Han commanderies and kingdoms Go to Asia Go to India Go to Pacific
c.49 ZHIZHI Chanyu contender 56-36, heads northwest and conquers several Xiyu kingdoms, settling his capital at the old capital of one of those kingdoms, Jiankun. 49 wikYn
c.49 A bro of Tuqi sets himself up as Chanyu and is killed by Zhizhi. 49 wikXng
c.49 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, again visits Chang'an, personally pays homage to Emperor Xuan. 49 CHC 235, HFHD8 68, wikHXW, wikXn, wstn
c.49 HUANGLONG Era from 49, ends.  CHUYUAN Era begins 48-44. 49 wikCM, wikXn
c.49 Emperor XUAN TI gets sick.  He commissions his cousin-once-removed Shi Gao, Prince Shi's teacher Xiao Wangzhi, and Xiao's assistant Zhou Kan to serve as regents. 49 wikYn
c.49 Son of Liu Jun XUAN TI dies of illness.  8th Han emperor from 68, Son by Empress Xu Pingjun LIU SHI succeeds as YUAN TI 48-33. 49 B76 IV-888, 4-310, CHAC 984, ICMH 178, ckH, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikWZ, wikXn, wikYn, wstn, yutH     48 bk, frie, wnck
c.49 Han princess JIEYOU, widow of 2 kunmos (kings of Wusun), dies. 49 wikWsn
c.49 When Liu Shi ascends the throne, Empress Dowager from 74, NEE SHANGGUAN is made Grand Empress Dowager until 37. 74 wikES
49 HFHD7 15
c.49 WANG XIAOXUAN, Empress from 64, widow of Xuan Ti, made Empress Dowager until 33. 49 HFHD 212, wikEWX
c.49 Emperor Yuan immediately starts reducing government spending, to reduce the burdens of the people.  He starts a social assistance program to provide stipends for the poor and new entrepreneurs.  He relies heavily on Confucian scholars and puts them in important positions. 49 wikYn
c.49 LIU XIAO (Liu Ao), king of Dingtao from 52, is transferred to be king of Chu until 25. 49 HFHD 195, HFHD8 71, bril, wikXn
c.49 CHU kingdom, administered as Pengcheng jun (Jiangsu) from 69, reverts to a kingdom under Han until ?. 49 CHC 199, bril
c.49 DINGTAO (Jiyin) kingdom from 52, reverts to a commandery until 25. 49 CHC 193, bril
c.49 When Emperor Yuan succeeds, he sends for Wang Chi, but Wang Chi is old and dies on the way.  His son Wang Chun becomes a Gentleman and a Junior Division Head. no date: HFHDX 23
c.49 ZHENG JI, 1st Protector General of the Western Regions from 60, dies.  HAN XUAN succeeds until 45. 49 wikHH
48 wikPWR
c.49 Inlaws of Empress Wang (75-33) become powerful. 49 yutH
c. 49/8 Yuan Ti appointments:
SHIH KAO - Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief until 43.
Grand Tutor XIAO WANGZHI - General of the Van until 47.
ZHOU KAN (Man) - Imperial Household Grandee until 47, and receives a testamentary edict to be regent over the government and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing.
Zhou Kan and Xiao Wangzhi are both Intendants of Affairs of the Masters of Writing.
LIU XIANG - Cavalryman Without Specified Appointment, and Superintendent of Imperial House until 47.
Xiao Wangzhi, Zhou Kan, Liu Xiang and Palace Attendant Jin Chang, become part of the imperial entourage.
HFHD 131
no date: HFHD7 05
c.48 Jan 9 XIAO WANGZHI installed as General of the Van and Superintendent of the Imperial Household until 40. 48 HFHD8 78
c.48 HAEBURU, king of Dongbuyeo in west Korea from 121, ends.  GEUMWA succeeds until 7 BC. 48 rcK
c.48 WANG ZHENGJUN, consort from 54, mom of Liu Ao, made Empress until 33.  Her dad WANG CHIN is made marquis of Yangping until 42, with income of 2600 households. 48 CHC 225, HFHD99c 24, wikWZ, wikYn
c.48 WANG SHUN, son of Wang Fengkuang & older bro of Empress Dowager Wang Zhengjun, made Palace Attendant and Marshal of the Gentlemen-of-the-Household. 48 HFHD 214
c.48 Apr WANG SHUN is made Marquis of Guangping with income of 1400 families until 36. 49 HFHD 212 48 HFHD 214
c.48 JUSHI, under Xiongnu from 64, comes back under Han, which re-establishes the tun-tien system. 48 CHEIA 134
c.48 HUHANYE, chanyu of Xiongnu 58-31, is given 20,000 bushels of grain from frontier provinces. 48 CHEIA 140
c.48 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender in east 56-36, sees rival Huhanye favored by Han, declares independence, leads Horde north and west to attack the Wusun. 48 ICMH 178
c.48 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender in east 56-36, defeats the Hugie tribe in Zhungaria, and makes Zhungaria his base. 48 ICMH 178
c.48 The WUSUN, though defeated many times by Zhizhi, remain in north foothills of the Tien Shan west of Zhungaria. 48 ICMH 178
c.48 JEN KUNG, Marquis of Yiyang in Nanyang Commandery from 80, dies.  Next 3CE 48 HFHD7 29
