anan   bk   hifi   jrank   lvA   mxfld   rcT   stma   vrb   wikH   wikHK   wikL 

Ionia Go to Balkan Peninsula Go to Asia Go to Syria-Armenia Go to Mesopotamia Go to Levant Go to Mediterranean
c.1000 AEOLIAN migration from Thessaly to Anatolia from 1130 ends. 1000 B76 I-111
c.1000 PAPHLAGONIA comes under Phrygia until 695. 695 rcT
c.1000 CILICIA, under Cilices from 1250, becomes part of Neo-Hittite states until 850.  Colonized on coast by Myceneans. 1000 B76 II-937, rcT
c.1000 NEO-HITTITE kingdom begins until 709 centered at CARCHEMISH until 717, independent until 849.  Pays tribute to Aramean states. 1000 MCAW 56
c.1000 SMYRNA, occupied from pre-2000, now occupied by Aeolic Greeks.  Under them until 695.  Occupied continuously until 330. 1015 Dur 2-150
1000 OCD 997, about 800 rcT
c.1000 PRIENE Ionia founded at the then mouth of the Maeander River by Thebans.  It will remain in this location until 700. 1000 wikPr
c.959/4 1st historical settlement of SINOPE on north coast of Anatolia under Milesian Habron from ?, destroyed by Cimmerians. 995/4
CAH 6-483
c.950 IONIANS, dispossessed from Greece, found 12 cities on west coast of Anatolia. 950 TToH 6
c.920 SAMAL in Amanus Mts. taken over by Arameans. 920 B76 1-821
c.900 KNIDOS on a peninsula on southwest coast of Anatolia founded by Spartans.  Under Spartans until 546. 900 OCD 257
no date: B76 II-1015
c.900 ANATOLIANS (Lydia according to Herodotus) migrate to Italy, become Etruscans. 900 LEWH 81, SHT 2-59, TTPC, vrb     pre-800 B76 III-984
c.900 TROY, under Phrygians from 1200, destroyed and abandoned 1100-700, comes under Aetolians until 546. 900 rcT
c.900 HALICARNASSOS Caria founded by Greeks of Troezen Attica. 900 CDCC 414
c.900 PHRYGIAN POTTERY appears, vases painted with animal sillhouettes - especially stags.  First sign of civilization in central Anatolia since 1200. 900
c.876 SANAGARA, Hittite king of Carchemish, pays tribute to Ashurnasirpal-I. 876 ISBE 1-616
c.866 QATZILU becomes king of Commagene until 857. 866 CAH 3.1
c.857 QATZILU, king of Commagene from 866, ends. 857 CAH 3.1
c.850 CILICIA, part of Neo-Hittite states from 1000, becomes Kingdom of Que until 740, capital at Adana. 850 rcT
c.849 CARCHEMISH, Neo-Hittite capital from 1000, last nominally independent state on upper Euphrates, subjugated by Shalmanezer-III.  Vassal state of Assyria until 717. 870 rcS 849
Sag1 98
c.825 ARCHED BRIDGE built over Meles River at Smyrna.  It has been used continuously since then.
(See Askelon 1900, Mycenean 1300, Etruscan 590)
850 wldat
850-01 TTS, TTT
c.805 USHPILUMI becomes king of Commagene until 773. 810 rcT     805 CAH 3.1
c.800 ARMENIANS separate from Phrygians, and move east. 800 hystn
c.795 HERACLID DYNASTY of LYDIA, having unknown kings from 1100, produces a known king, ARDYS-I, who rules until 759. 797 GHH     795 hifi, wikL
c.773 USHPILUMI king of Commagene from 775 ends. 773 CAH 3.1     770 rcT
c.759 ARDYS-I, Heraclid king of Lydia from 795, ends.  Son ALYATTES-I succeeds to 745. 759 hifi, wikL
c.756 SINOPE trading post founded in Paphlagonia on Black Sea by Greeks of Miletos.  Recolonized 631.  Rulers unknown until 450. 770 Dur 2-66     756 GRG 326
731 wikPnr     630 hifi
629 DGRBM     610 rcT
c.756 TRAPEZOS on Black Sea founded by Greeks of Sinope.  Lasts until 630. 757 OCD 265, Sag1 113
757/6 Dur 2-66
756 CAH 3.3-162, OCD 1089, lvA
c.756 CYZICUS Mysia founded by Miletian Greeks.  Independent until 560. 757 Dur 2-156, LEWH 62
756 B76 III-333, CAH 3.3-160, OCD 265, 308, rcT
c.756 ABYDOS Λ Mysia founded by Miletian Greeks. 756 LEWH 62     715 GHH     680-52 CAH 3.3-160, GRG 264 670 B76 I-41
c.755 KUSHTASHPI becomes king of Commagene until 740. 755 CAH 3.1     750 rcT
c.750 MILETUS Caria begins ascending sea power until c.733. 750 GHH
c.745 ALYATTES-I, son of Ardys-I, Heraclid king of Lydia from 759, ends.  Son MELES (Myrsus) succeeds to 733. 745 hifi, wikL
c.745 KUSHTASHPI, king of Commagene 755-40, subdued by SARDURI-II, king of Urartu, and becomes his vassal until 740. 746 B76 1-821,
c.744 CAPPADOCIA kingdom founded by Pharnaces.  Independent until 609. 744 GHH
c.743 TARKHULARA becomes king of Gurgum until 711. 743 CAH 3.1
c.743 SARDURI-II, king of Urartu 756-34, with allies including Aram, defeated in Commagene by Tiglath-Pilezer-III. 743 B76 18-1040, 11-984, 18-1040, MNHK 147, MWΦ 18, SOTS 298
c.740 Kings of Commagene, Que, Carchemish, Gurgum, all under Urartian influence, submit to TIGLATH-PILEZER-III. 740 B76 1-822
c.740 KUMMUHU (Commagene), independent kingdom from ?, comes under Assyria until 708. 708 B76 1-821
c.740 CILICIA (Kingdom of Que from 850), comes under Assyria until 696. 740 rcT
c.738 Kings of Samal, Tabal, Melitene, Kashka, come to terms with TIGLATH-PILEZER-III. 738 B76 1-822
