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c. 100 MELEAGER of Gadara, poet and first collector of Greek anthology, flourishes on Cos island, publishes  Garland , an anthology of epigrams (now lost) of 46 Greek poets, the prototype for the Greek Anthology. 100 OHG 409 92 GHH
by 60 wikMG
c. 100 Delos2 Jews are murdered on Delos, and buried in a Jewish cemetery.  Both grave stones have this prayer:  "I invoke and beseech the most high God, the Lord of spirits, and of all flesh, against those who by stealth have slain or poisoned the young unfortunate Heraclius [or Martin], spilling his innocent blood.  May it happen even so to his murderers and their children.  Master whose all is, and you angels of God, to you before whom all all flesh humbles itself on this day in supplication, avenge the innocent blood;  avenge it speedily." 100 IDB 1-316
c.96 Ptolemy-IX Lathyrus, king of Cyprus 107-88, sends for his 4th bro DEMETRIUS-III to come from Knidos Caria. Ant 13:13:4
c.96 Son of Antiochus-VIII Grypus, DEMETRIUS-III, now on Cyprus, disputes throne of Syria with Antiochus-IX, sails to Phoenicia, siezes Damascus. Ant 13:13:4
96 B76 III-457 95 LEWH 95
c.95 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher in Athens from ?, moves to Rhodes until 87. 95 wikPs
c.90 DIONYSIUS THRAX, grammar & literature teacher at Rhodes, flourishes. 90 OCD 352
c.88 COS island taken by Mith-VI Eupator of PontusSons of P-X, P-XI ALEXANDER-II and P-XII DIONYSIUS AULETES, on Cos Island from 103, are delivered to Mith-VI, taken to Pontus. 88 B76 VIII-282, CAH 9-147, 316, DGRBM 3-597, atl1, lvPt11
88 Fleet under Minucius Felix and Popillius Laenas at Byzantium learns of Pontic victories, disperses, giving 400 Pontic ships free passage into the Propontis and Aegean. 88 CAH 9-146
88 fall RHODES, anticipating Pontic siege, strengthens walls, constructs artillery, and calls in aid from Lycians and Telmessians. 88 CAH 9-149
c.88 SAMOS, under Rome from ?, asserts autonomy. 88 B76 VIII-833
88 fall RHODES defeats fleet of Mith-VI of Pontus but is besieged by him.  Rhodians repel the besiegers.  Mith-VI then besieges Patara and turns the siege over to his generals, while he recruits more troops, makes arms, and enjoys his Stratonicean wife, until he is forced to withdraw. 88 B76 12-288, CAH 9-145, atl1, wikKPn
c.88 Chiot ships collide with Mith-6's flagship at the siege of Rhodes.  Some Chiots flee to Sulla. 88 CAH 9-159
c.88 ZENOBIUS, general of Mith-6 disarms Chiot citizens and sends children of the most prominent to Erythrae as hostages.  Zenobius imposes a fine of 2,000 talents. Chiots collect temple ornaments and jewelry and pay up, but are accused of delivering short.  Chiot men, women and children are deported by ship to Mith-6' power base on the Black Sea. no date: CAH 9-159
c.88 CHIOS island, under Rome from 168, comes under Pontus until 85. 88 rcAg
c.88 Q. Brutius SURA, legate of C. Sentius Saturninus defeats Metrophanes, general of Mith-VI of Pontus at sea. 88 DGRBM 3-947
c.88 P. Rutilius Rufus escapes from Mytilene Lesbos to Smyrna. 88 CAH 9-145, atl1 '  
c.88 Q. Brutius SURA, legate of C. Sentius Saturninus takes island of Sciathus, where Metrophanes had deposited plunder, then goes to Boeotia. 88 DGRBM 3-947
88 At Byzantium a fleet is posted under Minucius Felix and Popillius Laenas to hold the key to the Black Sea.  Pontic fleet has 300 decked ships plus 100 with 2 banks of oars. 88 CAH 9-145
88 HERACLEA PONTICA sends warships to help Roman fleet. 88 atl1 '  
88 Fleet under Minucius Felix and Popillius Laenas at Byzantium learns of victories of pontus, disperses, giving 400 Pontic ships free passage into the Propontis and Aegean. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, sends part of his fleet to Piraeus, but a contingent under Metrophanes splits from it after Delos, destined for ports of central Greece. 88 CAH 9-151
c.88 DelosDELOS, free port 166-?, slave trade center of Rome, sacked by Pontic generals Archelaus and Menophanes aided by Athenians, never recovers.  It comes under Athens. 88 B76 III-452, OCD 321, wikKPn
87 B76 12-340
c.88 DELOS taken by a Pontic general, who steals the temple treasure. 88 MCAW 241
88 COS Island taken by a Pontic general, under Pontus until 86/5. 86/5 CAH 9-147
c.88 C. CASSIUS, governor of Asia, retreats to Rhodes. 88 CAH 9-146
c.88 2nd son of P-8 Physcon & Cleo-3 Ptolemy-X ALEXANDER-I dies.  King of Egypt 110-09, from 107, killed at sea near Cyprus.  Ptolemy-IX Soter-II Lathyrus returns from Cyprus and is restored until 81. 89 MCAW 240     88 B76 VIII-281, CAH 9-387, DMoN, GEoP, GHH, JIAE, Jud 2-589, LEWH 97, Murn, Shaw, anan, rcE, wikP, wikPX     87 atl1
