb
c.850 Boughton Malherbe Hoard in Britain:  352 bronze objects of types commonly found in northern France:  75 bronze weapon fragments, 136 bronze tools and tool fragments, 42 bronze ornaments, and @71 bronze ingots, moulds and miscellaneous objects. 9-800 wikLBAHB
c.850 CRUNDALE HOARD:  188 fragments including axe, chisel, palstave, hammer, gouge, knife, sickle, sword, bracelet, ring, and ingots 900-800 wikLBAHB
c.850 DUDDINGSTON LOCH HOARD at Edinburgh:  44 bronze items:  ring of a large cauldron, fragments of spearheads, swords and dagger blades, point of a bronze spearhead, bent bronze sword broken, with 3 rivet holes and a slot in the hilt plate, contorted point of a bronze sword, blade of a bronze sword broken off under the hilt and bent back at the point 950-750 wikLBAHB
c.850 Iron, Potter's wheel, olive oil, and wine all brought by Phoenicians to Spain. 9th cen. wikTpR
c.850 OLISIPO (Lisbon) settled.  The myth of a Phoenician foundation of the city as far back as 1300, under the name Alis Ubbo "Safe Harbor" is not true. 9th cen. wikTpR
c.800 BRITAIN:  Late Bronze Age 1000-700:  Ewart Park Phase, Llyn Fawr Phase begins until 700: leaf-shaped swords. 800 wikBAB
c.800 IRELAND:  in Late Bronze Age from 1200-?, large industry established, has much bronze and gold. 800
B76 3-283
c.800 ELP Culture in Netherlands from 1800, known for low quality earthenware pottery, ends.  Phase 2 from 1200, noted for Urnfield (cremation) burial customs also ends. 800 wikElp
c.800 1st wave of Hallstatt culture into Spain brings iron technology to local Urnfields Celts of northeast.  This culture starts to expand to nearby areas, embracing northern region of the Levante and upper Ebro valley. 800 wikTpR
c.800 COPPER mines at MITERBERG, Austria from 1600 abandoned. 800 SHT 1-565-6
c.800 Λ IRON V used increasingly in Europe for tools and weapons. 800 SHT 2-55
c.800 HORSE HARNESS, used in Asia from at least 3500, spreads to Europe. 800 ehow
c.800 MUSIC V:  1st Germanic wind instruments.   (See musician 1000) 800 mxfld
c.800 German BEER V 1st evidenced by an amphora.   (See China 650) 800 albv
c.800 PHOENICIANS exploit silver mines of Spain and north Africa. 800 B76 II-598
c.750 SEXI, a colony on the coast of Andalusia established by Phoenicians. 8th cen. wikTpR
c.750 CELTS, an Urnfield people, emerge as a distinct language/religion/culture group, particularly at Hallstatt.  Celts are first to SHOE HORSES (with leather boots), develop seamless IRON rims for wheels, and give shape to hand saws, chisels, files and other tools. 750 mxfld
c.750 GERMANIC people are now in south Scandinavia and Jutland. 750 B76 8-18, hifiTtn
c.750 SOAP introduced by Celts to the Greeks and Romans.
(See Ebers 1550, Phoenicia 600, Babylonia 550)
750 mxfld
c.750 Chain Λ ARMOR introduced by Celts to the Greeks and Romans.   (See China 770) 750 mxfld
c.750 URNFIELD CULTURE, now predominantly Celtic, spreads to southern Gaul. 750
PAE 173
c.750 URNFIELD CULTURE in central Europe fades out.  Began 1300.
HALLSTATT Period in Europe 900-450:  2nd group of graves begins in Bavaria near the richest salt deposits in Europe until 450.   Lavish burials of chiefs.  IRON swords, spoked wheels V, & horse shoes used.