c.738 WASU-SRMAS becomes king of Tabal until 732 738 CAH 3.1
c.738 GORDIOS-III, king of Mushku (Pyrygia) from ?, ends.  MITA-III (Midas) succeeds until 696. 800 GHH   740 GRG 329, RAI3
738 OCD 686, hifi, vrb, rcT
c.738 Kingdom of PHRYGIA begins until 676. 738 vrb
c.738 PISIRIS becomes Neo-Hittite king of Carchemish until 717. 738 CAH 3.1
c.735 CARIA is dominant at sea. 735 GHH
c.733 MELES (Myrsus), son of Altattes-I, Heraclid king of Lydia from 745, ends.  Son CANDAULES (aka Sadyattes-I, Myrsilus) succeeds to 716. 735 GHH     733 hifi, wikL
c.733 WASU-SRMAS king of Tabal from 738, vassal of Assyria from 738, deposed by Assyrian overlords.  KHULI succeeds until ?. 732 B76 1-822, IDB 4-718
730 CAH 3.1
c.733 MILETOPOLIS, between the 2 lakes south of Sea of Marmara, founded by Greeks of Miletos. 733 or 706 CAH 3.3-161
c.732 KUSHTASHPI, king of Commagene from 755, under Assyria from 740, ends.  MUWATTALLI succeeds until 708. 732 CAH 3.1, rcT
c.730 MUSIC:  Olympos, a Phrygian musician, invents ENHARMONIC SCALE of quarter tones, according to Greek myth. 730 MCAW 67
c.730 CIMMERIANS from the Caucassus reach Lydia. 782 GHH     730 vrb
c.727 MAGNESIA Lydia destroyed by the Teres tribe of Cimmerians. 727 DGRBM 1-573
c.718 PISIRIS, Neo-Hittite king of CARCHEMISH 738-17, vassal of Assyria, allied with Mita king of Mushku, rebels until 717. 718 Sag1 117
c.717 PISIRIS defeated by Sargon-II in battle. 717 RAI2 260
c.717 CARCHEMISH, vassal state of Assyria from 849, annexed by Assyria.  Becomes Assyrian province until 609. 717 B76 II-556, 1-822, 18-1040, IDB 3-357, ISBE 1-616, Jud 5-161, MCAW 64, WBANE 323
c.717 NEO-HITTITES, centered at Carchemish from 1000, retreat into Phrygia until extermination in 709. guess
c.716 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon, 721-05, attacks MITA-III king of Mushku because of Mita's encroachment on Que province (in the area of Cilicia). 717 IDB 3-357 716 Sag1 117 715 B76 1-820
c.716 PAINTING:  Candaules of Lydia buys a painting of a battle of the Magnetes by Bularchos. 715 DGRA 901
c.716 CANDAULES king of Lydia, proud of his queen's beauty, has his friend Gyges sneek peeks of her naked.  She catches Gyges, and offers him a deal:  be executed for his supposed violation, or kill Candaules and marry her.   (We must remember that all we have is Gyges' side of the story.) 715 DGRBM 1-594
c.716 CANDAULES (aka Sadyattes-I, Myrsilus), son of Meles, Heraclid king of Lydia from 733, murdered by former friend GYGES. 730 GHH     720 rcT
716 DGRBM 1-953, hifi, wikL 715 DGRBM 1-594
700 ISBE 3-191
687 MRDK, anan, bk
685 IDB 3-191, GRG 19, OCD 483, RAH 111, RAI3
682 TToH     680 B76 IV-816, 1-822, 8-336, 347, CAH 3.3, LEWH 50, anan, lvA
670 MCAW 68
HERACLID DYNASTY ends.  Began 1185, ruling Lydia from 1100.
Gyges marrys Candaules' widow.  GYGES succeeds as king of Lydia until 648.
MERMNAD DYNASTY begins in Lydia until 546.
c.716 Remaining Heraclids flee to Greece. 716 GHH
c.716 GYGES, king of Lydia 716-648, attacks Miletus and Smyrna. 716 GHH
c.716 SARGON-II, king of Assyria and Babylon 721-05, takes 3 cities in Que province (in the area of Cilicia) which MITA-III king of Mushku had conquered.  Quells rebellion. 715 CAH 3.1,
IDB 3-357, ISBE 3-328
c.713 AMBARIS, king of Tabal, vassal of Assyria, after shifting alliance to Mita king of Mushku 738-696, stripped of power by Sargon-II.  TABAL annexed by Sargon-II. 713 B76 1-822, CAH 3.1, IDB 3-357
c.713 TARSUS, capital of Cilicia, comes under Assyria until 696. 713 lvA
c.712 MITA, king of Mushku 738-696, invades Assyrian province of Tabal. 712 Sag1 117
c.711 ASTACOS (Olbia) Bithynia founded by Greeks of Megara. 712 DGRBM, GHH 711 CAH 3.3-160
c.711 TARKHULARA, king of Gurgum from 743, ends.  MUTALLU succeeds until ?. 711 CAH 3.1
c.710 GYGES, king of Lydia 716-648, sends gifts to the temple of Delphi. 710 GHH
c.710 MITA, king of Mushku 738-696, sends gifts to the temple of Delphi. 710 GHH
c.710 COLOPHON reduced by Gyges of Lydia. 710 GHH
c.710/9 CAPPADOCIA allies with Assyria. 710/9 lvA
c.709 PARIUM (Parion) on the Propontis in Mysia founded by Greeks of Paros, Miletus, Erythrae. 709 CAH 3.3-162 708 DGRBM
c.709 Assyrian governor of QUE province (in the area of Cilicia) raids Mushku, captures 2 of king Mita's forts, forces Mita to pay tribute and services to Sargon-II.
now controls all former Hittite and Aramean states.
709 B76 1-820, 17-942, IDB 3-357, Sag1 117,
Sag2 111
c.709 MITA-III king of Mushku 738-696, scared more by Cimmerians than Assyrians, sends envoy to SARGON-II offering submission. 710/9 lvA
709 B76 1-820, wikΦr
c.709 MITA-III king of Mushku 738-696 and SARGON-II sign peace treaty. 709 ISBE 3-328, vrb