c.48 WESTERN XIONGNU EMPIRE begins until 216CE.  Founder - Panu in Central Asia. 48 wnck
c.48 TUNG CHUNG, Marquis Chuang of Kaochang in Qiancheng (Chiensheng) Commandery from 66, dies. 48 HFHD8 72
c.48 The Office of Music is again ordered to reduce expenditures.  Again 33. 48 CHC 203
c.48 From 48 to 7 BC 18 general amnesties are proclaimed. 48 CHC 201
c.48 A court schism develops.  A Confucian faction including Emperor Yuan's teachers Xiao Wangzhi and Zhou Kan, align with an imperial clan member who is also a Confucian scholar, Liu Xiang, and imperial assistant Jin Chang.  The other faction is his cousin-twice-removed Shi, imperial secretary Hong Gong, and chief eunuch Shi Xian.  The Confucian faction has Emperor Yuan's trust and respect.  The "court faction" is physically close to the emperor and has key roles in processing reports and edicts.  The Confucian faction advocates returning to ancient policies of the early Zhou Dynasty; the court faction advocates keeping Han Dynasty traditions. no date wikYn
c.47 Special establishments to provide carriages and horses for imperial use are abolished, along with reservation of certain lakes and parklands. 47 CHC 202
c.47 GUANGLING, a commandery from 54, reverts to a kingdom until 6 CE. 47 CHC 199, bril
c.47 QINGHE (Chingho), a commandery from 65, becomes kingdom until 43.  Son of Emperor Xuan by Consort Rong, LIU JING is king until 44. 47 CHC 199, wikXn, bril
c.47 Hong Gong and Shi Xian cause Zhou Kan and Liu Gangsheng to be demoted to commoners and Xiao Wangzhi to retire.  Later 47, the court faction presses Xiao Wangzhi to suicide by convincing Emperor Yuan to have Xiao Wangzhi investigated for inducing his son to petition for him - something considered inappropriate.  Hong Gong and Shi Xian know that Xiao would rather suicide than face investigation.  For now, the court faction prevailes.  Emperor Yuan rebukes Hong and Shi harshly for misleading him, and buries Xiao Wangzhi with great honor, but does not punish Hong Gong and Shi Xian. 47 wikYn
c.47 LIU XIAO (Liu Ao), son of Emperor Xuan by Favorite Beauty nee Wei, king of Chu from 49, dies of illness. 47 wikXn, wikYn 25 HFHD8 71
c.47 Emperor Yuan's first-born son, by Consort Wang Zhengjun, is made Crown Prince Ao. 47 wikCng, wikWZ
c.47 LIU XIANG, Cavalryman Without Specified Appointment and Superintendent of the Imperial House and Serving in the Palace from 48, is dismissed and imprisoned. 47 HFHD 131, HFHD7 05, wikYn
c.47 ZHOU KAN (Man), Imperial Household Grandee from 48, is dismissed until 46. 47 HFHD7 05
c.47 CHANG HUI, General of the Right, and Director of the Right and Director of Dependent States from 50, dies. 47 HFHD8 35
c.47 ZHUA Commandery on Hainan island from 111, abandoned because of a rebellion by the islanders and not reconquered. 47 HFHD6 67
c.46 Alarmed at the high human and monetary cost of occupying Hainan and suppressing frequent native rebellions, Emperor Yuan orders that the 2 commanderies on the island be abandoned. wikYn
c.46 ZHUA commandery, in Hainan Island from 111, abandoned. 46 CHC 211, bril
c.46 Orders are given to reduce severity of some legally prescribed punishments.  Again in 44. CHC 201
c.46 ZHOU KAN (Man), dismissed 47, is recalled and given a mid-level office, along with Zhou's student Zhang Meng (a grandson of Zhang Qian). 46 wikYn
c.46 Palace guards are reduced in number.  Officials are ordered to cut expenditures. 46 CHC 202
c.46 HAIHUN Marquisate, abolished 59, restored.  Son of Liu Ho, TAITSUNG is made marquis until ?. 46 HFHD8 16
c.46 I FENG suggests that the seat of the emperor and government be transferred to Loyang, because Chang'an is associated with violence and extravagance of Wu Ti, whereas Loyang is associated with the alleged morality and economy of the kings of Zhou.  His suggestion is thought impractical.  The question is not raised again until 12 CE. 46 CHC 199
c.46 Specialists in yin-yang and portents are recruited. 46 CHAC
c.46 Amnesties of 47, 46, and 32 are proudly displayed as attempts of emperor Yuan to make amends for the imbalance that his incompetence had caused in the cosmos, which had been revealed thru warnings from Heaven. CHC 201
c.45 LIU CHIEN, king of Guangyang from 73, dies.  Son LIU SHUN succeeds until ?. 45 HFHD7 30
c.45 HAN XUAN, 2nd Protector General of the Western Regions from 49, ends.  3 unknown succesors until 39. 45 wikPWR