murdered by P-9. 88 B76 8-386
expelled again, killed trying to raid Lycian coast. 88 B76 VIII-282
c.88 CYCLADES reduced by Pontic general Archelaus. 88 OCD 304
c.88 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Rome from 168, comes under Pontus until 86. 88 rcAg
c.88 ARCHELAUS, general of Mith-VI, sends part of his fleet to Piraeus, but a contingent under Metrophanes split from it after Delos, destined for ports of central Greece. 88 CAH 9-151
c.88 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Rome from 168, comes under Pontus until 86. 88 rcAg
c.87/6 winter Quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS sent by Sulla with 6 ships from Attica to collect help from Roman allies.  He starts with Crete, wins over cities to Roman side, then goes to Cyrene. 87 CAH 9-153, DGRBM 3-596 87/6 DGRBM 2-832     86 atl1
c.86 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS with 6 ships sails from Egypt to Cyprus, then Rhodes.  Rhodians give him more ships.  Near Rhodes, Lucullus' fleet defeats a Pontic fleet. 86 wikL
c.86 CHIOS island is sacked by Zenobius, general of Mith-VI of Pontus  Inhabitants deported to Pontus. 86 CDCC 188, OCD 230, atl1
c.86 Pontic admiral ARCHELAUS loots coastal areas and sails to Chalcis Euboea. 86 atl1
c.86 NAXOS Island, independent from 220, comes under Rome until 395CE. 86 rcAg
c.86 SPORADES islands (including Alonnisos, Skiathos, Skopelos, and Skyros) come under Rome until 395CE. 86 rcAg
c.86 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher residing mainly in Rhodes 95-51, anti-Marius, sent as ambassador to Rome. 87 GHH     86 DGRBM 3-507
c.86 ANTIPATROS Island in Cyclades, under Pontus from 88, back under Rome until 395CE. 86 rcAg
c.86 PAROS Island in Cyclades, under Pontus from 88, comes under Rome until 395CE. 86 rcAg
c.86 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS sails from Rhodes, to Knidos and Cos. no date: wikL
86/5 COS Island and KNIDOS, under Mith-VI from 88, on appearance of Lucullus' fleet, defect to Romans. 86/5 CAH 9-160
c.85 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS drives the Pontians from Chios, then goes to Samos. no date: wikL
c.85 CHIOS island, under Pontus from 88, comes under Rome until 395CE. 85 rcAg
c.85 RHODES is rewarded for resisting Mith-VI of Pontus. 85 CAH 9-162
c.85 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS sails from Samos, defeatsPontians off Cape Lecton. no date: wikL
c.85 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS defeats sails from Cape Lecton to Tenedos, where he defeats Mithridatic admiral Neoptolemus. 85 atl1
no date: wikL
c.85 Sullan quaestor L.(4) Licinius LUCULLUS attacks Samos.  From there he works his way north. no date: wikL
85 PIRATE ATTACKS increase in Aegean and Anatolia during war against Mith-VI. 85 atl1
84 SAMOS united with the province of Asia. 84 DGRG 2-898
83 Seleucid kingdom ends.  Mediterranean coast taken over by pirates. 83 anan
82 Populare C. NORBANUS dies.  Flees from Italy to Rhodes.  Suicides to escape extradition. 82 DGRBM 1-612, 2-1210, OCD 738
c.81 MYTILENE Lesbos remains defiant against Romans until 80. 81 CAH 9-163
81 Rhodian ambassador APOLLONIUS MOLON is sent to Rome. 81 DGRG 1-576
c. 81 /0 Ptolemy-IX SOTER-II LATHYRUS dies.  King of Egypt 109-07, ruler of Cyprus from 107, Egypt again from 88, dies leaving only dau (and also wife) Cleo BERENICE-III to succeed as regent for 6 months until 80 for P-XI Alexander-II or? P-XII Neos Dionysos. 81 B76 VIII-282, 6-483, 8-386, CAH 9-318, DGRBM 1-483, 3-596, GEoP, atl1, ktut, lvCB3, nar, pic, wikB3
80 CAH 9-388, DMoN, ISBE 3-1050, Jud 13-1349, Murn, Shaw, anan, frH, lvPt12, pic, rcE, treg, wikP
c.80 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher residing mainly in Rhodes 95-51, writes  The History .  52 volumes, takes up where Polybius left off: 146-88. no date: B76 VIII-149
c.80 MYTILENE Lesbos besieged by M. Minucius Thermus.  C.(4) Julius Caesar participates, and saves the life of a comerade.  Mytilene falls, and is sacked. 80 CAH 9-163, DGRBM 1-540, GHH, MCAW 244, atl1
c.80 THASOS Island comes under Rome until 395CE. 80 rcAg
c.80 CHIOS island, retain full freedom and rights by senate decree. 80 atl1,
c.80 MELEAGER of Gadara on Cos Island compiles  Garland , a Greek anthology.  1st large critical selection of poetic epigrams, contains @100 of his poems, mostly about love.  "Strike while the iron is hot." 80 OCD 67 no date: OCD 667