c.709 NEO-HITTITE Kingdom ends.  Began 1000, withdrawn into Phrygia from 717.  All former Hittite and Aramean states are now in Assyrian Empire. 709 B76 17-942, ISBE 3-328, MCAW 66
c.708 MELITENE annexed by Sargon-II.  Part of Assyria until 609. 709 B76 17-942
708 B76 1-822     642 rcT
c.708 SAMOSATA, of Hittite origin, annexed by Sargon-II.  Part of Assyria until ?. 708 B76 VIII-836
c.708 MUWATTALLI, king of Kummuhu from 732, ends.  KUMMUHU (Commagene), kingdom and capital Samosata under Assyria from 740, annexed as a province by Sargon II, under Assyria until 609. 708 B76 1-822, CAH 3.1, rcT, wikCmg
c.705 SARGON-II, king of Assyria 722-05, marches to Tabal to counter Cimmerian incursion.  Scythians and Cimmerians retreat west. 706 RAI2 262, Sag1 117
705 B76 1-822, HCC, MRDK, RAI3, Sag2 111, WPoT, absA, frN, hifi, kidA, lexA
c.705 CILICIA (Que) under Assyria 740-696, comes under city of Mopsus until ?. 705 rcT
c.704 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, sends troops into Que and Hilakku Provinces (in the area of Cilicia) to quell local rebellions. 704/3 B76 1-822
c.700 CIMMERIANS mass migrate from steppes into Anatolia until 610. 705 GRG 329     690 HAG 650 GHH
c.700 Northwest Anatolia, part of Phrygia from 1200, is now controlled by Lydia until 546. 700 hifi
c.700 PERGAMUM, under Phrygia from 1200, comes under Lydia until 546. 731 hifi    700 rcT 695 hifi
c.700 SMYRNA, under Aeolic Greeks 1000-695, damaged by earthquake. 700 CDCC 828, about
c.700 SMYRNA joins Ionian confederacy as its 13th city. 700 DGRG 2-61
c.700 TROY, abandoned from 1100, under Aetolians 900-546, resettled by Greeks, called ILION.  Troy-8 begins until 85. 700 B76 IX-145, CDCC 913, lvA
c.700 MOLDS to mass produce clay relief plaques, known in east from ?, learned by Ionic Greeks. 700 B76 19-287
c.700 PRIENE Ionia, at the then mouth of the Maeander River from 1000, moved because the riverbed had silted up.  It will remain in this location until 700. 500 wikPr
c.696 QUE & HILAKKU, Assyrian provinces from 740 in the area of Cilicia, again rebel against Sennacherib.  Que succeeds until 670. 696
B76 1-822
c.696 SENNACHERIB, king of Assyria 705-681, sends troops into Que and Hilakku Provinces to quell local rebellions.  Tarsus is retaken. 698 IDB 4-518
696 B76 1-822, CAH 3.3
c.696 GORDION (Gordium), former capital of Mushku (Phrygia), sacked by Cimmerians, who then withdraw into west Anatolia and Cappadocia and live as nomads. 696 CDCC 682
B76 1-822, II-938, CAH 3.3
690 LEWH 50
This clears way for growth of LYDIA.
c.696 MITA-III (Midas), king of Mushku (Pyrygia) from 738, either suicides or is killed by Cimmerians.  GORDIOS-IV succeeds until 670. 700 RAI3     696 CAH 3.3, GRG 329, ISBE 3-328, OCD 686     696/5 IDB 3-358, hifi, lvA     676 OCD 240
c.695 SMYRNA, under Aeolic Greeks from 1000, comes under Cimmerians until 688. 695 rcT
c.695 PAPHLAGONIA, under Phrygia from 1000, overrun by Cimmerians.  Under Cimmerians until 626. 695 rcT
c.695 PHRYGIA overrun and devastated by Cimmerians who remain until 626. 695 LEWH 50, lvA, rcT
690 Sdl 4-297, vrb
c.695 EPHESUS, under Dorians from 1045, comes under Cimmerians until 626. 695 rcT
c.690 CALLINOS, earliest known elegiac poet, flourishes in Ephesus. 710 GHH     690 Dur 2-143 650 CAH 3.3
c.688 SMYRNA, under Cimmerians from 695, taken over by coup of Colophonian refugees until 626.  Becomes 13th Ionian city-state. 688 ISBE 4-555, wikSm
c.688 PHASELIS, on border of Lycia and Pamphilia, founded by Rhodians. 690 DGRBM, GHH
688 CAH 3.3-162
c.685 CHALCEDON founded by Megarian Greeks.  Called "city of the blind" because its founders missed the site of Byzantium on the west side of the BosporusUnder Greeks until 494. 685 GRG 326, OCD 225, 265
684 CAH 3.3-659, 767, LEWH 62
685 or 76 CAH 3.3-160
c.680 Λ MONEY:  1st COINS made in Lydia.
1st known coins are c.670 in Greece.
725 Dur 2-66     700 wikHM     700-600 TTS, TTT     680 Dur 2-69 650 PW 15, TAWH 17, bk
640-30 B76 8-345     625-10 GRG 329     600 OCD 273
c.679 CIMMERIANS & SCYTHIANS break thru Taurus Mts into Assyrian province of TABAL. 679 RAI2 270, RAI3 326
c.679 Assyrian governors of Que and Hilakku provinces (in the area of Cilicia) defeat Teuspa, king of Cimmerians in Hubuna, halt advance of Cimmerians & Scythians, but fail to pacify the area. 679 B76 1-822,
Sag1 124, lvA
c.676 CYZICUS Mysia, founded 756 by Miletian Greeks, refounded.  Still independent until 560. 679 GRG 326     676 CAH 3.3-767 675 DGRBM, GHH, OCD 308
c.676 Kingdom of PHRYGIA from 738 conquered by Cimmerians helped by Scythians.  Capital Gordion sacked.  LYDIA becomes dominant in western Anatolia until 546. 690 anan, hifi, vrb
676 RAI3 326
c.676 Gordion ruins GORDION (Gordium), founded 1050, destroyed and abandoned until ?. photo GNU FDL