c.45 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender in east 56-36, sends an ambassador to offer tributes to Han, but at the same time demands return of his hostage son Juyilishou.  Han court agrees and decides to send accompanying envoy Gu Ji to escort Juyilishou only to the border, and let him continue on his own.  Gu Ji reasons that by escorting Juyilishou all the way to Jiankun, he might persuade Zhizhi to submit. 45 ICMH 178 44 wikYn
c.45 Han envoy GU JI is executed by Zhizhi. 45 ICMH 178, wikHXW 44 wikYn
c.45/4 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender in east 56-36, allies with Kangju to conquer Wusun, a traditional enemy of Kangju.  They repeatedly vex Wusun for several years. 44 wikYn
c.44 HUHANYE, chanyu of southern Xiongnu 58-31, makes alliance treaty with Han.  Military aid is mutually promised if either is attacked. 44 HFHD8 68 44/3 CHEIA 140
c.44 CHUYUAN Era from 48, ends.  YONGGUANG Era begins 43-39. 44 wikCM, wikYn
COMET recorded by Chinese and Romans, visible in daytime also. 44 TTS
c.44 XIAO WANGZHI is appointed an imperial counsellor. 44 CHC 202
c.44 Honored Confucian scholar GONG YU is promoted to vice prime minister.  He continues his policy of trying not to engage in factional politics. 44 wikYn
c.44 Iron and salt monopolies in China, under ineffective state agencies from 119, abolished by Kung Yu.  Free enterprise until 41. 46 ICMH 178
44 B76 4-313, CHC 202, 204, wikHH, wnck
c.44 Economic restrictions on imperial banquets and use of transport. 44 CHC 202
c.44 Han supervision of mining, manufacturing, distribution, from 117 ends. 44 B76 4-313, wnck
c.44 Constantly Equalizing Granaries are abolished. 44 HFHD8 70
c.44 Hitherto a quota had been imposed on the number of students under the academicians.  Restriction on these numbers is lifted to bring more trained men into public service.  But owing to the expense of this change, the quota is reimposed in 41. 44 CHC 202-3
c.43 XIONGNU, an empire from 204, on the steppes divide into north and south: north anti-Han, south pro-Han. 43 GHCC 135, ckH
c.43 The KANKALI KIRGHIZ, west of Tarbagatai, are subdued by Zhizhi. 43 ICMH 178
c.43 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender in east 56-36, repeatedly attacks the Wusun, who are driven further into the mountains. 43 ICMH 178
c.43 HUHANYE, chanyu of southern Xiongnu 58-31, leads his people back north to Outer Mongolia.  Zhizhi makes no attempt to oppose him.  Huhanye is now chanyu of west; Zhizhi chanyu of east. 43 ICMH 178
c.43 ZHONGSHAN (Chungshan), of unknown status from 55, administered as a kingdom until 30. 43 bril
42 CHC 200
c.43 LIU JING, prince of Qinghe from 47, is transferred to be Prince AI of Zhongshan until 35. 44 wikXn
c.43 QINGHE (Chingho), a kingdom from 47, becomes a commandery until ?. 43 CHC 199, bril
c.43 Several unusual astronomical and meteorological signs are considered signs of divine disapproval.  Shi Xian and his allies, the Xu and Shi clans, allege that this is sign of divine disapproval of Zhou Kan and Zhang Meng's policies. 43 wikYn
c.43 Zhou Kan and Zhang Meng are demoted to local posts until 40. 43 wikYn
c.42 WANG CHIN, dad of Wang Zhengjun, marquis of Yangping from 48, dies.  Oldest son and younger bro (of the same mother) of Empress Wang Zhengjun, WANG FENG succeeds until 22. 42 CHC 225, HFHD 213, HFHD99c 24
c.42 Confucian scholar KUANG HENG is promoted to be Emperor Yuan's key advisor.  Kuang, aware of the fate of the other Confucian scholars, allies with Shi Xian. 42 wikYn
c.42 FENG FENGSHI is assigned 12,000 men by Emperor Yuan to subdue the Qiang rebellion in Tibet.  Feng protests that its not enough men, but goes anyway. 42 ICMH 179
c.42 LIU HUAN, King Chin of Szushui from 80, dies. 42 HFHD7 22
c.42 The QIANG rebel. 42 wikQn
c.42 FENG FENGSHI with 12,000 men is defeated by the Qiang. 42 ICMH 179, wikQn
c.41 ZHIZHI, chanyu contender in east 56-36, builds a fortified capital in the valley of Talas. 41 wnck
c.41 Iron and salt monopolies in China, abolished 44, are reinstated until ?. 41 B76 4-313, CHC 204, wikHH
c.41 FENG FENGSHI with 60,000 men again invades Tibet and crushes the Qiang. 41 ICMH 179, wikQn
c.41 LIU KANG, son of Yuan Ti & Consort Fu, becomes Prince of Jiyang until 27. 41 HFHD 195
c.41 Number of students at Academy raised to 1,000 until 8 BC. 41 GHCC
c.41 CHENLIU (formerly Jichuan until 118), changed to become JIYANG kingdom until 34. 41 CHC 199, bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  Chenliu Commandery is not Chenli Commandery.