c.80 Ptolemy-X AULETES of Egypt is compelled to relinquish Cyprus, which goes to his younger bro Ptolemy (otherwise unnamed), who unfortunately neglects to ask Rome to confirm his sovereignty, but rules anyway until 58. 80 DGRBM 3-581, GHH
78 M. Tullius CICERO, in Asia from 78, goes to Rhodes until 77, attends schools of rhetorician Apollonius Molon and Stoic philosopher POSIDONIUS of Apamea.  Servius Sulpicius Lemonia Rufus accompanies. 78 B76 VIII-149, 14-540, DGRBM 1-709, 3-946, IDB 4-444, OCD 868, wikSSR     77 atl1
no date: OCD 234
c.77 P. Servilius Vatia defeats pirates at sea and clears Lycia and Pamphylia. 77 lvA
77 M. Tullius CICERO, in Rhodes from 78, returns to Italy. 77 CDCC 198, DGRBM 1-709, OCD 234, atl1
c.75 C.(4) Julius CAESAR wants to learn oratory and rhetoric.  The best teacher, Apollonius Molon, is on Rhodes, so he sails from Italy for Rhodes, and is away until 74. 76 DGRBM 1-540, sjsu, MCAW 245, 75 Dur 3-167, vrm, wikELJC
75 Feb C.(4) Julius CAESAR, in Italy from 78, sails for Rhodes, captured by Cilician pirates near the Dodecanese islet of Pharmacusa, taken to Pharmacusa until 38 days later.  When the pirates decide to demand a ransom of 20 talents gold, Caesar insists they ask for 50. 79 lvA     76 MCAW 245, sjsu     75 CDCC 478, Dur 3-167, atl1, ttjc, vrm, wikELJC
no date: B76 3-576
75 C.(4) Julius CAESAR raises a fleet at Miletus, pursues and captures the pirates, and imprisons them in Pergamum.  M. Junctus, governor of Asia, refuses to execute them as Caesar demands, preferring to sell them as slaves.  Caesar returns to the coast and has them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity - a promise the pirates had taken as a joke.  Just to be nice, he first has their throats cut.  Caesar then proceeds to Rhodes until 74. 75 DGRBM 1-540, OCD 189, ttjc, wikELJC
74 atl1
75 M.(4) Antonius becomes fleet commander in Mediterranean with orders to clear out pirates. 75 LdHR 376
74 M.(4) Antonius, fleet commander in Mediterranean 74-2, sails from Sicily, defeated by pirates, of Cydonia Crete. 74 OCD 298
73 C.(4) Julius CAESAR, in east from 74, on Rhodes, takes rhetoric lessons from Apollonius Molon, learns of war with Mith-VI of Pontus, returns to Rome. 74 DGRBM 1-540, atl1
73 CDCC 479
c.72 LAMPSACUS, under Pontic troops from ?, no longer soLucullus destroys squadrons left to block his passage thru the Hellespont, off Lemnos. 72 CAH 9-236
c.72 Legates C. Valerius Triarius and Barba sail thru the Propontis and rapidly capture Bithynian cities Apamea, Prusa, Nicaea, and Prusias-Cierus between Apamea and Nicaea. 72 CAH 9-236, atl1
72 Sertorian M. VARIUS (Marius) dies.  He is put in charge of part of Mith-VI's fleet, but is defeated and killed in sea battles off Tenedos and Lemnos. 72 atl1
72 M.(4) Antonius fleet commander in Mediterranean 74-2, attacks Crete for supporting Mith-VI of Pontus and pirates.  Antonius is defeated. 72 CAH 9-356, atl1     71 atl1
71/0 CAH 9-249
72 Son of M.A. d.87, M.(4) Antonius dies in Crete.  He is sarcastically named CRETICUS in Rome. 72 OCD 76     72/1 lvA
no date: CAH 9-355, DGRBM 1-214
70 Cretans send embassy to Rome, to ask for peace terms.  Senate says one condition is that the Cretans surrender the rebel leaders Lasthenes and Panares.  Cretans reject terms. 70 DGRBM 2-722
69 atl1
70 GEMINUS of Rhodes writes  Introduction to the Phenomena .  Based on earlier astronomers such as Hipparchus.  Describes astronomical systems as mathematical constructs rather than physical realities.  Describes the zodiac and motion of the Sun, constellations, celestial sphere, days and nights, risings and settings of zodiacal signs, luni-solar periods and their application to calendars, phases of the Moon, eclipses, star phases, terrestrial zones and geographical places, and the foolishness of making weather predictions by the stars.  Still survives. 70 TTS no date: wikG
c.69 Pirates increase attacks thruout Mediterranean, and coasts of Aegean. 69 atl1
c.69 Pirate chief Athenodorus devastates Delos, but C. Valerius Triarius restores its facilities. 69 atl1
c.69 Roman War with Crete begins. 69 GHH
c.69 Praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS defeats Lasthenes and Panares, and besieges Cydonia on N. coast of Crete. 69 atl1
c.69 DelosDELOS Island, under Rome from 166, Roman naval center from ?, attacked by pirates allied with Mith-VI of Pontus, inhabitants enslaved.  Delos under pirates until 42. 69 B76 III-452, OCD 321, rcAg
c.68 CRETE, a nest of pirates, comes under Rome, but not fully conquered until 67 68 TToH, TTPC 31