690 B76 1-820
675 wikΦr
c.674 CHALCEDON under Megarian Greeks 685-506, rebuilt by Arcias of Megara. 674 GHH
c.670 GORDIOS-IV, king of Pyrygia from 696, ends.  MIDAS-IV succeeds until ?.  Phrygia is overrun by Cimmerians 695-26. 670 hifi
c.670 Assyrian provinces HILAKKU (in the area of Cilicia) & TABAL are lost to Cimmerians & Scythians. by 669 Sag1 124
c.670 QUE in area of Cilicia, independent from 696, comes back under Assyria until 631. by 670 rcT
c.668 ASHURBANIPAL king of Assyria 669-31 makes  treaty  with GYGES king of Lydia 716-648. 668 IDB 3-191, ISBE 3-191
c.665 LYDIA invaded by Cimmerians. 665 lvA
c.663 GYGES, king of Lydia 716-648, possibly aided by Assyrians, drives back Cimmerians, sends some spoils to Assyria, stops being pro-Assyrian. 663 Sag1 130
660 MCAW 70
c.655 GYGES, king of Lydia 716-648, sends troops to Psamtik-I of Egypt to help free him from Assyria. 654 ISBE 3-191
c.654 PITYUSA (later called Lampsacus) founded by Ionian Greeks of Phocaea and Miletos under Timesias. 654 B76 VI-14, Brit, CAH 3.3-161, DGRBM, Dur 2-66, GHH, GRG 264
c.653 GYGES, king of Lydia 716-648, attacked by TUGDAME (Lygdamis) king of Cimmerians. 652 or earlier: Sag1 130
652 MCAW 70     650 HAG
c.652 EPHESUS attacked by Cimmerians. 652 B76 1-822
c.650 AMISOS Pontus, southeast of Sinope, founded by Greeks of Miletos. 760-50 wikSms     600-500 OCD 52
564 CAH 3.3-160     563 GHH
c.650 SARDIS, capital of Lydia falls (except for the citadel) to Cimmerians under Tugdame and is sacked.  But Lydia remains dominant in west Anatolia 676-546. 678 DGRBM 1-573     652 B76 II-938, 1-822, MCAW 70
650 HAG     644 OCD 240, lvA 635 DGRBM, GHH
c.650  Homeric Hymns  to various gods begin to be compsed.  They vary from 3 or 4 lines, to over 500 lines.  The long ones contain an often long invocation, praise, and narrative, omitted in the briefest ones.  The longer ones were probably assembled from pre-existing disparate materials.  There are 33 of them in all, most dating 7th-6th century.  950 GHH 7th cen wikHH
c.650 RESURRECTION:  Aristeas of Proconnesus Island in Sea of Marmara, Greek poet/miracle-worker of a noble family, enters a fuller's shop, and dies.  The fuller closes shop, and goes to tell Aristeas' kindred.  Report of the death had just spread thru the town, when a Cyzicenian from Artaca says that he had met Aristeas on his road to Cyzicus, and spoken with him.  The kindred go to the fuller's shop with funeral preparations, intending to carry the body away.  But Aristeas is gone.  7 years afterwards Aristeas reappears in Proconnesus, writes a poem called  The Arimaspeia , and disappears again, to reappear 240 years later. Herodotus Histories 4:13-16
7th cen wikArs
no date: elop
c.648 GYGES dies.  King of Lydia from 716, killed by Cimmerians.
Son ARDYS-II succeeds until 615.
682 rcT    678 DGRBM, GHH, wikL    657 GRG 19, OCD 483     652 B76 1-822, GRG 329, IDB 3-191, ISBE 3-191, MCAW 70, MRDK, RAH 111, Sag1 130, TToH, anan, bk     651 B76 I-497     648 B76 IV-816, 1-822, 8-347     644 RAI3, hifi, lvA, wikL
640 CAH 3.3-3
c.645 Phrygia (or at least its Cimmerian masters) supports anti-Assyrian rebellions in northern Aram and southern Anatolia until 614. 645 hifi
c.640 CIMMERIANS decisively defeated by Assyrians. 640 anan
c.640 Egyptian large stone statuary making learned by Ionian Greeks, who use white marble of the Cyclades. 640 B76 19-287
c.637 CIMMERIANS routed by the king of Lydia.  Cimmerians retreat northwest. 655 vrb
637 or 626 B76 II-938, GRG 329
c.631 QUE province (in the area of Cilicia), under Assyria from 670, goes independent until 613. 631 SOTS 238
c.631 SINOPE trading post on Black Sea from 756, recolonized by Greeks of Miletos. 631 GRG 326
630 B76 1-823, hifi 629 GHH
c.630 TRAPEZOS on Black Sea under Greeks of Sinope from 756, destroyed by Cimmerians. 655 vrb 630 lvA
c.630 TEMPLE of ARTEMIS V on Samos Island built by Theodoros of Samos. 630 CDGRA 85
c.630 MIMNERMOS of Colophon, flourishes.  Writes short poems for drinking parties.  Remembered as a love poet. 630 OHG     628 GHH 630-00 wikMmn
c.627 CIUS Mysia founded by Greeks of Miletos. 627 CAH 3.3-160
c.626 SMYRNA, under Colophonians from 688, under independent republic until 600. 626 rcT
c.626 PHRYGIA overrun and devastated by Cimmerians from 695 comes partly under Lydia until 590. 626 hifi, rcT
c.626 PAPHLAGONIA, under Cimmerians from 695, comes partly under Lydia until 585. 626 rcT
c.626 EPHESUS under Cimmerians from 695, becomes independent republic until 590. 626 rcT
c.624 Lydia invaded by Scythians. by 624 GHH
c.620 ALCAEOS of Mytilene Lesbos, lyric poet, alleged lover of Sappho, flourishes.  Credited with inventing Alcaic verse. 620 wikAM
580 bk
c.615 THRASYBULOS becomes tyrant of Miletos until 600. 625 OHG     615 Dur 2-66
600 GRG 20
c.615 Son of Gyges, ARDYS-II ends.  King of Lydia from 648.  Son SADYATTES-II succeeds until 610. 633 rcT     630 DGRBM 3-693     629 DGRBM, GHH, MRDK     628 wikL     625 GRG 329, anan, lvA, wikL     621 anan 615 IDB 3-191, ISBE 3-191, hifi     613 B76 1-822
c.615 SADYATTES-II, king of Lydia 615-10, begins war with Thrasybulos of Miletos which lasts until 605. 616 DGRBM 1-134, GHH
c.613 CILICIA, independent from 631, recovered by Assyria until 609. by 613 B76 1-822
c.610 APOLLONIA Pontica, founded on west coast of Black Sea by Greeks of Miletos. 610 CAH 3.3-160 609 GHH
c.610 Son of Ardys-II, SADYATTES-II ends.  King of Lydia from 615.  Son ALYATTES-II succeeds until 560, continues the war with Miletos until 605. 621 rcT     619 B76 I-285, VI-412, 1-822
618 DGRBM 1-134, 3-693     617 DGRBM, Dur 2-711, wikL     615 GRG 329, RAI3, hifi 610 MRDK, OCD 49, RAI3, anan, bk
605 IDB 3-191, ISBE 3-191     600 wikL
c.610 CIMMERIANS, in Anatolia from 700, expelled by Alyattes of Lydia, and drop out of history. 617 GHH
c.609 CILICIA, under Assyria from 613, comes under Babylonia until 546. by 609 rcT
c.609 KUMMUHU (Commagene), part of Assyria from 708, comes under Babylonia until 546. 609 rcT
c.609 CAPPADOCIA, independent from 744, comes under Babylon until 546. guess
c.609 MELITENE part of Assyria from 708, comes under Babylonia until 539. 609 rcT
c.605 Lydia / Miletos war from 615, ends. 612 DGRBM 3-1107, GHH 605 DGRBM 1-134
c.605 ALYATTES-II king of Lydia 610-560, tries to expand west into Ionia, but is resisted by Greek cities, mainly Miletos and Smyrna. 605 vrb
c.605 Lydia expands in Alyattes' reign to form an empire that covers all western Anatolia. hifi
c.600 SIGEUM in the Troad, under Mitilene, Lesbos from ? siezed by Phrynon, comes under AthensATHENS-LESBOS WAR for possession of it begins until 590. 606 DGRBM 1-95, 3-191
600 CAH 3.3-162, 4-32, LEWH 65, MCAW 78
c.600 THRASYBULOS tyrant of Miletos from 615 ends. 600 OHG
c.600 War:  Chios Island and Miletos vs. Erythrae 600 CAH 4-95
c.600 Ionic COLUMN TOPS appear 1st at Smyrna. 600 B76 19-287
c.600 SMYRNA, independent republic from 626, taken, sacked and destroyed by Alyattes, king of Lydia 610-560.  Abandoned.  Left alone until 560 616 GHH     600 B76 V-482, CAH 3.3, CDCC 828, Dur 2-150, ISBE 4-555, OCD 987, 997, OHG, vrb, about     590 B76 I-286, III-318, MCAW 82     585 OCD 49
c.600 CLAZOMENAE, Ionia repulses attack by Alyattes, king of Lydia 610-560. 600 OCD 248
c.600 1st TEMPLE of Λ ARTEMIS V at Ephesus begun. 772 TTPC     600 DGRBM 3-1060/1, Dur 2-143