c.40 Jn/Fb Confucian scholar XIAO WANGZHI, General of the Van and Superintendent of the Imperial Household from 48, is to be arrested.  He suicides by poison.  His enemies want to stop his son from inheriting his noble rank, because he had died in crime, but Emperor Yuan orders that his oldest son should inherit the rank of Kuan-nei Marquis. 46 CHC 201
40 HFHD8 79
c.40 More unusual signs occurr.  Emperor Yuan ask the court faction to explain how they could continue to occur if, as they alleged, they were signs of divine disapproval of Zhou Kan and Zhang Meng.  The court faction could not, and so Emperor Yuan summons Zhou and Zhang back to serve as advisors.  However, this would not last long, as Zhou Kan soon dies of a stroke, and Shi Xian falsely accuses Zhang Meng of crimes and forces him to suicide. 40 wikYn
c.40  Ji Jiu Pian  dictionary by Shi Yu records China's first known use of the treadle-operated tilt hammer to pound grain.  Winnowing fan is also described. 40 wikLCI, wikT
c.40 Alarmed at the high cost of maintaining imperial temples, Emperor Yuan reduces the number of standing temples. 40 wikYn
by 40 Services at some 200 shrines have been discontinued until 34, but those built in honor of Gaozu, Wen Ti, and Wu Ti are retainted. by 40 CHC 209
c.40 YU TINGKUO, Marquis of Xiping from ?, dies.  Son YU YUNG succeeds as Marquis Ching of Xiping until 20. 40 HFHDX 16
c.40 LIJIEN, small military outpost in northern Chinese Turkestan, under Khanate of Jsh Jsh from ?, comes under China until 190CE. 40 rcCAE
c.39 YONGGUANG Era from 43, ends.  JIANZHAO Era begins 38-34. 39 wikCM, wikYn
c.39 SHIH XUAN, Marquis Kang of Pingtai from 63, dies. 39 HFHD8 45
c.39 Office of Protector General of the Western Regions, occupied by 3 unknowns from 45, GAN YANSHOU succeeds until 33. 39 wikPWR
c.39 Yellow River dikes suffer major breaches.  Again 29. 39 CHC 206
c.39 KARAKORUM comes back under Huhanye. 39 ICMH 179
c.38 LIU YUAN, King of Hejian, convicted of murder, dismissed. 38/7 HFHDX 05
c.38 HEJIAN (Hochien), a kingdom from 155, becomes HEBEI Commandery until 32. 38 CHC 199, bril
c.37 GOGURYEO kingdom of north Korea founded in a region called Jolbon Buyeo until 668 by Jumong, a prince from Buyeo.  He rules as TONGMYONG WANG until 19. 37 B76 V-869, 10-59, 507, rcK, wikGgr, wikKor, wikP3K, yutH
c.37 Chinese historian Shema-Tsein flourishes. 37 GHH
c.37 XINDU, commandery from 50, becomes a kingdom until 23. 37 CHC 200, bril
c.37 LIU XING, son of Yuan Ti & Consort Feng Yuan, becomes Prince of Xindu until 23. 37 wikYn
c.37 Oct 2 Grand Empress Dowager from 49, NEE SHANGGUAN dies, age 51. 37 HFHD7 15, HFHD8 22, wikES
c.37 YU YUNG, Marquis Ching of Xiping 40-20, is made Cavalryman with Specific Appointment and Superintendant of the Imperial Household until 22. 37 HFHDX 16
c.37 Confucian soothsayer JING FANG accuses Shi Xian and Shi's assistant Wulu Chongzong of corruption and evil.  Initially, Emperor Yuan believes him, but takes no action against them.  Shi and Wulu soon find out and accuse Jing Fang of conspiring with Emperor Yuan's bro Liu Qin, Prince of Huaiyang, and Prince Qin's uncle. 37 wikYn
c.37 Confucian, mathematician, soothsayer, JING FANG dies.  1st in music theory to note that 53 perfect fifths approximates 31 octaves.  A proponent of the theory that the light of the moon was reflected light of the sun. 37 wikHD, wikLCD, wikT, wikYn
c.36 BIRYU tribal states of north Korea conquered by Jumong king of Goguryeo. 36 wikGgr
c.36 ZHIZHI, Xiongnu faction leader, snubbed by Han, seeks help from Sogdiana. 36 CHC 212
c.36 Protector General Gan Yanshou is ill.  His subordinate Chen Tang forges a document authorizing him to recruit an army to fight Xiongnu.  Gan Yanshou recovers, and tries to reverse Chen Tang's actions, but Chen warned him that it was too late.  So they lead 40,000 men west in 2 columns, one north of the desert, and the other south.  They re-unite when they enter Kangju in Ili Valley and are joined by Wusun cavalry, and move into Sogdiana. 36
CHC 212, ICMH 179, wikYn
c.36 Gan Yanshou and lieutenant Chen Tang lead Han army west to break up western Xiongnu by taking Guangzhu in Sogdiana. 36 HFHD8 74, ICMH 179, wikYn
c.36 Gan Yanshou and Chen Tang pretend to be running low on supplies - to ward off the possibility that Zhizhi would flee.  Zhizhi, taking the bait, stays in his capital. 36 wikYn
c.36 ZHIZHI, Xiongnu faction leader in Sogdiana, is attacked by Han general Chen Tang and Eastern Xiongnu. 36 CHC 212, wnck