c.68 Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS sent from Rome with 3 legions to be proconsul of Crete until 67 to deal with pirates.  Cretan leaders Lasthenes and Panares assemble 24,000 troops, and resist Romans for 3 years.  Gn. Plancius serves under him. 68 CAH 9-249, DGRBM 2-722, 1064, 3-382, OCD 678     67 GHH
lvA no date: LEWH 107
c.68 Praetor L.(7) Cęcilius METELLUS captures Cydonia and Knossus in Crete. 68 atl1
67 M. TERENTIUS VARRO serves under Pompey in Mediterranean. 67 B76 X-362
c.67 Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS captures Lappa and Eleutherna, and ruthlessly subjugates rest of Crete. 67 atl1
c.67 Gn. Plancius, Nasennius, and L. Valerius Flaccus serve under Metellus in Greece and Crete. 67 atl1
c.67 CRETE, a nest of pirates, conquered by Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS with unnecessary brutality.  Attached to province of Cyrenaica until 62. 68 LEWH 107     68/7 B76 III-328, OCD 298     67 B76 VI-836, 5-253, CAH 9-375, 11-660, DGRG 1-704, GHH, ISBE 1-814, 845, MCAW 248, OCD 307, TTPC 31, bk, lvA
c.67 Legate L.(2) OCTAVIUS sent by Pompey from Rome to receive surrender of Cretan towns, and to succeed Q.(7) Caecilius Metellus, who ignores him.  Cretans try to surrender to Pompey, but Metellus asserts his authority over Crete. 67 DGRBM 2-1064, 3-9, atl1
c.67 Gn.(3) Calpurnius PISO, legate of Pompey commands a division of the fleet at the Hellespont. 67 DGRBM 3-375
c.67 Legate L. CORNELIUS SISENNA sent by Pompey from Greece with some troops to Crete.  Q.(7) Caecilius Metellus ignores him, and continues to attack and subdue the towns, but the inhabitants are encouraged to resist him by legates of Pompey.  Sisenna soon dies in Crete. 67 DGRBM 2-1064, 3-841
c.67 Legate of Pompey L.(2) OCTAVIUS is captured by Metellus at Lappa, and dismissed with contempt.  He now takes over troops of Sisenna, and fights on the Cretan side against Metellus.  Octavius' troops desert and leave.  Octavius takes refuge with Aristion in Cretan town of Hierapytna. 67 DGRBM 2-1064
c.67 Cretan leaders LASTHENES and PANARES, deserted by Octavius, surrender to Metellus. 67 DGRBM 2-1064
c.67 POMPEY, commander of Mediterranean, goes from Athens to Rhodes. 67 atl1
c.67 POMPEY tries to replace Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS in Crete under Lex Gabinius 67.  Metellus, having equal imperium, flips Pompey off. 67 B76 VI-836, CAH 9-250, OCD 678
c.67 POMPEY goes from Rhodes to Cilicia. 67 atl1
c.67 POMPEY, commander of Mediterranean, defeats pirates in east, besieges their fortress Coracesium Cilicia 67 B76 14-793, CAH 9-250, 374, SHWC, bk
c.67 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher residing mainly in Rhodes 95-51, visited by Pompey. 67 DGRBM 3-507
c.67 CRETE organized as a province by Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS, attached to senatorial province of Cyrenaica.  Cyrene is capital. 66 atl1
c.67 Q.(7) Caecilius METELLUS, proconsul of Crete from 68, returns to Rome. 67 B76 VI-836, GHH
66 DGRBM 2-1064
no date LEWH 107, OCD 678
67 spr ing Pirate warPompey appoints 13 legates and divides the Mediterranean and Black Seas into 13 sections.
Ti. Nero and Manlius Torquatus command Spain and Straits of Hercules (Gibraltar).
M. Pomponius: Gaul, Liguria, Africa, Sardinia, Corsica.
Gn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and P. Atilius; L. Gellius Publicola and Gn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus: Italy.
Plotius Varus and Terentius Varro: Sicily and the Adriatic as far as Acarnania.
L. Sisenna: Macedon, Thessaly, Boeotia, Attica, Euboea, and the Peloponnese.
L. Lollius: the Greek islands, the Aegean and Hellespont.
P. Piso: Bithynia, Thrace, the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and the mouth of the Black Sea.
Q. Caecilius Metellus Nepos Junior: Lycia, Pamphylia, Cyprus, and Phoenicia.
With a mobile force of 60 ships Pompey begins driving the pirates into the arms of the legates.  He then sails west, and in 40 days subdues the Sicilian and Isaurian pirates.  He then returns to Rome to deal with opponents.
67 B76 14-793, 15-1104, CAH 9-374, GHH, MCAW 248, atl1, wikPm
c.65 Rhetoric teacher Apollonius Molon allegedly imitates the Persian institutions, rapes other men's wives, and castrates his own sons. Josephus Apion 2.269-71   65 atl1
c.63 ARISTOBULUS-II, king and high priest of Judea from 67, is sent as prisoner to Rome along with his whole family and several thousand Jews to be sold as slaves.  Enroute his son JONATHAN ALEXANDER escapes and returns to Judea. 63 GHH, Jud 2-584