THALES of Miletos flourishes.

METAPHYSICS V:  1st to propose a single material UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM V:  water.
"All things are water."  Universe is a living organism nourished by water vapor.  Says everything is alive, and full of gods.  Magnets obviously have a SOUL V because they attract iron.  Yet Thales is credited with being the 1st philosopher to try to abandon supernatural explanations.

ASTRONOMY V:  Advises navigators to steer by Ursa Minor instead of Ursa Major, 1st to predict an Eclipse.  (See Hesiod 700)

COSMOLOGY V:  Earth is a flat disk floating on water.

GEOMETRY:  Legend says he measured Egyptian pyramids, discovered 1st 5 geometric theorems:
  1. A circle is bisected by its diameter.
  2. Base angles of an isoceles triangle are equal.
  3. Pairs of vertical angles formed by 2 intersecting lines are equal.
  4. Triangles with 2 equal angles and 1 equal side are congruent.
  5. Thales' TheoremThales' Theorem:  Any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle.
(See Pythagoras 520, Hippocrates 460)
Calculated distance from shore to ships at sea.

POLITICS:  Advocated an Ionian federation.
Dur 2-66
SHT 1-105
CAH 3.3
578 GHH
no date:
B76 IX-919-20, BHM 45, OCD 1050, wikθθ
c.600 GOLDEN RULE attested by Thales.  "Avoid doing what you would blame others for doing."   (See 500BCE Egypt, Leviticus, China, Mahabharata) 624-546 wikGR
c.600 PAMPHYLIA, under Aeolian and Achaean Greeks from 1200, conqered by LYDIA.  Comes under Lydia until 546. 600 hifi, rcT
c.590 ATHENS-LESBOS war over Sigeum Peninsula from 600, ends.  Sigeum is awarded by arbitration of Periander of Corinth to Athens. 600
c.590 EPHESUS independent republic under Basilid aristocrats from 626, comes under tyrants until 570.  PYTHAGORAS becomes tyrant until 580. 600 B76 6-904, CAH 4-93
590 rcT
c.590 MELANCHROS tyrant of Mytilene Lesbos from ?, overthrown by PITTACOS who rules until 580. 612 GHH     590 B76 8-345     570 bk
c.590 PHRYGIA, partly under Lydia from 626, independent until 546.  MIDAS-V becomes king of Phrygia until 570. 640 GHH     590 hifi, rcT
c.590 WELDING of IRON, invented in Lydia (says Herodotus):  ALYATTES-II king of Lydia presents a welded salver to the shrine at Delphi. 590 MCAW 83
c.590 WAR:  Lydians & Scythians vs Medes begins until 585. 615 DGRBM 1-908     590 B76 1-822, 18-1041, DGRBM 1-134, MCAW 82
c.590 SCYTHIANS, in Anatolia from ?, destroyed or expelled by Cyaxares king of Medes. 607 DGRBM 590 vrb
585 May 28 Λ SOLAR ECLIPSE predicted by Thales of Miletos 600, probably by Egyptian records and Babylonian 700 calculations.  1st evidence that man can understand cosmology.  "When, in the sixth year they encountered one another, it so fell out that, after they had joined battle, the day suddenly turned into night.  Now that this transformation of day [into night] would occur was foretold to the Ionians by Thales of Miletos, who fixed as the limit of time this very year in which the change actually took place."   (Herodotus: History 1-74)
"The original discovery (of the cause of eclipses) was made in Greece by Thales of Miletus, who in the 4th year of the 48th Olympiad (585/4) foretold the eclipse of the Sun that occurred in the reign of Alyattes, in the 170th year after the foundation of Rome (584/3)"   (Pliny: Naturalis Historia II, 53)
585 B76 IX-919, 8-346,
BCoC 315, BHM 45, Dur 2-137, IDB 3-191, ISBE 3-191, MCAW 83, OCD 688, OHG, RAH 166, RAI2 317,
TAWH 17, WPOT 315, anan, bk, lvA, mxfld, hbar, higrd, mrec, nasaS
585 May Alyattes king of Lydia defeated on east bank of Halys river in Battle of the Eclipse by Media ends a 5 year war which is otherwise evenly matched. 615 DGRBM 1-908 585 DGRBM 1-134, anan, hifi
585 May Peace between ALYATTES king of Lydia and and CYAXARES of Media mediated by Syennesis king of Cilicia, establishes HALYS River as boundary between them.  A son of Cyaxares marries a dau of Alyattes. 585 B76 III-318, 1-822, 9-833,
BI+N 89, 97, CAH 3.3-512, IV-86, DGRBM 1-134, IDB 1-627, ISBE 3-298, LEWH 53, MCAW 82, RAH 111, RAI2 317, bk, lvA
585 PAPHLAGONIA, partly under Lydia from 626, conquered by Alyattes king of Lydia.  Under Lydia until 546. 585 hifi
c.580 PYTHAGORAS tyrant of Ephesus from 590, ends.  MELAS-II succeeds until 570. 580 rcT
c.580 PITTACOS, ruler of Mytilene Lesbos from 590, abdicates. 580 B76 8-345   560 bk
c.576 PHOCAEA Ionia becomes dominant in Aegean. 576 GHH
c.570 MIDAS-V king of Phrygia from 590 ends.  GORDIOS-V succeeds until 546. 570 hifi, rcT
c.570 MELAS-II tyrant of Ephesus from 580, ends.  PINDAROS succeeds until 550, independent until 560. 570 rcT
c.570 EPHESUS, under tyrants from 590, comes under Lydia until 546.  PINDAROS is tyrant of Ephesus 570-50. 570 rcT
c.570 PITTACOS, former ruler of Mytilene Lesbos 590-80, dies. 580 DGRBM 569 GHH
c.560 ABYDOS Mysia, founded 756, refounded by Miletian Greeks. 560 Dur 2-156
c.560 SMYRNA, abandoned from 600, taken by Alyattes-II, comes under Lydia until 546. 590 B76 1-822 560 rcT
c.560 Son of Sadyattes-II, ALYATTES-II dies.  King of Lydia from 610.  Son age 35, CROESUS, succeeds to 546. 575 anan     570 mxfld     564 rcT     561 RAI3, TToH
561/0 DGRBM 1-134     560 B76 I-285, III-250, 1-822, CAH 4-86, DGRBM 1-896, Dur 2-711, GHH, GRG 329, IDB 2-115, 3-191, ISBE 3-191, MCAW 89, MRDK, OCD 49, OHG 35, RAH 112, RAI2, Sdl 5-11, SHWC 38, anan, bk, hifi, lvA, wikL
c.560 PANTALEON, son of Alyattes-II and a Greek woman, rebels against Croesus. 560 lvA
c.560 HERACLEA PONTICA, in Bithynia on Black Sea, founded by Greeks of Megara, Boeotia, and Miletos. 560 B76 III-939, CAH 3.3-161, OCD 498     559 DGRBM, GHH 560/58 GRG 326
c.560 2nd Λ TEMPLE of ARTEMIS at Ephesus, having been damaged by flood, reconstruction begun until 550 under Cretan architect Chersiphron and his son Metagenes.  Partly financed by Croesus. 590 Dur 2-66     560 GRG 324 550 wikToA     540 Dur 2-143
c.560 BITHYNIA taken by Croesus, king of Lydia. 560 GHH
c.560 EPHESUS besieged by Croesus.  Strange, because Pindarus tyrant of Ephesus, is son of Croesus' sister and former pro-Lydian tyrant, Melas.  The Ephesians run a rope from their walls to the temple of Artemis, putting the town under Artemis" protection.  The temple is destroyed, but the conflict is settled amicably. 560 ISBE 2-116, lvA
555 bk
c.560 CROESUS king of LYDIA begins subjugating Ionia until 546. 560 Dur 2-141, lvA
c.560 CYZICUS independent Miletian colony from 756, comes under Lydia until 546. 560 rcT
c.557 APPUASU, king of Pirindu in west Cilicia, marches into east Cilicia. Nergalsurusur yr 3 SOTS 238
c.557 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR, king of Babylon 560-56, expecting attack by Astyages, goes to Syria, crosses Taurus Mts. into Cilicia, chases Appuasu beyond Lamos River. 557 MCAW 88, Sag1 144, hifi
yr 3 SOTS 238
c.557 PITUSU Island (off Cilicia) conquered by Nergal-shar-usur, king of Babylon 560-56, under Babylonians until ?. yr 3 SOTS 238
c.556 NERGAL-SHAR-USUR, king of Babylon 560-56, seriously defeated in Cilicia by Astyages king of Media 585-50, returns to Babylon. 556 Sag1 144, SOTS 238
c.555 NABONIDUS, king of Babylon 556-39, marches thru Cilicia without opposition. 555 lvA
c.554 CLAZOMENAE Ionia taken by Croesus, king of Lydia 560-46. no date: OCD 248
c.550 BIAS of Priene, historian, flourishes. 552 GHH     543 GHH