800 B76 2-449
750 B76 IV-863, TToH 7, wikUC     650 MCAW 76     600 rcCE
Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture c.800-700 Dbachmann
c.750 SCYTHIANS V, in Ukraine from ?, enter Europe. 750 ?
c.750 Kegelhelm helmet KEGELHEIM HELMET.  Conical bronze, open-faced, sometimes with cheek protectors, or a crest-holder on top.  Made sometimes in several pieces.  It is the progenitor of many Greek helmets, especially the Illyrian type. photo: GNU FDL

8th cen. wikKH
c.700 Bronze Age in BRITAIN ends.  Began 2000.
Late Bronze Age ends.  Began 1000.
Ewart Park Phase, Llyn Fawr Phase ends:  Began 800.  Leaf-shaped swords.
Λ IRON V Age begins in BRITAIN until 100CE.
Early Iron age begins until 400.  Iron working techniques arrive from southern Europe.
800 wikBIA
750 PW 15, wikPB
700 wikBAB
500 SHT 1-82
c.700 Many small migrations to Britain occur until 400.  Ironsmiths make daggers of Hallstatt type.  Round Celtic houses continue. 700 B76 3-194
c.700 Hill forts appear in Britain. 700 be
c.700 CELTS, now dominant in western Europe, begin settling in SPAIN. 700 MCAW 70
c.700 Phoenicians in Spain, plant OLIVE TREES. 700 TTPC
c.700 TARTESSOS (Tarshish) Spain, under Tyrians from 875, taken over by Iberian chiefs.  Legendary ARGANTHONIUS (Silver man) prospers from local mines.  Under Iberians until 510. 700
c.700 Spain:  Cattle herding culture of Cogotas-I is transformed into Cogotas-II, mixing Celtic culture with Iberian culture. 7th cen. wikTpR
c.700 SEGOVIA becomes Iberian settlement until 80. 700 B76 IX-31
c.700 TRANSYLVANIA (uplands of Carpathians) occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, comes under Dacians (related to Thracians and possibly a fragment of Cimmerians) until 280. 700 rcEB
c.700 SLOVAKIA (Carpathian mountains north of Hungary, east of Moravia and Czech Republic, west of Galitzia and Ukraine, and south of Poland) under Cimmerians from 2000, occupied by Thracians until 400. 700 rcCE
c.700 BIHAR (area between Tisza, Szamos, Muresul Rivers, and Transylvanian highlands) occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, occupied by Thracians until 280. 700 rcEB
c.700 MOLDAVIA (land at northeast corner of Black Sea), under Cimmerians from 2000, comes under Scythians until 280. 700 rcEB
c.700 SCYTHIANS of steppes from 740, spread to Carpathian area, conflict with Dacians. 700 TAWH 16, wikDc     650 vrb
c.700 HALLSTATT Bavaria becomes large scale IRON manufacturing center. 700 TTT
c.680 West Ukraine, south flank of Carpathian Mountains, occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, taken over by proto-Dacians until 300. 680 rcU
c.670 DACIA, occupied by Cimmerians from 2000, comes under late Cimmerian tribes until 300. 670 rcEB
c.657 ISTROS on the Danube delta at the Black Sea, founded by Greeks of Miletus. 657 CAH 3.3, GRG 326
c.650 CELTS, now dominant in western Europe, begin settling in south BRITAIN and IRELAND. 700 MCAW 70
650 vrb     500 be
c.650 LEXOVII Celts, in Germania from ?, move west across Rhine. 650 hifiCT
c.650 CADURCI Celts, in south Germania from ?, move west across Rhine. 650 hifiCT
c.650 2nd wave of Hallstatt culture into Spain, specifically into Portuguese land. 7th cen. wikTpR
c.650 OLBIA (Borysthenes), on Black Sea at mouth of Bug River founded by Aegina, Megara, Greeks of MiletosUnder Miletian tyrants until 500. 654 GHH     650 Dur 2-66, rcU 647 CAH 3.3-161     647/6 CAH 6-483     645 B76 16-438