62 POMPEY visits Rhodes, where he meets Poseidonius. 62 DGRBM 3-507, atl1
62 POMPEY visits Mytilene Lesbos, where he honors Theophanes. 62 atl1
62 CRETE, under Rome and attached to Cyrenaica from 67, annexed by senate, made a province until ?. 62 CAH 9-392
c.60 C. CASSIUS is taught by philosopher Archelaus at Rhodes. 60 atl1
60 M.(7) Junius BRUTUS studies at Rhodes and Athens, where he is taught by Pammenes. 60 atl1
59 C.(1) ANTONIUS HYBRIDA goes from Italy to Cephallenia island, which he runs as if it were his own until 47.
c.58 King Ptolemy AULETES sails from Egypt to visit M.(6) Porcius CATO at Rhodes. 58 atl1
c.58 M.(6) Porcius CATO, anti-triumvir conservative, appointed by Tribal Assembly as commissioner to Cyprus until 56.  M.(7) Brutus and Munatius Rufus accompany. 58 DGRBM 1-512, 3-581, 676, LEWH 108, OCD 183, 215, bk
c.58 M.(6) Porcius CATO, commissioner to Cyprus, advises king Ptolemy to submit, and offers him personal safety, with the office of high-priest at Paphos, and a liberal allowance.  Ptolemy refuses. 58 DGRBM 3-581, LEWH 108, MCAW 252, OCD 183, 215, bk
c.58 CYPRUS, under Ptolemies from 163, under independent bro of P-XII, from 80, annexed by Rome, but is virtually independent until 55. 58 B76 5-407, 8-386, CAH 9-645, DGRG 1-731, IDB 1-754, ISBE 1-843, Jud 5-1181, OCD 306, wikHC 57 BAA 254, BBA 246     by 56 CAH 9-319     55 IDB 3-648
c.57 Bro of P-XII, PTOLEMY dies., ruler of Cyprus from 80, suicides.  Cato takes over Cyprus without resistance, scrupulously collects wealth of Cyprus. 57 DGRBM 3-581, atl1, wikPtC
c.57 P-XII AULETES sails from Egypt to Cyprus to Rome. 57 B76 I-994, VIII-282, lvPt12
Roman world 56
Roman world during Luca conference 56       map: Cristiano64
c.56 M.(6) Porcius CATO, commissioner to Cyprus from 58, returns to Rome loaded with loot. 57 DGRBM 1-648, Dur 3-174
56 CAH 9, bk
c.56 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER sent from Rome to be governor of Cilicia (with Cyprus) until 53. 56 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-731, wikPCLS
c.55 CYPRUS, annexed by Rome and virtually independent from 58, is incorporated into province of Cilicia until 47. by 56 CAH 9-319 55 BAA 254, BBA 246, CAH 9
c.53 P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER governor of Cilicia (with Cyprus) from 56, returns to Rome.  Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER succeeds until 51.  M.(7) Brutus is his quaestor. 53 B76 II-977, VI-146, DGRBM 2-731, OCD 183, 247, atl1, wikPCLS
c.51 POSIDONIUS of Apamea, Stoic philosopher residing mainly in Rhodes from 95, moves to Rome, and dies soon after. 51 DGRBM 3-507, IDB 4-444, MCAW 253
c.51 Rhodians renew alliance treaty with Rome. 51 atl1
c.51 Ap.(15) CLAUDIUS PULCHER governor of Cilicia & Cyprus from 53, returns to Rome.  M. Tullius CICERO succeeds until 50.  Q. Lepta is his prefect.  L. Mescinus Rufus is his quaestor.  Cicero has instructions to keep Cappadocia loyal to King Ariobarzanes-III. 51 B76 II-977, 4-608, CAH 9, CDCC 200, DGRBM 1-770, 2-771, 3-495, 672, DGRG 1-621, Dur 3-110, 180, ISBE 4-735, OCD 183, 247, 235, atl1, cpnt, lvA, wikCc
Empire at 50BCE
East Mediterranean c.50BCE.   Client kingdoms not shown.     map: Cristiano64
c.50 M.(7) BRUTUS tries to extort a high interest rate from inhabitants of Salamis Cyprus, thru his agent M. Scaptius. 50 atl1
c.50 JASON of Nysa succeeds Posidonius as head of the school at Rhodes. 50 atl1
50 Jul M. Tullius CICERO governor of Cilicia & Cyprus at Tarsus from 51, returns via Rhodes, Ephesus, and Athens for Brundisium. 50 CDCC 200, DGRBM 1-716, DGRG 1-621, IDB 4-518, OCD 235, cpnt, lvA, wikCc
no date: DGRBM 1-561
49 Jan Gn.(3) Pompeius sails from Rome to Alexandria to fetch ships and troops.  He procures 50 Egyptian ships. 49 DGRBM 3-488
49 Mar 15-17 CORNELIA, wife of Pompey, and youngest son SEXTUS, are sent by Pompey from Brundisium to Lesbos. 49 DGRBM 1-855 48 atl1
49 Caesarean P.(2) Cornelius Dolabella, commands fleet in Adriatic. 49 OCD 358
49 L. Scribonius LIBO and M. OCTAVIUS are put in charge of part of Pompey's fleet with instructions to prevent Caesar's forces from crossing. 49 wikLSL
49 Off the Dalmatian coast L. Scribonius LIBO and M. OCTAVIUS defeat a fleet under P. Cornelius Dolabella, then attacks C. Antonius, who had tried to help Dolabella. 49 wikLSL
49 C. Antonius is forced to surrender to Pompeyan M. Octavius off Dalmatian coast. 49 atl1
49 Sep Corcyra NigraCaesarian fleet in the Adriatic is defeated near Corcyra Nigra (Curicta island) off Illyricum. 49 wikCCW
49 Sep C.(2) ANTONIUS, bro of Antony, legate of Caesar, blockaded on Corcyra Nigra (Curicta island) in Adriatic by Pompeyan fleet under L. Scribonius Libo and M. Octavius, runs out of supplies, surrenders to Libo, who takes him and his troops to Pompey. 49 OCD 78, wikLSL
48 Pompeyans C. Valerius TRIARIUS and LAELIUS are given command of some ships from Asia province by Pompey. 48 DGRBM 3-1173