ANAXIMANDER of Miletos, pupil of Thales, 1st map maker, flourishes.  Writes 1st philosophic prose treatise.

1st thinker to develop a COSMOLOGY V, and to propose GEOCENTRIC THEORY:  Earth is a ball in the center of the universe.
1st known MAP V of the earth known to the Ionians made by Anaximander of Miletos.  Made on a cylinder, which indicates that he knew the Λ Earth is curved.  (see Pythagoreans 520)

COSMOGONY V:  In the beginning was the infinite (unlimited non-perceptible stuff), which was divine eternal oneness, subject to neither old age nor decay.  First hot and cold separated from the infinite.  Cold formed a moist mass in the center.  Hot formed a sphere of fire around it.  Cold hardened into earth.  Hot separated into air, sun, moon, and stars.
(See Anaximenes 545, Anaxagoras 450, Hippo 450)

Λ ASTRONOMY: Says the sun (a hole in the vapor) and the moon go under the Earth.  Stars are closer to earth than the sun.
(See Thales 600, nova 532, Cleostratos 520)

EVOLUTION proposed in  On Nature .  Animals and man are a result of transmutation.  Slime was first.  Drier things next.  Man comes from aquatic animals.
580 higrd
570 MCAW 83
568 GHH
570-50 OHG
550 B76 I-345, TTT
548 GHH
546 B76 I-345, OCD 61-2
KPHP 7, MNDQ 365
520-11 TTS
no date:
Dur 2-138
c.550 SUNDIAL improved by Anaximander.
(See Egypt 800, Greece 550, China 595)
562 GHH     550 KPHP 7
c.550 CADMOS writes a chronicle of Miletos. 550 Dur 2-140
c.550 PONTUS comes loosely under Persian satraps until 337. 550 rcT
546 ISBE 3-903
c.550 Anti-Persian policy among Sparta, Lydia, Babylonia, Egypt, & others. 550 CAH 3
no date: lvA
c.550 PINDAROS tyrant of Ephesus from 570, under Lydia from 560, ends.  MELAS-III succeeds until 545, under Lydia until 546. 550 rcT
c.550 2nd TEMPLE of ARTEMIS at Ephesus, begun 560, finished.  Lasts until 356. 550 B76 I-551, MCAW 91 540 wikToA
c.550 HERMOTIMOS of Clazomenae flourishes.  Proposes that mind is the fundamental cause of all change. 6th cen: wikHrm
no date:
DGRBM 2-423
c.550 Sculptor BATHYCLES of Magnesia (on the Maeander) flourishes.  He is commissioned by Spartans to make a marble throne for the statue of Apollo at Amyclae. 550 wikBθ
c.547 CROESUS king of Lydia 560-46 subjugating Ionia from 560, finishes, forces all Ionian Greeks to pay him tribute, except Miletus, which had been granted special status by Alyattes. 547
Dur 2-66
c.547 CROESUS king of Lydia 560-46, allied with Egypt, Babylonia, and Sparta, crosses Halys River into Medo-Persian Cappadocia, captures Pteria in north Cappadocia. 547 B76 1-822, 9-833, Sdl 5-11, SOTS 242     546 CAH 4-9
c.547 THALES of Miletos changes course of Halys river to facilitate crossing by Croesus. 547 lvA
c.547 CYRUS-II, king of Medo-Persia 550-30, in Syria, crosses Euphrates into Cappadocia.  Median general HARPAGUS is dispatched to do some independent conquering. 547 SOTS 242, CAH 4-8, anan, hifi
c.547 CROESUS and CYRUS have indecisive battle near Pteria in north Cappadocia.  Croesus returns to Sardis. 547 B76 9-833, RAI2 321, SOTS 239, 242     546 CAH 4-9, IDB 2-115     544 bk
c.547 CYRUS crosses the Halys into Lydia. 547 ISBE 1-846
c.547 CYRUS decisively defeats CROESUS despite being outnumbered 2:1 (cavalry 6:1 according to Xenophon) at Thymbra north of Sardis. 547 lvA, wikTmb
c.547 CAMELS:  Learning from one of his generals that Lydian horses feared camels, CYRUS uses his baggage dromedaries in a military operation at Thymbra, but not as cavalry.
(See Qarqar 853, Egypt 525)
547 wikCC
c.546 CAPPADOCIA, under Babylon from 609, conquered by CYRUS-II, comes under Medo-Persia until 333. 547 lvA 546 rcT
c.546 CROESUS and CYRUS-II fight an indecisive battle.  Croesus returns to Sardis. 546 DGRBM 1-897
c.546 CROESUS sends envoys bound for Sparta, Egypt, and Babylon requesting help 5 months later.  Meanwhile, he stupidly disbands his mercenaries. 546 DGRBM 1-897