c.640 COLAEUS of Samos voyage to Tartessos, Spain until 638. 650 OCD 1039     640 CAH 3.3, GRG 324     638 OCD 949
c.625 SLAVONIA (area between Sava and Drava Rivers) occupied by Urnfield Celts from 1250, occupied by Hallstatt Celts until 425. 625 rcWB
c.620 Greeks (specifically Phoceans) settle near Tartessos, remain in Spain until 535. 620 MCAW 72
c. 600 Maiden Castle MAIDEN CASTLE built by Celts in south Dorset.  Similar to other hill forts in Britain, and covering 6.4 hectares (16 acres) until 450. 600 wikMC

left: pub dom
right Chris Downer
c.600 AUSTRIA & BOHEMIA, under Urnfield Celts from 1250, occupied by Hallstatt Celts until 450. 600 rcCE
c.600 MORAVIA, under Urnfield Celts from 1200, occupied by Hallstatt Celts until 400. 600 rcCE
c.600 NETHERLANDS settled 1st time by CELTS. 600 PW 16
c.600 CELTS of Gaul trade with Greek colonies on Mediterranean.  Rich wagon burials show powerful Celt elite. 600 PW 16
c.600 GRAPES shipped by Phoenicians introduced into Gaul. 600 B76 X-471
c.600 MASSILIA, Gaul founded by Greeks of Phocaea and Lydia.  Site is obtained from Ligurian Segobriges.  Greeks soon begin exporting wine to Celts of Gaul. 600 B76 8-331, 346, 11-532, CAH 3.3-768, 4-83, DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GRG 325, LEWH 62, MCAW 78, MWΦ 233, OCD 265, 654, OHG, PW 16, RW, SHT 2-129, TTPC, TTT, mxfld
c.600 Despite the spread of efficient ovens, baking in hot ashes continues. 600 SHT 2-118
c.600 BELLOVESUS heads toward Italy, inviting fellow settlers to join him from 6 tribes, the Aeduii, Ambarri, Aulerci, Arverni, Bituriges, Carnutes, and Senones.  Those led by Bellovesus himself are mainly Insubres, a sub-tribe of Aeduii. 600 hifiCT
c.600 Bellovesus and his horde from the Bituriges, Insubres, and other tribes, reaches the Alps. 600 hifiBo
c.600 CELTS, in SPAIN from 700, receive new wave of Celts. 600 vrb
c.600 CELTS (or just natives with Celtic influences) penetrate to Northwest Spain. 600 wikTpR
c.600 TARTESSOS, Spain, under Iberians 700-510:  Phoceans arrive, introducing olives and grapes and befriend the ruler. 630 mxfld
600 OCD 1039
c.585 Noble CELTIC WOMAN dies age @35, buried along with a child in a large grave in the upper Danube region.  Grave is dated by tree rings in its wood floor.  Corpse is decorated gold and amber jewelry.  This proves the Celts have an aristocratic hierarchy at this time. 585 hifiCT
c.575 EMPORION "trading place" Spain founded by Ionic colonists from Phocaea, on a small island at the mouth of the river Fluvia, in a region inhabited by the Indigetes.  See 550. 575 wikEmp, wikTpR
c.556 MASSILIA Gaul attacked by Salii Gauls under Comanus unsuccessfully. 556 GHH
c.550 CELTS begin arriving in IRELAND, some to England and Scotland. 550 MCAW 90
c. 550 Danebury Hill FortDANEBURY Hill Fort built in Hampshire.  Consists of a rampart behind a ditch, covering 5 acres.  The east gateway is a 4m wide gap in the defences with a timber gatehouse.  At the highest point of the hill are shrines and temples.  They make offerings to the gods and sometimes sacrifices.  Some burials are thought to have been sacrificial.  300 to 400 Iron Age agriculturalists live here in round houses.  There will be expansion and many remodelings, until it is abandoned c.100. photo: Hampshire Hub

550 hnts, wikDb