c.36 ZHIZHI, Xiongnu western faction leader from 56, is besieged at his capital Shanyu City, killed and beheaded by Han general Chen Tang and Protector General Gan Yanshou, acting without explicit permission from the Han courtHis head is sent to Chang'an.  Western Xiongnu Empire ends.  Xiongnu are at peace with Han until 9CE. 47 ICMH 179, rcN 36 B76 9-597, CHC 212, CHEIA 141, HFHD8 69, ICMH 180, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wikT, wikXng, wikYn, wnck
c.36 WANG SHUN, Palace Attendant and Marshal of the Gentlemen-of-the-Household, Marquis of Guangping with income of 1400 families from 48, dies. 36 HFHD 214
c.36 WANG FENG, Marquis Chingcheng of Yangping 42-22, becomes Palace Attendant and Commandant of the Palace Guard. 36 HFHD 213
c.35 LIU JING, son of Xuan Ti by Consort Rong, prince of Zhongshan from 43, dies.  Emperor Yuan feels that teenage Crown Prince Ao is insufficiently grieving. 35 wikCng, wikWZ, wikXn, wikYn
c.35 Emperor Yuan Ti gets sick.  Consort Fu and Prince Kang are often summoned to attend to him, while Empress Wang and Crown Prince Ao rarely are.  In his illness, apparently encouraged by Consort Fu, Emperor Yuan thinks he should make Prince Kang his heir instead.  Only intercession of Shi Dan, who risks his life by entering the imperial bed chamber, which only the empress was allowed to do, at pain of death, leads Emperor Yuan to cease those thoughts. 35 wikCng, wikYn
c.34 JIYANG kingdom (formerly Chenliu from 41), reverts to be Chenliu Commandery. 34 CHC 199, bril
CONFUSION ALERT!  Chenliu Commandery is not Chenli Commandery.
c.34 Judicial procedures are simplified and shortened because they are disrupting the lives of commoners. 34 CHC 201, wikHH
c.34 JIANZHAO Era from 38, ends.  JINGNING Era begins 33. 34 wikCM, wikYn
c.34 XIENXIEN CHAN, Marquis of Kueitih from 59, dies.  His marquisate is transmitted to his greatgreat-grandson. 34 HFHD8 54
c.34 When Yuan Ti is ill, services at some 200 shrines, discontinued from 40, are restored until he dies in 33. 34 CHC 209
c.33 HAENG tribal states of north Korea conquered by Jumong king of Goguryeo. 33 wikGgr
c.33 Jul 8 Son of Xuan Ti & Xu Pingjun YUAN TI dies.  9th Han emperor from 48.  Prince AO, 18 year old son by Wang Zhengjun CHENG TI succeeds until 7.  He is a charming, pleasure-lover, easily dominated by women, content to let his uncles rule for him.  Widow WANG ZHENGJUN is dowager until 7.  Her relatives dominate the court.  Wang XIAOXUAN, Empress Dowager from 49, becomes Grand Empress Dowager until 16. 33 B76 IV-896, 4-310, CHC 213, 225, ICMH 180, MCAW 260, bk, ckH, frie, hceisH, rcC, tcgHn, wikCng, wikEX, wikHD, wikHH, wikWZ, wikYn, wstn
33/2 wnck
32 B76 II-802, yutH
c.33 HUHANYE, chanyu of southern Xiongnu 58-31, visits Han court to pay homage again with double the gifts brought in 49.  During his visit, he asks to become an imperial son-in-law.  Instead of granting him this request, Emperor Yuan??? gives him 5 harem girls including, Wang Zhaojun.  Xiongnu are at peace with Han until 10/11CE. 33 CHC 235-6, CHEIA 141, IHFHD8 69, CMH 180, wikHXW, wikYn, wstn
c.33 Han harem girl Wang Zhaojun marries chanyu Huhanye. 33 yutH
c.33 GAN YANSHOU, Protector General of the Western Regions from 39, ends.  DUAN HUIZONG succeeds until 30. 33 wikPWR
c.33 WANG FENG becomes supreme commander of the armed forces until 22. 33 wikWZ
c.33 SHANYANG, a commandery from 74, becomes a kingdom until 25 for Liu Kang. 33 CHC 199, HFHDX 12, bril
c.33 HAN FEI TZU, of legalist school, Han aristocrat, author of 55 treatises, dies. 33 EoΦ 3-412
c.33 CHANG YU becomes Inspector of Officials, Imperial Palace Grandee, an Official Serving in the Inner Apartments, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing until 25. 33 HFHD7 06
c.33 SHAO XINCHEN, governor of Henan commandery from ?, made superintendent of the lesser treasury. 33 CHC 204
c.33 Road in Tarim from Dunhuang to Hami opened by Han to avoid going thru salt marshes south and east of Lop Nor.  This reduces importance of Shanshan (formerly Loulan). 33 ICMH 181
c.33 JINGNING Era from 33, ends.  JIANSHI Era begins 32-28. 33 wikCM, wikCng
c.33 The Office of Music is ordered to suspend some extravagant practices, such as the provision of female choirs at state ritual observances. 33 CHC 203