c.546 CROESUS king of Lydia 560-46 besieged in Sardis by CYRUS-II. 547 Sag1 150     546 B76 9-833, FLAP 194, GRG 33, Shaw 373
544 B76 8-347
c.546 ASPENDOS Pamphilia comes under Medo-Persia until 465.  It continues to mint its own coins. 546 wikAsp
c.546 SARDIS taken by CYRUS-IISon of Alyattes-II, CROESUS ends.  King of Lydia from 560, captured.  Sardis and all Lydia, dominant in west Anatolia from 676, comes under Medo-Persia until 334. 547 ISBE 3-778, LEWH 50, MRDK, RAI2, RAI3, Sag1 150, LEWH 53, WPOT 316, hifi, wikL     546 B76 III-250, 1-822, 8-309, 9-833, 11-989, BI+N 98, CAH 3.3, 4-86, DGRBM 1-921, 953, Dur 2-141, FLAP 194, GHH, GRG 33, HAG, IDB 3-191, ISBE 3-191, 4-336, Jud 4-34, 5-1184, OCD 299, OHG 35, RAH 112, Sdl 5-11, Shaw 373, SHWC 38, TToH, WBH 21, anan, vrb, mxfld, rcT, wikL     546/5 BHoE 593
MERMNAD DYNASTY ends.  Began in Lydia 716.
LYDIA comes under Medo-Persia until 334.
c.546 GORDIOS-V king of Phrygia from 570 ends.
PHRYGIA, independent from 590, falls to Medo-Persia until 334.
546 hifi, rcT
c.546 TABALUS becomes satrap of Sardis until 545. 546 lvA
c.546 Lydian PACTYAS appointed tax collector of Lydia by Cyrus.  He is under authority of Tabalus 546 DGRBM 3-81
c.546 PAMPHYLIA, under Lydia from 600, comes under Persia until 467. 546 rcT
c.546 PAPHLAGONIA, under Lydia from 585, technically comes under Persia until 334, but is not subdued because of its barbarity. 547 hifi 546 rcT
c.546 CILICIA, under Babylonia from 609, under vassal king Appasu from ?, comes under Medo-Persians until 401. 549-39 hifi     547 B76 1-824
546 lvA     by 539 rcT
c.546 CYZICUS under Lydia from 560, comes under Persia until 478. 546 rcT     546 or 540 B76 III-333
c.546 COMMAGENE, under Babylonia from 609, comes under Medo-Persians until 322. 546 rcT
c.546 Northwest Anatolia, under Lydia from 700, becomes a Medo-Persian satrapy until 480. 546 hifi
c.546 PERGAMUM, under Lydia from 700, comes under Medo-Persians until 334. 546 rcT
c.546 PHOCAEA Ionia besieged by Medo-Persians.  Most citizens leave.  Phocaea destroyed including the temple of Athena. 546 GRG 177
c.546 CARIA, conquered by Persian general Harpagus of Media.  Under Persia until 499. 546 CDCC 164, hifi
c.546 LYCIA, independent from 1200, conquered by Persian general Harpagus of Media.  Under Persia until 468. 546 hifi, rcT, wikLc 540 CDCC 533
c.546 SMYRNA, under Lydia from 560, comes under Persia until 498. 546 rcT
c.546 KNIDOS, under Spartans from 900, submits to Medo-Persians until 479. 546 OCD 257, B76 II-1015
c.546 EPHESUS, under Lydia from 570, comes under Persia until 498.  MELAS-III remains tyrant 580-45. 546 ISBE 2-116, rcT
c.546 Hundreds of Ionic artists migrate to Attica, introduce Ionic style to Athens. 546 Dur 2-226
c.546 TROY (level 8 700-200) under Aetolians from 900, comes under Persia until 410. 546 rcT
c.546 THALES of Miletos dies.  Philosopher, statesman, geometrician.  Probably wrote nothing. 548 BHM 45     548-5 B76 IX-919
546 CMoG3 181, MCAW 75, SHT 1-105
c.546 All ANATOLIA comes under Medo-Persia directly or indirectly until 333. 546 B76 1-823
c.546 CROESUS taken to Susa, becomes advisor to Cyrus-II according to Herodotus. No, he was killed 547 lvG
546 BI+N 98, bk
c.546 CYRUS-II, king of king of Medo-Persia 550-30, in Anatolia 546, returns eastward 547 Sag1 150
546 SOTS 239, 242
c.546/5 Lydian PACTYAS, tax collector of Lydia for Cyrus 546, rebels against Persian governor Tabalus 546/5 DGRBM 3-81
c.545 ANAXIMENES of Miletos, philosopher flourishes.

Λ METAPHYSICS V:  Says Λ UNIVERSAL SUBSTRATUM V is air V.  Rarified air becomes fire.  Condensed air becomes clouds, water, earth, stone.  Air is alive, eternally in motion, the source of matter and gods.  (See Diogenes 440)

Λ COSMOLOGY:  Sun, moon, stars now exist in a crystaline hemisphere over Earth.  They go around (not under) the Earth.  A rainbow is not a goddess, but the effect of sun rays on compacted air.