48 Son of Pompey, Gn.(3) POMPEIUS sails to Alexandria with 50 ships from Alexandria, joins Pompeyan squadron in the Adriatic. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 Before Pharsalus, Gn.(3) Pompeius takes several of Caesar's vessels off Oricum Epirus, and attacks coastal town of Lissus unsuccessfully. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 Before Pharsalus, C.(3) CLAUDIUS MARCELLUS commands part of Pompey's fleet.  This is the last reference to him. 48 DGRBM 2-933
48 POMPEY boards a merchant ship at the month of river Peneus, Thessaly, and sails to Mytilene Lesbos where his wife Cornelia and son Sextus are.  They sail for the coast of Pamphylia. 48 DGRBM 3-488, atl1
48 After Pharsalus, republican M.(10) Claudius MARCELUS retires to Mytilene Lesbos until 46.  He studies rhetoric and philosophy. 48 B76 VI-601, OCD 646
48 After Pharsalus, republican P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER escapes from Thessaly to Rhodes, where he is first refused admission, but then given asylum. 48 B76 VI-146, DGRBM 2-732, wikPCLS
48 POMPEY, his wife Cornelia, and son Sextus sail from Lesbos to the coast of Pamphylia, where Pompey is joined by several ships and many senators.  His friends advise him to seek refuge with Ptolemy-III in EgyptHe gathers a fleet and 2,000 troops, and sails to Alexandria. 48 B76 14-795, CAH 9, DGRBM 3-488, Dur 3-186, OCD 858, SHWC, atl1, rtp
48 Associates of Pompey include T. Pomponius Atticus of Neapolis, Demetrius of Gadara, Furnius, Pythodorus of Tralles, Theophanes of Mytilene, Tritanus and C. Velleius.. 48 atl1
48 After Pompey's murder, his widow CORNELIA, and son Sextus, sail from Egypt to Cyprus. 48 DGRBM 1-855, 3-489
48 CORNELIA, and son Sextus, sail from Cyprus to Cyrene. 48 DGRBM 1-855, 3-489
48 Pompeyans Minucius Rufus and Lucretius Vespillo command 18 ships at Oricum Epirus. 48 DGRBM 3-675
48 Republican P.(8) Cornelius LENTULUS SPINTHER on Rhodes 48, falls into Caesarean hands, executed. 48 B76 VI-146
48 Ag/Sp Gn.(3) POMPEIUS, 1st son of Pompey, deserted by the 50 Egyptian ships which he commanded, sails to Corcyra, where many Roman nobles, who had survived Pharsalus, had taken refuge.  He remains until 47. 48 DGRBM 3-488
48 Pompeyan C.(5) CASSIUS Longinus fleet commander, sails from Sicily to the Hellespont hoping to get Pharnaces of Pontus/Bosporus to join him against Caesar.  He accidentally encounters Caesar, and though having a larger force, he is so impressed with the conqueror, that he surrenders unconditionally.  Caesar forgives him, and soon makes him a legate. 48 DGRBM 2-800
47 Naval battle; Caesar's fleet defeats Ptolemy. 48 GHH     47 atl1
47 P. VATINIUS, Caesarean, defeats ??? in Adriatic. 47 OCD 1110
c.47 C. Antonius HYBRIDA, exiled on Cephalenia island from 59, recalled to Rome by Caesar. 47 wikGAH 44 atl1
47 M.(7) BRUTUS comes from Rome to visit M.(10) Claudius Marcellus in exile, at Mytilene. 47 atl1
47 M.(7) BRUTUS sails to meet Caesar at Nicaea Bithynia. 47 DGRBM 1-512, atl1
47 CYPRUS, part of Cilicia province from 55, given to Cleo-VII by Caesar until 31. 47 DGRG 1-731, OCD 306
46 Sep M.(10) Claudius MARCELLUS dies.  Exiled in Mytilene Lesbos from 48, permitted by Caesar to return to Rome.  Dies enroute. 46 B76 VI-601, OCD 646
c.45 Embassy from Lesbos to Rome until 25 includes CRINAGORAS, eliagic poet of Mytilene. 45 OCD 298
44 mid CRETE is assigned to M. Brutus. 44 CAH 10-630
43 Republican P. LENTULLUS SPINTHER forces fleet of Caesarean P.(2) Cornelius DOLABELLA to retreat from Lycia. 43 atl1
43 RHODES refuses to help M. Brutus and C. Cassius. 44 OCD 212, 923     43 IDB 4-78, ISBE 4-183, bk, rcAg
c.43 RHODES, independent republic from 323, is defeated at sea, subdued and plundered by Cassius, who executes 50 leaders, steals 8,500 talents worth of loot including from temples.  Many art works transported to Rome.  Rhodes comes under Rome until 396CE. 43 CAH 10-645, DGRG 2-714, IDB 4-78, ISBE 4-183, bk, rcAg
42 DGRBM 2-801, atl1
42 M. Valerius MESSALA Corvinus and others who have taken refuge on Thasos island, surrender to Antony. 42 atl1
42 L. STATIUS MURCUS sent by C. Cassius with 60 ships and a legion of elite troops sails to Cape Matapan in south Peloponnese to blockade Cleo-VII's route to the Caesarians. 42 wikC7
c.42 DelosDELOS, under pirates from 69, given by Rome back to Athens, though really under Rome until 395CE, remains nearly uninhabited. 42 B76 III-452, rcAg
42 CLEOPATRA-VII, client queen of Egypt leaves from Alexandria sails west along the Libyan coast to join the Caesarian leadersHer ships are damaged by a storm and she gets sick.  She returns to Egypt. 42 wikC7
42 L. STATIUS MURCUS with 60 ships learns of Cleo-VII's misfortune, sees wreckage from her ships on the coast of GreeceHe is then sent by Brutus and Cassius into the Ionian Sea south of the Adriatic. 42 DGRBM 1-513, wikC7
42 Gn. Domitius CALVINUS, with reinforcements for triumvirs, sails into the Adriatic. 42 DGRBM 1-85, OCD 197