c.32 WANG FENG, bro of Empress Dowager Wang, Marquis Chingcheng of Yangping 42-22, becomes Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, and controller of the business of the Master of Writing, practically dominating the government until death 22. 33 HFHD 213, wikCng, wikWM
32 CHC 215, HFHD7 06
c.32 Feb 28 HEJIAN, commandery from 38, becomes a kingdom until 9 CE.  LIU LIANG, younger bro of previous King of Hejian (Hochien), Liu Yuan, Chief of the Arsenal in Shang Commandery, is made king of reconstituted Hejian until 6 BC. 38/7 HFHDX 05
c.32 Feb HEBEI, a Commandery from 38, reverts to Hejian kingdom until ?. 32 CHC 199, bril
c.32 Mar 25 WANG CHUNG, son of Wang Chin and a younger bro of Empress Dowager nee Wang, Cavalryman Without Specified Appointment, Inspector of Officials, Imperial Household Grandee, is made Marquis Kung of Ancheng until 31 with income of 10,000 households. 32 HFHDX 06
c.32 GIHUN (Wun Wang), king of Mahan in southwest Korea from 58, ends.  GIJUNG (Kye Wang) succeeds until 16. 32 rcK
c.32 FENG TSAN, because he is maternal uncle of a King, is sent to fill a vacancy as Chief of the Office in Charge of Presenting Offerings at Wei Tomb (burial place of Emperor Yuan). 32 HFHDX 32
c.32 KUNG KUANG becomes an Erudit.  32 HFHDX 34
c.32 WANG CHANG made Grandee-remonstrant and promoted to Colonel in Charge of Retainers by emperor Cheng Ti until ?. 33 HFHD 210
c.32 Imperial Prison at Shanglin Park closed. 32 HFHDX 05
c.32 WAN WANG, 2nd son of Wang Chin, and father of Wang Mang, dies. 32 HFHDX 20
c.32 The eunuchs are punished. 32 HFHD 131
c.32 LIU XIANG is promoted to Gentleman-of-the-Household taking charge of the Directorate of the Waters Aiding the Three Adjuncts. 32 HFHD 131
c.32 Jul 20 WANG LI, 6th son of Wang Chin and a half-bro of Empress Dowager nee Wang, is made Marquis Huang of Hungyang until 3, with income of 2100 families. 32 HFHDX 07
c.32 SHI DAN is promoted to Commandant of the Palace Guard of Chang-lo Palace. 32 HFHD 176
c.32 Religious reforms instituted by WANG ZHENGJUN, Han empress dowager 33-7.  5 POWERS cult replaced by sacrifices dedicated to Heaven & Earth. 32 B76 4-310 31 B76 4-315
c.32 Chu Yun petitions for an audience and asks permission to behead Lieutenant Chancellor Chang Yu as a flatterer.  The Emperor is angry and orders Chu Yun imprisoned.  Junior General Xin Ching-chi pled for him and knocked his head on the ground until it bled.  The Emperor frees Chu Yun. 32 HFHD 44
c.32 PAN, a great-aunt of Pan Ku and a sis of Pan Po, is selected for the harem of Emperor Cheng. 32 HFHD 157
c.31 HUHANYE (Khukhenye)-I dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 58.  Chinese consort Wang Zhaojun gets Han permission to marry his successor.  POZHULONUTI (Vughturi) succeeds until 20. 31 CHC 236, CHEIA 138, HFHD8 68, ICMH 181, bgsp, rcN, wikHD, wikHH, wikHXW, wnck
c.31 Kingdom of KANGJU west of the Wusun try to befriend Han but are rebuffed. 31 ICMH 181
c.31 Dau of Xu Jia, Marquis of Pingen, Cheng-ti's CONSORT XU is made EMPRESS XU until 18.  (not to be confused with Empress Xu Pingjun d.71)  Emperor Cheng favors her greatly, but also has another favorite, Consort Ban, who also is childless. 31 CHC 214, wikCng, wikEX, wikWZ
c.31 WANG CHUNG, Marquis Kung of Ancheng from 32, dies. 31 HFHDX 06
c.31 ABOLISHED in 31:  Office of the Six Stables, Office of Clever Workmen, Park of Wide Vision, . 31 HFHDX 08
c.31 FAN, a city under Tungping, taken away from Tungping, but later returned. 31 HFHDX 08
c.31 CHANG LIN, marquis of Fuping in Pingyuan Commandery from ?, ends.  Son CHANG FANG succeeds until 7 BC. 31 HFHD 08
c.31 WANG TAN, Marquis of Yichun from 75, dies.  31 HFHD8 19
c.31 Emperor CHENG TI, in an effort to gain Heaven's favor and bless him with a male heir, halts all ceremonies dedicated to the Five Powers and replaces them with ceremonies for supreme god Shangdi, whom the kings of Zhou had worshipped at Kanchuan Palace.  Cheng Ti begins participating in services to Heaven and Earth at shrines newly erected south and north of Chang'an until 12.  Religious practices suffer change and reversion in 14, 7, & 4 BC. 31 CHC 208, HFHD6 57, wikHH, wnck
c.30 ZHONGSHAN (Chungshan), a kingdom from 43, becomes a commandery until 23 BC. 30 bril
29 CHC 200
c.30 Heavy rains cause flooding in China.  4,000 killed in Wei River valley alone. 30 CHC 206, ICMH 181
c.30 DUAN HUIZONG, Protector General of the Western Regions from 33, ends.  LIAN BAO succeeds until 27. 30 wikPWR
c.30 CHANG CHUNG, Chancellor of Tungping from ?, becomes Privy Treasurer until 28. 30 HFHDX 15