Λ COSMOGONY:  Earth was formed first (a flat surface floating on air).  Sun, moon, stars (also flat) were exhaled from Earth, giving off moisture that rarified into fire.
(See Anaximander 550, Anaxagoras 450, Hippo 450)
560 higrd
552 GHH
550 OHG
OCD 62
B76 I-346, CAH 3.3, CDΦ 25
Dur 2-66, EoΦ 1-119
c.545 IONIA conquered (except for Miletos) by HARPAGOS, general of Cyrus-II.  Under Persia until 479.  Cities treated as separate political units, and put under pro-Persian Greek tyrants. 545 Dur 2-66, OHG
543 CAH 4-86
by 540 B76 8-347
no date: LEWH 63
c.545 MELAS-III tyrant of Ephesus from 580, under Persia from 546, ends.  ARISTARCHUS succeeds until 540. 545 rcT
c.545 XANTHOS, main city of Lycia, resists HARPAGOS by self immolation of its population. 545 CDCC 956
c.545 Lydian PACTYAS, rebeling against Cyrus, goes south on Lydian coast encouraging rebellion, besieges governor Tabalus in the citadel of Sardis.  no date: DGRBM 3-81
c.545 Mede MAZARES sent to Lydia by Cyrus-II to keep Lydians subdued, and to bring rebel Pactyas back as prisoner. 545 DGRBM 2-1003, 3-81,
c.545 Lydian PACTYAS, besieging Tabalus in Sardis, flees to Cume Aeolia. no date: DGRBM 3-81
c.545 TABALUS satrap of Sardis from 546, ends.  MAZARES succeeds until 544. 545 lvA
c.545 MAZARES satrap of Sardis, sends messenger to Cume Aeolia demanding surrender of Pactyas.  Cumeans ask oracle of Apollo at Branchidae what to do.  Oracle says Deliver Pactyas over.  Cumeans don't want to, so they send Pactyas to Mytilene, which decides to deliver Pactyas over.  So the Cumeans send him to Chios island.  The Chians deliver Pactyas over to the Persians.  Pactyas disappears from history. 545 DGRBM 3-81
c.545 XENOPHANES of Colophon, age 25, leaves Ionia and lives in exile for at least 67 years. 546 B76 X-780
soon after 546 EoΦ 8-353
545 GRG 324, OCD 1141
530 CAH IV-97
c.545 TEOS, Ionia:  Many citizens, including poet/musician ANACREON, move to Abdera, Thrace to escape Persians. 545 GRG 327, OCD 57
c.544 HIPPONAX, poet of Ephesus and later Clazomenae, low class raunchy iambic poet and social critic, flourishes. 544 Dur 2-66     543 GHH
by 540 OHG     540 CAH 3.3
c.544 PHOCAEA on coast of Ionia besieged by Harpagos.  Inhabitants collect all small statues and votive offerings from temples, and flee to Chios island.  They leave only paintings and things not easily moved. 544
DGRA 901
c.544 MAZARES satrap of Sardis from 545, ends.  HARPAGOS succeeds until 535. 544 lvA
c.540 Persians attack Phocaea on coast of Ionia.  Phocaeans withdraw by sea, mostly to Corsica. 540
B76 8-346
by 540 All IONIA is under Medo-Persia until 479. by 540 B76 8-347
c.540 ARISTARCHUS tyrant of Ephesus under Persia from 545, ends. 540 rcT
c.539 MELITENE under Babylonia from 609, comes under Persia until 333. 539 rcT
c.535 HARPAGOS satrap of Sardis from 545, ends.  OROETOS succeeds until 520. pre 530 lvA
c.522 OROETES, Medo-Persian satrap of Lydia at Sardis, sends message to Polycrates, pirate/tyrant of Samos.  Says he plans to rebel against Cambyses-II, offers money for naval support. 522
CAH 4-91
c.522 Tunnel of Eupalinos TUNNEL of EUPALINOS, fresh Water tunnel 1,036m long built by Polycrates of Samos to bring water to city of Samos.  Its height & width are 7 to 8 feet, masonry lined, mostly cut thru limestone, ventilated by about 20 shafts. photo Moumouza

c.522 POLYCRATES dies.  Tyrant of Samos from 540, accepts invitation of Oroetes, satrap of Sardis, to a conference on mainland.  He leaves Menandrius (Maeandrios) in charge of Samos, sails to Ionia, and is crucified by Oroetes. 524/3 CAH 3.3     522 B76 8-347, CAH 4, CDCC 780, DGRBM 2-890, 3-57, GRG 324, MCAW 96, OCD 327, bk, rcAg
515 Dur 2-66
c.520 Persian noble BAGAEOS sent by Darius to Sardis, with orders to execute satrap OROETES, and replace him.  He first approaches several minor officers, who respond reverently. 520 DGRBM 1-453
c.520 OROETES satrap of Lydia at Sardis from 535, executed by order of Darius.  BAGAEOS succeeds until ?. 521 bk     520 lvA 519 CAH 4
Persian Empire
Provinces of Medo-Persian Empire at its peak c.520. History of Persia
c.516 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, moves against the Helespont. 516 B76 9-834
c.514 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, having reconnoitered Greece and Scythia, prepares to conquer Europe. 516 CAH 4-96
514 B76 8-309
c.513 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, moves 7-800,000 troops across Bosphorus Strait into Thrace on bridge of boats to cut off supplies to Greece, e.g. Balkan timber, Scythian grain.
Builds altar to Zeus Diabaterios, and pays homage to Apollo, whom he considers a Greek approximation of Ahura Mazda.
516 CAH 4-96, Sdl 5-126
514 OHG 35
513 DBANE 77-8,
SOTS 245
512 Dur 2-234,
c.513 OTANES satrap of Lydia at Sardis from ?, ends.  ARTAPHERNES-I succeeds until 492. 513 lvA
c.512 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, in Europe from 513, crosses back into Anatolia, stays at Sardis. no date: SOTS 245
c.511 HISTIAEUS, tyrant of Miletos from ?, vassal of Darius-I, relieved and sent to Susa by Darius, who appoints his son-in-law ARISTAGORAS successor until ?. 511 MCAW 100
no date:
OCD 520
c.510 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, has likely not even heard of Greece. 510
Dur 2-234
c.508 HIPPIAS, former tyrant of Athens 528-10, made tyrant of Sigeum until ?, by Darius-I. no date: LEWH 66
c.506 CHALCEDON under Megarian Greeks from 685, taken by OTANES, Persian commander in Aegean.  Under Persians until ?. 506
DGRBM 3-65
c.506 HIPPIAS, tyrant of Sigeum, flees to Artaphernes-I, Persian satrap at Sardis. 506 Dur 2-234
c.505 DARIUS-I king of Medo-Persia 522-486, Babylon 521-486, leaves ARTAPHERNES satrap of Sardis, returns to Susa.  Peace in Anatolia 505-00. 505 DGRBM 1-942
c.505 Athens petitions Artaphernes-I satrap of Lydia, for help against SpartaArtaphernes-I promises help only if Athens will become vassal to Darius-I 505
DGRG 1-369

Anatolia 500-334