42 Oct PHILIPPI   Oct 3   Oct 23
42 Oct 3 On same day as 1st Battle of Philippi, republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS with 50-70 ships, patrolling the Ionian Sea intercepts and destroys the triumvirs' reinforcements (2 legions and other troops and supplies led by Gn. Domitius Calvinus). 44 wikGnDA 42 CAH 10-08, DGRBM 1-85, OCD 197, wikLCW
42 After Philippi, republican Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS continues the war independently with 2 legions in 70 ships in the Adriatic, and plunders the coasts of the Ionian sea. 44 DGRBM 1-85, wikGnDA
38  Foedus de Tarentum  Treaty of Tarentum establishes peace between triumvirs and Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. 38 unrv
38 late ARADUS island and town off Phoenicia comes under Antonine C. SOSIUS governor of Syria until 37. 38 DGRBM 3-885, OCD 91, wikMA
36 CYPRUS, under Cleo-VII from 47, given again to Cleo-VII by Antony until 31. 36 CAH 10-63, DGRG 1-621, GHH
36 late SEXTUS POMPEIUS flees from Sicily, takes refuge at Mytilene Lesbos until Sep. hoping to ally with Antony. 36 CAH 10-37, atl1
c.36 Sep? SEXTUS POMPEIUS with only 17 ships, sails from Lesbos to Miletos Caria. 36 DGRBM 3-491, LEWH 111, wikSR 35 MCAW 260
35 Octavian's fleet subdues pirates on Adriatic coast islands, especially Curzola and Meleda. 35 HRE 95
32 Apr ANTONY and CLEO-VII in Ephesus from fall 33, now with 800 ships, move headquarters to Samos until May.  Cleo regains her dominance by ammusements and festivities. 32 Ac31 32, CAH 10-50, 96
32 May ANTONY and CLEO-VII on Samos from Apr, move to Athens. 32 Ac31 32, CAH 10-96, atl1
32 Sep ANTONY'S FLEET: 500 ships (the largest ever seen) moves toward the Ionian Sea between south Italy and Greece, the west boundary of his territory. 32 CAH 10-100
31 spring OCTAVIAN and M. AGRIPPA bottle up Antony's fleet in the Ambracian Gulf. 31 B76 2-370
31 Corcyra, part of Macedonia province 148- , used as a base by Octavian. 31 B76 III-149
31 Antonine C. SOSIUS commands a squadron, attacks and defeats squadron of L. Arruntius.  While chasing Arruntius, Sosius encounters M. Agrippa, who defeats him and kills his ally Tarcondimotus, king of CiliciaSosius flees. 31 DGRBM 3-885
31 Before Actium Q. or L. NASIDIUS, officer under Antony, defeated by Agrippa off Patrae in northwest Peloponnese. 31 DGRBM 2-1142
31 Before Actium Gn.(6) Domitius AHENOBARBUS, with Antony from 40, defects to Octavian.  Though Antony is greatly upset, he still sends Gn.(6) all his gear, his friends and his attendants.  Gn.(6) has a fever and is not present at Actium. 31 wikGnDA
31 At Actium C. SOSIUS commands Antony's left wing. 31 DGRBM 3-885
31 ANTONY has 8 squadrons of 60 galleys (each with scouts, typically 5 to a squadron) crewed by 125,000 to 150,000 men including rowers - over 500 combat vessels, complemented by another 300 transport ships (half supplied by Cleo-VII).  He outnumbers Octavian 5 ships to 4, but fights defensively, protecting the Egyptian ships, botches the battle.  His ships desert and surrender. 31 Ac31 32, CAH 10-103-5
31 Sep 2 Actium ACTIUM EpirusAGRIPPA commanding left wing for Octavian defeats Antony and Cleo-VII, in a naval battle.  Plutarch says Cleo split first, then Antony followed.  A nearby temple of Apollo gives Octavian a fondness for Apollo. map: Future Perfect at Sunrise
31 Ac31, B76 I-448, 1-367, 1000, 17-950, BAA 312, CAH 10, CDCC 28, 54, 113, DGRBM 1-216, 427, DGRG 1-23, Dur 3-110, 207, ISBE 1-364, MCAW 260, OCD 7, 1011, SHWC 121, TTPC, anan, atl1, bk, wikC7, wikMA, wikTAR
31 Sep 2 CLEOPATRA-VII, sails back to Alexandria, pretends to have won the battle. 31 B76 6-483, CAH 10-106-7, DGRBM 1-801, MCAW 260
31 After Actium C. SOSIUS flees.  He is caught and delivered to Octavian, who pardons him. 31 DGRBM 3-885
31 After Actium M.(3) Aemilius SCAURUS is captured by Octavian, who sentences him to death, then pardons him on intercession of his mom Mucia. 31 DGRBM 3-738
31 ANTONY, with 40 ships, sails to Cyrene. 31 CAH 10-106 30 CAH 10-107
31 fall After Actium, OCTAVIAN goes from Athens to Samos, holds court on Samos. 31 Ac31, B76 1-367, CAH 10-61, 106
31 OCTAVIAN goes from Samos, to Ephesus. 31 CAH 10-61, atl1 30 CAH 10-647
31 CYPRUS, under Cleo-VII from 47, reclaimed by Octavian, reattached to Cilicia province until 27. post-Actium B76 5-407, OCD 306
31 end OCTAVIAN returns from Anatolia to Samos for winter. 31 CAH 10-61, atl1 30 CAH 10-647
31/0 OCTAVIAN, summoned by Agrippa to deal with mutiny in Italy, sends C. Cornelius GALLUS with the army to pursue Antony to Africa, while he sails from Samos to Brundisium. 31/0 DGRBM 2-227
30 CAH 10-106
c.30 COS Island, under Egypt from 323, comes under Rome until 395CE. 30 rcAg
c.30 TURULLIUS, an assassin of Caesar, is executed on Cos island. 30 atl1
30 late OCTAVIAN goes from Asia to Rhodes, summons Herod to account for his alliance with Antony. 30 DGRBM 2-425, Jud 3-853