c.30 WHEELBARROW mentioned in China. 30 wikT
c.30 Nov 13 YIN CHUNG, an Inspector of Officials and Junior Division Head Imperial Household Grandee, becomes Grandee Secretary until 29. 30 HFHDX 11
29 Jan 5 SOLAR ECLIPSE coincides with earth tremors that are felt in the imperial palace that same night.  Tu Chin and Ku Yung, seize on these events to criticize current policies. Jan 5, 29 CHC 221
c.29 SHI DAN is made General of the Right and given the rank of Kuan-nei Marquis with income of 3,000 families and made Palace Attendant. 29 HFHD 176
c.29 CHUNGSHU (palace writers) a department staffed by eunuchs, abolished. 29 CHC 201
c.29 Jun YUAN FENG, a Prefect of Chang'an, is installed as Director in Charge of the Retainers and is assassinated by order of CHEN LIN, an Assistant Palace Internuncio. 29 HFHDX 10
c.29 SUJIN TENNO 10th emperor of Japan from 97, ends.  SUININ succeeds until 71. 29 JBE & WW 2178
c.29 Yellow River dikes, broken 39, again suffer major breaches. 29 CHC 206, HFHDX 11
c.29 fall Lower Yellow River breaks thru the Chin Dike and drowns out 32 prefectures in 4 commanderies.  500 boats evaccuate 97,000 people.  Dikes take 36 days to repair. 29 ICMH 181
c.29 Responsibility for disastrous floods is put on imperial counsellor Yin Chung, who becomes scapegoat for contemporary ills and therefore suicides. 29 CHC 206
c.29 Oc/Nv YIN CHUNG, Grandee Secretary from 30, blamed by Emperor Cheng for negligence towards the Yellow River flood, suicides. 30 HFHDX 11
c.28 Jan 3 CHANG CHUNG, Privy Treasurer from 30, becomes Grandee Secretary until 23. 28 HFHDX 15
May 10
SUN SPOT recording begins in China, "a black vapor as large as a coin".  1st precisely dated sunspot observed.  28 GHCC, TTS, wikLCD
c.28 Northern OHEJO tribal states of north Korea conquered by Jumong king of Goguryeo. 28 wikGgr
c.28 LIU QIN, son of Emperor Xuan, King of Huaiyang from 63, dies.  Son XUAN succeeds until ?. 28 HFHD8 48 27 wikXn
c.28 Confucian scholar / astrologer Liu Gengsheng (later Liu Xiang) advises that Empress Xu's power be reduced and that the emperor spread his affection to other concubines.  In response, Emperor Cheng reduces the budget of the empress' palace.  She files a formal objection with her husband, to which he issues an edict upholding the reduction in expenditures. 28 wikEX
c.28 Jl/Ag Office of Director of Dependent States is abolished.  Its duties given to the Grand Herald. 28 HFHD 49
c.28 Services at some 200 shrines, discontinued from 33, restored again, when everyone wants an heir for Cheng Ti. 28 CHC 209
c.28 WANG CHUN, Prefect of the Capital in the kingdom of Zhao from ?, is promoted to Privy Treasurer until 22. 28 HFHDX 24
c.28 JIANSHI Era from 32, ends.  HEPING Era begins until 25. 28 wikCM, wikCng
c.27 LIU YU, son of Emperor Xuan by Consort Gongsun, king of Dongping 52-21, asks Emperor Cheng for a copy of books in the imperial private library, especially the Shih Chi and the philosophers.  General-in-chief Wang Feng replies that the philosophers are against the orthodox Classics and the Shih Chi tell of the time of Waring States, which Yu should not know.  Yu is refused the books. 27 HFHD 141
c.27 LIU KANG, son of Yuan Ti & Consort Fu, Prince of Jiyang from 41, becomes Prince Gong of Dingtao until 23. 27 wikYn
c.27 LIU XIN (future Emperor Ai) born to Consort Ding, wife of Liu Kang Prince of Dingtao.  He is raised not by his mother, but by his paternal grandmother, the domineering Consort Fu. 27 wikAi
c.27 Jul 20 WANG TAN, a Kuan-nei Marquis from ?, is made Marquis An of Ping-ah until 17. 27 HFHDX 06
c.27 Jul 20 WANG SHANG, a Kuan-nei Marquis from ?, is made Marquis Chingcheng of Chengdu until 11 with income of 2,000 households. 27 HFHDX 07
c.27 Jul 20 WANG KEN, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 32, is made Marquis Yang of Chuyang until 7 BC. 27 HFHDX 07
c.27 Jul 20 WANG FENGSHIH, a Kuan-nei Marquis from 32, is made Marquis Tai of Kaoping until 10 with income of 3000 households. 27 HFHDX 08
c.27 LIAN BAO, Protector General of the Western Regions from 30, ends.  Successor unknown until 24. 27 wikPWR
c.26 SHIH TAN is transferred to be General of the Left and Imperial Palace Grandee. 26 HFHD 176
c.26 LIU XIANG, Imperial librarian, presents  Commentary on the 5 Elements . 26 GHCC
c.26 Internuncio CHEN NUNG is sent to search for lost books for the Palace Private Library, while Liu Xiang was classifying those books. 26 HFHDX 12