c.550 EMPORION Spain on a small island at the mouth of the river Fluvia from 575, moved to the mainland, and called Neapolis "new city".  The island is then called Paleopolis "old city". 550 Dur 2-66, MWΦ 233, wikEmp
c.550  Writing  in modified Phoenician alphabet appears in south Portugal. 6th cen wikTpR
c.550 Spain:  Many Phoenician colonies are deserted. 6th cen wikTpR
c.550 Greeks begin settling Mediterranean coast of Spain.  There are no Greek colonies west of Gibraltar, only voyages of discovery. 6th cen wikTpR
c.550 SCYTHIANS, in Europe from 750, appear in Balkans, keep coming until 500. 550 B76 2-615
c.540 TOLEDOCH (later Toletum) Spain on Tagus River founded by Phoenicians. 540 DGRG 2-1215
c.536 Olives and grape vines from Greece exported thru Massilia to central Gaul. 536 GHH
c.535 THELINE Gaul, under the Liguri from ?, taken by the Saluvii (Salyes) until 123, renamed ARELATE. 535 lvArl
c.535 Greeks of SPAIN from 620, forced out by Carthaginian control of trade. 535 MCAW 93
c.530 EMPORION, Phocaean colony in Spain on the river Fluvia from 550, receives influx of Phocaean refugees after conquest of Phocaea by king Cyrus-II. 530 wikEmp
c.525 ALBION (island of the Albiones) is recorded as the name of Britain by a Greek seaman from Massila. 525 OCD 34
c.525 HYBERNIA (Ireland) is discovered by a Greek seaman from Massila. 525 OCD 514
c.520 Vix palace
Palace of the Lady of Vix   35m x 21m, estimated height 12m:  The large hall has an apse at the back and a front porch in antis.  Suggests domestic use or feasting uses.
front Kenny Arne Lang Antonsen
side same

late 6th cen wikVG
c. 513 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, newly arrived in Thrace, moves 7-800,000 troops across Danube on a boat bridge, leaves Histiaeos tyrant of Miletos in charge of it, crosses into Scythian land.  Gives orders that if he does not return in 60 days, destroy the bridge.  The 60 days elapse.  Athenian Miltiades the Younger advises destroying the bridge.  Histiaeos refuses, figuring that Persian help against local democrats was more important than freedom from Persians. 516 CAH 4-96, 103
514 or 12 CHEIA 101
513 DGRBM 2-498, GRG 327, IDB 1-769, MCAW 100, OCD 688 512 Dur 2-234, HAG, ISBE 1-868, OCD 520, RAH 691, bk     508 GHH
c.513 DARIUS-I demands earth and water from Idanthyrus chief of royal Scyths.  Idanthyrus sends him a bird, a mouse, a frog, and 5 arrows.  It causes some head scratching, but the invasion continues into Asia. 508 DGRBM 2-562
c.513 DARIUS-I, having failed to conquer Scythians, crosses Danube back into Thrace. 512 OCD 968
c.510 IRON WORKING in Britain, and Cornish tin production begin until year 1. 510 SHT 2-10, 46
c.510 TIN mines in Brittany begin operating. 510 SHT 2-46
c.510 TARTESSOS, Spain, under Iberians from 700, probably destroyed by Carthaginians.  Comes under Carthaginians until 206. 6th cen. wikTpR     533 rtatl     510 rcIb
500 B76 IX-832, OCD 1039, wikTpR
c.510 TAVIRA south Portugal, under Phoenicians from 900, destroyed by violence.  Abandoned until 450. 6th cen. wikTpR late 500s wikTv
c.510 DJERBA island in Gulf of Gades on west coast of Spain, comes under Carthage until 201. 510 rcNA
c.501 GADIR (later called Cadiz) on south coast of Spain, under Phoenicians from 1110, occupied by Carthaginians until 206. 530 GHH
501 B76 II-429, rcIb     500 hifiC

Europe 500-301