30 HEROD comes from Judea to Rhodes.
30 late At Rhodes, Herod defends his conduct as an ally of Antony.  Octavian praises his loyalty, confirms him as king of Judea, returns all property which Antony had given to Cleo-VII.  Herod asks Octavian to spare Alexander, friend of Antony.  Request denied. Wars 1:20:2-3
30 CAH 10-155, DGRBM 2-425, GHH, ISBE 2-627, Jud, wikHG
30 late OCTAVIAN goes from Rhodes to Samos. 30/29 guess
30/29 OCTAVIAN winters on Samos. 30/29 CAH 10-647, DGRBM 1-428
29 early OCTAVIAN goes from Samos to Corinth. 29 guess
29 STRABO, Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian, visits island of Gyaros in Cyclades on his way to Corinth. 29 B76 17-713, DGRBM 3-916, wikStr
27 CRETE, comes under direct Roman control  Only Lappa and Cydonia keep their freedom.  Crete is administered together with Cyrenaica under a praetorian proconsul 27 CAH 10-631, 647
27 CYPRUS, part of province of Cilicia from 31, becomes an imperial province until 22. 30 CDCC 249     27 BAA 254, BBA 246, CAH 10-647, DGRG 1-731, ISBE 1-843
c.26 Lesbos embassy to Rome until 25 includes CRINAGORAS, eliagic poet of Mytilene. 26 OCD 298
c.25 Laocoon groupAGESANDER of Rhodes flourishes  Greek, sculptor credited along with Polydoros and Athenodoros with sculpting the Laocoon group (date and origin disputed). photo: LivioAndronico

42-21 B76 I-136 27BC-68CE wikLHS
c.23 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA leaves Italy to govern eastern provinces until 21.  Establishes headquarters at Mytilene Lesbos. 23 B76 1-367, CAH 10-142, OCD 31
22 CYPRUS, imperial province from 27, becomes senatorial province until 395, administered by a proconsul. 22 B76 5-407, BBA 246, DGRG 1-731, IDB 3-648, 941, HRE 110, ISBE 1-843, OCD 306, wikHC
22/1 HEROD visits Agrippa at Mytilene Lesbos, establishes friendship. 23 CAH 10-156 22/1 Jud 2-418
21 Jan M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA returns from Lesbos to Rome to take consulship.  His governorship of the east ends until 17. 21 CAH 10-142, Jud 2-418, OCD 31
c.21 late AUGUSTUS, in Greece 21, sails to Samos for winter. 21 CAH 10-262, 651, DGRBM 1-429
21/0 AUGUSTUS on Samos sends word to Tiberius in Rome to bring a large army thru Macedonia to Armenia to depose king Artaxes and set up Tigranes. 21/0 CAH 10-262
20 spring AUGUSTUS on Samos from 21, leaves for Asia province. 20 CAH 10-262
20 late AUGUSTUS, in Syria from spring, returns to Samos for winter. 20 CAH 10-651, DGRBM 1-429
19 fall AUGUSTUS, on Samos from 20, returns to Italy. 19 B76 2-370, CAH 10-145-6, 265, DGRBM 1-429, MCAW 268
17 SAMOS made a free state by Augustus. 17 BAA 375
c.15 P. Sulpicius QUIRINIUS appointed by Augustus as governor of Crete and Cyrenaica. 15 lvPSQ
15 PAPHOS Cyprus destroyed by earthquake.  Quickly rebuilt. 15 CBCNT 61
c.14 M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, commander of east, sails to Sinope, threatens to attack Bosporans, who surrender. 16 DGRBM 1-79 14 CAH 10-268
14 spring HEROD sails from Levant north with a fleet to help Agrippa in his planned campaign in Bosporus, discovers that he must sail to Sinope. Ant 16:2:2     19 Jud 8-379
14 CAH 10-268, 330, Jud 2-418     no date: B76 1-367
c.14 AGRIPPA and HEROD sail from Ephesus to Samos. Ant 16:2:2
14 HEROD with Agrippa in Anatolia and Aegean 14, returns to Judea. 14 implied
c.14 AGRIPPA at some point goes to Athens, where his pregnant wife Julia will deliver Agrippina the Elder in 14. 14 wikAE, wikJE
13 early M. Vipsanius AGRIPPA, governor of eastern provinces from 17, on Lesbos from ?, returns to Rome. Ant 16:2:4     13 B76 1-367, CAH 10-151, DGRBM 1-79
6 TIBERIUS(5) Claudius Nero retires from Rome to Rhodes, studies rhetoric under Theodorus of Gadara, and astrology under Thracyllus, who predicts that he will be emperor.  Though he goes to Rhodes voluntarily, he cannot return until permitted by Augustus.  He drops out of history until he leaves in 2 CE.  Ti. reportedly regrets his departure and asks to return to Rome several times, but Augustus refuses. 6 B76 2-371, 18-370, CAH 10-154-5, 634, DGRBM 1-430, 2-641, 3-1118, Dur 3-210, GHH, IDB 4-640, MCAW 272, 273, OCD 1071, wikTAR, wikTi
5 CAH 10-155
c.2 L. Plotius VICINAS becomes governor of Crete/Cyrenaica until 7 CE. 2 wikRGCC, '  
c.1 C. CAESAR VIPSANIUS, age 19, proconsul of Syria 1BC-6CE, with chief of staff M. LOLLIUS  sail from Athens, to Samos. 1 CAH 10-274-5
c.1 TIBERIUS meets CAIUS CAESAR, and chief of staff M. LOLLIUS on Samos.  Vipsanius, on advice of Lollius, rebuffs Tiberius.  Caius and Lollius sail from Samos to Egypt enroute to Syria. 1 CAH 10-274-5

Mediterranean 0-100