c.26 LOST BOOKS are investigated. 26 GHCC
c.25 WANG CHANG made Governor of the Capital by emperor Cheng until later 25. 25 HFHD 210
c.25 WANG YIN made Chief of the Stud. 25 HFHD 214
c.25 DINGTAO, a commandery from 49, becomes a kingom until 5 BC. 25 CHC 199, bril
c.25 Yellow River flood is inspected by Imperial Household Grandee and Erudit Meng Chia. 25 HFHDX 12
c.25 SHANYANG, a kingdom from 33, becomes commandery and remaines so until the end of the dynasty. 25 CHC 199, HFHDX 12, bril
c.25 WANG CHANG (unrelated to the Wang clan), Governor of the Capital, says at an audience that Wang Feng should not be given so much power.  Emperor Cheng at first agrees, and considers replacing Wang Feng with highly regarded official Feng Yewang, bro of his father's concubine Consort Feng.  Empress Dowager Wang pouts about it, so Emperor Cheng changes his mind.  Wang Chang is imprisoned until death 24. 25 HFHD 210
24 wikWZ
c.25 CHANG YU, Inspector of Officials, Imperial Palace Grandee, an Official Serving in the Inner Apartments, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing from 33, is dismissed, and on Aug 9, made Lt. Chancellor and Marquis of Anchang until 20. 25
HFHD7 06, HFHDX 14
c.25 HEPING Era from 28, ends.  YANGSHUO Era begins 24-21. 25 wikCM, wikCng
c.24 On suggestion of Wang Zhang (unrelated to the Wang clan), Emperor Cheng considers replacing Wang Feng with highly regarded official Feng Yewang, bro of his father's concubine Consort Feng.  When Wang Feng realizes this, Empress Dowager Wang becomes sad.  In response Emperor Cheng executes Wang Zhang and relieves Feng Yewang of his post without any allegation of wrongdoing. 24 wikCng
c.24 HAN LI becomes Protector General of the Western Regions until 21. 24 wikPWR
c.24 WANG CHANG, imprisoned from 25, dies. 24 HFHD 210
c.23 Mar? CHANG CHUNG, Grandee Secretary from 28, dies. 23 HFHDX 15
c.23 WANG YIN, Chief of the Stud from 25, is made Grandee Secretary. 23 HFHD 214
c.23 XINDU (formerly Guangchuan), a kingdom from 37, reverts to a commandery until 5 BC. 23 CHC 200, bril
c.23 ZHONGSHAN (Chungshan), a commandery from 30, refounded as a kingdom until 1.  Prince of Xindu from 27, LIU XING is king until 8 BC. 23 CHC 200, 215, bril, wikYn
c.23 LIU KANG, son of Yuan Ti & Consort Fu, Prince Gong of Dingtao from 27, dies.  4 year old son LIU XIN succeeds until 7. 23 HFHDX 32, wikAi, wikYn
22 HFHD 132
c.22 WANG FENG Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots & Cavalry from 33, ends.  WANG YIN succeeds until death 15. 22 wikWZ
c.22 WANG YIN, Grandee Secretary from 23, is made Commander-in-chief and General of Chariots & Cavalry, and Intendant of Affairs of the Masters of Writing until death 15. 22 HFHD 214, HFHD7 06
c.22 Neph of Wang Feng, WANG MANG gets low positions at court until 16, thanks to Empress Dowager Wang. 22 B76 19-537
c.22 WANG CHUN, Privy Treasurer from 28, becomes chief assistant to the Chief of Palace Police in Chang'an until 21. 22 HFHDX 24
c.22 Oct WANG FENG, Marquis Ching-cheng of Yang-ping from 42, Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, and controller of the business of the Master of Writing, practically dominating the government from 32, dies.  Bro Wang Shang becomes regent until 11.  WANG YIN succeeds as Commander-in-chief and General-in-chief, and controller of the business of the Master of Writing until 15. 22 CHC 225, HFHD 213, HFHD7 06, wikCng, wikWM
c.22 Slaves revolt in Chinese imperial iron works. 22 bk
22 Dec 23 YU YUNG, Marquis Ching of Xiping 40-20, Cavalryman with Specific Appointment and Superintendant of the Imperial Household from 37, is made Grandee Secretary, and marries Kuantao Princess, Liu Shih until his death Jan 20. 22 HFHDX 16
c.21 LIU YU, son of Emperor Xuan by Consort Gongsun, king of Dongping from 52, dies.  He was an evil, lawless man. 21 HFHD 141 19 wikXn
c.21 HAN LI, Protector General of the Western Regions from 24, ends.  DUAN HUIZONG resumes until 18. 21 wikPWR
c.21 WANG CHUN, chief assistant to the Chief of Palace Police in Chang'an from 22, made Governor of Chang'an until 20. 21 HFHDX 24
c.21 YANGSHUO Era from 24, ends.  HONGJIA Era begins 20-17. 21 wikCM
Jan 31
YU YUNG, Marquis Ching of Xiping from 40, Grandee Secretary from 22, dies. 20 HFHDX 16
c.20 POZHULONUTI (Vughturi) dies.  Chanyu (chief) of Xiongnu from 31.  Bro SHUZHUNOTI (Seughie) succeeds until 12. 20 ICMH 181, rcN, wnck

East Asia 20-0